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An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of maize green fodder produced by hydroponics system on the performance of eighteen weaned crossbred calves and Calves were divided into three groups T1, T2 and T3 of six each as uniformly. The calf starter in dietary treatments T1, T2 and T3 contained 24, 20 and 17 per cent of Crude Protein (CP), respectively and 70 per cent Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). The T2 and T3 treatments were made iso-nitrogenous with T1 by supplementing hydroponics maize fodder. The results obtained in the present study showed significant difference among different treatment groups regarding Dry matter intake (DM), total body weight gain, Average daily gain (ADG) and Feed conversion ratio (FCR) with a higher (P less than 0.05) values observed for calves belonging to T3 than groups T1 and T2. Data on digestibility of nutrients does not reveal any difference (P>0.05) among treatment groups. Cost per kg gain was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in T3 (Rs.102.14) than groups T2 (Rs. 111.64) and T1 (Rs. 119.82). On conclusion, feeding of hydroponics maize fodder as a partial feed substitute of calf starter on protein basis at seven per cent level improves the DM intake, total body weight gain, ADG and lowers the cost per kg body weight gain.
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION CENTRE
www.arccjournals.com/www.ijaronline.in
B-3421
[1-5]
*Corresponding author’s e-mail: rajvet15@gmail.com
1College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy
2Base Farm Kolahalamedu
3Dept of Dairy Husbandry, College of Dairy Science and Technology, Chettachal
4Dept. of Animal Nutrition. College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy
Indian J. Anim. Res.,
Print ISSN:0367-6722 / Online ISSN:0976-0555
Evaluation of hydroponics fodder as a partial feed substitute in the ration of
crossbred calves
G. Rajkumar*, M.T. Dipu1, K. Lalu2, K. Shyama3 and P.S. Banakar4
Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Mannuthy, Thrissur-680 651, Kerala, India
Received: 12-04-2017 Accepted: 20-05-2017 DOI: 10.18805/ijar.B-3421
ABSTRACT
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of maize green fodder produced by hydroponics system on the
performance of eighteen weaned crossbred calves and Calves were divided into three groups T1, T2 and T3 of six each as
uniformly. The calf starter in dietary treatments T1, T2 and T3 contained 24, 20 and 17 per cent of Crude Protein (CP),
respectively and 70 per cent Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). The T2 and T3 treatments were made iso-nitrogenous with T1
by supplementing hydroponics maize fodder. The results obtained in the present study showed significant difference among
different treatment groups regarding Dry matter intake (DM), total body weight gain, Average daily gain (ADG) and Feed
conversion ratio (FCR) with a higher (P<0.05) values observed for calves belonging to T3 than groups T1 and T2. Data on
digestibility of nutrients does not reveal any difference (P>0.05) among treatment groups. Cost per kg gain was significantly
(P<0.05) lower in T3 (Rs.102.14) than groups T2 (Rs. 111.64) and T1 (Rs. 119.82). On conclusion, feeding of hydroponics
maize fodder as a partial feed substitute of calf starter on protein basis at seven per cent level improves the DM intake, total
body weight gain, ADG and lowers the cost per kg body weight gain.
Key words: Crossbred calves, Feed substitute, Growth performance, Hydroponic fodder.
INTRODUCTION
The future of a dairy farm depends on successful
rearing of calves for herd replacement. Good nutrition and
scientific management plans will make the calves’ better dairy
cows and in nutrition plan, providing optimal quantity and
quality of feeds and fodders is prime importance. However,
one of the major constraints for dairy farming in India has
been the quantitative and qualitative deficiency of feeds and
fodders. The conventional feed and fodder resources are not
enough to bridge this gap. As an alternative to conventional
method, grains can be grown with hydroponics technology
within a week. Hydroponics fodder production technology
is an emerging one among dairy farmers. Hydroponics is a
Greek word, which means “water working” (“Hydro” means
“water” and “Ponic” means “working”). A French chemist
known as Jean Boussingault verified growth of plants without
soil by the year 1860. The concept of hydroponic fodder
production include putting one kilogram of grain into a
hydroponic system and producing four to eight kilograms of
fresh green sprouts, independent of weather and seasons.
Within eight to nine days, hydroponic fodder can reach 25-
28 cm height and roots will be formed like a mat. During
sprouting process there will be breakdown of complex
compounds into a more simple form due to the metabolic
activity of seeds. While sprouting, chemical constitutes
(protein, starch and lipid) of the grains are breakdown by
hydrolytic enzymes. Due to this enzymatic action, total
protein, fat, certain essential amino acids, total sugar, B-
complex vitamins of the sprouts increase (Dung et al.,
2010a).
Calves need more nutritious food for their growth,
especially protein. Calf starter is a nutritious and easily
digestible feed given to calves below six month of age.
Generally, protein ingredients in the calf starter viz., soya
bean meal and other oil cakes increases the production cost
of calf starter. Feeding of hydroponic fodder may reduce
the feed cost to some extent by reducing the level of protein
in calf starter. Thus, the feasibility of using hydroponic fodder
as a partial feed substitute in the ration of calves needs to be
explored. Hence, this research work is planned to determine
the effect of feeding hydroponic fodder as a partial feed
substitute in the ration of crossbred calves on growth
performance and nutrient utilization and cost of feed per
kilogram body weight gain.
2 INDIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL RESEARCH
T1Calf starter containing 24 per cent CP (BIS, 1983) (Control)
T2Calf starter containing 20 per cent CP + 4 per cent of CP
supplemented by Hydroponics maize fodder
T3 Calf starter containing 17 per cent CP + 7 per cent of CP
supplemented by Hydroponics maize fodder
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental animal and period: Eighteen healthy weaned
crossbred calves of three to four months of age, selected
from University Livestock Farm, Mannuthy formed the
experimental subjects for the study. The calves were divided
into three groups of six each as uniformly as possible with
regard to age, sex and body weight and each group was
allotted randomly to one of the three dietary treatments, T1,
T2 and T3. All the calves were dewormed at first day of the
feeding trial. All the experimental calves were maintained
under identical conditions of feeding and management
throughout the experimental period. All the experimental
calves were fed with calf starter containing 70 per cent TDN
and varying levels of CP (Table 1). Table 2 is containing the
chemical composition of three experimental rations,
hydroponics maize fodder and green grass. Hydroponics
maize fodder was offered to treatment groups T2and T3to
make those treatments iso-nitrogenous with T1.The three
experimental rations were as follows.
Good quality green grass was offered to all the
treatment groups at ad libitum. Calves were fed as per ICAR
standards (ICAR, 2013).
Experimental methods: A feeding trial was conducted for
a period of ninety days using eighteen healthy weaned
crossbred calves of three to four months of age. Weighed
quantity of calf starter and ad libitum good quality green
grass were offered to all the experimental animals during
the forenoon and afternoon periods. A known quantity of
hydroponics maize fodder was offered at forenoon to
treatment groups T2 and T3 to make those isonitrogenous with
T1 throughout the experimental period. Individual data on
quantities of calf starter, hydroponics maize fodder and green
grass offered daily were recorded. Body weights of all the
calves were recorded at fortnight intervals. The daily
Table 1: Ingredient composition of calf starters offered to calves
maintained on three dietary treatments
Ingredient Percentage composition of calf starter
T1T2T3
Maize 25.00 34.00 41.00
Wheat bran 31.00 34.00 36.00
Soya bean meal 40.00 28.00 19.00
Dicalcium phosphate 01.00 01.00 01.00
Calcite 02.00 02.00 02.00
Salt 01.00 01.00 01.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Vitamin A, D3, E* (g) 20.00 20.00 20.00
Table 2: Chemical composition of three experimental rations, hydroponics maize fodder and green grass fed to experimental calves1
in per cent (DM basis)
Parameter Dietary treatments Hydroponics maize Green grass
T1T2T3fodder
Dry matter 90.21±0.23 90.23±0.18 89.90±0.07 17.26±0.55 17.57±0.25
Crude protein 23.87±0.04 20.15±0.02 17.09±0.06 13.01±0.04 10.14±0.13
Ether extract 3.95±0.01 4.21±0.04 4.55±0.01 3.47±0.01 3.09±0.22
Crude fibre 4.07±0.01 4.89±0.03 5.22±0.04 8.72±0.11 26.17±0.14
Total ash 5.22±0.03 5.64±0.01 5.92±0.02 2.95±0.02 11.12±0.21
Nitrogen free extract 62.99±0.07 65.09±0.95 67.21±0.067 71.89a±0.11 49.48±0.16
Acid insoluble ash 2.91±0.03 3.07±0.019 3.32±0.01 0.53±0.00 4.03 ± 0.09
Calcium 1.90±0.03 2.01±0.04 1.95±0.01 0.74±0.17 0.52±0.14
Phosphorus 1.09±0.01 1.03±0.03 1.04±0.17 0.58±0.21 0.34±0.21
1 Average of six values with SE
allowance of concentrate, hydroponics maize fodder and
green grass were periodically revised taking into
consideration the increased nutrient requirement
commensurate with the growth increment. A digestion trial
involving five days of collection was carried out at the end
of study period. From the data obtained on the intake and
outgo of different nutrients during the digestion trial,
digestibility coefficient of nutrients was calculated.
Analysis of feed and dung: Proximate analysis of calf
starters, hydroponics maize fodder, green grass and dung
were done as per the standard procedures (AOAC, 2012).
The faecal sample collected from each animal for the five
consecutive days was pooled, mixed thoroughly and
representative samples were taken for proximate analysis to
calculate the digestibility.
Statistical analysis: Data obtained on different parameters
during the course of the experiment were subjected to
statistical analysis using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) (Snedecor and Cochran,
1994).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Growth performance of calves: The mean fortnightly body
weight of the experimental calves maintained on three dietary
treatments T1, T2 and T3 are presented in (Table 3). The
average initial body weight of calves were 49.73± 3.68,
50.01±2.80 and 48.66±1.42 kg for the treatments T1, T2 and
T3 respectively. The average body weight at the end of the
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Table 3: Fortnightly average body weight of calves maintained on three dietary treatments1, kg
Fortnights Dietary treatments P value
T1T2T3
0 49.73±3.68 50.01±2.80 48.66±1.42 0.94
1 55.46a±0.57 54.60a±0.58 58.25b±0.56 0.001**
2 58.57a±0.68 57.73a±0.67 61.02b±0.66 0.012*
3 64.03a±0.98 61.68a±0.97 67.07b±0.97 0.006**
4 68.67a±1.03 67.46a±1.04 74.34b±1.02 0.001**
5 74.24a±1.18 75.18a±1.19 81.52b±1.17 0.001**
6 79.86a±1.35 82.83a±1.36 90.05b±1.35 0.000**
1Average of six values with SE. ** a, b- Means bearing different superscripts within same rows differ significantly (P<0.01). * Significant
at 0.05 level (P<0.05)
Table 4: Summarized data on body weight, total weight gain and average daily gain of calves maintained on three dietary treatments1, kg
Parameters Dietary treatments P value
T1T2T3
Initial body weight 49.73±3.68 50.01±2.80 48.66±1.42 0.94
Final body weight 79.86a±1.35 82.83a±1.36 90.05b±1.35 0.000**
Total weight gain 30.39a±1.35 33.36a±1.34 40.58b±1.35 0.000**
Average daily gain 0.34a±0.01 0.37a±0.02 0.45b±0.01 0.000**
1Average of six values with SE. ** a, b- Means with different superscripts within the same row differ significantly (P<0.01)
Table 5: Consolidated data on fortnightly average daily dry matter intake of calves maintained on three dietary treatments1, kg
Fortnights Dietary treatments P value
T1T2T3
1 1.48a±0.03 1.63b±0.04 1.71b±0.03 0.003**
2 1.60a±0.02 1.77b±0.03 1.84b±0.02 0.000**
3 1.78a±0.04 1.88a±0.05 2.06b±0.04 0.001**
4 1.96a±0.04 2.00a±0.05 2.25b±0.05 0.000**
5 2.03a±0.05 2.21b±0.04 2.49c±0.05 0.000**
6 2.28a±0.06 2.45a±0.07 2.78b±0.06 0.000**
1Average of six values with SE. *a, b, c- Means with different superscripts within the same row differ significantly (P<0.01)
experimental period was 79.86±1.35, 82.83±1.36 and
90.05±1.35 kg for groups T1, T2 and T3 respectively. Total
body weight gain and average daily gain (ADG) of the
experimental calves are presented in the (Table 4). Statistical
analysis of the data on fortnightly average body weight, total
body weight gain and ADG revealed significantly (P<0.01)
better growth performance of calves in group T3 than groups
T1 and T2. However, both groups T1 and T2 had similar
(P>0.05) fortnightly average body weight, total body weight
gain and ADG. Similarly, Verma et al. (2015) also observed
significantly higher body weight gain in calves fed
hydroponics barley fodder than those fed control diet.
Gebremedhin (2015a) also noted significantly higher body
weight gain of Awassi ewes fed with hydroponics barley
fodder than those fed basal diet.
Dry matter intake: The mean fortnightly average of daily
DM intake is presented in (Tables 5). From the Table 5, it is
clear that the DM intake of calves maintained on group T3
was significantly higher (P<0.05) in all the fortnights
compared to group T1. Moreover, significant difference
(P<0.05) was also observed in DM intake of calves
maintained under group T2 compared to group T1 except at
fourth and sixth fortnights. At fourth and six fortnights, the
DM intake of calves maintained on group T2 was statistically
similar (P>0.05) to other two treatment groups.
The total DM intake was 167.07±2.74, 179.17±2.75
and 197.17±2.75 kg in groups T1, T2 and T3 respectively
(Table 6). Average daily DM intake per calf was 1.85±0.04,
1.99±0.03 and 2.19±0.04 kg for the three treatments T1, T2
and T3 respectively. On statistical analysis of the data, animals
maintained under group T3 had significantly higher (P<0.01)
DM intake than those maintained in groups T1 and T2.
Moreover, there was significant increase (P<0.01) in average
daily DM intake of calves in group T2 compared to group
T1. Improved DM intake was observed in calves (groups T2
and T3) fed with hydroponics maize fodder compared to those
fed control diet and it could be due to the better tenderness,
lushness, and succulence of hydroponics fodder compared
to green grass. Similar observations were recorded by Dung
et al. (2010b) who reported that the DM intake was higher
in sheep fed hydroponics barley fodder than those fed oats
chaff. Fayed (2011) also observed higher DM intake in
hydroponics barley fed group than those fed control diet.
The results of present study also corroborates with Verma et
al. (2015) who found higher DM intake in calves fed
hydroponics barley fodder than those fed basal diet. On
contrary, Fazaeli et al. (2011) found that the DM intake was
significantly lower in treatment group fed with hydroponics
barley fodder than those fed control diet. Naik et al. (2014)
reported no significant difference in DM intake between
4 INDIAN JOURNAL OF ANIMAL RESEARCH
Table 6: Cumulative feed efficiency of calves maintained in three dietary treatments
Parameters Dietary Treatments P value
T1T2T3
Total dry matter intake 167.07a ±2.74 179.17b±2.75 197.17c ±2.75 0.000**
Average daily dry matter intake (kg/animal 1.85a ±0.04 1.99b ±0.03 2.19c ±0.04 0.000**
Total body weight gain (kg) 30.39a±1.35 33.36a±1.34 40.58b±1.35 0.000**
Feed efficiency 5.50b ± 0.16 5.40b ±0.18 4.87a ±0.17 0.046*
1Average of six values with SE. **a, b, c - Means bearing different superscripts within same rows differ significantly (P<0.01). *
Significant at 0.05 level (P<0.05)
Table 7: Digestibility coefficients of nutrients in calves maintained on three dietary treatments1, per cent
Parameter Dietary treatments P value
T1T2T3
Dry matter 76.74±0.72 76.34±0.69 76.09±0.73 0.816
Crude protein 73.09±0.57 71.90±0.75 70.48±0.74 0.058
Crude fiber 65.12±1.35 63.44±1.70 60.27±0.88 0.064
Ether extract 83.07±0.59 83.04±0.80 83.62 ± 0.78 0.824
Nitrogen free extract 83.18±0.66 82.56±0.76 82.43±0.71 0.735
1Average of six values with SE
hydroponics fodder and conventional fodder fed groups and
they opined that DM intake was limited by sole feeding of
hydroponics fodder.
Feed conversion efficiency: The cumulative feed
conversion efficiency (FCR) of calves maintained on three
dietary treatments is presented in (Table 6). Improved FCR
(P<0.05) was observed in group T3 than groups T1 and T2.
However, the FCR in groups T1 and T2 were statistically
similar (P>0.05). Similar observations were also recorded
by Fayed (2011) in lambs and Helal (2015) in goats when
fed with hydroponics barley fodder. On contrary, Fazaeli et
al. (2011) reported no significant difference in FCR of calves
fed with either hydroponics barley fodder or control diet.
Digestibility of nutrients: The digestibility coefficient of
nutrients in calves maintained on three dietary treatments is
presented in the (Table 7). The digestibility coefficient of
DM values were statistically similar (P>0.05) in all three
treatments. In agreement with present results, Dung et al.
(2010b) found no significant difference on DM digestibility
in sheep fed fresh barley sprouts and control diet. Similarly,
no significant difference in DM digestibility was noticed by
Naik et al. (2013a) in dairy cows and Khanna et al. (2016)
in buffaloes fed hydroponics maize fodder and conventional
green fodder. As against the present results, Verma et al.
(2015) recorded significantly higher DM digestibility in
calves fed hydroponics barley than those fed control diet.
On statistical analysis of digestibility of crude protein did
not reveal any significant difference (P>0.05) among the
treatment group. In agreement with the present results, non-
significant influence on CP digestibility was reported by
Hillier and Perry (1969) in steers fed with hydroponics oat
grass. Similar observations were also recorded by Helal
(2015) in goats fed hydroponics barley fodder. There was
no significant difference (P>0.05) in digestibility of ether
extract among the treatment groups. Similar, observations
were also made by Naik et al. (2014) in lactating cows and
Verma et al. (2015) in Hariana male calves. Statistical
analysis of the data doesn’t reveal any significant difference
(P>0.05) in digestibility of crude fiber among treatment
groups. The CF digestibility obtained in the present study
corroborates with earlier observation by Naik et al. (2014)
who noted the average CF digestibility as 59.21 per cent in
lactating cows with supplementation of hydroponics maize
fodder replacing green grass.
Verma et al. (2015) also got statistically similar
results in digestibility of CF between hydroponics barley
and basal diet fed groups in Hariana male calves. Digestibility
of nitrogen free extract (NFE) was also did not reveal any
significant difference (P>0.05) among treatment groups.
Similar NFE digestibility was observed by Naik et al. (2014)
in dairy cows fed with either hydroponics fodder or
conventional fodder. Khanna et al. (2016) reported lower
digestibility of NFE in Murrah buffaloes fed with
hydroponics maize fodder than those fed basal diet. And it
can be inferred that the digestibility coefficients of nutrients
are statistically similar (P>0.05) and partial replacement of
calf starter with hydroponics fodder on protein basis at four
or seven per cent did not affect the digestibility coefficients
of nutrients.
Economics of production: The total cost of feed was Rs.
3661.70, 3748.97 and 4067.15 in groups T1, T2 and T3
respectively during the entire experimental period. Since,
total body weight gain was higher (P>0.01) in group T3
(40.58 kg) than T2 (33.36 kg) and T1 (30.39 kg), the cost per
kg gain was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T3 (Rs.102.14)
than the T2 (Rs. 111.64) and T1 (Rs. 119.82). In agreement
with present study, Verma et al. (2015) reported that the cost
per kg gain was lowest in hydroponics barley fodder fed
group compared to those fed control diet.
Vol. Issue , ()
CONCLUSION
The results of the present study indicates that
feeding of hydroponics maize fodder as a partial substitute
of calf starter on protein basis at seven per cent level
improves the DM intake, total body weight gain, ADG and
cost per kg body weight gain. Moreover, replacing the calf
starter with hydroponics maize fodder, on protein basis at
four per cent level, maintains the growth performance and
at seven per cent level, increase the growth performance of
calves compared to those fed control diet. From the overall
results, it can be concluded that hydroponics maize fodder
can effectively substitute up to 30 per cent of protein in calf
starter without compromising the growth performance.
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... Hydroponic fodder can reach 25-28 cm height and roots will be formed like a mat within eight to nine days. (Rajkumar et al., 2018) [12] . Development of this system has enabled the production of fresh forage from maize, oats, barley, wheat and other grains. ...
... Hydroponic fodder can reach 25-28 cm height and roots will be formed like a mat within eight to nine days. (Rajkumar et al., 2018) [12] . Development of this system has enabled the production of fresh forage from maize, oats, barley, wheat and other grains. ...
... The nutrient content of calf starter is as per BIS specification [2] and chemical composition of CO-3 and Hydroponic fodder maize was within the normal range and were comparable to the values of earlier researchers. (Naik et al., 2013, Naik et al., 2014, Naik et al., 2017and Rajkumar et al., 2018 [9][10][11][12] . ...
... In consistent with our findings, Verma et al. (2015) noticed higher ADG in Haryana male calves with dietary replacement of concentrate mixture with HBF at 50% level. Similarly, Rajkumar et al. (2018) also observed higher weight gain in calves fed hydroponic maize fodder. ...
... In addition, the very high water content in the fodder made it bulky, which may have limited DM intake of lambs fed the green fodder (Hillier and Perry, 1969;Fazaeli et al., 2011). Similar to our results, Rajkumar et al. (2018) observed higher DMI in calves fed hydroponic maize fodder to replace concentrate mixture. The FCR was not significantly different among the experimental rations. ...
... higher CP digestibility. In agreement with present study, Verma et al. (2015) and Rajkumar et al. (2018) reported that the cost per kg gain was lowest in hydroponics barley fodder fed group of calves compared to those fed the control diets. Al-Saadi (2016) also reported economic profit in lambs fed hydroponic barley fodder. ...
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A 120 d growth study was conducted in Deccani sheep to evaluate the effect of feeding hydroponically grown barley fodder (HBF) on growth performance, nutrient utilization and carcass characteristics. Eighteen Deccani ram lambs of 3 months age (13.0±0.42 kg) were divided into three groups of six in each in a completely randomized design. Three iso-nitrogenous rations were formulated, in which the control ration (CON) was prepared by using roughage (chopped sorghum stover) and concentrate at 60:40 ratio; the other two experimental rations were formulated by replacing 50 (L-HBF) and 75 (H-HBF), per cent of CP of concentrate mixture with HBF at low and high levels, respectively. The replacement of concentrate mixture at 50% in L-HBF significantly (P<0.05) improved the ADG compared to other dietary treatments accompanying a higher (P<0.05) DM intake. The cost per kg production was significantly (P<0.05) lowered in the L-HBF group compared to CON. Digestibility of DM, CP and NFE were significantly (P<0.05) improved with replacement of concentrate mixture with HBF in L-HBF group compared to control. The N balance was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the L-HBF lambs which were found to be on a higher plane of nutrition with greater intakes of DCP and TDN. The carcass characteristics did not vary among the three groups. The results indicated that replacement of concentrate mixture with hydroponic barley fodder at 50 per cent level of CP in the ration of growing lambs improved the nutrient utilization, N balance, plane of nutrition and growth performance and reduced the production cost.
... Hydroponic fodder are rich source of antioxidants in the form of Beta-carotene, Vitamin A, E and C and rich in lysine an essential amino acid. Feeding of hydroponics maize fodder improves the DM intake, weight gain and cost per kg body weight gain of calf (Rajkumar et al., 2018). Hydroponic maize and barley fodder alone and in combination improves the digestibility of nutrients and growth performance of goat (Kide et al., 2015, Dadhich et al., 2019. ...
... The hydroponic fodder is free from antibiotics, hormones, pesticides, or herbicides (Naik, 2014), had positive effects on ewe's health, mortality, conception rate and abortion (Saidi and Abo Omar, 2015). The hydroponic fodder decrease heat stress and increase birth rates (Farghaly et al., 2015), improves the DM intake, lowers the cost per kg body weight gain (Rajkumar et al., 2018). Keeping in view the aforesaid facts, the present experiment was undertaken to assess effect of hydroponic maize fodder supplementation on growth performance, nutritive ratio and intake of digestible nutrient in gir calves. ...
Article
A study was undertaken to assess the effect of addition of hydroponic maize fodder in concentrate mixture on growth performance of gir calves. A feeding trial of 120 days was undertaken on 16 gir calves divided in four groups of four calves. The animals in control group were fed 1.5 kg concentrate mixture, 2.5 kg groundnut straw and wheat straw ad lib. In group second, 75% of CP was met through concentrate mixture and rest through hydroponic maize fodder along with 2.5 kg groundnut straw and ad lib. wheat straw was given. While, in third group, 50% of CP was met through concentrate mixture and rest through hydroponic maize fodder and 2.5 kg of groundnut straw was given along with ad lib. wheat straw. In group fourth, 25% of CP was met through concentrate mixture and remaining by hydroponic maize fodder and 2.5 kg groundnut straw with ad lib. wheat straw was offered. Significantly higher daily weight gain, digestible crude protein percent, total digestible nutrient percent and intake of digestible dry matter and organic matter in respect of g D-1 was observed in the group in which up to 75% of crude protein of concentrate mixture was replaced by hydroponic maize fodder. Highest (p<0.01) digestible crude protein intake and total digestible nutrient intake g D-1, Kg 100 kg BW-1 and g 100 kg-1 MBS (Metabolic body size) was observed in group provided with 75% crude protein through hydroponic fodder. Hydroponics maize fodder has beneficial effect on growth performance and intake of digestible nutrients in gir calves and it can replace up to 75% of crude protein of concentrate mixture.
... In the course of our scientific research we revealed a new promising direction for the use of sprout grain in feeding of dairy cattle. During the germination of grain under the influence of enzymes, decomposition of complex organic substances of seeds occurs i.e. proteins decompose to amino acids, polysaccharides to monosaccharides, fats to fatty acids and hydroxy acids [4][5][6][7][8][9]. ...
... The primary characteristic of the nutritional value of a fodder is its chemical composition. As a result of a comparative assessment of the nutritional value of hydroponics of green fodder, fodder barley, complete fodder for dairy cows (KK-60) and fattening of cattle in the stall period (KK-65), we found that hydroponic fodder exceeded the content of nutrients, vitamins and useful minerals [2,9,13]. ...
Article
This paper examines the development of a fundamentally new automated hydroponic system for growing green fodder, which creates a solid fodder base capable to satisfy the need of livestock for nutrients throughout the year with low material costs. The new hydroponic green fodder produced according to the developed technology contained the required nutrients that contribute to the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates into easily digestible organic components (amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars) which are simpler in their structure. Moreover, it completely replaced compound feed, a mineral supplement in the diet of milking cows, and reduced the amount of fodder needed. In dry matter, compared to fodder barley, the content of protein (128.93%) and fat (196.73%) were higher, and biologically active substances were also formed. The new fodder used the nutrients of the diet more efficiently, increased milk production and reduced fodder costs. When hydroponic green fodder from barley was introduced into the diet of cows with 100% replacement of the compound fodder and 50% replacement of grain mass, milk yield in the experimental group exceeded the yield in the control group by 6%. An additional 549.5 kg was obtained from each cow for lactation, and 549.5 × 20 = 10990 kg was obtained from the entire experimental group. The annual income from feeding green fodder was 329710 rubles at the purchase price of milk of 30 rubles / kg (10990 × 30), and the daily efficiency of compound fodder was (80.6 × 20) = 1612 rubles; for the period of lactation it was 491660 rubles. Keywords: technology, new fodder, productivity, milk quality, resistance
... Гидропоника позволяет круглогодично получать в короткие сроки качественную продукцию для обогащения рационов с.х. ж ивотных [15][16][17][18]. Первые несколько дней прорастания (до наступления фотосинтеза) происходит изменение биохимического состава, прежде всего потеря сухого вещества исходного зерна и биотрансформация белков, жиров и углеводов. ...
... Дру гой ви д фу нк циона льны х продук тов, микрозелень, так же приобретает все большую популярность в качестве нового кулинарного ингредиента, который обеспечивает интенсивный вкус, яркие цвета и свежую текстуру при добавлении в салаты и другие пищевые продукты [19][20][21]. Микрозелень предложена в качестве идеальной пищи для людей на растительной диете, таких как веганы или вегетарианцы, и даже для членов космического экипажа из-за high-quality products in a short time and all year round so as to enrich agricultural rations of farm animals [15][16][17][18]. In the first few days of germination (before the onset of photosynthesis), there is a change in biochemical composition, pr imar ily a loss of dr y matter of the or iginal grain and biotransformation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. ...
Article
Исследование посвящено изучению некоторых нанотехнологических аспектов применения гидротермального нанокремнезема для получения нового функционального продукта питания – микрозелени растений (на примере озимой пшеницы). В методическом плане поднимается вопрос об использовании этапа получения пророщенных семян выращивания микрозелени с помощью нанобиотехнологий в темновом варианте без дополнительного искусственного освещения. Обработка семян гидротермальным нанокремнеземом в концентрациях 0,1 и 0,01% способствовала увеличению всхожести семян на 5–6%, средней высоты ростков (микрозелени) на 11,3–11,9%, биомассы растений на 11,0% (0,1%-ный раствор) и 17,6% (0,01%). Более низкие концентрации (0,001 и 0,0001%) мало влияли на изменение посевных свойств семян и рост сеянцев, высокие (1%) оказывали отрицательное воздействие (всхожесть снижалась на 4%, а высота ростков на 14%). Показано, что для повышения всхожести семян на первых этапах при выращивании микрозелени озимой пшеницы в темновом режиме без дополнительного подсвечивания перспективно использование гидротермального нанокремнезема для обработки семян в концентрации 0,01%, а также 0,1%. Обработка нанокремнеземом с разными концентрациями приводит к возрастанию накопления кремния в ростках в 1,5–2 раза по сравнению с контролем. Содержание фосфора, серы, магния, натрия в ростках оставалось относительно стабильным. Содержание кальция возрастало в варианте использования кремнезема 0,01% концентрации, калия – в варианте 0,0001%. Отмечено повышение содержания цинка и меди при обработке семян пшеницы водными золями нанокремнезема в варианте 0,001 %. The research is devoted to study certain nanotechnological aspects of hydrothermal nanosilica applications for obtaining a new functional food product called microgreens (as exemplified by winter wheat). In terms of methodology a question is raised concerning use of the stage when the seeds germinate for further growth of microgreens with the aid of nanotechnologies in a dark mode without additional artificial lightning. Treatment of seeds with hydrothermal nanosilica at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.01% contributed to an increase in seed germination by 5–6%, the average sprout height (microgreens) by 11.3–11.9% and plant biomass by 11.0% (0.1 % solution) and 17.6% (0.01 %). The lower concentrations (0.001% and 0.0001%) had little effect on the change in the sowing properties of seeds and the growth of seedlings while the higher concentrations (1%) produced a negative effect (germination decreased by 4%, and the height of sprouts by 14%). It has been shown that for improving seed germination at the first stages, when growing microgreens of winter wheat in the dark mode without additional illumination, it is promising to use hydrothermal nanosilica for seed treatment at a concentration of 0.01%, as well as 0.1%. Treatment with nanosilica at different concentrations leads to the higher accumulation of silicon in the sprouts by 1.5–2 times compared to the control samples. The content of phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium and sodium in the sprouts remained relatively stable. The calcium content increased in the case of using silica of 0.01% concentration, potassium - in the case of 0.0001%. An increase in the content of zinc and copper was noted during the treatment of wheat seeds with aqueous sols of nanosilica in the variant 0.001%.
... Asa materialfor hydroponic feed,you can use various seedsand,for example: wheat,barley, corn, etc. [5]. ...
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The article deals with the problems of improving the production of fodder and the development of a new method of hydroponic green feed. The use of automation elements using humidity and temperature sensors to regulate the irrigation process, measuring soil moisture, outdoor temperature, as well as additional luminosity is shown. The possibility of using abundant devices to control the technological process is shown. A program has been developed. Amma for control of the technological process of growing green feed, in the programming language for controllers, describes proportionally integral- differential law of regulation to ensure high accuracy of temperature maintenance, giving the method of setting PID coefficients.
... Gebremedhin (2015) reported 34.74 to 61.93 g/day increased body weight of goat. Better body weight gain was recorded in cross-bred calves (Rajkumar et al., 2017), Goat (Kide et al., 2015) and Awassi lambs (Atta, 2016) fed with hydroponic maize and barley fodder. Besides increased milk and meat yield, conception rate, herd health and longevity were also improved and there was also a reduction in the cost of veterinary aids. ...
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In India, livestock plays an important role in the nutritional and livelihood security of small and marginal farmers. In comparison to the 2012 livestock census, the country's livestock population has increased to 535.78 million with a growth rate of 4.63 per cent. The scarcity of fodder and land allocation for the cultivation of green fodder lead to reduction in the productivity of livestock. Also, fodder production is constrained further with the changing climate due to erratic distribution of rainfall. The failure of dual crops (food and fodder purpose) is increasing as they are becoming vulnerable to vagaries of weather and aggravating the problem of fodder crisis. These problems can be cope with a new alternative tool of producing green fodder for farm animals through hydroponics technology. The studies conducted by different researchers revealed that the optimum seed rate of hydroponically grown fodder was 2.50 to 7.6 kg m-2 for maize, 2.54 kg m-2 in cowpea, 4.66 kg m-2 in bajra, 4 kg m-2 in oat, 4 to 10 kg m-2 in barley and 5.5 kg m-2 in wheat. The fresh yield of hydroponically grown fodder increased to 2.8 to 8 folds in a period of 8 to 14 days. Application of nutrient solutions has recorded higher yield as compared to control; Urea and MOP each @ one per cent at three and 10 days after sowing, respectively in maize increased yield from 4.60 to 5.64 kg-1 seed and 19-19-19 water soluble fertilizer @ 0.5 per cent was recommended for maize, bajra, oat, barley and wheat. The cost of production of the hydroponic fodder was about Rs.2 to 3 per kg of fresh fodder with own seeds to Rs.3 to 3.50 per kg with purchased seeds. Farmers got Rs.25 to 50 additional net profit per animal per day by feeding hydroponic fodder. The hydroponic fodder production system helps to overcome the challenges on fodder availability due to climatic change and also helps fodder production systems in management and efficient utilization of natural resources.
... Hydroponics also known as: "Hydro culture", "Nutri-culture", "soil-less culture", "soil-less agriculture", "water culture" "tank farming" or "chemical culture" (Lakkireddy et al., 2012) is an agricultural science, which involves the cultivation of crops in a water-based solution rather than soil and this agri-system was substantiated by Jean Boussingault in 1860. The term "Hydro" generally refers to "water" while Ponics refers to "working (Rajkumar et al., 2018). The waterbased solution is composed of artificial chemical nutrients, which support crop growth (Steinberg et al., 2000) and the crops can be cultivated with or without a medium which is used to provide support to the plant (Hanger, 1993;Jensen, School practice water culture in 1699 after Woodward researched on Helmont's theory which stated that plant components are exclusively formed out of water (Hershey, 1991). ...
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Agriculture is the economic back-borne of majority of developing countries worldwide. The sector employs over 50% of the working population and contributes about 33% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in majority of African states. However, such contribution by the agricultural sector is likely to be affected by climate change, increasing human population and urbanization which impact on available agricultural land in various ways. There is thus an urgent need for developing countries to create or adopt technologies such as; soil-less farming that will not only address climate change challenges but also enhance crop production for improved food security. This paper reviews the science, origin, dynamics and farming systems under the soil-less agriculture precisely hydroponic farming to assist in widening the scope of knowledge of the hydroponic technologies and their implementation in Africa.
Article
Hydroponics of fodder production allows to deliver on an industrial basis cultivation of high quality green forage. Merits and demerits of hydroponics are shown. Standardization of the "know-how" and hydroponic fodder quality is necessary to get the forage of preset properties. The basic attention in a review is given to quality indicators to be standardised and namely to organoleptic signs, dry matter content, metabolizable energy, crude protein, non structural carbohydrates. Terms and definitions of «hydroponic fodder» and its separate components are definately designated. On the basis of numerous sources it is established, that a content of the basic nutrients in hydroponic fodders are varying over a wide range: dry matter – from 100 to 400 g in 1 kg of a forage, crude protein — from 76 to 367 g/kg DM, crude fiber – from 168 to 228 g/kg DM, crude fat — from 19 to 76 g/kg DM, crude ash — from 17 to 107 g/kg DM. Such range of concentration of nutrients allows to form a quality gradation. Data of a zootechnical evaluation of hydroponic fodder in rations of various animal kinds are cited.
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The present research was aimed to study the effect of sprouted barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) on different levels of olive cake (OC) and barley straw as media. A laboratory study was conducted to show the performance of sprouted barley grain on tested roughages media by fodder yield and conversion ratio values; followed by five digestibility trials which conducted to evaluate the digestibility of experimental roughages by using twenty five desert male goats (20 months old) with average 22.50±2.54kg live body weight. Animals were randomly divided into five equal groups of 5 animals each to receive one of the following experimental roughages G1: alfalfa ad libitum as (control); G2: sprouted barley grains on 75% olive cake (OC) + 25% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G3: sprouted barley grains on 50% olive cake (OC) + 50% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G4: sprouted barley grains on 25% olive cake (OC) +75% barley straw (BS) ad libitum; G5: sprouted barley grains on 100% barley straw (BS) ad libitum. The best treated group from the results of digestibility trail was conducted feeding trail. Results showed that the treatments with sprouted barely increase CP, ash and C.CHO contents while DM, OM, EE, CF, NDF, ADF and ADL contents were decreased. Sprouted barely on olive cake or barley straw revealed a significant (P≤0.05) improvement in OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose digestibility. Nutritive values expressed as TDN g/Kg BW and DCP% increased significantly (P≤0.05) in treated groups G1 and G2 followed by G3, G4 and the lowest values were in G5. Also, goats fed the four sprouted mixture recorded higher significantly (P≤0.05) of N balance compared with G1 (control group) with insignificant differences in Na and K balance (g/kg BW) values between studied groups. Goats fed sprouted barely had significantly (P≤0.05) higher values of total volatile fatty acids (VFA's) and ruminal ammonia (NH3-N) concentration post feeding with 3 hours. Serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinin were increased (P≤0.05) compared with untreated roughages. Feed cost LE/gm gain was improved by goats fed on G2 and G3 with percent (34.15 and 32.52% respectively) in compared to control diet. Relative economical efficiency was improved by 90.77% in G2 comparison with the control diet. In conclusion we can produce green fodder by utilizing dried olive cake and barley straw by simple methodology using crop sprouts barley without any harmful effect on goats.
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A study was envisaged to highlight the existing dairy farming practices and to analyze the constraints of the dairy farming in Goa. A total of 66 farmers were selected randomly from different talukas of Goa, which covered around 1,170 dairy animals. Only 8% farmers had dairying as the primary occupation and majority (74%) of the farmers had agriculture or horticulture as the primary occupation. Based on the number of milch animals 51.5, 27.3, 16.7 and 4.5, per cent farmers were marginal, small, medium and large, respectively. The wet average and herd average were 7.62 kg/day and 5.79 kg/day. Among the ingredients of the home-made concentrate feeds, ground maize and cotton seed cake were most preferred. Majority of the dairy farmers were using naturally grown karad grasses only during rainy season. Among the un-conventional feeds, spent brewers' grains were mostly used. It can be concluded that there is need of awareness programmes on scientific feeding practices and interventions are needed in the traditional feeding practices of the dairy animals to make the dairy farming a more profitable venture.
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Hydroponics maize fodder of 7 days growth was fed to 6 dairy cows divided into two equal groups (BW 442 kg; avg. milk yield 6.0 kg). Animals were offered 5 kg concentrate mixture and ad lib. jowar straw along with either 15 kg fresh hydroponics maize fodder (T-HF) or conventional napier bajra hybrid (NBH) green fodder (T-CF) for 68 days. The hydroponics maize fodder (HMF) had higher CP (13.30 vs 11.14, %), EE (3.27 vs 2.20, %), NFE (75.32 vs 53.54, %) and lower CF (6.37 vs 22.25, %), TA (1.75 vs 9.84, %) and AIA (0.57 vs 1.03, %) than NBH. HMF intake was low (0.59 kg DM/d) than NBH (1.19 kg DM/ d) by the cows. However, the DMI (2.05 and 2.17%) was similar in both the groups. Digestibility of CP (72.46 vs 68.86, %) and CF (59.21 vs 53.25, %) was higher (P<0.05) for cows fed HMF. The DCP content (9.65 vs 8.61, %) of the ration increased significantly (P<0.05) due to feeding of HMF; however, the increase (P>0.05) in the CP (13.29 vs 12.48, %) and TDN (68.52 vs 64, %) content was non-significant. There was 13.7% increase in the milk yield of T-HF (4.64, kg/d) than the T-CF group (4.08 kg/d). The feed conversion ratio of DM (2.12 vs 2.37), CP (0.29 vs 0.30) and TDN (1.45 vs 1.52) to produce a kg milk was better in the T-HF than the T-CF group. There was higher net profit of Rs. 12.67/- per cow/d on feeding HMF. It can be concluded that feeding of HMF to lactating cows increased the digestibility of nutrients and milk production leading to increase in net profit.
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A hydropomc nutrient solution was used to raise barley sprouts to compare with sprouts raised using tap water irrigation (two treatments). In both treatments, the sprouts were raised in continuous light in a temperature-controlled room for a period of 7 days. There was no difference (p>0.05) in DM loss after 7 days of sprouting. The DM losses after 7 days of sprouting were 16.4 vs. 13.3% for tap water irrigation and hydroponic nutrient solution, respectively. Sprouts grown with nutrient solution had a higher protein concentration than those grown with tap water irrigation (17.3 vs. 15.9%), respectively. There was however, no difference (p>0.05) in in sacco degradation of sprouts in the rumen of Merino sheep. There was no advantage in the use of nutrient solution for producing hydroponic sprouts compared to sprouting with tap water only. If these sprouts were fed to ruminants, the DM losses would have represented a loss in digestible energy which would otherwise have been available for productive purposes. On a large scale these losses could add to the cost of animal production.
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This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of barley green fodder produced by hydroponics system on the performance of feedlot calves. In a completely block randomized experiment, 24 cross bred (Holstein × Local) male calves were assigned randomly to one of the two treatments (diets) that were either control (grain barley) or hydroponic barley green fodder (BGF) that was included to provide 22.8 percent of the total diet on dry matter basis. Seed grade barley was grown in a hydroponics chamber system where the growth period was adjusted for 6 days. Body weigh gain was not significantly different between the treatments, but the animals that had received the control diet had higher (P< 0.05) dry matter intake than those fed BGF diet. There was a tendency (P= 0.199) toward differences in feed efficiency due to dietary treatments. From economical point of view, feed cost increased up to 24 percent when the calves were offered BGF, because of the costly production of hydroponics green forage. Although the mass production of fresh fodder was about 4.5 times per kg of barley grain, this was due to water absorption during germination and growth period. Nevertheless, the dry matter obtained was less than the initial barley grain and further dry matter losses were found in the green fodder. These findings suggest that green fodder had no advantage over barley grain in feedlot calves, while it increased the cost of feed.
Article
About 4 treatments (control, fresh barley sprouts, freeze-dried barley sprouts and barley grain supplementation) were used in a latin square design. Oaten chaff basal diet was used in testing the assertion that hydroponic barley sprouts gave better animal performance than the grain supplement. Results showed increase in DM intake on supplementation, there were differences (p<0.001) among treatments in DM intake. The increased intake due to sprouts supplementation however, did not translate to better digestibility, microbial outflow and nitrogen retention. Total ammonia concentration was higher (p<0.001) for the fresh barley sprouts supplements than for the barley grain and control suggesting that poor quality roughage yields more rumen ammonia when supplemented with fresh hydroponic barley sprouts. The total ammonia concentration did not however, differ (p>0.05) between the fresh or freeze-dried hydroponic barley sprouts. The total VFA concentrations were higher for the freeze-dried and fresh hydroponic barley sprouts than the control but not different (p>0.05) from the barley grain supplementation in the current study. This suggests that sprouting did not give rise to a higher VFA concentration when poor quality roughage was supplemented. It was concluded from this study that supplementing poor quality roughage (oaten hay) with hydroponic barley sprouts increased DMI and total rumen ammonia concentration. However, there was no confirmation of the presence of a grass juice factor purported to be present in sprouts which gives increased performance.
Bureau of Indian Standards. Specification for compounded feeds for young stock: IS: 5569-1970
AOAC. (2012). Official Methods of Analysis. Nineteenth edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, 684p. BIS. (1983). Bureau of Indian Standards. Specification for compounded feeds for young stock: IS: 5569-1970. Manak Bhavan, 9, Bhahaadur shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi. 15p.