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Global and Entrepreneurial Perspectives for Enhancing Retailing Education: Development of a Hybrid Graduate Course Focused on U.S. and Indian Small Businesses



This paper provides an approach, based on global and entrepreneurial perspectives, to enhance retailing education. The approach was operationalized through a hybrid graduate course, co-taught by U.S. and Indian faculty members, which focused on engaging Bloom’s higher order cognitive skills in learning about the operation of small retail businesses in U.S. and Indian cultural contexts. The course included interactive learning modules, learning activities, and a student service-learning project. The project required the application of module content in the development of business enhancement plans for small retail businesses and in assessing the plan’s applicability to small businesses in an Indian context.
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This article reviews the literature on the Millennial generation and their effects on the workplace. This review examines a sampling of articles to define generational differences and the importance of these studies. There are clearly common beliefs and opinions, both flattering and unflattering, about the Millennial generation. As more of this generation takes control, greater research will need to be conducted to understand what can motivate and lead this new generation. The large number of trade articles and low number of empirical studies show that there is a need for further understanding between the multiple generations in the workforce.
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Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present and develop models of educational approaches to entrepreneurship that can provide complementary analytical structures to better study, enact and reflect upon the role of entrepreneurship in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: A general framework for entrepreneurship education is developed by using theory as well as practical experiences from the fields of business, engineering and pedagogy. The paper is mainly conceptual where the unfolding Swedish practice is used as contextual backdrop. Findings: The FOR/IN/THROUGH/ABOUT (FITA) taxonomy is presented and used to develop three models of how to approach entrepreneurship in higher education depending on purpose. As there exists a didactical divide between entrepreneurial education for business and entrepreneurial approach to teaching and learning, educators and researchers ought to let their specific context influence the adoption of the taxonomy as well as the presented models. Research limitations/implications: The differentiations suggested by the presented models can be used to both structure the designs and limit claims of future research. More heuristic research is called for. Practical implications: The use of FITA in the designing of entrepreneurship education offers new opportunities for enhancing complementary student learning in higher education. Social implications: The study suggests that any political or scholarly initiative must acknowledge the diversity of entrepreneurship education and chose different approaches depending on what is to be achieved. Originality/value: The multidisciplinary approach has made it possible to present and create models that denote a common ground for a productive discussion on how to better understand and make use of entrepreneurship in higher education.
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This paper introduces the notion of holistic education into the context of action-based entrepreneurial education, in order to develop a framework for achieving and understanding whole person development. The aim of the framework is to connect with a wider set of teaching and learning paradigms as a basis for instructional design and assessment, to bridge some of the fragmentation apparent in conceptual frameworks for entrepreneurial education. To facilitate this multi-facetted view on teaching and learning, we introduce a framework of transmissive, transactional and transformative teaching modes. In this framework, the transmissive mode relies upon traditional teaching methods; the transactional mode relies upon on self-directed problem-solving, collaboration and engagement in authentic learning environments; and, the transformative mode appreciates the whole learning person, how she connects with herself, others and the world. We argue that all modes are needed in order to achieve and understand whole person development, and that entrepreneurship teaching should be designed so that it offers a reservoir of rich and diverse experiences in an authentic learning environment. The three teaching modes are analyzed and discussed in relation to a leadership course assignment and eight selected citations from student deliverables in 2007. The citations represent an extreme sampling as the students had been running a tech venture during almost a year as the major vehicle of learning in their program, they had no prior entrepreneurship experience, and all of the selected students became and have remained start-up entrepreneurs since their graduation. The selected citations illustrate how transmissive, transactional and transformative teaching modes can be contextualized in action-based entrepreneurial education, and point towards that significant learning has emerged through the integration of different teaching modes. The richness of the citations indicate that action-based entrepreneurial education is a vehicle for a wide variety of learning outcomes. Accordingly, the introduced framework seems to hold promise as a basis for achieving and understanding whole person learning in this context. Practical teaching aspects are addressed, both around designing authentic learning environments as well as around designing and examining more tangible deliverables from students in such environments. 2
Cambridge Core - International Business - Transnational Management - by Christopher A. Bartlett