Topical issue on:
LIPIDS AND COSMETICS
LIPIDES ET COSMÉTIQUES
Tamanu oil and skin active properties: from traditional to modern
, Jean-Luc Ansel
, Elise Lupo
, Lily Mijouin
, Samuel Guillot
, Raimana Ho
, Gaël Lecellier
and Chantal Pichon
Université de la Polynésie Française, UMR 241, BP 6570 Faa’a, 98702 Faa’a, Tahiti, Polynésie Française
Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans cedex 2, France
Remedials Laboratoire, 91 rue du faubourg Saint-Honoré, 75008 Paris, France
Université d’Orléans, UMR 7374, 1b rue de la Férollerie, CS 40059, 45071 Orléans cedex, France
Consultant en foresterie et botanique, BP 52832, 98716 Pirae, Tahiti, Polynésie Française
Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 55 Avenue de Paris, 78000 Versailles, France
Received 20 May 2018 –Accepted 28 August 2018
Abstract –Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae), locally called “tamanu”in French Polynesia, is
an evergreen pantropical tree growing mostly along the seashores. Its barks, leaves, and fruits are still used
in traditional medicine. The oil expressed from the nuts has been also traditionally used. Tamanu oil is
topically applied on skins as well as mucous membrane lesions. This oil is especially recommended to
heal all kinds of skin ailments. Bioassays and different assessments of Tamanu oil revealed numerous
biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inﬂammatory, antibacterial, wound healing...), so bringing
scientiﬁc evidence of beneﬁcial effects of this oil on human skin healing. Such biological properties
may explain the use of tamanu oil as an active cosmetic ingredient recorded as “Calophyllum inophyllum
seed oil”by the INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). Most of the bioactive
properties of tamanu oil are attributed to oil composition including the presence of resinous compounds in
tamanu oil beside common fatty acids, which constitutes a unique characteristic of this healing oil.
Actually, resinous part of tamanu oil is known to contain bioactive secondary metabolites mostly
constitutedbyneoﬂavonoids including pyranocoumarin derivatives. Herein, chemical constituents and
biological properties of tamanu oil are presented with a focus of its traditional use inspiring modern
valuations related to cosmetic ﬁeld.
Keywords: tamanu oil / Calophyllum inophyllum / Cosmetopoeia / neoﬂavonoids / cosmeceutical
Résumé –L’huile de Tamanu et ses propriétés dermatologiques : des usages traditionnels à la
cosmétique moderne. Calophyllum inophyllum L (Calophyllacée), appelé localement « tamanu » en
Polynésie française, est un arbre pérenne tropical, poussant le plus souvent le long des rivages marins. Ses
écorces, feuilles et fruits, dont l’huile extraite de ses noix, sont encore couramment utilisés en médecine
traditionnelle. L’huile de tamanu est particulièrement recommandée pour traiter différentes sortes
d’affections dermatologiques et soins de la peau, et est employée en application topiques aussi bien sur la
peau que sur les lésions membranaires de la muqueuse. Différentes études scientiﬁques menées sur l’huile
de tamanu, avec notamment des tests d’activités biologiques ciblées, ont révélé de nombreuses propriétés
biologiques (anti-oxydante, anti-inﬂammatoire, antibactérienne, cicatrisante...), prouvant ainsi les effets
bénéﬁques de cette huile sur les soins de la peau humaine. Ces propriétés biologiques avérées confortent
l’utilisation de l’huile de tamanu comme un ingrédient actif en cosmétique, enregistrée sous la dénomination
« huile de noix de Calophyllum inophyllum » par l’INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic
Ingredients). La plupart des propriétés biologiques de l’huile de tamanu est ainsi attribuée au contenu de
cette huile, incluant la présence de composés résineux de l’huile à côté des acides gras communs qui
constituent une caractéristique unique de cette huile de soin. En effet, la partie résineuse de l’huile de tamanu
©P. Raharivelomanana et al., Published by EDP Sciences, 2018
Oilseeds & fats Crops and Lipids
Available online at:
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
contient des métabolites secondaires bioactifs, principalement constitués de néoﬂavoïdes incluant des
dérivés de pyranocoumarines. Ainsi, les constituants chimiques et les propriétés de l’huile de tamanu seront
présentés en se focalisant sur ses usages traditionnels et sa valorisation dans le domaine de la cosmétique.
Mots clés : huile de tamanu / Calophyllum inophyllum / Cosmétopée / néoﬂavonoïdes / ingrédient cosmétique
“Cosmetopoeia”refers to popular uses of plants for
traditional cosmetic and body care that have always existed in
many countries and cultures over the world, but this concept
is still very poorly documented as written reports. “Cosme-
topoeia”concerns the compilation of plants and their
traditional uses for bodycare and well-being or beauty
regards related to a region by the local population (as its
cultural heritage). Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophylla-
ceae) is an evergreen pantropical tree distributed in Africa,
Asia and Paciﬁc countries from where its medicinal and
cosmetic traditional uses for centuries had been reported
(Stevens, 1980;Florence, 2004;Dweck & Meadows, 2002).
Locally called “tamanu”in French Polynesia, this tree is
mostly found growing along the seashores or around the
“marae”, and was considered as a sacred tree in ancient times.
The oil expressed from the nuts, called “tamanu oil”, has been
traditionally used for many purposes and mainly for topical
applications on skins as well as mucous membrane lesions.
This oil is especially recommended for the cure of all kinds of
dermal affections (burns, dermatoses, eczema, acne, psoria-
sis, chilblains, skin cracks, diabetic sores, hemorrhoids, dry
skin, etc.). Due to its calming and relieving pain effects, the
oil is used in massages, for rheumatisms and sciatica
soothing, and also highly appreciated for wound healing
and analgesic properties (Pétard, 1986;Whistler, 1992;
Dweck and Meadows, 2002;Khilam, 2004). The efﬁciency of
tamanu oil has been shown not only through traditional
medicine uses for centuries but also by its use on hospitalized
patients for signiﬁcant diminution of scars, so considered in
vivo like reported studies (Mariette-Chanson, 2006). These
longtime traditional uses of “tamanu oil”led to consider that
this oil is one major Polynesian cosmetopoeia product which
deserved more scientiﬁc investigations to rationalize its uses
as a cosmetic ingredient (Ansel et al., 2015). Aiming to show
“tamanu oil”potential skin effect, we present herein brieﬂy:
–its physical and chemical characteristics;
–its biological activities and properties related to skin
treatment for cosmeceutical regards.
2 Physical and chemical characteristics of
2.1 Obtention of tamanu oil and physico-chemical
Tamanu oil process: ripe fruits of Calophyllum inophyllum
are ﬁrst sun dried for one to two months to allow the oil
biosynthesis and accumulation in the nuts. Dried nuts are
deshelled and submitted to a mechanical cold pressure to yield
a viscous yellowish to greenish virgin “tamanu oil”(40–60%
by weight) having strong walnut-like speciﬁc aroma. This raw
oil was ﬁltered before use and packing.
Physico-chemical characteristics of tamanu oil are as
–refractive index: n
–saponiﬁcation index: (183–206);
–acidic index (mg KOH/g): (13–46);
–iodide index: (82–98);
–peroxide index: (0–90);
–unsaponiﬁed components: (0.15–0.85);
2.2 Fatty acids
Triglycerides of tamanu oil are characterized by classical
fatty acid composition as follows (a mean found for 5 tamanu
oils from different origins): palmitic acid (16.5 ± 1.59%),
palmitoleic acid (0.26 ± 0.11%), stearic acid (30.2 ± 4.36%),
oleic acid (23.6 ± 4.77%), linoleic acid (25.5 ± 3.87%), alpha-
linoleic acid (0.26 ± 0.05%), arachidonic acid (0.6 ± 0.09%),
gadoleic acid (0.3 ± 0.1%), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
(<0.1%), behenic acid (0.1 ± 0.15%), docosadienoic acid
(1.4 ± 5.08%). Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are the major
constituents (41–52%) with a relative high proportion of
stearic acid (25–35%). Unsaturated fatty acids (18–22%),
monounsaturated acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated acids
(PUFA) are found in good amounts present respectively as
oleic acid (20–26%) and linoleic acid (21–29%) (Léguillier
et al., 2015).
2.3 Resinous composition: neoﬂavonoids and
Tamanu oil contained also an ethanol soluble resinous part
(ranging 20% of the oil), which is comprised mainly of
secondary metabolites mostly composed by neoﬂavonoids and
pyranocoumarin derivatives (Lederer et al., 1953;Laure, 2005;
Bruneton, 2009;Leu et al., 2009). Following their structural
features, these compounds are classiﬁed as inophyllums
(within a phenyl substituent), calanolides (within a propyl
substituent), or tamanolides (within a sec-isobutyl substituent)
but the major constituent is always the calophyllolide (an
inophyllum derivative). The main components of French
Polynesian “tamanu oil”resinous part are: calophyllolide,
inopyllums (C, D, E, P), calanolides (A, B, D), tamanolides (D, P)
(Leu, 2009;Ansel et al.,2016).
3 Biological activities
Biological activity related to skin affections and tamanu oil
were put in evidence and reported by different authors, and so
Page 2 of 5
P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL
enlightened its beneﬁc effects such as an antioxidant,
antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inﬂammatory and showing
wound healing effects.
3.1 Antioxidant and anti-UV properties
Antioxidant effect of tamanu oil had been shown by
signiﬁcantly reducing the intracellular ROS production (Said
et al., 2007). Signiﬁcant radical scavenging effects of some
neoﬂavonoid constituents of tamanu oil resin were found from
DPPH assay results of some constituents: inophyllum E (IC
4.8 mM), inocalophyllin B (IC
: 5.7 mM) and inophyllum C
: 6.92 mM) and thus, related to antioxidant potential of
these compounds (Leu, 2009). Beyond the antioxidant effect,
the study reports that amongst different oils, Calophyllum
inophyllum was the only one that also possessed good capacity
to absorb UV light within a signiﬁcant absorption spectrum
from 260 to 400 nm. Actually, 85% of the DNA damage
induced by UV-radiations was shown to be inhibited with 1%
of Calophyllum oil without any in vivo ocular irritation.
Because UV-radiations can also induce harmful reactive
oxygen species production for ocular system, these results led
to suggest that Calophyllum inophyllum oil presents both UV-
absorption and antioxidant properties that might contribute to
its use as a vehicle in ophthalmic preparations, free of
cytotoxicity and associated to an important sun protector factor
Tamanu oil had been reported to have interesting
antimicrobial activities including antibacterial, antifungal
effects especially for related skin pathogenic strains.
3.2.1 Antibacterial activity
Tamanu oil neoﬂavonoid constituents were found to have
antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strain,
namely calophyllolide (MIC: 16 mg), inophyllum C (MIC:
10 mg) and inophyllum E (MIC: 13 mg), which activities were
shown to be stronger than that of the antibiotic standard oxacillin
(30 mg) (Yimdjo et al., 2004). These results suggested the
bactericidal effect of tamanu oil constituents.
Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO) was shown to exhibit
high antibacterial activity against bacteria involved in skin
infections. Very interesting antibacterial activities were shown
on aerobic Gramþbacteria tested strains such as Staphylo-
coccus aureus (as a multi-drug resistant involved in
nosocomial and skin infections), Bacillus cereus associated
to wound infections in postsurgical patients and cutaneous
infections subsequent to trauma, Staphylococcus epidermidis
and Staphylococcus haemolyticus responsible for catheter
associated infections and Corynebacterium minutissimum
implicated in erythrasma. Moreover, all the tested CIO against
Gramþbacteria species present MIC value similar or lower than
oﬂoxacin taken as a positive control. From the same experi-
ments, CIO was also shown to exhibit high antibacterial activity
(within MIC value similar or lower than oﬂoxacin) against
bacterial strains involved in acne (Propionibacterium species)
such as Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium
granulosum, thus suggesting the potential of CIO for acne
treatment (Léguillier et al., 2015). As there is no chemical
structure similarity between oﬂoxacin and tamanu oil neo-
ﬂavonoids, the observed high antimicrobial activity of this oil
cannot be explained easily by chemicalstructure features, and its
mode of action should be studied beyond structure relationship
3.2.2 Antifungal activity
Antifungal activities of tamanu oil ethanol extract (at a
concentration of 4 mg/mL) had been reported, showing
stronger inhibiting activity on various fungal strains (Candida
albicans,Candida tropicalis,Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus
fumigatus,Alternaria tenuissima) than ﬂuconazole (10 mg)
taken as a positive control (Saravan et al., 2011).
The calophyllolide molecule in Calophyllum inophyllum
oil had been reported to possess an anti-inﬂammatory activity,
comparatively to hydrocortisone (10 mg) taken as positive
control on formaldehyde induced arthritis inﬂammation,
showing an effectiveness from its efﬁcient dose (ED) of
140 mg/kg and its lethal dose (DL) of 2.5 g/kg (Bhalla et al.,
1980). Calophyllolide, isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum,
had been shown to prevent a prolonged inﬂammatory process
by reducing myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and down-
regulation of the pro-inﬂammatory cytokines-IL-1b, IL-6,
TNF-a, but up-regulation of the anti-inﬂammatory cytokine,
IL-10. The underlying molecular mechanism was also related
to an increase of M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-
regulation of M2-related gene expression (Nguyen et al.,
3.4 Wound healing
Tamanu oil promotes wound healing in keratinocyte cells
(HaCaT) and also in ﬁbroblast cells (HMDF). Tamanu oil was
emulsiﬁed to obtain TOE (tamanu oil emulsion) from which
wound healing experiments were realized on both keratino-
cytes (HaCaT) and ﬁbroblasts (HDF) conﬂuent and then
scratched monolayer cells using different concentrations of
TOE (1/100, 1/200 and 1/400) or 25 mg/mL Vitamin C. Wound
closure was followed by video microscopy (fully motorized
microscope) during 24 h Wound healing assays showed that
1%TOE accelerated the wound closure of the scratched
ﬁbroblast monolayer: the gap was closed after 14 h, faster than
in vitamin C-treated cells (Ansel et al., 2016).
Calophyllolide (isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum)
was also reported to reduce ﬁbrosis formation and effectively
promoted wound closure in mouse model and so showing a
plausible role for calophyllolide in accelerating the process of
wound healing through anti-inﬂammatory activity mecha-
nisms (Nguyen et al., 2017).
3.5 Dermal and epidermal extra-cellular matrix effects
The skin-active effect of “tamanu oil emulsion”was
investigated on human skin cell cultures (keratinocytes and
Page 3 of 5
P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL
dermal ﬁbroblasts) showing: cell proliferation, glycosamino-
glycan and collagen production as well as wound healing
activity (Ansel et al., 2016).
The skin-active effect of “tamanu oil emulsion”(TOE) was
investigated on human skin cell cultures (keratinocytes
HaCAT and dermal ﬁbroblasts HDF) showing cell prolifera-
tion (for up to 18 h incubation time) with an increase (relative
to the control cells) of 10–40% for HaCaT (0.25–1% TOE) and
of 5–20% for HDF at all dilutions.
Glycosaminoglycan(GAG) and collagenproduction,as well
as wound healing activities were evaluated by application of 1%
TOE on treated cells (HaCaTand HDF). An increase of collagen
production(10 to 40%) wasobserved with a similar level forboth
cell types depending on the duration of incubation.
Transcriptomic analysis on treated cells revealed gene
expression modulation including 223 genes involved in
metabolic process for main biological pathways implied in
the observed cell activities (Conesa et al.,2005;Harrow
et al., 2012). On the 201 sequences, whom the cellular
component was assigned, 59.7% are membrane products. A
signiﬁcant assignation for the extracellular relationships is
observed with 37.3% of sequences to cell periphery, 27.36%
to extracellular region and 13.93% to cell junction. For the
biological process of these gene products (192 sequences
were assigned), 56.25% are involved in response to stimulus
(response to abiotic, chemical, endogenous stimuli, etc.)
such as cell migration and hypoxia, 74.28% are involved in
metabolic process, such as 2-galactosyltransferases and 1-
fucosyltransferase (FUT9) implied in O-glycan biosynthe-
sis, 11.98% are involved in cell adhesion and 13.20% in cell
The biological processes of re-epithelialization following a
wound are well-known (Martin, 1997;Sivamani et al., 2007;
Krafts, 2010). They imply epidermal cell migration and
proliferation, restoration of barrier function by the consolida-
tion of the extra-cellular matrix, and remodeling with collagen
ﬁber rearrangement and cell junctions development. It is
important to notice that the differently expressed and annotated
genes are mostly implied in these different processes (Ansel
et al., 2016).
Bioactive neoﬂavonoid constituents in TOE may contrib-
ute to these biological activities. Altogether consistent data
related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought
new highlights on mechanisms involved in these biological
processes induced by tamanu oil effect on human skin cells
(Ansel et al., 2016).
Biological activity studies conﬁrmed skin-active effects of
tamanu oil treatment and an antimicrobial (antibacterial and
antifungal) protection, anti-inﬂammatory, wound healing,
promotion of extra-matrix cellular (production of GAG and
collagen). The biological properties may explain the use of
tamanu oil as an active cosmetic ingredient recorded as
“Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil”by the INCI (International
Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). Due to its properties
and beneﬁts, tamanu oil is included in different cosmetic
formulation as an active ingredient such as for skin
regeneration, after sun protection, soothing and irritation
calming, wrinkle and stretch mark prevention (Hostettmann,
2011). Indeed traditional uses of tamanu oil such as “monoï”
ingredient was good source of inspiration for its cosmetic
modern uses and new ways of valuation.
As shown for tamanu oil, an ethnocosmetic product,
“cosmetopoeia concept”cares about traditional cosmetic and
dermocosmetic uses of natural products and should be
investigated by a multidisciplinary approach integrating
complementary ﬁelds such as: biodiversity, ethnobotany,
ethnocosmetology, traditional knowledge, ABS (access to
genetic resources and Beneﬁt Sharing), world heritage,
phytochemistry, biological activities, bioassays, natural prod-
ucts valuation. Focus on “Cosmetopoeia concept”will launch
discussions about renewing interests of “plants of the past”for
“future valuations”namely as biosourcing ingredient for
cosmeceuticals and will inspire innovative ways for sustainable
development of different countries and cultures over the world.
Acknowledgements. We are grateful to Cosmetic-Valley for
their ﬁnancial support to this project.
Conﬂicts of interest. The authors declare that they have no
conﬂicts of interest in relation to this article.
Ansel JL, Butaud JF, Nicolas M, Lecellier G, Pichon C, Rahariveloma-
nana P. 2015. Le tamanu et ses propriétés en dermocosmétique. La
Phytothérapie Européenne 86: 10–12.
Ansel JL, Lupo E, Mijouin L, et al. 2016. Biological activity of
Polynesian Calophyllum inophyllum oil extract on human skin
cells. Planta Medica 82(11–12): 961–966.
Bhalla TN, Saxena RC, Nigam SK, Misra G, Bhargava KP. 1980.
Calophyllolide –a new non-steroidal and anti-inﬂammatory
agent. Indian J Med Res 72: 762–765.
Bruneton J. 2009. Pharmacognosie, phytochimie, plantes médici-
ed. Paris : Éditions Tec & Doc Lavoisier.
Conesa A, Götz S, García-Gómez JM, Terol J, Talón M, Robles M. 2005.
Blast2GO: a universal tool for annotation, visualization and analysis
in functional genomics research. Bioinformatics 21: 3674–3676.
Dweck AC, Meadows T. 2002. Tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum)–
the African, Asian, Polynesian and Paciﬁc Panacea. Int J
Cosmetic Sci 24 (6): 341–348.
Florence J. 2004. Flore de la Polynésie française, Collection Faune et
Flore Tropicales 41, vol. 2. Paris: IRD Éditions, Publications
scientiﬁques du Muséum.
Harrow J, Frankish A, Gonzalez JM, et al. 2012. GENCODE: the
reference human genome annotation for The ENCODE Project.
Genome Res 22: 1760–1774.
Hostettmann K. 2011. Tout savoir sur les vertus thérapeutiques, santé,
beauté, longévité des fruits exotiques. Lausanne : Ed. Favre S.A.
Khilam C. 2004. Tamanu oil, a tropical remedy. American Herbal
Gram 63: 26–31.
Krafts KP. 2010. Tissue repair: The hidden drama. Organogenesis 6:
Laure F. 2005. Étude de la composition chimique et de la biodiversité
du Calophyllum inophyllum de Polynésie française Thèse de
doctorat, Université de la Polynésie française, Papeete, Tahiti,
Lederer E, Dietrich P, Polonsky J. 1953. On the chemical constitution
of calophylloide and calophyllic acid from the nuts of
Calophyllum inophyllum.Bull Soc Chim Fr 5: 546–549.
Page 4 of 5
P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL
Léguillier T, Lecsö-Bornet M, Lémus C, et al. 2015. The wound
healing and antibacterial activity of ﬁve ethnomedical Calo-
phyllum inophyllum oils: an alternative therapeutic strategy to
treat infected wounds. PLoS One 10(9): e0138602. doi: 10.1371/
Leu T. 2009. Contribution à la connaissance de la ﬂore polynésienne:
évaluation de l’intérêt pharmacologique de quelques plantes
médicinales et étude phytochimique du Tamanu (Calophyllum
inophyllum L. –Clusiaceae). Thèse de doctorat, Université de la
Polynésie française, Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie Française.
Leu T, Raharivelomanana P, Soulet S, Bianchini JP, Herbette G, Faure
R. 2009. New tricyclic and tetracyclic pyranocoumarins with an
unprecedented C-4 substituent. Structure elucidation of tamano-
lide, tamanolide D and tamanolide P from Calophyllum
inophyllum of French Polynesia. Magn Reson Chem 47: 989–993.
Mariette-Chanson N. 2006. Study of Calophyllum inophyllum oil:
clinical use demonstrates its healing properties (Étude sur l’huile
de Calophyllum inophyllum : travaux cliniques démontrant les
propriétés cicatrisantes de l’huile). Phytothérapie 4(4): 167–171.
Martin P. 1997. Wound healing: aiming for perfect skin regeneration.
Science 276(5309): 75–81.
Nguyen V-L, Truong C-T, Nguyen BCQ, et al. 2017. Anti-
inﬂammatory and wound healing activities of calophyllolide
isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn.PloS One 12(10):
e0185674. Available from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.
Pétard P. 1986. Plantes utiles de Polynésie et Raau, Haere Po No eds.
Tahiti : Papeete, pp. 224–225.
Said T, Dutot M, Martin C, et al. 2007. Cytoprotective effect against
UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress: role of new
biological UV ﬁlter. Eur J Pharm Sci Off J Eur Fed Pharm Sci 30:
Saravan R, Dhachinamoorthi D, Senthilkumar K, Thamizhvanan
K. 2011. Antimicrobial activity of various extracts from
various parts of Calophyllum inophyllum.J Appl Pharm Sci 1:
Sivamani RK, Garcia MS, Isseroff RR. 2007. Wound re-epithelializa-
tion: modulating keratinocyte migration in wound healing. Front
Biosci 12: 2849–2868.
Stevens PF. 1980. A revision of the old species of the Calophyllum
(Guttiferae). J Arnold Arbor Harv Univ 61: 117–424.
Whistler WA. 1992. Polynesian Herbal Medicine. Lawai, Kauai:
National tropical botanical garden.
Yimdjo MC, Azebaze A, Nkengfack AE, Meyer AM, Bodo B,
Fomum ZT. 2004. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents from
Calophyllum inophyllum.Phytochemistry 65: 2789–2795.
Cite this article as: Raharivelomanana P, Ansel J-L, Lupo E, Mijouin L, Guillot S, Butaud J-F, Ho R, Lecellier G, Pichon C. 2018. Tamanu
oil and skin active properties: from traditional to modern cosmetic uses. OCL,https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2018048
Page 5 of 5
P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL