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Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Baltic amber: the first fossil member of the tribe Sestyrini Lacordaire, 1869

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A new fossil cerambycid from Baltic amber, Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. (Cerambycinae, Sestyrini) is described. It differs from all extant species in its peculiar elytral pattern formed by a scutellar spot, a pre-apical spot and an apical band. Isosaphanus ferranti Hintz, 1913 (Cerambycidae Xystrocerini) is recognised as a younger synonym of Iridoclava congolensis Bj¸ornstad, 2014 n. syn. (Cerambycinae, Sestyrini).
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33
Baltic J. Coleopterol. 18(1) 2018
ISSN 1407 - 8619
INTRODUCTION
The tribe Sestyrini Lacordaire, 1869 (=
Cleomenini Lacordaire, 1869) includes 27
genera and 283 species (Zicha, 1999-2018)
widespread in Asia and Africa. Iridoclava
Bjørnstad, 2014 must be excluded from this list
since it is synonym of Isosaphanus Hintz,
1913, Xystrocerini, as it will be proved
hereafter.
The Asian genus Procleomenes Gressitt &
Rondon, 1970 is distributed with 23 species
from south-eastern China to Sulawesi through
Borneo and Philippines (Niisato & Tichý,
2016).
Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from
Baltic amber: the first fossil member of the tribe Sestyrini Lacordaire,
1869
Francesco Vitali
Vitali F. 2018. Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Baltic
amber: the first fossil member of the tribe Sestyrini Lacordaire, 1869. Baltic J. Coleopterol.,
18(1): 33 - 38.
A new fossil cerambycid from Baltic amber, Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n.
(Cerambycinae, Sestyrini) is described. It differs from all extant species in its peculiar
elytral pattern formed by a scutellar spot, a pre-apical spot and an apical band. Isosaphanus
ferranti Hintz, 1913 (Cerambycidae Xystrocerini) is recognised as a younger synonym of
Iridoclava congolensis Bjørnstad, 2014 n. syn. (Cerambycinae, Sestyrini).
Key words: Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, fossil, Baltic amber, new species.
Vitali Francesco. rue Jean-Pierre Huberty 7a, L-1742 Luxembourg, Luxembourg. E-
mail: vitalfranz@cerambycoidea.com
The first fossil species of Sestyrini, moreover
the only known European species of this tribe,
is described here.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The beetle is preserved inside a oval piece of
amber measuring 43x15x7 mm and including
some “stellate hairs” (trichomes covering
inflorescences of oaks), several small bubbles
-especially covering the ventral side of the
specimen - and fine dust.
Observations on the fossils were made using a
stereomicroscope Antares Geminar 3 with 20-
3 4
Vitali F.
40x eyepieces equipped with a micrometer
system. However, the original cut of the amber,
oblique and very close to the specimen, did not
allow taking exact measures and valuating exact
proportions. Pictures were furnished by Jonas
Damzen, seller of this piece. The reconstruction
of the habitus has been obtained with mixed
traditional and computer graphic techniques.
SYSTEMATIC PART
Cerambycinae Latreille, 1802
Xystrocerini Blanchard, 1845
Isosaphanus Hintz, 1913
= Iridoclava Bj¸rnstad, 2014 n. syn.
Isosaphanus ferranti Hintz, 1913
= Iridoclava congolensis Bj¸rnstad, 2014 n.
syn.
A simple comparison of the picture of the type
(Vitali, 2010: Fig. 11) allows verifying that
Iridoclava congolensis is actually a younger
synonym of this species. The types of
Iridoclava congolensis are topotypical
(Kondué), collected by the same person (the
Luxembourgish biologist and explorer Eduard
Luja) and even having the pink label “Ferranti
Hintz” (Bj¸rnstad, 2014), which actually
indicated a paratype of Isosaphanus Ferranti.
This genus is not related with Hexarrhopala
Gahan, 1890, as Bj¸rnstad (2014) claimed, or
other African Sestyrini but with some other
Xystrocerini with elongated habitus, such as
Oemodana Gahan, 1904; Gennarus Adlbauer,
2008; Oxycauloeme Lepesme, 1948;
Ethiolygrus Adlbauer, 2008 and Neolygrus
Martins, 1980.
Cerambycinae Latreille, 1802
Sestyrini Lacordaire, 1869
Procleomenes Gressitt & Rondon, 1970
Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n.
(Figs. 1-4)
Holotype. Baltic amber, ex coll. J. Damzen,
author’s coll. FS71BS40.
The death position with opened wings suggests
that the specimen was attracted by the flowing
resin and drowned, swimming inside for a
certain time.
Differential diagnosis
Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. differs from
all known extant species in the elytra long and
with a peculiar pattern. Concerning the pattern,
a scutellar spot can be found only in the Bornean
P. tenuiformis Niisato, 1986 and P. longicollis
Niisato, 1986, but none of these species show
a yellow elytral apex (Niisato, 1986). Moreover,
all species with three elytral bands (basal,
premedian and postmedian) always show a
premedian yellow band and a black apex (both
absent in Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n.).
The elytra cover the whole abdomen, whereas
they leave uncovered one or two urites in
modern species. However, the variability of such
characters suggests to not introduce new names.
Description
Female (for general habitus and relatively short
antennae), body length ~8 mm. Body elongated,
black; antennae yellow with scape and apex of
each segment black; legs black with femoral and
tibial base more or less yellow; elytra black with
a yellow pattern disposed as follows: a
cordiform large scutellar spot, a pre-apical spot
not reaching both marginal and sutural margin,
and a transverse apical band.
Head large; forehead oblique, short; antennal
tubercles close and not elevated; inter-antennal
furrow reaching the base of the neck; eyes large,
finely facetted, strongly reniform, very
prominent laterally (as large as pronotum
including lateral teeth), separated above by
about one-third of the greatest width of head;
neck with some raised setae. Palpi small; last
maxillar and labial palpomere securiform,
obliquely truncate at apex. Antennae eleven-
segmented, barely shorter than body;
antennomeres IV-X toothed externally, with
some apical setae; antennomeres II-IV with
median setae as well; scape weekly clavate,
straight; pedicle elongate, one-fourth as long as
35
Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Baltic amber: the first fossil member of the tribe...
Fig. 1. Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n., dorsal view
Fig. 2. Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n., ventral view
3 6
Vitali F.
Fig. 3. Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n.,
reconstruction
scape; antennomere III less than two-thirds
as long as scape; antennomere IV, VI and
VII equal, about one-third as long as III;
antennomere VIII-X progressively
shortened; antennomere XI as long as IX
(antennomere proportions according to the
formula: 1.6: 0.4: 1.0: 1.3: 1.4: 1.3: 1.3:
1.2: 1.1: 0.9: 1.1).
Prothorax cylindrical, elongate, 2.3 times
as long as wide, slightly larger at apex than
at base; apex with a large apical collar, then
slightly enlarged; sides armed with a large
blunt conical tubercle at the middle and
covered by some raised setae on the apical
half; base one-half as wide as elytral base,
biarcuate and acutely produced posteriorly
in the middle, flattened along the posterior
margin; disc covered with extremely fine
dense punctures. Scutellum minute,
subrectangular.
Fig. 4. Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n., colour
reconstruction
Elytra elongate, slightly dehiscent posteriorly,
3.4 times as long as wide at humeri; base
anteriorly concave; humeri squared; sides
constricted in the middle; apex concavely
truncated; disc flat, covered with extremely fine
dense punctures.
37
Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Baltic amber: the first fossil member of the tribe...
Ventral side covered with pubescence long and
raised on head and prosternum, long and
recumbent on the metasterum and fine and
recumbent on the abdomen; procoxae globose,
procoxal cavities rounded, posteriorly closed;
urosternite visible I-V progressively shortened;
urosternite VIII (genital segment) posteriorly
rounded.
Legs relatively long, femora pedunculate,
covered with long setae; tibiae evidently shorter
than femora, feebly curved, covered with some
sub-erect short setae; tarsi short; metatarsi one-
half as long as metatibiae; metotarsomere I as
long as metatarsomeres II and III together.
Etymology
This new species is dedicated to Xavier
Gouverneur, enthusiastic explorer and excellent
entomologist of the South-eastern Asian
Cerambycofauna.
Assumed biology
Preimaginal forms and biology of the genus
Procleomenes are still unknown, even if larvae
are in all likelihood related to broadleaf-trees.
Adults are collected mostly in clearings of
mountain forests (Gressitt & Rondon, 1970).
In Laos, adults of P. elongatithorax Gressitt &
Rondon, 1970 were collected on flowers of
Castanopsis (Fagaceae) at a height of about 6
m (Gouverneur, in litt.). Presumably,
Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. shared
analogue behaviour.
Remarks
The genus Procleomenes is characterised by
elytral reduction, more accentuated in the most
evolved species. The elytral apex is rounded,
truncated, bispinose or pointed and more or less
dehiscent. The pattern consists of three
transverse light bands (basal, premedian and
postmedian), which are often reduced to two in
brachypterous species, the basal one tending to
disappear. This pattern can be found in the sibling
Malayan genus Pseudocleomenes Hayashi 1979
and in the Indochinese genus Diplothorax
Gressitt & Rondon, 1970. The Bornean P.
longicollis shows only a scutellar spot, looking
somehow similar to the Malayan Collyrodes
lacordairei Pascoe, 1859.
The putatively most primitive species, i.e. those
with the longest elytra and three transverse
bands, are widespread in the mountains
bordering Yunnan, Thailand and Indochina, while
the most evolved ones show a Malayan-
Philippine-Indonesian distribution.
Manifestly, the genus widespread eastwards
colonising Philippines and Sulawesi and cannot
be considered as of Tropical origin. In contrast,
the localisation of the more ancient taxa
corresponds to those Baltic refuges already
individuated for most beetles (Alekseev, 2017),
including some cerambycids (Vitali, 2014;
2016), and dipterans Rachycerinae (Henning,
1967).
The habitus of Procleomenes gouverneuri sp.
n. supports the fact that primitive members of
this genus showed normally developed elytra as
other members of the tribe. The truncated apex
and the peculiar pattern do not seem, however,
to fully fit an ancestral taxon since we could
have expected rounded elytral apex and 4 regular
transverse bands (basal, premedian, postmedian
and apical).
On the other side, Procleomenes gouverneuri
sp. n. seems directly related to current Bornean
congeners that do not show the wasp-like elytral
pattern of most congeners. This mimic pattern
could have evolved only lately in Procleomenes;
nonetheless, this hypothesis does not seem
founded since Vespini and mimicking Lepturini
were already present in Baltic fauna (Zang,
1905; Spahr, 1987).
Thus, Procleomenes gouverneuri sp. n. shows
primitive characters but it was already
specialised enough. This conclusion antedates
the appearance of the genus Procleomenes to
epochs preceding the Baltic fauna. Other
observations are hazardous since the real limits
3 8
and consistence of this tribe and its relations
with other ones are still debated.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Many thanks to Xavier Gouverneur (Rennes,
France) for his continuous support in the
international forum of Cerambycoidea
www.cerambycoidea.com and his help in
furnishing material to describe this species, to
Vitalii Alekseev (Kaliningrad State Technical
University, Russia), outstanding specialist in
Baltic amber beetles, who kindly signalised me
this specimen on the international market and,
last but not least, to my beloved wife Otilia, who
affectionately donated this remarkable amber
piece to me.
REFERENCES
Alekseev V.I. 2017. Coleoptera from the
middle-upper Eocene European ambers: generic
composition, zoogeography and climatic
implications. Zootaxa, 4290 (3): 401-443.
Bjørnstad A. 2014. Studies in Afrotropical
Cleomenini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae,
Cerambycinae) V. Description of Iridoclava
congolensis, a new genus and species from
Democratic Republic of Congo. Norwegian
Journal of Entomology, 61: 53-56.
Gressitt J.L. & Rondon J.A. 1970. Cerambycid-
beetles of Laos (Longicornes du Laos). Pacific
Insect Monograph, 24. Entomology department
Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 314 pp.
Hennig, W. 1967. Die sogenannten “niederen
Brachycera” im baltischen Bernstein (Diptera:
Fam. Xylophagidae, Xylomyidae, Rhagionidae,
Tabanidae). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur
Naturkunde 174: 1-51.
Niisato T. 1986. Occurrence of Cerambycine
Beetles of the Genus Procleomenes in Borneo,
with a Brief Note on P. shimomurai
(Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Kontyû, 54 (1):
100-111.
Niisato T. & Tichý T. 2016. Taxonomic Notes
on the Genus Procleomenes Gressitt & Rondon
(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the
Philippine Islands. The Japanese Journal of
Systematic Entomology, 22 (2): 215-221.
Spahr U. 1987. Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen
zu R. Keilbachs Bibliographie und Liste der
Bernsteinfossilien - Ordnung Hymenoptera.
Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Ser. B
(Geologie und Paläontologie), 127: 1-121.
Vitali F. 2010. Catalogue of the types of the
Cerambycoidea of the National Museum of
Natural History of Luxembourg. Bulletin de
l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de
Belgique, 80: 109-126.
Vitali F. 2014. New fossil cerambycids
(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from Baltic amber
belonging to the collection Hoffeins. Baltic
Journal of Coleopterology, 14 (1): 103-112.
Vitali F. 2016. Eurapatophysis groehni n. gen.
and n. sp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from
Baltic amber: the first fossil member of the
tribe Apatophyseini Lacordaire, 1869. Baltic
Journal of Coleopterology, 16 (2): 117-122.
Zang R. 1905. Coleoptera Longicornia aus der
Berendtschen Bernsteinsammlung.
Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft
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Zicha O. (ed.) 1999-2018. BioLib. http://
www.biolib.cz. Accessed 15 April 2018.
Received:15.04.2018.
Accepted: 30.08.2018.
Published:10.09.2018.
Vitali F.
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A new genus and species, Iridoclava congolensis gen. n., sp. n. from Democratic Republic of Congo is described. The genus differs from other genera in the Cleomenini by its strongly clavate scapi and by the males having 12-jointed antennas twice as long as the body. The relationship between Iridoclava gen. n. and Hexarrhopala Gahan, 1890 is discussed.
Cerambycidbeetles of Laos (Longicornes du Laos). Pacific Insect Monograph, 24. Entomology department Bernice P. Bishop Museum
  • J L Gressitt
  • J A Rondon
Gressitt J.L. & Rondon J.A. 1970. Cerambycidbeetles of Laos (Longicornes du Laos). Pacific Insect Monograph, 24. Entomology department Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 314 pp.
Die sogenannten "niederen Brachycera" im baltischen Bernstein (Diptera: Fam. Xylophagidae, Xylomyidae, Rhagionidae, Tabanidae)
  • W Hennig
Hennig, W. 1967. Die sogenannten "niederen Brachycera" im baltischen Bernstein (Diptera: Fam. Xylophagidae, Xylomyidae, Rhagionidae, Tabanidae). Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde 174: 1-51.
Occurrence of Cerambycine Beetles of the Genus Procleomenes in Borneo, with a Brief Note on P. shimomurai (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)
  • T Niisato
Niisato T. 1986. Occurrence of Cerambycine Beetles of the Genus Procleomenes in Borneo, with a Brief Note on P. shimomurai (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae). Kontyû, 54 (1): 100-111.
Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Procleomenes Gressitt & Rondon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Philippine Islands
  • T Niisato
  • T Tichý
Niisato T. & Tichý T. 2016. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Procleomenes Gressitt & Rondon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the Philippine Islands. The Japanese Journal of Systematic Entomology, 22 (2): 215-221.
Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen zu R. Keilbachs Bibliographie und Liste der Bernsteinfossilien -Ordnung Hymenoptera
  • U Spahr
Spahr U. 1987. Ergänzungen und Berichtigungen zu R. Keilbachs Bibliographie und Liste der Bernsteinfossilien -Ordnung Hymenoptera.