ArticlePDF Available

„...man lernt, den Ton des Anderen wahrzunehmen...“ Burnout-Prävention mit künstlerischen Mitteln

Authors:

Abstract

Mit zunehmendem Tempo, Dichte und Intensität von Arbeitsprozes- sen haben stressbedingte gesundheitliche Erkrankungen zugenommen. Wie solchen Arbeitsbelastungen begegnet werden kann, untersuchte das Forschungsteam des ‚Institute for Subjektive Experience and Research’ (ISER) und führte in der Notfallaufnahme eines Krankenhauses ein Pilotprojekt durch. Bestandteil des Projekts war ein künstlerisches Programm zur Förderung der Wahrnehmungs- und Handlungsfähigkeiten, das hier in seinen theoretischen Bezügen und Ergebnissen vorge- stellt wird. Die leitende Fragestellung, ob und wie künstlerische Erfahrungen dem Pflege- und Ärztepersonal helfen können, mit steigenden Arbeitsbelastungen besser umzugehen, wurde in einer Programm begleitenden wissenschaftlichen Studie untersucht. Die Auswertungsergebnisse zeigen, dass vorhandene Ressourcen aktiviert werden konnten, die sich Stress mindernd auf das Interaktionsverhalten in Belastungssituationen auswirkten. Die Studie eröffnet Perspektiven zur Integration künstlerischer Praxis in entsprechende Programme und bestätigt, dass sich künstlerische Praxis sinnvoll in sozialen Kontexten verankern lässt. “...you learn to perceive your counterpart’s tonality...” Artistic Tools for Burnout Prevention Summary: The increasing pace, frequency and intensity of work processes, have invoked a corresponding rise in stress-related health disorders. Researchers at the Institute for Sub- jective Experience and Research (ISER) studied methods of coping with such workloads and launched a pilot project in a hospital emergency room. In this paper, the author introduces the theoretical references and practical results of the project’s art program to heighten perceptive competencies and behavioral skills. Within the program, researchers studied the central question if and how aesthetic experiences support skillful coping with intensified workloads. Evaluation results proved that once activated, latent resources provided care and medical personnel with tools to interact in burdened situations with less anxiety. The study opened the doors to integrate creative practices within such programs and confirmed that aesthetic activities supply social contexts with a creative anchor.
aus: Kunst und Therapie / Zeitschrift für bildnerische Therapien 2014/ 2
... They often are vantage points for new insights. I use them in art therapy as I do in workshops to promote awareness (Sinapius, 2014). If agreed upon beforehand, the intervention in someone else's painting can lead to surprising results just as much as the mutual observation of a picture viewed from a different angle, such as when we turn it on its head. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Knowledge is often tied to our ideas about the standards that it has to comply with: it has to be correct to be seen to be valid, it has to be universal and therefore capable of being reproduced, and it needs to go beyond the individual case in order to be objective. But what about the kind of knowledge that cannot readily be retrieved, as it is closely linked to our experience; that which is locked within our individual consciousness? What about the knowledge, which we can gain no certainty about as it is not easily reproducible or quantifiable, such as the beauty of a sound, the irresistibility of a situation, the gripping nature of a scene, or the intensity of a moment? The following article draws an outline of a ‘didactic of elusive knowledge’ that relies on references to visual culture and aesthetics. It is derived from the practice of teaching art therapy and from a non-representative survey among students of the course Expressive Arts in Social Transformation at Medical School Hamburg (MSH) in Germany.
... They often are vantage points for new insights. I use them in art therapy as I do in workshops to promote awareness (Sinapius, 2014). If agreed upon beforehand, the intervention in someone else's painting can lead to surprising results just as much as the mutual observation of a picture viewed from a different angle, such as when we turn it on its head. ...
Preprint
Knowledge is often tied to our ideas about the standards that it has to comply with: it has to be correct to be seen to be valid, it has to be universal and therefore capable of being reproduced, and it needs to go beyond the individual case in order to be objective. Will be published here: Sinapius, Peter (2018): ’Not sure’: The Didactics of Elusive Knowledge. In: Prior, Ross W. (Ed.) (2018): Using art as research in learning and teaching. Multidisciplinary approaches across the arts. Bristol: Intellect Books (in press)
Article
Full-text available
To further test and explore the hypothesis that synchronous oscillatory brain activity supports interpersonally coordinated behavior during dyadic music performance, we simultaneously recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) from the brains of each of 12 guitar duets repeatedly playing a modified Rondo in two voices by C.G. Scheidler. Indicators of phase locking and of within-brain and between-brain phase coherence were obtained from complex time-frequency signals based on the Gabor transform. Analyses were restricted to the delta (1-4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) frequency bands. We found that phase locking as well as within-brain and between-brain phase-coherence connection strengths were enhanced at frontal and central electrodes during periods that put particularly high demands on musical coordination. Phase locking was modulated in relation to the experimentally assigned musical roles of leader and follower, corroborating the functional significance of synchronous oscillations in dyadic music performance. Graph theory analyses revealed within-brain and hyperbrain networks with small-worldness properties that were enhanced during musical coordination periods, and community structures encompassing electrodes from both brains (hyperbrain modules). We conclude that brain mechanisms indexed by phase locking, phase coherence, and structural properties of within-brain and hyperbrain networks support interpersonal action coordination (IAC).
Article
Full-text available
Using structural equation modeling, this paper compares the intertemporal sequences of the burnout components proposed by Maslach (1982) and Golembiewski (1989) using responses from 354 human resource professionals. The relationship between the burnout components and several critical variables that are theoretically linked to the phenomenon are also investigated. Studying human resource professionals allows us to examine the generalizability of burnout. This group of employees provides a range of services to a largely internal client group, and thus experience strain from interpersonal interactions. Results support Maslach's three-factor sequential model of burnout, although its superiority over the Golembiewski sequential model is not definitive. A post hoc analysis reveals a significant path between emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment, and an insignificant path between depersonalization and personal accomplishment. Investigation of the relationship between the burnout components and several critical, theoretically linked variables indicates significant paths between (a) role overload and emotional exhaustion, (b) noncontingent punishment and depersonalization, and (c) contingent rewards and personal accomplishment. The work documents the generalizability of burnout to managers and professionals in corporate settings. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
Brains interact with the world through actions that are implemented by sensory and motor processes. A substantial part of these interactions consists in synchronized goal-directed actions involving two or more individuals. Hyperscanning techniques for assessing fMRI simultaneously from two individuals have been developed. However, EEG recordings that permit the assessment of synchronized neuronal activities at much higher levels of temporal resolution have not yet been simultaneously assessed in multiple individuals and analyzed in the time-frequency domain. In this study, we simultaneously recorded EEG from the brains of each of eight pairs of guitarists playing a short melody together to explore the extent and the functional significance of synchronized cortical activity in the course of interpersonally coordinated actions. By applying synchronization algorithms to intra- and interbrain analyses, we found that phase synchronization both within and between brains increased significantly during the periods of (i) preparatory metronome tempo setting and (ii) coordinated play onset. Phase alignment extracted from within-brain dynamics was related to behavioral play onset asynchrony between guitarists. Our findings show that interpersonally coordinated actions are preceded and accompanied by between-brain oscillatory couplings. Presumably, these couplings reflect similarities in the temporal properties of the individuals' percepts and actions. Whether between-brain oscillatory couplings play a causal role in initiating and maintaining interpersonal action coordination needs to be clarified by further research.
Article
Full-text available
To identify health risk factors and resources of physicians in comparison with other professions. Data of cross-sectional mail surveys conducted among German physicians (n = 344), teachers (n = 5169), policemen (n = 851), prison officers (n = 3653), and starting entrepreneurs (n = 632) were analysed regarding eleven health-relevant dimensions and four behaviour patterns examined by the questionnaire "Work-Related Behaviour and Experience Pattern (AVEM)". Only 17% of the physicians showed healthy behaviour and experience patterns. With 43%, they scored highest in terms of reduced working motivation. Together with the teachers, they also had the highest scores for resignation and burnout (27%). Satisfaction with life and work as well as social support showed medium scores. Starting entrepreneurs showed the healthiest patterns (45%), but also the highest risk pattern for overexertion (38%). It was possible to identify clear risk patterns for profession-related psychosocial symptoms and impairments. The high scores for reduced working motivation demonstrate the need for interventions to improve organisation of health care and individual coping strategies.
Ereignis und Aura -Untersuchungen zu einer Ästhetik des Performativen
  • D Mersch
Mersch, D. (2002). "Ereignis und Aura -Untersuchungen zu einer Ästhetik des Performativen." Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp.
Ästhetik des Erscheinens
  • M Seel
Seel, M. (2003). "Ästhetik des Erscheinens." Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp.
Medizinische Soziologie
  • J Siegrist
Siegrist, J. (2005). "Medizinische Soziologie." München, Urban und Fischer.
Wie ist es, eine Farbe zu sein
  • P Sinapius
Sinapius, P. (2013): "Wie ist es, eine Farbe zu sein?" -Über Kunst und Liebe, das Schweigen und die Gegenwart. Frank & Timme