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JNE 4 (2) (2018)
Journal of Nonformal Education
The Social Emotional Development of Homeschooling Children
Rezka Arina Rahma , Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho
Department of Nonformal Education, Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia
Articles Info
History Articles:
Received 01 July 2018
Approved 15 July 2018
Published 30 August 2018
social emotion,
emotion development,
Homeschooling is becoming a popular alternative education to school-based education.
The purpose of this study was to discuss the social development of children participants
homeschooling. To specify the discussion been one age range, namely the end of the age
of the child (6-12 years) or known as elementary school age. Method that apply is
descriptive method with qualitative approach. A qualitative study was conducted by
interviewing the homeschooling participants as the subjects in this research. Researcher
was the major instrument and was supported with interview guidance. Moreover, the
process of analysis included data presentation, data reduction, and conclusion.
Triangulation technique was employed to explain data validity of the technique. The
conclusions of this study are seen from the social development of children homeschooling,
it appears some things like communication, play, empathy is developed enough. The
thing to worry is associated with extensive opportunities to recognize the variety of people
in a variety of different situations or identify people in different situations. This
introduction is necessary as the process of understanding other people, finding a solution
of the divergence, and the creation of close relations with friends that friends can be a
source of social support for children.
© 2018 PLS PPs UNNES
Address correspondence:
Department of Nonformal Education, Faculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Malang
Street Semarang No.5, Sumbersari, Kec. Lowokwaru, Kota Malang,
Jawa Timur, Indonesia, 65145
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
The Success in the development process
and able to compete in the era of globalization
nowadays has made every nation needs
qualified human resources - a generation of
nations that have adequate education level and
sufficient ability to support the development
process. In order to achieving qualified human
resources is needed efforts to facilitate access to
education as well as various models of
alternative education, one of which is
homeschooling. This is naturally
understandable given the fact that the learning
process takes place at home and among family
members, especially the parents, who must be
actively involved in providing any necessary
support for their child/children in attaining the
best outcomes of their education (Mulyadi
et,al, 2016).
Alternative education at an expensive
cost and is preferred by school-age celebrities is
a paradigm that comes when we hear the word
homeschooling. In fact this is not entirely true,
homeschooling is one of the nonformal
education channels that can be a choice for a
nation or even made a choice for certain
communities such as children who dropped out
or children in remote areas. The role of
education will influence man power source in
quality and quantity so as to promote
community welfare and prosperity in a country
and finally can raise national pride and dignity,
(Shofwan, 2014: 51).
It can not be denied, that the
government has not one hundred percent
succeeded in realizing the noble goal of helping
the nation's children to complete the basic
education program or so-called 9-year
compulsory education. Statistical data shows
the enrollment rate and drop-out rate of
elementary and junior high school still need to
get serious attention. SUSENAS data of 2004
( shows the number of
participation for elementary school students
are 92-93 % and for junior high school students
65.7%. While the drop out rate for primary
school students is 2.1% and the drop-out rate of
junior high school is 4.4%. The large dropout
rate and the absence of maximal enrollment
rate provide homework for the government and
all citizens who care about education.
Formal education does not seem to be
able to guarantee 100% of the nation's primary
education age can complete their education.
Thus, nonformal education channels such as
Homeschooling will be an alternative that
needs attention to give equal access to
education, so that the next 5 years are expected
that all generations of the nation have
completed their basic education through
formal and informal and nonformal education.
Informal learning happens all the time without
a specific time and place which is. it does not
specify the subject or materials to be mastered
in which to complete the understanding of
informal learning.
This learning interpreted to refer the
formal education and nonformal for this
informal method, there are relationship
between formal and nonformal (Merriam &
Baumgartner 2012). Experience is one of the
factors that improves the informal learning of
individuals and it depends on how the findings
of the information and skills enhancement
obtained (The Institute for Research on
Learning, 2000, Menlo Park). Individual needs
to learn on how to build an informal learning
because it can be strengthened with a
discussion of an indirect, experiment, errors
made during the process of learning and
training and it is done on an ongoing basis with
the help of mentors who are also have expertise
in specific areas.
The term "homeschooling" is used with
reference to parents who teach their children at
home. Homeschooling is often compared with
school-based education, the institution of
teaching children at school. Homeschooling
and school-based education can be seen as two
extremes of a continuum. In an intermediate
form, children would be taught in part by their
parents, in part at school (Block, 2004). In its
development, there are various homeschooling
models that can be observed. Homeschooling
in Thai society has been continuously
developing and evolving as a unique learning
style toward specic family goals. However,
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
many operational problems have been
encountered. (Rudjanee Engchun, 2017).
Seto Mulyadi, one of the homeschooling
practitioners stated that there are 3
homeschooling models, namely single
homeschooling, complex homeschooling, and
homeschooling community (Mulyadi, 2007).
In single homeschooling, families apply
homeschooling independently, as desired
without joining other homeschooling families.
In complex homeschooling, some families join
in certain activities, but the main activity
remains to be the responsibility of each family.
In this case, among the families have the same
needs that can be compromised. The
homeschooling community is a composite of
complex homeschools that compose and define
syllabus, teaching materials, principal activities,
facilities and infrastructure and learning
schedule. The selection of homeschooling
models to be applied depends on the needs of
each family, the goals, and the availability of
various support, tools and curricula.
In relation to the difference between the
public school system of education and
homeschooling that appears in the child's
learning hours, the child's learning activities,
one of the issues often discussed is the
socialization of children. How does the child
socialize with his peers, with others outside his
main family, if his education system and the
educational process he is living centered on,
followed only by his father, mother, and his
siblings? Various negative opinions related to
the socialization of homeschooling children are
often feared by the society. The common
opinion expressed is that with homeschooling,
children lose the opportunity to socialize with
their peers, with people other than their families.
It is also feared that children lose the
opportunity to interract with a very
heterogeneous environment, where in that
environment he will learn many things (status
differences, differences in habits, background
differences, sharing, mutual help, social
comparison, etc.). In addition, the interaction
with friends in high intensity should be a source
of psychic and emotional support for the child,
in addition to the support he gets from his
family. In general, the child becomes less social
experience, and is feared to be less social
sensitivity, social competence, and become less
sociable when he grew up. From the
phenomenon given above, the researchers are
interested to conduct a research on the social
emotional development of homeschooling
children in Khoiru Ummah Surabaya
Homeschooling Group (HSG).
The approach used in this study is a
qualitative approach. Bogdan and Taylor (in
Moleong, 2005: 135) suggest that qualitative
methodology as a research procedure that
produces descriptive data in the form of
written or oral words of people and behavior
that can be observed. In an effort to find facts
and data scientifically underlying research, the
researchers set up to use descriptive qualitative
methods, since descriptive research is a kind of
research directed to provide symptoms, facts
or events systematically and accurately, on the
characteristics of the population or a specific
This study will discuss about the social
emotional development of children
participating in Khoiru Ummah Surabaya
Homeschooling. To specify the discussion one
age range is selected, which is the age of the
late childhood (6-12 years old) or known as
elementary school age. Thus the technique of
data collection are done by interview,
observation, and documentation. The
discussion will involve the social interaction
data of homeschooling children with friends
around him (not homeschooling) as well as his
interaction with others, in the form of diaries.
From the data, using a conceptual framework
of social development of children could be
discussed about the particular social
development in homeschooling children.
Data analysis is done through data
collection, data reduction (making contact
summary, encoding and sorting of research
findings data) then presented in explanatory
sentence form, table and chart, then verified to
find facts/ meaning from the obtained data. As
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
for the validity of data is done through
credibility test using triangulation and member
checks, then tested dependability and
confirmability by supervisor, then with
transferability to know whether this research
can be transferred or applied elsewhere.
The EL-DIINA Foundation through an
educational program using the
Homeschooling Group method which invites
parents and their 6-year-old children to join
together in this program. To enter in this
institution there is no special selection but
adjusted to the number of children who
received the school, because in each class has
the number of students who have been set so
that the class can accommodate students
Curriculum used in this foundation is
integral education curriculum based on
Islamic aqidah for pre-school age children in
order to realize the generation of khoiru
ummah is religious, intelligent, innovative and
have leadership spirit. HSG Khoiru Ummah
Curriculum is given to children based on
child's thinking level. Thus, the child will feel
happy in learning and not feel the burden
during the learning process. This is consistent
with Mulyadi (2007: 52) as a form of informal
education the main key to organizing
homeschooling is flexibility or appeal.
Planning cannot be rigid and too structured
like a formal school. If not, then the school will
lose its meaning but does not mean without
being clear. Homeschooling flexibility is still
carried out with full responsibility especially
parents have a big role in their children's
Khoiru Ummah Homeschooling group
founded by Hj. Emi Khoironi has branches in
several major cities throughout Indonesia and
organized by EL-DIINA foundation which
one of them is located in sidoarjo, and
addressed at Perum puri Airlangga Blok 0 no.4
Sidoarjo, East Java. One of the branches in
sidoarjo was established on the early
November 2009.
The facilities and infrastructure
provided by Khoiru Ummah Homeschooling
for the students are not limited only to the
scope of the classroom, but also outside the
classroom. They can directly implement it in
the field whose guided by Chaplain - for
example: how to plant corn crops and they can
immediately know its development clearly
because they not only see in the picture, but
they can practically have observed it. It is also
important to introduce the various types of
animals that exist around us, in this case the
child can also directly see the object, not just
imagining them.
The learning place in Khoiru Ummah
Homeschooling Group has been set in such a
way that learners feel comfortable during the
learning process. This homeschooling building
consists of 6 classrooms with an area of 5x4m
classroom and 1 playgroup classroom with an
area of 6x7m wide. The learning process is
done by sitting on the classroom floor and the
learners using a small table to assist each
learning activities. This is related that children
are more freely to move without any
impression of formalities as in formal schools
in general. It should be emphasized once again
that the learning process in homeschooling is
flexible, so the learning place is not only taken
in the classroom, but also the area outside the
classroom can also be used for the learning
process as well.
The learning resource used is a module
printed by the El-Diina Foundation. This
module is used by students in learning.
Modules are used according to the grade level
of the students. The students also supported by
supporting books from other publishers. In this
homeschooling, there are 5 study groups that
are adjusted by the grade level, including: play
group, 1st grade, 2nd grade, 3rd grade, and 4th
grade of elementary school. Each class has
nicknames taken from the name of the
Prophet's companions. From this study group
students can develop their creativity through
various games as well as learning and it also
support them to communicate with each other
as well. Teachers at Khoiru Ummah
Homeschooling Group consists of chaplains
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
who given the mandate to teach because they
are considered competent and able to integrate
on every subject in daily life.
The learnings fund comes entirely from
the student's funds through the Education
Development Contribution (SPP) fee. The fee
is paid each month for Idr 200,000,00 but the
fee is not a fixed benchmark. For students who
are less able to pay the fee, then it will get relief
from the help of other parents who pay more.
It is especially the parents in Khoiru Ummah
Homeschooling Group who are mostly
deliberating to give advantages in paying SPP
for the good of all parties, but that does not
mean that paying more will get treated
differently but will be treated equally.
The assessment conducted at HSG
Khoiru Ummah is not only cognitive aspects
but also affective and psychomotor aspects of
children. In the report of learning outcomes
there are assessments related to homeschooler
attitudes such as discipline, responsibility,
neatness, and so forth. The activity of children
in participating in extracurricular activities
also supports assessment. Not only the activity
of the child but the activeness of the parents
involved in the child's learning becomes
another aspect of the assessment. This is very
different from formal schools which tend to
judge children only in terms of cognitive and
ignore the role of parents in the learning
process. The assessment is outlined in a child
development report created by a homeroom
based on a qualified tutor. Monitoring and
evaluation is also complemented by various
instruments such as student kits, parent kits,
portfolios and parenting based on observations
of homeschoolers' daily activities.
Khoiru Ummah Homeschooling
graduates are formed to possess an Islamic
personality, faqih fiddin, leading in science
and technology, have leadership spirit. After
the students graduated from Khoiru Ummah
Homeschooling Group they will get the
equivalent certificate of primary school by
taking the equivalency test, and moreover the
learning model is flexible as the child is
considered able to follow the equivalency test
package A which is equal to Elementary
School certificate of graduation, then the
student will be allowed to take the exam
although at that time the student is still in the
5th grade. On the other side, for students who
are less able in funding, will be afforded cost-
relief, so that the students do not feel burdened
by the cost.
Specifically, the author brings up the
homeschooling experience of a child named
Akbar (a pseudonym), 7 years old. The author
also includes 2 additional data on other
homeschooling children as a complement.
"At 4 pm, it's Akbar's playing time.
Around the complex of my house there are
many children of Akbar & Tata's age. There
are also many children whose older than they
are. Akbar likes to play with his friends.
Sometimes playing ball, sometimes jumping
around, running, sometimes playing
PlayStation in one of his friends, and at
another time Akbar friends play to the house.
Yesterday Akbar played at home with Audy,
and today Jesse is playing at Akbar’s home.
Jesse is a few years older than Akbar, but
Akbar likes playing with Jesse. "
The data presented above highlights
how social interaction of homeschooling
children with their friends, and with others
around them. The difference is the opportunity
to get along with many children in a relatively
long time, and in different situations. If you
look at Akbar's daily activities, playing with
his friends, in the neighborhood around the
house every day starting at 4 pm, then
practically Akbar only play with his friend in
1-1,5 hour time (before night come), with the
same setting as of playing together. This of
course brings Akbar his own experience of
getting to know his friends, working with his
friends in a game, competing in certain games,
and with that activity the child feels emotional
closeness with his other friends. However,
what needs to be observed is a very little
diversity of settings that Akbar interact with
his friends. In the same setting, the game,
which takes place every day, tends to process
the child's learning about the world of friends
only related to the same thing, such as
cooperation and competition only. Children
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
do not recognize the diversity of social
environment learning, because the context it
deals only with the game with peers only.
The same thing about the narrowness of
diversity of interaction settings also occurs
when homeschooling children tend to spend
only their spare time in the course
continuously. Especially if the child only takes
one course. It will recognize only one set of
settings, and do not feel the diversity of settings
with people of different characteristics that will
provide a different social experience. Children
also do not feel the experience with the same
friends since the place and the atmosphere is
completely different. Where in that different
settings, every child will respond differently,
and these different responses will enrich the
child about himself, and his friends, and their
interactions. This is in line with the results of
the study (Mirela Claudia, 2012) This means
that the social-emotional skills development
(vital for a balanced functioning of the
individual and for optimal social integration)
best be addressed in the school curriculum
under the guidance of competent teachers and
with adequate teaching resources.
Observing the frequency and intensity of
homeschooling is just one of the actions we
can take to formulate particular social
development of homeschooling children.
Another thing that can be done is to compare
the social development of homeschooling
children with the concept of developmental
psychology. These studies show that social-
emotional skills can be effectively increased
through school and after-school programs. A
relevant fact is that the increasing of children’s
socio-emotional skills and resilience produced
regardless of the level where they were at the
beginning of the program. (Mirela Claudia,
In homeschooling children, the
relationships they interact with others tend to
be relatively small, but with more intimate
relations they made, and with much closeness
when performing the same activities. A
common interest helps them to maintain good
relationships. Different demands occur in
schools, where a wide variety of children and
numbers demand more children to learn and
understand different people in a setting or
different people in their various interaction
settings. In certain children, who are more
comfortable with one or two people to interract
with, will have difficulty getting along and
meet the demands of a very diverse
environment. This is further causes the child to
feel uncomfortable and ask for his home-based
education again.
The things that need to be considered
related to the social emotional development of
homeschooling children observed by the lay
environment is the approach that we use to
explain whether these children are declared
successful in fulfilling their developmental
tasks, or indeed in fact for friendship with peers
they are not as good as friends her friends who
attend public schools. To explain this, as
individuals who do not pursue
homeschooling, we all must carefully observe
the interaction of homeschooling children with
their peers and with other people to get
accurate data about their social emotional
development stages.
Accurate records of the interaction of
homeschooling children, individually, will
provide an accurate account of both the poor
social development of the child. Accurate
recording can be obtained by participant
observation techniques, namely observing the
daily activities of homeschooling children by
focusing on social development that needs to
be mastered. By comparing the data of some
homeschooling children is expected to obtain
a picture of social development of
homeschooling children in general, with
various peculiarities of the problem.
In the data of homeschooling children
above, it appears that children are greatly
assisted by parents and adults around him to
face various situations. This will produce a
positive thing because the child quickly and
easily learn things he wants to know or what is
needed to know because the parents who
directing the child. This is in line with
Rudjanee's (2017) opinion that
Homeschooling parents aimed to arrange
activities with exibility in time, place, and
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
content following student's interest, aptitude,
lifestyle, and the family's jobs. This adjustable
educational period positively inuenced
learning design and outcome for the student's
potential development. Families preferred to
emphasize experience-oriented learning where
students absorbed varied knowledge
simultaneously. Families placed less
importance on academic tests as a type of
learning method, with no set timetables for
beginning and ending semesters, nor following
school schedules.
However, what is needed to note is the
flexibility and independence of children in
observing, and then draw their own
conclusions about the situations they faces, in
the absence of adults. At school, children face
a variety of friends, with a variety of behaviors,
without being constantly supervised by adults.
There are concerns about the safety of the
child's psychological, however, with this
approach the child learns independently to
face the social environment of his friends, and
then develops strategies for himself to develop
behaviors that enable him to easily be accepted
and interacted with his friends.
According to Montessori (2013),
appropriate education for school-aged children
is as follows: (1) the child learns all the time,
from the surrounding environment and from
the adults around him. It is very good if we are
able to enrich the environment and become a
good role model for children rather than just
teaching them (2) children must learn
according to their interests. He learned about
many things he liked. Forcing something to
make it easy to forget. (3) The child must know
and understand why he or she should study a
subject requested by another person/ parent
(4) Set the standard to be achieved within 1
year of education and divide it into short-term
goals. This will generate a sense of
responsibility for the child in each meeting, the
child is scheduled (disciplined and
independent) learning and usually the learning
process is only 2-3 hours a day. (5) Follow the
child. Putting aside what children need to
learn, if they are very interested in something
that they want to learn, this will provide
amazing results for parents.
The diversity of school environments
will also enrich children about how to relate to
different people. From time to time his
relationship with many people will help him to
have adequate social skills. Research has
shown that as children continue to develop
social and emotional skills, they gain the
confidence and competence needed to build
relationships across settings, problem solve,
and cope with challenges (Parlakian, 2003).
Incomparable situations may
presuppose some social competencies such as
working in teams, mutually motivating,
willingness to receive feedback, willingness to
listen to the needs of others become less
sharpened in homeschooling children. This is
in line with the results of the study (Merrell,
2011) Social and emotional assets and
resiliencies represent a set of adaptatively
characteristics that are important for success at
school, with peers and in the outside world as
follows: friendship skills, empathy,
interpersonal skills, social support, problem
solving, emotional competence, social
maturity, self-concept, self-management,
social independence, cognitive strategies.
Adult’s guidance, which in this case is a
very important for parents to do. This is in
accordance with the results of the study
(Parker & Benson, 2004; Trumpeter, Watson,
O'Leary, & Weathington, 2008). Some studies
have argued that when parents provide more
care, attention, empathy, and support to their
child/children, then the child/children will
have more positive self-esteem. Parents have a
very vital role in the process of social
emotional development. Supporting and
assisting children to interact with their friends
in various settings, such as play, work groups,
competing, sports, and so on. This is in line
with several studies that explain that: the
importance of parents' role in providing
support for their child's/ children's learning
process during homeschooling (Collom, 2005;
Green & Hoover-Dempsey, 2007).
Thus, this study highlights the diversity
of relationships that homeschooling children
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
have. The lack of diversity of homeschooling
children can lead to only certain aspects of
sharpened social development. As a result they
are less wealthy in recognizing the
characteristics of the various people we can
meet, and sharpened social competence is also
limited, compared to children who know and
engage with more people in a variety of social
settings. For that reason, the effort that can be
developed in these children is to introduce
them to more various environments, and
introduce them to different people.
Introduction to friends with various
environments should be accompanied by
encouraging them to perform different
activities than their regular activities. From
here, the child recognizes the reactions of his
friends in different situations.
The developing capacity of the child
from birth through ve years of age to form
close and secure adult and peer relationships;
experience, regulate, and express emotions in
socially and culturally appropriate ways; and
explore the environment and learnall in the
context of family, community, and culture”
(Yates et al., 2008: 2). The emergence of social
and emotional skills begins at birth and early
experiences inuence how children begin to
understand their world and themselves. For
instance, when infants' needs are consistently
met by adults, they are better able to regulate
their emotions, pay more attention to their
surroundings, and develop secure relationships
(Eisenberg, Spinrad, & Eggum, 2010; National
Research Council and Institute of Medicine,
Theoretically, the characteristics of
socio-emotional development in the late
childhood are as follows: (a) the period in
which the children's primary concern is
directed towards the desires of the group; (b)
The process of adjustment to the standards
approved by the group; (c) Creative age,
showing that when children are not blocked by
environmental barriers, criticism, scorn from
adults then children will exert their energy in
creative activities; (d) Playing age due to the
breadth of interest of the child. (Hurlock,
In Montessori's view of home-based
education and socialization, it is asserted that
socialization does not mean a continuous
relation with others of the same age. The thing
to remember is that in the real environment the
child will interact with the variety of people
and various range of age. In life, we are not
competing but trying to satisfy our needs and
understanding the needs of others can help us
understand others and help others in their
lives. So, in Montessori's home education plan
is the need to teach the way to interact with
people of all ages, how our efforts will
familiarize the children to become a helper for
others, and to learn from anyone he meets in
life (Montesori, 2013).
Considering from the social
development of homeschooling children in
Khoiru Ummah HSG, which seems that few
things like communication, play, empathy are
quite developed. The thing to worry about is
the opportunity to recognize different people in
different situations, or to identify people in
different situations. This recognition is
necessary as a process of understanding others,
the process of studying people's values, finding
solutions from differences of opinion, and
creating close relationships with friends so that
they can be a source of social support for
The following are various environments
that can enrich the social interaction of
homeschooling children: (a) homeschooling
community; homeschooling children can meet
and interact with their fellow homeschooling
through homeschooling community media. (b)
Spiritual organization; one of the socialization
tools that is most easily utilized by
homeschooling children is the environment of
adolescent mosques, churches, meditation
groups, and other spiritual groups. (c) Social
organization; homeschooling children can also
develop friendships through social
organizations such as youth organization,
Youth Red Cross, Orphanages or other social
Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
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schooling: An argument against
compulsory schooling in the
Netherlands. International review of
Education, 50(1), 39-52.
Collom, E. (2005). The ins and outs of
homeschooling: The determinants of
parental motivations and student
achievement. Education and Urban
Society, 37(3), 307-335.
Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., & Eggum, N. D.
(2010). Self-regulation and school
readiness. Early Education and
Development, 21(5), 681698.
Engchun, R., Sungtong, E., &
Haruthaithanasan, T. (2017).
Homeschooling in Southern Thailand:
Status and proposed guidelines for
learning process management.
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences.
Hurlock. E.B (2008). Psikologi
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Sepanjang Rentang Kehidupan.
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Rezka Arina Rahma, Gunarti Dwi Lestari, Rivo Nugroho / Journal of Nonformal Education 4 (2) (2018): 151-160
... The determining factors for homeschooling vary from one family to another (Wearne, 2016). Nonetheless, the following are several general determinants that have been reported in studies across the globe: a) Parents' dissatisfaction with public school systems (Butcher, 2019;Kritiyapichartkul, 2003;Neuman, 2018); b) the benefits of homeschooling in providing children with a holistic education (Brewer & Lubinski, 2017;Rahma et al., 2018;Ray, 2021); and c) Parental motivation to homeschool (Ray, 2017;Engchun et al., 2017). ...
... Emotional intelligence refers to feelings for and about other people, objects, situations, and experiences. Children develop emotionally when parents pay attention to their children based on oneon-one interactions that produce a healthy, stable emotional environment (Rahma et al., 2018). Saarni (2011) argues that homeschooled children are likely emotionally stable and considerate of other people's feelings. ...
... There is also an argument that homeschoolers have limited extracurricular activities and lack the skills to perform and fit well into a pluralistic society. On the contrary, homeschoolers have real-life experiences in which they are exposed to different situations, identify with people, and flourish in different environments and settings (Burke, 2019;Rahma et al., 2018). Their socialization skills develop in an environment where they communicate freely with people of different ages beyond the walls of their homes. ...
This phenomenological study explored the experiences of homeschooling families living in Thailand. The study's objectives were to establish reasons for homeschooling and analyze the challenges faced. Ten families participated in the study. Data collection methods included individual and focus group interview sessions. The data analysis showed that parents were dissatisfied with public and private school systems because of the inadequate moral and religious instruction and the perceived negative psychosocial influences on their children's development. Parents also homeschool because of their sense of self-efficacy, which is shaped by three factors: their level of education, their passion for providing a holistic education that includes academic, spiritual, social, and emotional development, and the availability of appropriate homeschooling curricula.
... Conversely, one may also argue that depending on the nature of their education, home educated children could be less prepared for societal expectations in environments which share elements of the autocratic culture of schools, such as authoritarian work environments or those with many rules and regulations. Rahma et al (2018) found that home educated children have less social experience and social competence, due to a lack of breadth of peer behaviour to imitate. Their study found that although home education could shield children from adopting socially negative behaviours, it also hindered them from engaging in intensified interactions with a wide variety of other children in environments where social skills would develop as a result. ...
... However, of those who had children that no longer HE -the majority of these children were reported as being either at College, University or work. This shows social competence suitable to succeed in society outside the HE community, following their HE ending, in contradiction to the findings of Rahma et al (2018). Unsurprisingly from the high prevalence of disability within the HE community, the 'other' category contained some ex-HE students with a disability or special need which rendered them unable to work or study in further education. ...
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This study is currently the largest University affiliated Elective Home Education study conducted in the UK (as of August 2021). A commonly cited aspect of home education is that children may have less socialisation outside their own families and as such be less visible within society, particularly to professionals, than their counterparts who attend mainstream school. This research sought to establish how socially visible and engaged the home educated (HE) children of parents who use online home education support groups were. This was for the purpose of establishing whether there was any truth in this reported lack of socialisation and societal visibility or whether it was a stereotype. The nature of data sought was be qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis, so having considered multiple methods-online surveys were chosen as the most appropriate method. Had it not been conducted during a pandemic then case studies may have been used. The study found a highly engaged and visible community, with children attending a large variety of groups and venues, many of which would not be available to those outside the community. Participants’ children were also seen by a wide range of professionals and volunteers regularly, including Government employees. Themes emerged as to a lack of trust and regular visibility to Local Authority Elective Home Education teams due to poor communication and legal overreach. There was a reported lack of value exchange between Local Authority EHE staff and home educators. The overwhelming response to the research indicated that home educating parents were keen to contribute to academic research and to voice their views regarding visibility, socialisation and Local Government engagement. A lack of consistency between communication, expectations and engagement from Local Authorities and the Home Education community emerged.
... Dalam proses pembelajaran dirumah, anak mengalami kurangnya sikap kooperatif yang biasanya terlatih di sekolah dan pada masa sekarang di haruskan pembelajaran daring sikap kooperatif pada anak sedikit berkurang. anak-anak yang mengikuti program homeschooling mengalami perkembangan sosial yang kurang baik pada beberapa aspek, seperti kurang dapat menerima keragaman atau multikultural dan juga memiliki toleransi yang rendah kepada orang lain (Rahma et al., 2018). ...
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Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pembelajaran daring berdampak pada perilaku sosial emosional anak. Pada saat ini dikejutkan oleh virus covid 19 yang mengharuskan anak-anak untuk melakukan pembelajaran daring, hal ini yang dapat berdampak pada sosial emosional anak. Tujuan peneliti untuk mengetahui dampak pembelajaran daring terhadap perilaku sosial emosional anak. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah studi kasus melalui wawancara dengan analisis tematik pada 10 ibu yang memiliki anak bersekolah TK di kabupaten Ngawi. Para ibu diberikan pertanyaan melalui wawancara terkait dampak perilaku sosial emosiaonal anak selama pembelajaran daring. Hasil analisis menunjukan bahwa secara umum perilaku sosial emosiaonal anak selama pembelajaran daring adalah anak kurang bersikap kooperatif karena anak jarang bermain bersama, kurangnya sikap toleransi kurangnya bersosialisasi dengan teman terbatasi adanya belajar dirumah, emosi anak yang terkadang merasa bosan dan sedih, anak merasa rindu teman dan guru serta anak juga tercatat mengalami kekerasan verbal karena proses belajar yang lazim.
... Penurunan pencapaian perkembangan prososial ini kemungkinan terjadi karena selama daring anak tidak dapat melakukan interaksi sosial dengan orang lain khususnya guru dan teman-temannya, padahal untuk pencapaian perkembangan prososial melibatkan interaksi yang responsif secara positif terhadap kebutuhan dan kesejahteraan orang lain (Toseeb, 2017). Hasil penelitian serupa juga menunjukkan bahwa anak-anak yang mengikuti program homeschooling mengalami perkembangan sosial yang kurang baik pada beberapa aspek, seperti kurang dapat menerima keragaman atau multikultural dan juga memiliki toleransi yang rendah kepada orang lain (Rahma, Lestari, & Nugroho, 2018). Sebaliknya, anak-anak yang terlibat pembelajaran di sekolah secara langsung memiliki perkembangan sosial dan emosional yang lebih baik (Novitawati & Khadijah, 2018), memiliki perilaku eksternalisasi yang lebih rendah, serta mengalami gejala depresi dan kecemasan yang juga lebih rendah (Hernández et al., 2018). ...
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Sistem pembelajaran daring di TK atau Taman Kanak-kanak masih tergolong baru, dan belum banyak penelitian yang mengkaji pengaruhnya terhadap pencapaian perkembangan anak usia dini di TK. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mengetahui pencapaian perkembangan anak usia dini di TK selama pembelajaran daring di masa pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif kuantitatif dengan teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan kuesioner. Jenis kuesioner yang digunakan merupakan kuesioner tertutup, yaitu subjek penelitian hanya diperkenankan memilih jawaban yang telah tersedia pada setiap pertanyaan. Subjek penelitian ini terdiri dari 46 orang guru TK di Surakarta. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan cara menyebarkan kuesioner melalui Google Form kemudian tautannya disebarkan kepada para guru TK di Surakarta melalui grup WhatsApp. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan gambaran terbaru bahwa sistem pembelajaran daring memberikan pengaruh terhadap pencapaian perkembangan anak usia dini di TK. Hampir sebagian besar pencapaian perkembangan anak pada beberapa aspek selama pembelajaran daring mengalami penurunan. Keterbatasan penelitian dan saran terkait penelitian lebih lanjut akan dibahas.
... Skor penilaian diberikan mulai dari rentang 1 hingga 3. Artinya adalah semakin tinggi skornya maka anak semakin baik memiliki kemampuan sosial-emosionalnya. Hasil penelitian ini memperkuat pendapat Peter Moss yang menyatakan bahwa pada usia prasekolah, kemampuan sosial-emosional anak-anak pada umumnya seperti kurva normal, dimana sebagian besar anak memiliki kemampuan rata-rata atau dominan dan hanya sebagian kecil yang rendah atau tinggi (Moss, 2019 (Rezka A. Rahma, dkk, 2018). Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa ada 12% anak yang belum berkembang dengan baik. ...
Full-text available
Masa usia TK merupakan masa bagi seseorang untuk belajar bersosialisasi dan mengelola emosinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjabarkan kemampuan sosial emosional anak usia TK di Nusa Tenggara Barat. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survey dengan alat pengumpulan data berupa instrument asesmen kemampuan sosial emosional yang terdiri dari 37 item indikator. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi dan wawancara. Sampel adalah anak-anak TK kelompok B dari 10 TK Pembina di Kabupaten/Kota di Seluruh NTB dengan total jumlah responden sebanyak 339 anak. Sampel dipilih dengan teknik cluster random sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan Bulan Juli-September 2018. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata kemampuan sosial-emosional anak usia TK kelompok B di NTB berada pada tingkat mampu dengan sedikit bantuan artinya rata-rata anak sudah memiliki potensi untuk berkembang dengan baik namun dalam beberapa hal masih perlu bimbingan dan contoh dari gurunya.
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Homeschooling students can experience academic stress. Parent-child relationship, self-esteem, and also academic self-efficacy are assumed as factors influencing the academic stress. Do parent-child relationship, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy have effect simultaneously to homeschooling students’ self-regulated learning? The purpose of this study is to measure the influence of parent-child relationship, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy to academic stress on homeschooling students. The direct and indirect effect can be seen from the empirical model when fit the data. Subjects are 87 homeschooling students in Tangerang. Academic stress constructed from Ang (2009) (α = 0.875), academic self-efficacy constructed from Bandura (1997) (α = 0.907), self-esteem constructed from Rosenberg (1965) (α = 0.758), parent-child relationship constructed from Brook (2012) (α = 0.875). Structural Equation Model is used to analyze the data. The empirical model has goodness of fit. It explains the influence of parent-child relationship, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy to academic stress on homeschooling students. The result shows that parent-child relationship has no direct effect to academic stress or indirect effect through academic self-efficacy. On the other hand there is indirect effect from parent-child relationship to academic stress through self-esteem. Parent-child relationship, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy are good predictors to homeschooling students’ academic stress. But parent-child relationship only effects students’ academic stress through self-esteem and not strong enough to effects academic stress through academic self-efficacy. At this point, parents play important role to build positive self-esteem related to the homeschooling activities.
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This research investigates two major aspects of homeschooling. Factors determining parental motivations to homeschool and the determinants of the student achievement of home-educated children are identified. Original survey data from an organized group of homeschoolers is analyzed. Regression models are employed to predict parents’ motivations and their students’ standardized test achievement. Four sets of homeschooling motivations are identified. Academic and pedagogical concerns are most important, and it appears that the religious base of the movement is subsiding. Several major demographic variables have no impact upon parental motivations, indicating that this is a diverse group. Parents’ educational attainment and political identification are consistent predictors of their students’ achievement. Race and class—the two major divides in public education—are not significant determinants of standardized test achievement, suggesting that homeschooling is efficacious. It is concluded that homeschoolers are a heterogeneous population with varying and overlapping motivations.
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Although home education is a growing phenomenon in many Western countries, it is almost non-existent in the Netherlands. Under Dutch educational law, children must be educated in the school system. Home schooling is thought to endanger children's development. This study examines — primarily American — analyses of performance in home schooling. Its leading question is: How do home-schooled children develop in comparison with school pupils? It concludes that home-schooled children perform better on average in the cognitive domain (language, mathematics, natural sciences, social studies), but differ little from their peers at school in terms of socio-emotional development. This positive finding may be attributed partly to socio-economic factors. However, it is also suggested that the quality of the learning environment, including one-to-one tutoring, could also be a contributing factor.
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RESEARCH FINDINGS: In this article, we review research on the relations of self-regulation and its dispositional substrate, effortful control, to variables involved in school success. First, we present a conceptual model in which the relation between self-regulation/effortful control and academic performance is mediated by low maladjustment and high-quality relationships with peers and teachers, as well as school engagement. Then we review research indicating that effortful control and related skills are indeed related to maladjustment, social skills, relationships with teachers and peers, school engagement, as well as academic performance. PRACTICE OR POLICY: Initial findings are consistent with the view that self-regulatory capacities involved in effortful control are associated with the aforementioned variables; only limited evidence of mediated relations is currently available.
From Amazon: This highly engaging, eminently practical book provides essential resources for implementing social and emotional learning (SEL) in any K–12 setting. Numerous vivid examples illustrate the nuts and bolts of this increasingly influential approach to supporting students' mental health, behavior, and academic performance. Helpful reproducibles are included. The authors offer clear-cut guidance on how to: *Choose the right SEL program for a particular school. *Teach SEL concepts to students, teachers, and administrators. *Weave SEL into the classroom curriculum to boost academic success. *Adapt interventions for culturally and linguistically diverse students and those with special needs. *Monitor outcomes and maximize the quality of interventions. This book is in The Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series.
By exploring what school readiness means in the context of work with very young children, program leaders can better understand how they can support the lifetime learning of infants and toddlers in their programs. This book, designed for infant-family program leaders, examines the important role that cognitive and social-emotional skills play in preparing children for school. The material is organized into six major sections: (1) "What is School Readiness for Infants and Toddlers?," defining the concepts of school readiness and explaining its linkage to seven critical social-emotional skills; (2) "How Very Young Children Learn," discussing how infant and toddlers construct knowledge in the context of relationships and through everyday routines and experiences; (3) "Early Literacy Skills in Infants and Toddlers," outlining the process by which children develop prereading and language skills; (4) "Early Numeracy Skills in Infants and Toddlers," presenting some ways to help children develop foundational mathematics skills; (5) "Social-Emotional Skills Make the Difference in School Readiness," highlighting the crucial role that social-emotional skills play in school readiness, adjustment, and success; (6) "How Does Culture Affect Development?," exploring the influence of culture on very young childrens development as well as on relationships between staff members and families; and (7) "Critical Connections: Linking Relationships and School Readiness," examining how relationships at all levels of the program (with supervisors, staff, and families) affect children's readiness to learn. The book concludes with recommendations for staff members and for program leaders for supporting school readiness. (Contains a 28-item bibliography and 14 additional resources.) (KB)
The present study examined parental support and monitoring as they relate to adolescent outcomes. It was hypothesized that support and monitoring would be associated with higher self-esteem and less risky behavior during adolescence. The diverse sample included 16,749 adolescents assessed as part of the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Both high parental support and parental monitoring were related to greater self-esteem and lower risk behaviors. The findings partially confirm, as well as extend, propositions in attachment theory.
Psikologi Perkembangan: Suatu Pendekatan Sepanjang Rentang Kehidupan
Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences. Hurlock. E.B (2008). Psikologi Perkembangan: Suatu Pendekatan Sepanjang Rentang Kehidupan. Jakarta: Erlangga Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2012). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. John Wiley & Sons.
Jogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
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Metode Montessori. Jogjakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
Home schooling keluarga Kak-Seto: mudah, murah, meriah, dan direstui pemerintah
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Mulyadi, S. (2007). Home schooling keluarga Kak-Seto: mudah, murah, meriah, dan direstui pemerintah. Kaifa.