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Role of Social Networking Media in Political Socialization of Youth of Multan

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Abstract

In this modern era, most of the politicians and political parties have started to use social networking media for their campaigns, promotion of ideology and to get the support of masses. On the other hand most of the social networking media users are also using this avenue for politics. Hence the main reason of the study is to find out the role of social networking media in political socialization of youth of Multan, Pakistan. So a survey method is employed to collect the data from the youth of Multan who are the users of social networking media. Findings of the study suggest that the social networking media has great influence on social and political learning of its users.
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS)
Vol. 35, No. 1 (2015), pp. 437-449
Role of Social Networking Media in Political Socialization of
Youth of Multan
Muhammad Ashraf Khan
Chairman & Professor of Communication Studies,
Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
ashraf_1963@yahoo.com
Muhammad Yasir Shahbaz
M.Phil Student of Communication Studies
Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
yasirshahbaz2@gmail.com
Abstract
In this modern era, most of the politicians and political parties have
started to use social networking media for their campaigns, promotion
of ideology and to get the support of masses. On the other hand most
of the social networking media users are also using this avenue for
politics. Hence the main reason of the study is to find out the role of
social networking media in political socialization of youth of Multan,
Pakistan. So a survey method is employed to collect the data from the
youth of Multan who are the users of social networking media.
Findings of the study suggest that the social networking media has
great influence on social and political learning of its users.
Keywords: Social Networking Media, Political Socialization, Youth
I. Introduction
The emergence of internet and digital communication technologies has great
contribution largely in the revolution of youth oriented media. Internet technology has
provided a new outlet for dissemination of information, and it has repurposed the old
content (Owen, 2008). Social networking media has changed the concept of old media.
Now our societies are using Facebook, Twitter and blogs as a source of information
(Hamillton, 2011). Social networking media also serve as an information store which
facilitates its users to have access to variety of contents. Social networking sites also
provide the opportunity to expand their contacts with whom they can get information and
exchange the thoughts. It also provides the quick and easy way to circulate messages to a
large circle of people without physical movement and from the comfort of their homes
(Teresi, 2012). For the youth social networking media is a hot cake because it provides
them the opportunity to stay connected with their friends, and a platform where they can
exchange ideas, share pictures and videos. Social networking sites are playing the vital
role for welfare of the societies, because it provides the platform for the members of the
community to raise money for charity and humanitarian events (Keeffe & Pearson, 2011).
Richey (2008) says that the social networking sites have great impact on voters
because influence of one network member is highly dependent on the members of other.
It also enhances the participation in elections Furthermore, Hanson et al. (2010) say that
social networking media play vital role during the presidential campaign as each of the
438 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 35, No. 1
social media site provide platform to obtain political information to its user. According to
Diana et al. (2011) social networking media played a vital role in the electing Obama as
president in 2008 American elections.
Social networking media can be defined as “The applications that allow users to
connect by creating personal information profiles, inviting friends and colleagues to have
access to those profiles, and sending e-mails and instant messages between each other”.
These personal profiles can include any type of information, including photos, video,
audio files, and blogs (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2009).
Socialization means “a process by which individual acquire knowledge, language,
social skills and value to confirm the norms and rules required for integration into a
group or community” (business dictionary, 2012).
According to Sigel (1965), "political socialization refers to the learning process by
which the political norms and behaviors acceptable to an ongoing political system are
transmitted from generation to generation.” A civilized citizen is one who accepts
(internalizes) society's political norms without a body politics, so in synchronization with
the ongoing political ethics, a political system would have trouble functioning smoothly.
In past, only the print media, one government owned broadcast television channel
and few private channels were in Pakistan to inform and educate the people of the
Pakistan and that was the only mouth piece of the government. Print media also did not
enjoy the complete freedom; they were threatened and censored in the form of laws,
ethics and advertisements. Mizzera & Sial (2010) argue that today the Pakistani media
are mainly in the hands of corporate and business conglomerates. Some owners of these
groups use media to protect and cover their business or political objectives. Moreover,
these owners are no longer media people themselves. So they have their own objectives
and they produce the content which suits them.
Now the world has changed, this is the age of digital communication. The internet
and the social networking media have changed the landscape of communication and
information. In Pakistan the diffusion of social networking media is as fast as it is in
other countries of the world. It has attracted millions of Pakistanis in a very short period
of time.
Martin (2011) says that Pakistanis are the active and fast growing users of
Facebook and Twitter in the world with more than four million users of Facebook, and
their numbers as compared to India is doubled. And 20 million Pakistanis are online
regularly on different social sites which is four times more than the population of
Singapore.
Social networking media are playing the important role in the political
socialization of the people of Pakistan. People of Pakistan are using the social networking
media as a tool to get political information and to propagate their political beliefs. Many
political activists and parties have their own personal account and official pages to attract
and to mobilize the people. Amjad (2012) mentions that today in Pakistan political parties
are using the social networking media; most of the political parties have their own
personal websites and pages. Social networking media has become an important medium
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, Muhammad Yasir Shahbaz 439
for the political parties and political activists to attract the people for their support and to
remain in contact with their networks. PTI is the biggest example of success of social
networking media in creating impact on the younger generation of the Pakistan.
II. Rationale of the study
The initiation of the social networking media has changed the landscape of the
communication and information. The fast growing social networking media has attracted
the attention of millions of people across the world. People are wrathly getting involved
in using the social networking media day by day, especially the youth.
In Pakistan, like many other countries, social networking media are getting more
and more popularity with every passing minute. It has grabbed the attention of the people
from every age and every field, especially the youth. Its effects can be seen and measured
in every field of life. So keeping in view the popularity, opportunities, amount of
engagement and the effects of social networking media, the researcher has selected the
topic to measure the impact of social networking media on political socialization of
youth. It is because, in all over the world social networking media are plying significant
role in bringing revolutions and political changes. It has become the important tool for
political campaigns and political communication.
III. Objectives of the study
The era in which we are living is the era of media. There are numerous channels of
traditional and nontraditional media to inform, educate and to entertain the consumer and
these channels have a great impact on their consumer. Similarly social networking media
also have its role so the main objectives of the study are as under
I. To study the awareness level of users of different social networking sites
II. To find out level of trust over the information received from social networking
sites.
III. To find out the impact of social networking media on political socialization.
IV. To find out the impact of social networking media on the political knowledge and
political participation of the youth.
IV. Literature review
Richey (2008) investigates the influence of social network on political knowledge
and on voting behavior in the American national presidential election of 2000. He applied
autoregressive theory and used NES data from 2000 respondents to investigate the
impact. He concludes that the social networking sites had great impact on voters because
influence of one network member was highly dependent on the members of other
network. Discussions on social networking sites enhanced the chance of participation in
elections and vote similarity among the user of social networking sites. He confirms the
autoregressive influence of social networking sites on political knowledge and on voting
behavior.
Ancu & Cozma (2009) conducts the survey and argues that the social networking
sites like Facebook, YouTube, MySpace, emerged as a political tool for campaigns in
November 2006 during the congressionel U.S elections. Now this time these websites
became part and parcel medium for any modern political campaign. They also argue that
440 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 35, No. 1
the people are indulging in MySpace, Facebook and other social networking sites because
they allow the users to communicate with friends and the friends of their friends and this
is the most significant feature of the social networking sites.
Diana et al. (2011) explore that social media facilitate the new types of
participation and changes the forms of establish patterns of political engagement. Social
networking sites played a vital role in electing Obama as president in 2008 American
election. This American presidential campaign was the mother for the cultivation of
social media and its progress is continued and will continue to expand the nature and
scope of citizen engagement.
Teresi (2009) conducts a research on computer mediated social networks. She has
adopted experimental design and proves that through computer mediated social network,
political information can successfully be transferred. The findings confirm that social
networking sites enable users to influence the political knowledge of their social network
users without physically engaging each member in direct communication. She also
measures the significance of greater use of social networking websites over traditional
media and finds that people have access to their social sites more than twice as often as
they watch a local news program or discuss politics with their friends and family.
Owen (2008) claims that the emergence of internet and digital communication
technologies contributes largely to revolution in youth oriented media because internet
technology provides a new outlet to dissemination of information and repurpose old
content that had fascinated young voters. Social networking sites have made the
electronic politics visible to young people. Online videos, blogs, podcasts, online video
conferencing and electronic chat rooms are the important tools for expressing and getting
information. Young people are encouraged and motivated with these communication
outlets during campaigns. Facebook as a political forum is impressively versatile in its
features like sharing photos and videos, writing comments on walls. Using shared
information has made it interactive forum to engage and activate the users in campaigns.
Hamilton (2011) claims that the social media has changed the concept of old
media. Now our societies are using the Facebook, Twitter and blogs as a source of
information. Social networking media influences the political campaigns of the world. In
the United States during the election years the use of social media by the politicians
increased to mobilize the voters. A study is conducted by researchers to know the impact
of social media on the political behavior of 18 to 24 year aged voters and the results
revealed that social media has a great impact on young voters, and he also suggests that
the use of social media by the candidates is not always a good and effective way to reach
young voters..
Papic & Noonan (2011) argue that in order to mobilize the people social
networking media has become an important tool and the role of social media in
revolutions and protests is very prominent. Social networking media has made the
conditions more complicated for dictators and for the rigid regimes. Social networking
media such as Facebook and Twitter helps people in Tunisia and Egypt to organize the
people, communicate and to commence public insubordination. The western countries
followed the green revolution of Iran via YouTube and Twitter in 2009. The revolution of
Moldova in 2009 can be called as the Twitter revolution.
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, Muhammad Yasir Shahbaz 441
V. Research Questions
Q 1: How much people think about political and social issues due to social networking
media?
Q 2: Do the social networking media maximize the political exposure of the individual?
Q 3: How many people rely on the information obtained by the social networking media?
Q 4: How often the people read and comment on content related to politics?
Q 5: How much social networking media are influential on voting behavior of the users?
Q 6: Do the social networking media provoke to participate in political demonstration?
Q 7: Do the use of social networking media help in developing the social behavior of the
community?
Q 8: Have the social networking media influenced Pakistani politics?
Q 9: Does the utilization of social networking media affect the political socialization of
youth?
Q 10: Does the social networking media has an equal impact on the political
socialization of male and female?
VI. Research methodology
For this particular study the researchers select the explanatory research
methodology. And for the data collection survey method is used.
A. Research design
According to the nature of the study and requirements of the research project the
following research method has been used.
B. Survey research
To obtain the required data the researchers have used survey method and has
formulated a questionnaire which comprised of 18 questions in which 16 are close ended
and two are open ended. The population of the research is the whole young generation
consisting male and female, residents of Multan city between the ages of 18-30 who use
social networking media sites. The researcher has used purposive sampling technique for
data collection and the sample consists of 200 respondents/ research subjects.
VII. Findings
Table 1 explains the question about how much people think about political and
social issues due to social networking media. The data of this table shows that 33% (66)
of the total respondents are in favor of great extent that they think about the political
category and social issues due to social networking media and 58% (116) respondents are
in favor of the category to great extent. Whereas the 9% (18) participants mention that
they do not think about political and social issues due to social networking media.
The table differentiates the facts according to male and female as 18% (36) males
and 15% (30) female users believe that they think about social and political issues due to
social networking media. While 28% (56) males and 30% (60) females are in favor of to
some extent, while 4% (8) males and 5% (10) of the total sample say that they do not
think about the political and social issues due to social networking media. After analysis
of the data the results answer the 1st research question as the majority of the people think
about social and political issues to some extent due to social networking media.
442 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 35, No. 1
Table 1: Thinking about political and social issues (n=200)
Table 2: Political exposure (n=200)
Table 3: Rely on information (n=200)
Table 2 answers the question about political exposure via social networking media.
It tells that 26.5% (53) of the total sample supports the category to great extent that social
media maximize the political exposure of the individual, whereas 52.5% (105) users are
in favor of to some extent and 21% (42) completely denied the statement. Regarding
male female table gives the same view as above with little difference as 36% (32) males
and 10.5% (21) females of total sample have the same opinion that it enhances the
political exposure to great extent. On the other hand 28.5% (57) males and 24% (48)
female agree to some extent with the statement, whereas 5.5% (11) male and 15.5% (31)
of total sample rejected the statement.
After the analysis of the data, the results of this table depict the answer of 2nd
research question as the majority of the participants agree to some extent that the social
networking media maximize the political exposure of the individual while the larger
Respondents To great extent To some extent Not at all
Male 36 56 8
18% 28% 4%
Female 30 60 10
15% 30% 5%
Total 66 116 18
33% 58% 9%
Respondents To great extent To some extent Not at all
Male 22 76 2
11% 38% 1%
Female 16 72 12
8% 36% 6%
Total 38 148 14
19% 74% 7%
Respondents To great extent To some extent Not at all
Male 32 57 11
16% 28.5% 5.5%
Female 21 48 31
10.5% 24% 15.5%
Total 53 105 42
26.5% 52.5% 21%
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, Muhammad Yasir Shahbaz 443
numbers of the participants were in favor that social networking media maximize the
political exposure to great extent and only few of them disagreed with the statement. So
findings suggest that the majority of the participants approved this question to some
extent.
The data of table 3 explain the query about how much people rely on the
information which they acquire from social networking media. The results describe the
clear picture that how much people rely on the information and to what extent? It shows
that 19% (38) of total sample say that to great extent they rely on the information they get
from social networking media Whereas 74% (148) participants were in favor of to some
extent and only 7% (14) users say that they do not rely on the information at all. The
table differentiates the data between male and female as 11% (22) males and 8% (16)
females of the total sample rely on the information to great extent, whereas 38% (76)
males and 36% (72) females go with the option to some extent. Those who do not rely on
the information 1% (2) are males and 6% (12) are females from the total sample.
After the analysis of the data, it is revealed that the majority of the people rely to
some extent on the information obtained from the social networking media.
Table 4: Read and comment on political contents (n=200)
The data of this table shows that 77% (154) of the total sample read the political
messages on the social networking media whereas 23% (46) do not read the messages
related to politics. On the other hand the data of the table tells that38% (76) males and
39% (78) females of the total sample read the political messages. While the 12% (24)
males and 11% (22) females say that they do not read the political messages on the social
networking media.
Where the question about comments is, the data of this table answers that 13%
(26) users of the total sample “always” use to comment on political contents on social
networking media, whereas 32% (64) “mostly” use to comment on political contents and
48% (96) users cite that they use to comment on political contents “sometime”. While 7%
(14) participants of total sample mention that they “never” do comment on contents
related to politics.
Gender wise the data of this table shows that 9% (18) males 4% (8) females
declare that they “always” use to comment on the contents related to politics, whereas
16% (32) males and 16% (32) females of the total sample cite that they “mostly” use to
comment on the political contents. While the 24% (48) male and 24% (48) females use to
Reading Messages Giving Comments
Respondents Yes No Always Mostly Sometimes Never
Male 76 24 18 32 48 2
38% 12% 9% 16% 24% 1%
Female 78 22 8 32 48 12
39% 11% 4% 16% 24% 6%
Total 154 66 26 64 96 14
77% 33% 13% 32% 48% 7%
444 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 35, No. 1
comment “sometimes”. Even as 1% (2) male and 6% (12) females of total participants
say that they “never” use to comment on political contents on social networking media.
After the analysis of the data the findings revealed that the majority of the
respondents read the political messages on the social networking media while the 45 %(
90) use to comment always and mostly but the participants who use to comment
sometime is little higher in numbers then use to comment always and mostly. So the
tendency of the reading and commenting on political contents is higher than those who do
not read and comment on the political contents.
Table 5: Influence on voting behavior (n=200)
Table 5 presents the point of view of the participants about the influence of the
social networking media on the voting behavior of the consumer. The data of this table
shows that 78% (156) of the total sample have a same opinion that the social networking
media influence the voting behavior of the users, whereas 22% (44) do not agree with the
majority. According to male and female category, the data of this table shows that 41%
(82) males and 37% (74) female participants of the total sample opted the option yes and
9% (18) males and 13% (26) female participants do not agree that the social networking
media influence the voting behavior of the consumer. So the table answers the 5th
research question as the majority of the respondents agree that the use of social
networking media influence the voting behavior of the users.
Table 6: Provoke to participate in political demonstration (n=200)
Respondents Yes No
Male 56 44
28% 22%
Female 46 54
23% 27%
Total 102 98
51% 49%
The table 6 describes the question whether social networking media provoke the
users to participate in political demonstration or not. The data shows that 51% (102) of
the total sample mention that the social media provoke them to participate in political
demonstration, while 49% (98) state that the social networking media do not provoke
them to participate in political demonstration.
Respondents Yes No
Male 82 18
41% 9%
Female 74 26
37% 13%
Total 156 44
78% 22%
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, Muhammad Yasir Shahbaz 445
Gender wise data obtained clear the picture, as 28% (56) male users and 23% (46)
female users of the total sample have the same opinion that the social networking media
provoke them to participate in political demonstration; whereas 22% (44) male users and
27% (54) female users mention that the social networking media do not provoke them to
participate in political demonstration.
The answer of the 6th research question is that there is no significant difference
between those who are provoked to participate in political demonstration by the social
networking media and those who are not. They are almost equal.
Table 7: Developing the social behavior (n=200)
Table No. 7 presents the picture about the role of social networking media in
developing the social behavior of the community. The data shows that 52.5% (125) of the
total participants are agreed that the use of social networking media help them in
developing the social behavior of the community to great extent, whereas 28.5% (57)
users are agree to some extent. While 9% (18) participants do not think that the use of
social networking media help in developing the social behavior of the community.
The contradiction of the opinion between the genders is not very significant as the
data of this table shows that 33.5% (67) male and 29% (58) female users of the total
sample believe that the use of social networking media help in developing behavior of the
community, whereas 13% (26) male and 15.5% (31) female users are agree to some
extent. Even as the 3.5% (7) male and 5.5% (11) female users of the total sample mention
that they do not believe that the use of social networking media helps them in developing
the social behavior of the community.
The findings of this table suggest that the majority of the participants believe that
the social networking media help in developing the social behavior of the community to
great extent. While some opine in favor of to some extent and the few participants opine
that social networking media does not help in developing social behavior of community.
Table 8 explains that 76% (152) participants of the total sample opined in favor of
the option "yes' that the social networking media influence on Politics of Pakistan and
24% (48) think that social networking media does not influence on Pakistani politics.
Gender also makes no difference in this opinion except minor. As the table of male
and female shows that the 40% (80) males and 36% (72) females believe that the social
networking media influenced Pakistani politics, whereas, 10% (20) males and 14% (28)
females of the total sample do not agree with the majority.
Respondents To great extent To some extent Not at all
Male 67 26 7
33.5% 13% 3.5%
Female 58 31 11
29% 15.5% 5.5%
Total 125 57 18
62.5% 28.5% 9%
446 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 35, No. 1
Table 8: Influence on Pakistan politics (n=200)
This table gives the answer of 8th research question as the majority of the social
networking media users believe that the use of social networking media have influenced
Pakistani politics
Table 9: Political socialization (n=200)
Categories Positive Response Positive response Total
Male Female
Thinking about political 92 90 182
&social issues 46% 45% 91%
Political exposure 89 69 158
44.5% 34.5.% 79%
Rely on information 98 88 186
49% 44% 93%
Reading political messages 76 78 154
38% 39% 77%
Comment on political 98 88 186
Messages 49% 44% 93%
Voting behavior 82 74 156
41% 37% 78%
Participation in political 56 46 102
demonstration 28% 23% 51%
Developing social behavior 93 89 182
46.5% 44.5% 91%
This table comprises the activities and thinking of the youth regarding social
networking media. The overall view of this table presents the picture about the political
socialization of youth due to social networking media. The finding of this table suggests
that the 91% (182) users in which 46% (92) male and 45% (90) female users of the total
sample agree that the social networking media persuade them to think about the social
and political issues. But among these respondents majority of the participants which are
58% (116) are in favor of the option "to some extent" that they think about social and
political issues due to social networking media.
Respondents Yes No
Male 80 20
40% 10%
Female 72 28
36% 14%
Total 152 48
76% 24%
Muhammad Ashraf Khan, Muhammad Yasir Shahbaz 447
Regarding the question about political exposure 79% (158) users including 44.5%
(89) male and 34.5% (69) female users of the total sample mention that the social
networking media enhance the political exposure of the individual. While 93% (186)
of the total participants in which 49% (98) males and 44% (88) females say that they rely
on the information obtained by the social media but the majority of them which is 74%
(148) of the total sample said that they rely on the information obtained by social media
to some extent.
The tendency of reading political messages among the participants on social
networking media is as 77% (154) of the total sample in which 38% (76) males and 39%
(78) female users were of the view that they read political messages on social networking
media. Whereas the question related to commenting on the political messages the data
reveals that 93% (186) participants of the total sample including 49% (98) male and 44%
(88) female users agree that they use to comment on political contents on social
networking media but 48% (96) participants of the total respondents say that they
sometimes use to comment on social networking media. While 78% (156) of the total
sample in which 41% (82) males and 37% (74) females agree that use of the social
networking media influence their voting behavior.
The data tells about the participation of respondents in political demonstration as
41% (102) of the total respondents in which 28% (56) male and 23% (46) female users
agree that the social networking media provoke them to participate in political
demonstration. This table also explains about the questions whether social networking
media develop the social behavior of the community or not? The data shows that the 91%
(182) users of the total sample agree that the use of social networking media develop the
social behavior of the community. Gender wise data shows that 46.5% (93) male and
44.5% (89) female users of the total sample agree with the above statement. But among
these participants 28.5% (57) users of total sample are of the view that the use of social
networking media develops the social behavior of the community to some extent. So
in the end finding conclude that the social networking media plays a prominent role in
political socialization of the youth. And it also explains the last research question that the
political influence of the social networking media on female users is lesser than the male
users.
VIII. Discussion and conclusion
Political socialization is a concept in which people think, learn and participate in
politics. Most of the users think that through social networking media the positive
changes can be brought in the society and the proper use of it can be helpful tool to
inform, to educate and to stimulate the users for humanitarian events and raise voice for
their political and social rights.
Social networking media provides such materials which make the users to think
about political and social issues. Most of the participants were agreed that to some extent,
it make users to think about political and social issues and almost half of them were
agree to great extent in the favor of that the social media force them to think about social
and political issues (See Table No.1). It is a remarkable role of the social media because
thinking and understanding about any issue is the first step towards its solution.
448 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 35, No. 1
The consensus of the opinion can also be measured on the political role of social
media that the majority of the people, think that to some extent the use of social media
maximize their political exposure (See Table No.2). The reason could be that all kind of
information on social networking media is not about the politics and every user is not
interested in politics so they remain at the distance from politics and divert their attention
towards other contents of their interest. Furthermore they rely, to some extent on the
information obtained from the social networking media (See Table No.3). It might be as
there is also lot of platforms where they can get information about politics. Secondly the
social networking media is all about the users. Almost all contents or information shared
and posted by the users are not from the authentic, reliable and unbiased sources. So the
people can manipulate and reproduce the contents or information according to their will.
That is why the people gave responses as they rely, to some extent on the information
obtained from social networking media.
Whereas, the question about the influence of the social networking media on
voting behavior is concerned the majority of the people agree that the social networking
media persuade them to cast their votes in upcoming election (See Table No.5). Once
again it is confirmed that the social networking media influence on the voting behavior of
the users. Therefore the opinion is divided on participation of the participants in political
demonstration. The ratio of yes or no is almost equal among the participants regarding
the role of media to provoke them to participate in political demonstration (See Table
No.6). As the law and order situation of Pakistan is not good for any type of
demonstration or users could be physically passive. That is why the large number of the
users do not want to participate in political demonstrations practically and they just
express their views on social networking media because it provides them the safest
avenue to express their concerns.
The obtained data also suggests that the most of the social media users think that
the social networking media enables them to think about the politics in different way.
They receive comments and information about the politics on a social networking media
that reveal the truth which traditional media do not broadcast or publish due to certain
reasons. The majority of the participants also believe that the social networking media
help in developing the social behavior of the community (See Table No.7). It is because
the social networking provides the opportunity to interact with lot of people across the
physical boundaries and there is lot of things on it that provide the opportunity to learn
about many things. As far as the question of influence of social networking media on
Pakistani politics was concerned, the role of social networking media in political
socialization of youth was visible and significant (See Table No.8). It is the positive role
of social networking media in the field of politics because it changes the old trends of the
politics and political campaigns. The study also explores that the social networking media
has opened an unconventional space of information, knowledge and entertainment for
young people.
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... Sigel is of the view that an organized procedure which formulates political values and conducts for the smooth functioning of a political system. This political culture is transformed from one biological group to others (Khan, M. A., & Shahbaz, M. Y, 2015). For political progress and 13 different scholars, there are two levels of knowledge; one is known as general knowledge which belongs to mainly basic patterns, departments and functions of a political order. ...
... Some media proprietors try to achieve their business and political aims in the covering of mass media. It is interesting to note that most of the mass media keepers do not have any journalism back ground and keep their own specific aims and objective and on air only those materials which is in their own interests (Khan, M. A., & Shahbaz, M. Y, 2015). ...
... The creation of internet and computerized conversation technologies have served as good tool for uprising of youth based media. Different SNS has given to people a new base for obtaining and sharing information and it has replaced old mechanism of communication (Khan, M. A., & Shahbaz, M. Y, 2015). One of the prominent features of social media is that it helps and aids in many welfare tasks. ...
... The published research revealed that people used social networking sites as a tool for engaging people in politics. Therefore, social media had played a very significant role for political revolutions in many countries of the world (M. A. Khan & Shahbaz, 2015). ...
... Social media became a hub for political parties and political activists to attract, engage, and remained connected with people for their support. Additionally, PTI, one of Pakistan's largest political party, found to be the biggest example of success of using SNSs in creating impact on the younger generation of Pakistan (M. A. Khan & Shahbaz, 2015). Moreover, social media had become a chief medium for campaigns, promotion of ideology and to get the support of masses for politicians and political parties in this modern era. ...
... Moreover, social media had become a chief medium for campaigns, promotion of ideology and to get the support of masses for politicians and political parties in this modern era. Social media played an effective role for political socialization among youth of Pakistan and had great influence on social and political learning of its users (M. A. Khan & Shahbaz, 2015) A few of the recent studies in Pakistan had found the social media as an acting agent for political awareness and developing political participation among the educated youth (Ali & Fatima, 2016). Hence, social media platforms (especially Facebook, Twitter) influenced political activism of people as it provided current information about the socio-political happenings, empowered the public in getting information and sharing their views (Karamat & Farooq, 2016). ...
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Background: Social media (SM) have become popular among all genre of people due to its instant and dynamic communication ability. Substantial use of social media as a source of political information raises a concern of researchers to investigate the usage patterns of SM about socio-political issues of the society. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of social media as a source of political information regarding Panama Leaks in Pakistan. Method: A quantitative research approach based on survey method was used to collect the primary data from a sample of 500 educated adults conveniently available in Lahore city of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis in SPSS-25. Findings: The findings revealed that majority of the educated adults used social media platforms (i.e. Facebook, WhatsApp, YouTube, Twitter and Wikipedia) on daily basis. The educated adults commonly acquired information to know historical perspectives of Panama Leaks (PL); update themselves with general discussions and opinions; understand political and economic conditions due to PL outbreak; be aware of court proceedings/judgments of PL; and get information for entertainment, education and research.
... On the other hand, there are several new democratic states which are facing some of the major standards and norms considered as basic ingredients of democratic set up such as intermittent voting measures, rampant corruption, inefficient, incompetent, sluggish and despotic method of governance. Furthermore, Pakistan is also one of those democracies which lack true democracies where disparity, as well as poverty, continues to be one of the harsh obstacles to comprehensive people's self-determination (Ashraf & Yasir, 2015). The democratic experiences have exposed that an efficient and accountable representative government needs considerable time and effort to develop into a viable democratic state, and the same is the case with Pakistan. ...
... As a result, the print media makes available to an ordinary man genuine and real-time information and knowledge regarding the government and its officials' activities and policies. It is also useful in getting ready the common people to hold the government and its officials responsible and accountable (Ashraf & Yasir, 2015). It is a very useful facet of media. ...
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This research article was intended for finding the role of media in fostering government accountability in Pakistan. Furthermore, the mediating role of political parties was also checked through mediation analysis. This study utilized the information brought together through a structured adapted questionnaire among the participants of this study chosen through probability sampling technique from the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. It was revealed that through the analysis of the primary data that there is a considerable association found between media and government accountability. Furthermore, it was also proved that the media could significantly predict accountability. The data also revealed that people believed that political parties have a significant mediating role between media and government accountability. This study concluded that the media revolution in the advent of new kinds of media, conventional and non-conventional, has also had a profound impact on government accountability.
... Social media have developed into relevant for the dissemination of political knowledge (McAllister, 2015). Social networking sites' impact on social and political learning is significant, particularly for youth (Khan & Shahbaz, 2015). Students regularly use social media to provide political information like distributing opinions and debating policy issues with community members. ...
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This study tries to fill the knowledge theory gap on the impact of social media use in political discourse. This research examines social media's performance in political learning where it does not exist as part of classroom learning. Social media is differentiated between activities that do not involve political interaction directly and discussion with other users. This study develops a cross-sectional survey on undergraduate college students' representatives of the five biggest campuses in Bandung, Indonesia. A total of 977 students filled questionnaires. The results show political discussion through social media networks providing students' political learning. The more students discuss related politics through social media, the higher their level of political awareness becomes. Social media activities do not impact political learning, where these activities do not involve discussion with other users. This study shows that students obtain political learning through political discussion through their networks, not just through social media activities. Political learning through social media requires discussion related to politics. Besides, sex, age, and expenditure also affect students' political knowledge acquisition. The results have implications for conducting studies on specific platforms to confirm social media activities' impact according to each platform's characteristics.
... World democratic countries like Sweden, Norway, Iceland, New Zealand, Canada, America, Pakistan, and India allow their citizens for equal political participation. Through social media, it is easy for Pakistani citizens to politically socialize with political participants (Khan & Shahbaz, 2015). The active participation of citizens on social media caused tension among politicians to give instant responses to citizens (Doris, 2014). ...
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Modern innovation in communication has changed patterns of socializing. Advance forms of communication are paving ways for people to convey their ideologies to others. This study attempts to analyze the role of social media in strengthening democracy in Pakistan and highlights the importance of media in democratic states by an extensive review of the literature. The core concern of the study was to observe how mass media contributes to the socialization of democracy. Quantitative research methodology opted, and research findings concluded that social media advocates the public on general political issues that increase the political efficacy and resulting in more political participation in Pakistan. Web 2.0 platforms such as Twitter and Facebook provide new opportunities to create a political environment in Pakistan. In the presence of these platforms, a bridge is developed between the citizens for strengthening a strong democratic setup.
... This means that whether or not someone is interested in politics, they come across variety of political stuff on social media and they get informed about how political system is working. So they set up certain belief about the political system or policies and it actually made them to think differently (Khan & Shahbaz, 2015;Owen, 2008). ...
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Social media allows people to interact with each other across the globe. With the advancement in technology, social media has become an important for communication. This research paper analyzes how social media has changed the political landscape in mobilizing youth and creating political awareness among youth. In this advance era of technology almost everyone has an access to the social networking sites. This research intends to know does political participation over social media occurs with substantially more frequency than the traditional media. This research investigates how news ingestion patterns have been changed among youth. Survey method was opted for collecting data from university students. The research concludes that there is a positive relationship between social media and political awareness but social media doesn't contribute to political mobilization or political activism among youth. The research highlights that youth considers social media an important tool for sharing their views so in this way they can ensure their participation. But it doesn't always contribute towards political activism.
... the same people who have been away from politics for around for a long time. But social media sites seem to be a new antecedent of political expression for them as noted by various researchers (Eijaz, 2013;Gil de Zuniga, Molyneux & Zheng, 2014;Khan & Shahbaz, 2015;McAllister, 2016;Karamat & Farooq, 2016;Lee, 2017;Butt, 2017). Unlike the conventional electronic and print media, social media networking sites are considered more efficient and effective in sharing uncensored information (see e.g. ...
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The extent of the impact social media virtual networks have had in forming the public opinion in the Islamic Republic of Iran is very similar to other countries in the world. Utilizing text messages, virtual networks such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Facebook, Twitter, etc., and ease of social communication between members of these networks is the characteristics of this social trend. It has expanded the intellectual dialog and opinions exchange on host of social, cultural, economic and political subjects of interest within the society. This exchange of opinion and current affair news as they happen throughout the different groups of population specially the age group of 16-60 years old has replaced the role of traditional printed media as well as radio and television as the primary source of news and forming of social opinions especially in the field of political and electoral developments. The current inherited political circumstance in the country and lack of institutionalization of parties that enjoy social legitimacy and acceptance by the general Iranian public opinion has created a vacuum that has been effectively filled by verity of social media outlets with great effect. These networks utilize the power of propaganda using tools available to them like audio and video enriched media formats in forming the social debate and increase the participation of their audience. These social networks such as Telegram, Facebook, Instagram, etc. in comparison with other traditional sources like Radio and TV used by the current political establishment have been very successful in forming the public opinion and due to current social political climate have taken on the role of political parties in leading and forming the public opinion. The role of the political parties have been replaced by the participation in cyberspace between individuals which has increased the power of networking and the impact of social networks in the country, so that in recent years, digital media, especially virtual networks such as Facebook, Viber, Telegram and Instagram are gradually becoming the dominant source of the media and advertising and in the upcoming elections are so influential that, thanks to the unique functions of these virtual networks, they facilitate the electoral campaign and are also getting closer to each other. Also social media have been able without any restriction and censorship that is sometimes imposed on traditional printed media (newspapers), Radio and TV to identify gaps in election management and also expose electoral fraud. It has been noticed by political observers and think tanks in numerus occasions that virtual networks had effected the electoral behaviors of the Iranian voters in the last presidential elections especially in periods such as the tenth, eleventh and twelfth presidential elections between 1988 and 1996. The present study tries to look at the effect of virtual networks on behavior of the Iranian voters. The election that we will further analyze with its electoral voters behaviors in the mentioned periods is for the state of Gilan. This study includes the following: Combined qualitative and quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire and statistical analysis with SPSS software. Comprehensive study of the research subject on the impact of virtual networks on the electoral behavior of voters in Gilan province in the tenth, eleventh and twelfth periods 88 to 96 years. Keyword: Virtual social networks, Social media, Election, Geography elections, Political Participation, Electoral behavior
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This study examines the uses and gratifications (U&G) of accessing political candidate profiles on social network Web sites. An online survey of visitors to the MySpace profiles of 2008 primary candidates revealed that voters are drawn to this source of political information mainly by the desire for social interaction with other like-minded supporters, followed by information-seeking, and entertainment. While information seeking and entertainment are common U&G of consuming online political content, they were weaker factors compared to the social interaction factor that seems to distinguish MySpace, possibly SNSs in general, from other online sources of political content.
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Election campaigns are regular opportunities for heightened political engagement and socialization. For many young people, politics becomes most visible and concrete during electoral contests. However, campaign media, at least in the United States, typically have not targeted young voters with messages that enhance their participation and turnout. In fact, much traditional election media coverage of youth has emphasized their lack of interest and involvement, and thus works to discourage the development of activist political orientations. With the evolution of new types of dynamic and populist media formats, such as blogs and social/political networking websites, young people have greater opportunities to establish a presence in election campaigns on their own terms. This piece will explore how new developments in campaign media are changing the relationship of young people to the electoral process.
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Election campaigns are regular opportunities for heightened political engagement and socialization. For many young people, politics becomes most visible and concrete during electoral contests. However, campaign media, at least in the United States, typically have not targeted young voters with messages that enhance their participation and turnout. In fact, much traditional election media coverage of youth has emphasized their lack of interest and involvement, and thus works to discourage the development of activist political orientations. With the evolution of new types of dynamic and populist media formats, such as blogs and social/political networking websites, young people have greater opportunities to establish a presence in election campaigns on their own terms. This piece will explore how new developments in campaign media are changing the relationship of young people to the electoral process.
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Political socialization refers to the learning process by which the political norms and behaviors acceptable to an ongoing political system are transmitted from generation to generation. The goal of political socialization is so to train or develop individuals that they become well-functioning mem bers of political society. Such learning begins very early in the person's life and need not be acquired solely through deliberate indoctrination. In fact, most of this norm-internalization goes on casually and imperceptibly—most of the time with out our ever being aware that it is going on. It proceeds so smoothly precisely because we are unaware of it. We take the norms for granted, and it does not occur to us to question them. The stability of a political system depends in no small measure on the political socialization of its members. A well- functioning citizen is one who accepts (internalizes) society's political norms and who will then transmit them to future gen erations. Without a body politic so in harmony with the on going political values, a political system would have trouble functioning smoothly and perpetuating itself safely. And sur vival, after all, is a prime goal of the political organism just as it is of the individual organism.—Ed.
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Today, the idea of social media is radically different from the media of a decade ago. While a decade ago the Internet was considered new media, our society now turns to Facebook, Twitter, and blogs as sources of information. In the United States during election cycles, the use of social media by presidential candidates has become a way for many voters to find out about candidates. As a result, presidential candidates have had to adapt their campaign strategies to work with these media in a way that will effectively target these audiences. This study examines whether campaigns that are more “social media savvy” will ultimately garner more votes, specifically from those aged 18-24. By analyzing social media tactics of the 2004 and 2008 presidential elections and surveying voters in this age range, I ultimately found that there was no relationship between social media use and young voter participation or likelihood of voting for Democratic candidates. However, there was a relationship between social media usage and likelihood of voting for Republican candidates: when social media was used, participants were less likely to vote for the Republican candidate than when no social media use was present.
Social media: from Innovation to revolution
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Amjad, A. (2012). Social media: from Innovation to revolution. Retrieved on 18/07/2012 from http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/01/25/comment/columns/socialmedia-from-innovation-to-revolution/.
Civic education and social media use
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Diana, O., Soule S., Narine, J., Chalif, R., House, K., & Davidson,M. (2011). Civic education and social media use. Electronic Media & Politics, 1 (1), 1-28. Retrieved from: www.emandp.com
The Impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families
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Keeffe, S, G., & Pearson, C, K. (2011). The Impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families. Pediatrics, 127 (4), 800-804. Doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-0054. Retrieved from www.pediatricsdigest.mobi