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Development and Validation of the Mobile Dating App Gratification Scale: Effects of Sought Gratifications on User Behavior and Outcomes


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em>Mobile dating apps were created to meet the needs of Millennials, who tend to be more interested in casual relationships than serious dating. Despite their popularity, research has found that dating apps are not being used for their intended purpose. Two studies were conducted to develop and validate a scale for mobile dating app gratifications and to determine how individuals’ behavior varies based on their sought gratifications. Results indicate that there are four primary mobile dating app gratifications (Validation, Entertainment, Relationships, and Hookups) and that they vary between genders. Individuals who seek different gratifications also engage in different behaviors while using the app and achieve different relational outcomes. The study highlights implications for future research and additional use of the Mobile Dating App Gratification Scale.</em
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Communication, Society and Media
ISSN 2576-5388 (Print) ISSN 2576-5396 (Online)
Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
Original Paper
Development and Validation of the Mobile Dating App
Gratification Scale: Effects of Sought Gratifications on User
Behavior and Outcomes
Jessica R. Welch1* & Melanie Morgan1
1 Brian Lamb School of Communication, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
* Jessica R. Welch, Brian Lamb School of Communication, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana,
Received: September 5, 2018 Accepted: September 13, 2018 Online Published: September 20, 2018
doi:10.22158/csm.v1n2p108 URL:
Mobile dating apps were created to meet the needs of Millennials, who tend to be more interested in
casual relationships than serious dating. Despite their popularity, research has found that dating apps
are not being used for their intended purpose. Two studies were conducted to develop and validate a
scale for mobile dating app gratifications and to determine how individuals’ behavior varies based on
their sought gratifications. Results indicate that there are four primary mobile dating app gratifications
(Validation, Entertainment, Relationships, and Hookups) and that they vary between genders.
Individuals who seek different gratifications also engage in different behaviors while using the app and
achieve different relational outcomes. The study highlights implications for future research and
additional use of the Mobile Dating App Gratification Scale.
uses and gratifications, mobile dating apps, online dating, scale development Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
Published by SCHOLINK INC.
Study One
1. Introduction
Since the creation of the first dating website in 1994, the stigma surrounding online dating has
decreased drastically (Kauflin, 2011). Now claims 21,575,000 members and other online
dating sites have cropped up to follow suit, including OKCupid (which is responsible for 40,000 first
dates every day) and eHarmony (which is responsible for 600,000 marriages since its creation)
(Dutcher, 2014;, 2014; Rudder, 2014). Although online dating is continuing to increase
in popularity among the older generation, some stigma still exists among emerging adults (age 18-24)
who are looking for more casual and convenient relationships (Baxter & Cashmore, 2013; Bleyer, 2014;
Dredge, 2014; Stampler, 2014).
Proximity-based mobile dating applications were created to satisfy the dating needs of these
always-on-the-go Millennials. The most popular of these dating apps is “Tinder”, which was created in
August 2012 by Sean Rad and Justin Mateen (Dredge, 2014). The app features GPS capabilities which
allow users to “match” with nearby individuals and includes a basic profile of 500 characters and up to
six pictures (Crook, 2015). Tinder’s interface is modeled after a deck of cards and allows users to
“swipe” on other individuals’ profiles (Crook, 2015). A “right swipe” indicates interest while a “left
swipe” indicates disinterest. When two users swipe right on each other they are notified that they have
a “match” and can message each other on the app. After interacting on the app users may choose to
move to a different communication medium or even meet face to face.
There is evidence suggesting that Tinder may serve a variety of uses for adopters (Covarrubias, 2014;
Dredge, 2014; Finkel, 2015). Tinder’s intended purpose, according to the developers, is to expand
social networks but many young people claim that is it a “hookup app” that facilitates casual sexual
encounters (Baxter & Cashmore, 2013; Covarrubias, 2014; Dey, 2015; Dredge, 2014; Finkel, 2015).
Although those are the two most widely accepted purposes for using the app, very few individuals
actually use it in those ways (Covarrubias, 2014; Dey, 2015; Dredge, 2014). In fact, although Tinder
sees 850 million swipes and 15 million matches daily, most of those matches never meet face-to-face
and, if they do, it is a one-time thing (Lee, 2014; Rea, 2015). Although the 10 million individuals who
use Tinder daily log in an average of 11 times and spend approximately 1.25 hours on the app, the
majority do not meet face to face (Lee, 2015; Rea, 2015). In fact, many individuals who originally
downloaded Tinder for its intended purpose now use it only for entertainment (Rea, 2015).
Timmermans and De Caluwé’s (2017) study of Tinder use in Belgium found that there are 13
motivations for using the app, many of which deviate from the uses mentioned by Tinder’s founders.
Although Timmermans and De Caluwé’s (2017) scale may be helpful for individuals seeking extremely
nuanced views of Tinder motives, its lack of parsimony may negatively affect its ease of adoption in
future studies. This study, therefore, aims to develop a scale with a more practical number of items that Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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measures more fundamental dating application motives.
Many technologies find unintended purposes that become driving forces for their adoption (Boyd, 2008;
Tosun, 2012). To better understand media use it is important to know not just how many people are
using a certain medium, but also how and why they are using it. Therefore, this study examines how
and why individuals are using mobile dating apps, regardless of their intended purpose.
1.1 Uses and Gratifications Theory
One approach for examining why people adopt a communication medium is the Uses and Gratifications
Theory. This audience-centered approach claims that individuals have inherent needs that are satisfied
with media and that certain media satisfy specific needs (Miller, 2015; Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch,
1974a; Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974b). The Uses and Gratifications Theory aims to identify the
factors that create needs among individuals and explains how those needs affect individuals’ behavior.
These behaviors then help to establish expectations about media exposure and engagement, which
result in satisfaction of the need or, sometimes, other unintended consequences (Haridakis, 2002; Katz
et al., 1974a; Palmgreen, Wenner, & Rosengren, 1985; Rubin, 2009; Sundar & Limperos, 2013). Based
on prior literature, this study included two individual difference variables within the Uses and
Gratifications framework to determine how these factors may impact Tinder users’ uses and
gratifications. These individual difference variables were gender and self-perceived physical
1.1.1 Gender
Historically, dating behaviors and norms have differed for males and females (Bailey, 1988; Freitas,
2013). One of the most significant differences is related to sexual behavior. Previous research suggests
that a double standard existedand may still existregarding what is considered “acceptable”
behavior for men and women (Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994; Martin & Hummer,
1989). Whereas men who engage in many casual sexual encounters are considered “studs”, women
have been expected to limit their number of partners to avoid earning a bad reputation (Bogle, 2008;
Harding & Jencks, 2003; Reiss, 1997). Gender differences in behavior on dating websites have also
been identified. Although women make up the majority of participants on the most popular dating sites
(68.6% on eHarmony and 55% on, men make 80% of the initial contacts (Hartman, 2012;, 2015). Given differences identified in sexual behavior and related to
behaviors on dating websites, we expect that gender may influence the uses and gratifications sought
on Tinder.
1.1.2 Physical Attractiveness
The second variable thought to impact Tinder uses and gratifications is self-perceived physical
attractiveness. Past dating behaviors, both on and offline, have varied based on an individual’s physical
attractiveness (Ahuvia & Adelman, 1992; Jagger, 2001; Toma & Hancock, 2010). Past research Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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indicates that men place more importance on their partner’s physical attractiveness than do women
(Langlois et al., 2000). Women are aware of the importance potential suitors place on their
attractiveness and therefore have learned to draw attention to their physical attributes while searching
for a mate. For example, more attractive women include more photos in their online dating profiles
than their less attractive counterparts (Toma & Hancock, 2010). The researchers therefore believe that a
Tinder user’s perception of their own physical attractiveness will impact their behavior on the app.
Based on this review, the following research questions were developed to guide our data collection and
RQ1: What are the underlying gratifications of Tinder use?
RQ2a: How are these underlying gratifications impacted by gender?
RQ2b: How are these underlying gratifications impacted by self-perceived physical attractiveness?
Uses and Gratifications Theory also claims that an individual’s behavior on (uses of) a medium will
vary based on their sought gratifications (Hampton, Goulet, Marlow, & Rainie, 2012; Tosun, 2012).
Therefore, this research examines how these variables affect individuals’ behavior on Tinder:
RQ3: What factors (gender, physical attractiveness, and gratifications) are associated with Tinder
While Tinder’s founders claim that the app was designed to broaden users’ social networks and many
people argue that it is a “hookup app”, it appears that individuals rarely succeed in using it for either
purpose (Lee, 2014). Therefore, the researchers are interested in what behaviors lead to “success” on
the app, in the form of face to face meetings and hookups.
RQ4: What factors, including Tinder behaviors, are associated with relational outcomes (face to face
meetings and hookups)?
2. Method
2.1 Participants and Procedures
The elicitation of key beliefs is an important step in the development of a scale. Therefore, as the initial
step in this study, three focus groups were conducted to explore individuals’ motivations for using
Tinder. All questions were open-ended and followed a semi-structured style. Questions focused
specifically on why participants originally downloaded Tinder and how they currently use it. Each
focus group was audio recorded and thematically analyzed. The data provided the basis for all uses and
gratifications-related items in the survey.
The final survey consisted of 100 items examining individuals’ motivations for downloading and
utilizing Tinder and questions regarding specific behaviors on the app. After several questions related
to basic demographic information, uses and gratifications items were included. These items were
measured using five-point Likert-type scales with strongly disagree and strongly agree as anchors. Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
Published by SCHOLINK INC.
Behavior items included both behaviors that Tinder users engage in on the app itself and behaviors they
may engage in as a result of the app (see Table 2). The survey concluded with a single-item measure of
self-perceived physical attractiveness.
All study participants were recruited via a research participation system that serves a variety of courses
from many schools across a large Mid-Western public university. To be eligible to participate,
individuals had to be 18 or older, a college student, and have had a Tinder profile at some point. A total
of 425 respondents (45.4% male, 54.6% female) completed the survey. Upon completion of the survey,
participants were awarded course credit.
2.2 Measures
The item measuring self-perceived physical attractiveness was adapted from a study examining
individuals’ evaluations of self and partner physical attractiveness (Swami, Furnham, Georgiades, &
Pang, 2007). The original survey listed 22 items, including 17 individual body parts and five categories
of overall attractiveness, which participants assessed on a scale of 55 (very unattractive) to 145 (very
attractive). Due to the nature of photos generally posted on Tinder profiles, in the present study, the
researcher chose to include only the item that related to overall physical attractiveness (M=109.2;
3. Result
3.1 Gratifications
A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to investigate underlying
components to create a set of reliable measures of sub-dimensions related to Tinder gratifications. The
initial solution included 19 items with eigenvalues greater than one that accounted for 60.42% of
variance. After removing items with cross-loadings greater than .4 and primary loadings less than .6, a
four-factor solution was identified that explained 71.6% of variance. Results indicate that there are four
primary Tinder gratifications: validation, relationships (platonic and romantic), hookups (casual sexual
encounters), and entertainment (See Table 1). The first three gratifications had acceptable reliability.
The entertainment loading items fell below normally accepted levels, possibly because that component
contained only two items, but this variable was retained for subsequent analyses due to the potential
meaningfulness of the construct and the exploratory nature of the project.
3.2 Impact of Gender and Attractiveness on Gratifications
RQ2a and RQ2b asked what effects gender and physical attractiveness have on a Tinder user’s
motivations for using the app. Hierarchical regressions were conducted for each of the four
gratifications with gender controlled in block one and self-perceived physical attractiveness controlled
in block two (See Table 2). Block 1 was significant in all four analyses, indicating that gender has a
significant impact on individuals’ Tinder gratifications. Specifically, female users tend to use the app Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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for validation and entertainment purposes while males use Tinder for relationships and hookups.
Self-perceived physical attractiveness did not have any statistically significant effects, so Block 2 was
insignificant in all analyses.
3.3 Impacts on Specific Behaviors
To answer RQ3, hierarchical regressions were conducted for four on-Tinder behaviors (See Table 2).
Gender was controlled in Block 1, self-perceived attractiveness was controlled in Block 2, and Block 3
controlled for the four gratifications (validation, relationships, hookups, entertainment). The behaviors
that were analyzed were “Frequency of Use” (how often individuals use Tinder), “Messaging Matches
First(individuals’ tendency to initiate contact with matches), “Number of Photos(how many photos
individuals include in their Tinder profile, and “Biography Inclusion” (whether individuals include a
biography in their profile). Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
Published by SCHOLINK INC.
Table 1. Gratification Scale Items for Study 1 and 2
Study One Two
Items Comp.
M SD Alpha M SD Alpha
Validation 3.05 .79 .83 2.93 .79 .86
DA make me
feel good about
.82 2.94 .98
DA make me
feel attractive.
.82 3.06 .96
Using DA
boosts my ego.
.79 2.97 1.00
DA make me
feel validated.
.75 2.76 .94
Relationships 2.84 .82 .75 3.03 .85 .76
DA are a great
way to meet
.83 2.85 1.05
DA are a great
way to meet
new people.
.79 3.54 .99
I would start a
relationship with
someone I met
on a DA.
.75 2.68 1.07
Hookups 2.42 1.08 .82 2.43 1.06 .90
I downloaded a
A because I
wanted to find
casual sexual
.92 2.30 1.15
I would have a .88 2.57 1.28 Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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casual sexual
relationship with
someone I met
on a DA.
I use DA to look
for casual sexual
partners. +
2.21 1.17
DA are a great
place for me to
find hookup
partners. +
2.65 1.23
Entertainment 3.80 .70 .59 3.13 1.02 .89
I use DA when
I’m bored.
.83 3.40 1.23
DA are a good
form of
entertainment. X
.80 X X
DA keep me
occupied during
lulls in
conversation or
activity. +
2.86 1.11
I use DA when I
don’t have
anything else to
do. +
3.15 1.17
I use DA when
there’s nothing
else going on. +
3.09 1.17
+ represents an item that was added in Study 2
X represents an item that was removed from the model to improve fit in Study 2
* DA= dating app; in Study 1, items included “Tinder” rather than “dating app”. Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
Published by SCHOLINK INC.
Of the four on-Tinder behaviors analyzed, only Frequency of Use had no significant predictors. This
indicates that men and women, varying in attractiveness, do not differ in how often they use Tinder
regardless of their motivations for using the app. On the other hand, Blocks 1 and 3 were highly
significant for Messaging Matches First, indicating that men and individuals seeking relationships and
hookups are more likely to initiate contact with Tinder matches. Self-perceived physical attractiveness
was not a significant predictor for messaging matches first. Blocks 2 and 3 were significant for
Number of Photos, which demonstrates that Tinder users with higher self-perceived physical
attractiveness and those seeking validation and entertainment tend to include more photos in their
profile. Finally, only Block 3 had significant effects for Biography Inclusion. Validation and
entertainment were both significant predictors for this variable, indicating that individuals seeking
validation and entertainment are more likely to include a biography in their profile.
3.4 Impacts on Relational Outcomes
To answer RQ4, hierarchical regressions were conducted for two Tinder-related outcomes (See Table 2).
Gender was controlled in Block 1, self-perceived physical attractiveness was controlled in Block 2, the
four gratifications were controlled in Block 3, and the four on-Tinder behaviors were controlled in
Block 4 (Frequency of Use, Messaging Matches First, Number of Photos, and Biography Inclusion).
The first Tinder-related outcome examined was participants’ engagement in Face-to-Face Meetings
with Tinder matches. This dichotomous variable measured whether individuals had met face-to-face
with users that they matched with on Tinder. Only Block 3 was a significant predictor, indicating that
individuals using Tinder to find relationships are more likely to engage in face-to-face meetings than
users seeking other gratifications. The other relational outcome was Hookups, which examined
whether a Tinder user had had a casual sexual encounter with an individual they met on the app. Again,
only Block 3 was a significant predictor and indicated that individuals seeking relationships or hookups
are more likely to hook up with Tinder matches.
4. Discussion
4.1 Gratification Scale
A significant contribution of Study One was the development of a preliminary scale for the
gratifications of Tinder use. Past research (Timmermans & De Caluwé, 2017) resulted in a scale that
lacked parsimony, but this scale includes only the fundamental Tinder gratifications: Validation,
Relationships, Hookups, and Entertainment. Additionally, these gratifications help to explain Tinder
behavior above and beyond explanations based on gender and self-perceived physical attractiveness.
All gratification factors were significant predictors of at least one Tinder behavior, and they were
typically the strongest predictors in the full models, although the entertainment factor evidenced low
internal consistency. Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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The only Tinder behavior specifically predicted by gender was the tendency to message matches first,
indicating that men are typically the pursuers on Tinder. This finding reflects dating trends that began
back in the early 1920’s with the “Dating Era” where men were expected to initiate romantic
relationships (Bogle, 2008). The fact that gender was not a significant predictor of the number of
hookups in which a user has engaged may indicate that women’s engagement in casual sexual
encounters is becoming less stigmatized. On-Tinder behaviors did not significantly predict any
relational outcomes, which indicates that individuals’ motivations for using Tinder play a more
important role than on-app behaviors for achieving relational goals.
4.2 Study limitations
One limitation of this study was that the entertainment factor was measured with only two items,
resulting in low internal consistency. Different or additional items are needed to improve the reliability
of that factor. This study also examined only the uses and gratifications of one dating app. Additional
research is needed to validate the gratification scale and determine whether it is generalizable to other
mobile dating apps. Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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Table 2. Hierarchical Regressions for Dating App Gratifications and Behaviors
Valid . Relation. Hookups Entertain. Freq.
N. of
Bio. Total
Block 1
(R² Change)
.03** .02* .28*** .03*** .00 .32*** .01 .00 .00 .00
Gender .18** -.13* -.52*** .18*** .03 -.57*** .09 -.06 .02 .00
Block 2
(R² Change)
.01 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .03** .00 .00 .01
Phys. Attract. .09 -.06 .02 .03 -.01 -.01 .18** .02 .00 .08
Block 3
(R² Change)
.01 .07*** .12*** .07*** .10*** .11***
Validation .00 -.03 .20** .18** -.04 -.10
Relationships .09 .18*** .10 .00 .27*** .19**
Hookups -.05 .18** .08 .03 .13 .29**
Entertainment .02 -.02 .15** .13* -.05 .02
Block 4
(R² Change)
.02 .02
Frequency of
.09 .10
Message First .06 -.02
Number of
.10 .10
Include Bio .01 .01
Total Adj. .04** .02* .27*** .03*** -.02 .38*** .14*** .05*** .08*** .09
male=1, female=2; *p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001. Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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Study Two
1. Introduction
A second study was designed to address the limitations from Study One, as well as to strengthen and
validate the gratification scale and expand it to include all mobile dating applications.
2. Method
2.1 Measures
Because one limitation of Study One was the low reliability evidenced by the Entertainment factor,
additional gratification items were included in Study Two’s survey with the goal of strengthening the
Mobile Dating App Gratification Scale. These new items were also measured using five-point
Likert-type scales with strongly disagree and strongly agree as anchors.
The survey was uploaded to a research participation system serving a variety of courses from many
schools across a large, public Mid-Western university. To be eligible to participate, individuals had to
be 18 or older, a college student, and have had a profile on a dating app at some point. Upon
completion of the survey, participants were awarded course credit. A total of 985 participants, ages
18-24 (61.3% female) completed the survey.
3. Result
To validate Study One’s scale, responses from Study Two were randomly divided and an exploratory
factor analysis was conducted on one half. The EFA resulted in 17 items, divided into the same factors
found in Study One (Validation, Relationships, Hookups, Entertainment), which explained 71.49% of
variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the second half of the data to validate
results. During the CFA two additional gratification items were removed to improve the fit of the model,
resulting in a 15 item and four-factor solution. Available fit indices demonstrated well to acceptable fit
(RMSEA 90% Confidence Interval =.06; CFI=.96; TLI=.95; SRMR=.06). See Table 1 for all scale
items and Figure 1 for CFA results.
4. Discussion
The inclusion of additional items in Study Two enhanced the Mobile Dating App Gratification Scale
and improved reliability for the Entertainment factor. Another important contribution is that Study Two
measured gratifications for all dating apps, allowing results to be generalized to include mobile dating
apps other than Tinder.
4.1 Limitations and Future Research
Like Study One, Study Two included only college students from a large, Mid-Western university. A
more diverse sample may have different motivations for using mobile dating apps and different on-app Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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behaviors. Future research should include a more diverse sample to see how results differ. Although
this study expanded Study One to include all mobile dating apps in addition to Tinder,
homosexual-specific dating apps were likely underrepresented because 94.3% of respondents identified
as heterosexual. Future research is required to determine if sought gratifications and on-app behaviors
differ based on sexual orientation.
4.2 Final Conclusions
Despite these limitations, this project revealed important results and conclusions. Most significantly,
this is the first scale measuring the gratifications of all mobile dating apps. This scale could also be
used to explore other social networking tools that overlap in functionality or potential purpose. Finally,
this research determined how sought gratifications affect individuals’ behavior while using mobile
dating apps and their “success” on the app in the form of relational outcomes. Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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Figure 1. Final Model Resulting from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis Communication, Society and Media Vol. 1, No. 2, 2018
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... Users also acknowledge the ease of virtual dating as a motivator of use, both in terms of facilitating communication (Wang & Chang, 2010) and mitigating physical distance (Williams et al., 2021). Further, boosting one's self-esteem (Welch & Morgan, 2018) and curbing boredom (Carpenter & McEwan, 2016) are frequently identified motives. ...
... Underlying motivations for virtual dating following the COVID-19 pandemic were measured using various items pulled from past research applying Uses and Gratifications theory to the study of communication technologies within relationships (Clemens et al., 2015;Jung & Sundar, 2018;Kim, 2016;Ko et al., 2005;Korgaonkar & Wolin, 1999;Sundar & Limperos, 2013;Timmermans & Caluwé, 2017;Van De Wiele & Tong, 2014;Welch & Morgan, 2018). In total, 39 items were included in the survey, all measured using a five-point Likert-type scale (1=strongly disagree; 5=strongly agree). ...
... Together, these tests indicate that the data is suitable for principal component analysis. The 39 items were subjected to an EFA with varimax rotation; item retention criteria were consistent with past research applying Uses and Gratifications Theory to the study of virtual dating, such as eigenvalues of 1.0 or greater, individual factor loadings of 0.50 or above, and no significant cross-loadings above 0.40 (Van De Wiele & Tong, 2014;Welch & Morgan, 2018). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic altered myriad aspects of social and cultural life, with impacts continuing to ripple across the globe. The present study provides empirical insight into virtual dating following the COVID-19 pandemic, exploring motives (i.e., gratifications), predictors (i.e., age; sex; sexual orientation; living situation; vaccination status), and outcomes (i.e., loneliness). Participants (N = 393) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) in March 2021, approximately one year after initial shelter-in-place and lockdown orders went into effect. Results revealed that demographic and situational factors were significantly related to virtual dating motives. Additionally, several virtual dating motives were significantly associated with loneliness. Implications are discussed regarding the landscape of virtual dating following the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Other than for the purpose of searching for romantic or sexual partners (Couch & Liamputtong, 2008), some individuals turn to online dating for other forms of gratifications such as for attention seeking, to boost their self-confidence as well as simply to pass time (Bryden, 2017). Others found that social validation, entertainment and relationship and sexual hook-ups as key gratifications from dating apps (Claxton & Van Dulmen, 2013, Welch & Morgan, 2018. Further gratifications studies include convenience, for relaxation, social interactions as well as catching up to the latest trend (Bryden, 2017;Davis, 2015;Lang, 2016). ...
... The initial intention of dating apps was for the purpose of expanding social circle and networks of the users (Welch & Morgan, 2018). Essentially, they are forms of social media with the function to communicate and interact with other individuals (Searle, 2014). ...
... The gratifications that users may get from the apps, namely entertainment, sexual and romantic relationship, friendship, social recognition and location-based search have shown significant relationship with perceived usefulness (Azzahro et al., 2018;Bataineh et al., 2015;Davis, 2015;Welch & Morgan, 2018). Consequently, this study proposes the following hypotheses: ...
Conference Paper
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Dating apps aim to help you meet someone. Many found success in finding love online encouraging dating apps developers to further ingrained themselves into the modern-day matchmaking culture. This study recommends a research model examining the antecedents of users' intention to continuously use dating apps. It focuses on the influence of gratifications from the use of dating apps towards perceived usefulness and continuance intention as well as the role of perceived usefulness as a mediator. The result shows a positive relationship between gratifications and continuance intention. Although not strong, the perceived usefulness does acts as a mediator in this relationship.
... 2014; Welch andMorgan, 2018, Cooper &Sportolari, 1997). This is not to presume, however, that the stigma on mobile dating and other modern practices in relationships has been entirely abolished. ...
... This is not to presume, however, that the stigma on mobile dating and other modern practices in relationships has been entirely abolished. On the contrary, though it has been mitigated over the years, the stigma persists (Salvosa, 2019;Ward, 2017;Welch and Morgan, 2018). Conservative cultures, such as the Philippines, still view online and mobile dating as practices that go against existing moral, religious, and family values and traditions that govern relationships and intimacy (Osorio and Someros, 2016;Labor, 2020;Labor 2021). ...
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Where do digital citizens attribute their successes and failures in using dating technologies? Using the tenets of attribution theory and its explication in digital spaces, narrations of fifty-two dating application users in the Philippines were sought and investigated. Interviews were able to document the nature and types of attributions of productive and botched online dating experiences among Filipinos. Thematic analyses revealed that successful dating experiences are linked to internal or dispositional attributes such as the person's perceived physical beauty, positive personality attributes, and luck. Unsuccessful dating experiences are linked to situational attributes such as the date's problematic personality and physical flaws. Further, external stable attributions such as poor internet connection and proximity issues also are perceived as causes of faults. Overall, Filipino mobile app daters attribute success and failures in online dating encounters to individual ideals, cultural factors, and technological features. In addition, available technology and the features of digital spaces allow dating app users to reinforce their existing intrinsic and extrinsic dispositional attributions, while at the same time challenge prevailing determinants of attributions in the context of dating practices. The interdependence of human agency and digital environments results in the ever-malleable and active formations of digital culture and society.
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Creating emotionally engaging mobile applications requires consideration of constantly evolving technology, content richness, usability, and user experience (UX). UX plays an important role in promoting long-term usage. We focused on the emotional aspects of UX design of mobile applications. In particular, we adopted the concept of feelings of being (FoB) – also known as existential feelings – in the context of mobile UX design. We presented an in-depth literature review covering 112 articles (2005–2021) on human-computer interaction, UX, mobile application development, mobile learning, and emotional engagement. Of these articles, 16 discussed FoB in the context of mobile applications. Building on the results of literature analysis and other previous research, we presented a FoB model for mobile application design comprising 13 FoB (ownership, engagement, contribution, security, trust, adjustability, enjoyment, empowerment, effectiveness, frustration, excitement, gratification, and needs fulfilment) and the hedonic and eudaimonic aspects of UX. Finally, we validated the FoB model through nine design projects, proposed design recommendations based on the model, and present considerations on extending the model with additional elements.
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As social network sites like MySpace and Facebook emerged, American teenagers began adopting them as spaces to mark identity and socialize with peers. Teens leveraged these sites for a wide array of everyday social practices - gossiping, flirting, joking around, sharing information, and simply hanging out. While social network sites were predominantly used by teens as a peer-based social outlet, the unchartered nature of these sites generated fear among adults. This dissertation documents my 2.5-year ethnographic study of American teens' engagement with social network sites and the ways in which their participation supported and complicated three practices - self-presentation, peer sociality, and negotiating adult society. My analysis centers on how social network sites can be understood as networked publics which are simultaneously (1) the space constructed through networked technologies and (2) the imagined community that emerges as a result of the intersection of people, technology, and practice. Networked publics support many of the same practices as unmediated publics, but their structural differences often inflect practices in unique ways. Four properties - persistence, searchability, replicability, and scalability - and three dynamics - invisible audiences, collapsed contexts, and the blurring of public and private - are examined and woven throughout the discussion. While teenagers primarily leverage social network sites to engage in common practices, the properties of these sites configured their practices and teens were forced to contend with the resultant dynamics. Often, in doing so, they reworked the technology for their purposes. As teenagers learned to navigate social network sites, they developed potent strategies for managing the complexities of and social awkwardness incurred by these sites. Their strategies reveal how new forms of social media are incorporated into everyday life, complicating some practices and reinforcing others. New technologies reshape public life, but teens' engagement also reconfigures the technology itself.
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Despite widespread knowledge that fraternity members are frequently involved in the sexual assaults of women, fraternities are rarely studied as social contexts-groups and organizations-that encourage the sexual coercion of women. An analysis of the norms and dynamics of the social construction of fraternity brotherhood reveals the highly masculinist features of fraternity structure and process, including concern with a narrow, stereotypical conception of masculinity and heterosexuality; a preoccupation with loyalty, protection of the group, and secrecy; the use of alcohol as a weapon against women's sexual reluctance; the pervasiveness of violence and physical force; and an obsession with competition, superiority, and dominance. Interfraternity rivalry and competition-particularly over members, intramural sports, and women-encourage fraternity men's commodification of women. We conclude that fraternities will continue to violate women socially and sexually unless they change in fundamental ways.
This article responds to recent calls for conceptual and methodological refinement, issued by uses-and-gratifications scholars (Rubin, 200944. Rubin , A. M. 2009. “The uses-and-gratifications perspective on media effects.”. In Media effects: Advances in theory and research , 3rd ed. Edited by: Bryant , J. and Oliver , M. B. 165–184. New York, NY: Routledge.. View all references; Ruggiero, 200046. Ruggiero , T. E. 2000. Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3: 3–37. doi: 10.1207/S15327825MCS0301_02 [Taylor & Francis Online], [CSA]View all references), for studying emergent media. Noting that studies on the uses of the Internet have generated a list of gratifications that are remarkably similar to those obtained from older media, it identifies two measurement artifacts—(1) measures designed for older media are used to capture gratifications from newer media; and (2) gratifications are conceptualized and operationalized too broadly (e.g., information-seeking), thus missing the nuanced gratifications obtained from newer media. It challenges the notion that all gratifications are borne out of innate needs, and proposes that affordances of media technology can shape user needs, giving rise to new and distinctive gratifications. A sample of new gratifications and potential measures for those are provided.