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Tamanu oil and skin active properties: From traditional to modern cosmetic uses

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Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae), locally called “tamanu” in French Polynesia, is an evergreen pantropical tree growing mostly along the seashores. Its barks, leaves, and fruits are still used in traditional medicine. The oil expressed from the nuts has been also traditionally used. Tamanu oil is topically applied on skins as well as mucous membrane lesions. This oil is especially recommended to heal all kinds of skin ailments. Bioassays and different assessments of Tamanu oil revealed numerous biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, wound healing…), so bringing scientific evidence of beneficial effects of this oil on human skin healing. Such biological properties may explain the use of tamanu oil as an active cosmetic ingredient recorded as “Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil” by the INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). Most of the bioactive properties of tamanu oil are attributed to oil composition including the presence of resinous compounds in tamanu oil beside common fatty acids, which constitutes a unique characteristic of this healing oil. Actually, resinous part of tamanu oil is known to contain bioactive secondary metabolites mostly constituted by neoflavonoids including pyranocoumarin derivatives. Herein, chemical constituents and biological properties of tamanu oil are presented with a focus of its traditional use inspiring modern valuations related to cosmetic field.
Topical issue on:
Tamanu oil and skin active properties: from traditional to modern
cosmetic uses
Phila Raharivelomanana
, Jean-Luc Ansel
, Elise Lupo
, Lily Mijouin
, Samuel Guillot
Jean-François Butaud
, Raimana Ho
, Gaël Lecellier
and Chantal Pichon
Université de la Polynésie Française, UMR 241, BP 6570 Faaa, 98702 Faaa, Tahiti, Polynésie Française
Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS, rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Orléans cedex 2, France
Remedials Laboratoire, 91 rue du faubourg Saint-Honoré, 75008 Paris, France
Université dOrléans, UMR 7374, 1b rue de la Férollerie, CS 40059, 45071 Orléans cedex, France
Consultant en foresterie et botanique, BP 52832, 98716 Pirae, Tahiti, Polynésie Française
Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelines, 55 Avenue de Paris, 78000 Versailles, France
Received 20 May 2018 Accepted 28 August 2018
Abstract Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae), locally called tamanuin French Polynesia, is
an evergreen pantropical tree growing mostly along the seashores. Its barks, leaves, and fruits are still used
in traditional medicine. The oil expressed from the nuts has been also traditionally used. Tamanu oil is
topically applied on skins as well as mucous membrane lesions. This oil is especially recommended to
heal all kinds of skin ailments. Bioassays and different assessments of Tamanu oil revealed numerous
biological activities (antioxidant, anti-inammatory, antibacterial, wound healing...), so bringing
scientic evidence of benecial effects of this oil on human skin healing. Such biological properties
may explain the use of tamanu oil as an active cosmetic ingredient recorded as Calophyllum inophyllum
seed oilby the INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). Most of the bioactive
properties of tamanu oil are attributed to oil composition including the presence of resinous compounds in
tamanu oil beside common fatty acids, which constitutes a unique characteristic of this healing oil.
Actually, resinous part of tamanu oil is known to contain bioactive secondary metabolites mostly
constitutedbyneoavonoids including pyranocoumarin derivatives. Herein, chemical constituents and
biological properties of tamanu oil are presented with a focus of its traditional use inspiring modern
valuations related to cosmetic eld.
Keywords: tamanu oil / Calophyllum inophyllum / Cosmetopoeia / neoavonoids / cosmeceutical
Résumé Lhuile de Tamanu et ses propriétés dermatologiques : des usages traditionnels à la
cosmétique moderne. Calophyllum inophyllum L (Calophyllacée), appelé localement « tamanu » en
Polynésie française, est un arbre pérenne tropical, poussant le plus souvent le long des rivages marins. Ses
écorces, feuilles et fruits, dont lhuile extraite de ses noix, sont encore couramment utilisés en médecine
traditionnelle. Lhuile de tamanu est particulièrement recommandée pour traiter différentes sortes
daffections dermatologiques et soins de la peau, et est employée en application topiques aussi bien sur la
peau que sur les lésions membranaires de la muqueuse. Différentes études scientiques menées sur lhuile
de tamanu, avec notamment des tests dactivités biologiques ciblées, ont révélé de nombreuses propriétés
biologiques (anti-oxydante, anti-inammatoire, antibactérienne, cicatrisante...), prouvant ainsi les effets
bénéques de cette huile sur les soins de la peau humaine. Ces propriétés biologiques avérées confortent
lutilisation de lhuile de tamanu comme un ingrédient actif en cosmétique, enregistrée sous la dénomination
« huile de noix de Calophyllum inophyllum » par lINCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic
Ingredients). La plupart des propriétés biologiques de lhuile de tamanu est ainsi attribuée au contenu de
cette huile, incluant la présence de composés résineux de lhuile à côté des acides gras communs qui
constituent une caractéristique unique de cette huile de soin. En effet, la partie résineuse de lhuile de tamanu
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Oilseeds & fats Crops and Lipids
Available online at:
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
contient des métabolites secondaires bioactifs, principalement constitués de néoavoïdes incluant des
dérivés de pyranocoumarines. Ainsi, les constituants chimiques et les propriétés de lhuile de tamanu seront
présentés en se focalisant sur ses usages traditionnels et sa valorisation dans le domaine de la cosmétique.
Mots clés : huile de tamanu / Calophyllum inophyllum / Cosmétopée / néoavonoïdes / ingrédient cosmétique
1 Introduction
Cosmetopoeiarefers to popular uses of plants for
traditional cosmetic and body care that have always existed in
many countries and cultures over the world, but this concept
is still very poorly documented as written reports. Cosme-
topoeiaconcerns the compilation of plants and their
traditional uses for bodycare and well-being or beauty
regards related to a region by the local population (as its
cultural heritage). Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophylla-
ceae) is an evergreen pantropical tree distributed in Africa,
Asia and Pacic countries from where its medicinal and
cosmetic traditional uses for centuries had been reported
(Stevens, 1980;Florence, 2004;Dweck & Meadows, 2002).
Locally called tamanuin French Polynesia, this tree is
mostly found growing along the seashores or around the
marae, and was considered as a sacred tree in ancient times.
The oil expressed from the nuts, called tamanu oil, has been
traditionally used for many purposes and mainly for topical
applications on skins as well as mucous membrane lesions.
This oil is especially recommended for the cure of all kinds of
dermal affections (burns, dermatoses, eczema, acne, psoria-
sis, chilblains, skin cracks, diabetic sores, hemorrhoids, dry
skin, etc.). Due to its calming and relieving pain effects, the
oil is used in massages, for rheumatisms and sciatica
soothing, and also highly appreciated for wound healing
and analgesic properties (Pétard, 1986;Whistler, 1992;
Dweck and Meadows, 2002;Khilam, 2004). The efciency of
tamanu oil has been shown not only through traditional
medicine uses for centuries but also by its use on hospitalized
patients for signicant diminution of scars, so considered in
vivo like reported studies (Mariette-Chanson, 2006). These
longtime traditional uses of tamanu oilled to consider that
this oil is one major Polynesian cosmetopoeia product which
deserved more scientic investigations to rationalize its uses
as a cosmetic ingredient (Ansel et al., 2015). Aiming to show
tamanu oilpotential skin effect, we present herein briey:
its physical and chemical characteristics;
its biological activities and properties related to skin
treatment for cosmeceutical regards.
2 Physical and chemical characteristics of
tamanu oil
2.1 Obtention of tamanu oil and physico-chemical
Tamanu oil process: ripe fruits of Calophyllum inophyllum
are rst sun dried for one to two months to allow the oil
biosynthesis and accumulation in the nuts. Dried nuts are
deshelled and submitted to a mechanical cold pressure to yield
a viscous yellowish to greenish virgin tamanu oil(4060%
by weight) having strong walnut-like specic aroma. This raw
oil was ltered before use and packing.
Physico-chemical characteristics of tamanu oil are as
density: (0.8900.934);
refractive index: n
saponication index: (183206);
acidic index (mg KOH/g): (1346);
iodide index: (8298);
peroxide index: (090);
unsaponied components: (0.150.85);
resinous: (10%20%).
2.2 Fatty acids
Triglycerides of tamanu oil are characterized by classical
fatty acid composition as follows (a mean found for 5 tamanu
oils from different origins): palmitic acid (16.5 ± 1.59%),
palmitoleic acid (0.26 ± 0.11%), stearic acid (30.2 ± 4.36%),
oleic acid (23.6 ± 4.77%), linoleic acid (25.5 ± 3.87%), alpha-
linoleic acid (0.26 ± 0.05%), arachidonic acid (0.6 ± 0.09%),
gadoleic acid (0.3 ± 0.1%), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid
(<0.1%), behenic acid (0.1 ± 0.15%), docosadienoic acid
(1.4 ± 5.08%). Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are the major
constituents (4152%) with a relative high proportion of
stearic acid (2535%). Unsaturated fatty acids (1822%),
monounsaturated acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated acids
(PUFA) are found in good amounts present respectively as
oleic acid (2026%) and linoleic acid (2129%) (Léguillier
et al., 2015).
2.3 Resinous composition: neoavonoids and
Tamanu oil contained also an ethanol soluble resinous part
(ranging 20% of the oil), which is comprised mainly of
secondary metabolites mostly composed by neoavonoids and
pyranocoumarin derivatives (Lederer et al., 1953;Laure, 2005;
Bruneton, 2009;Leu et al., 2009). Following their structural
features, these compounds are classied as inophyllums
(within a phenyl substituent), calanolides (within a propyl
substituent), or tamanolides (within a sec-isobutyl substituent)
but the major constituent is always the calophyllolide (an
inophyllum derivative). The main components of French
Polynesian tamanu oilresinous part are: calophyllolide,
inopyllums (C, D, E, P), calanolides (A, B, D), tamanolides (D, P)
(Leu, 2009;Ansel et al.,2016).
3 Biological activities
Biological activity related to skin affections and tamanu oil
were put in evidence and reported by different authors, and so
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P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL
enlightened its benec effects such as an antioxidant,
antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inammatory and showing
wound healing effects.
3.1 Antioxidant and anti-UV properties
Antioxidant effect of tamanu oil had been shown by
signicantly reducing the intracellular ROS production (Said
et al., 2007). Signicant radical scavenging effects of some
neoavonoid constituents of tamanu oil resin were found from
DPPH assay results of some constituents: inophyllum E (IC
4.8 mM), inocalophyllin B (IC
: 5.7 mM) and inophyllum C
: 6.92 mM) and thus, related to antioxidant potential of
these compounds (Leu, 2009). Beyond the antioxidant effect,
the study reports that amongst different oils, Calophyllum
inophyllum was the only one that also possessed good capacity
to absorb UV light within a signicant absorption spectrum
from 260 to 400 nm. Actually, 85% of the DNA damage
induced by UV-radiations was shown to be inhibited with 1%
of Calophyllum oil without any in vivo ocular irritation.
Because UV-radiations can also induce harmful reactive
oxygen species production for ocular system, these results led
to suggest that Calophyllum inophyllum oil presents both UV-
absorption and antioxidant properties that might contribute to
its use as a vehicle in ophthalmic preparations, free of
cytotoxicity and associated to an important sun protector factor
3.2 Antimicrobial
Tamanu oil had been reported to have interesting
antimicrobial activities including antibacterial, antifungal
effects especially for related skin pathogenic strains.
3.2.1 Antibacterial activity
Tamanu oil neoavonoid constituents were found to have
antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strain,
namely calophyllolide (MIC: 16 mg), inophyllum C (MIC:
10 mg) and inophyllum E (MIC: 13 mg), which activities were
shown to be stronger than that of the antibiotic standard oxacillin
(30 mg) (Yimdjo et al., 2004). These results suggested the
bactericidal effect of tamanu oil constituents.
Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO) was shown to exhibit
high antibacterial activity against bacteria involved in skin
infections. Very interesting antibacterial activities were shown
on aerobic Gramþbacteria tested strains such as Staphylo-
coccus aureus (as a multi-drug resistant involved in
nosocomial and skin infections), Bacillus cereus associated
to wound infections in postsurgical patients and cutaneous
infections subsequent to trauma, Staphylococcus epidermidis
and Staphylococcus haemolyticus responsible for catheter
associated infections and Corynebacterium minutissimum
implicated in erythrasma. Moreover, all the tested CIO against
Gramþbacteria species present MIC value similar or lower than
ooxacin taken as a positive control. From the same experi-
ments, CIO was also shown to exhibit high antibacterial activity
(within MIC value similar or lower than ooxacin) against
bacterial strains involved in acne (Propionibacterium species)
such as Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium
granulosum, thus suggesting the potential of CIO for acne
treatment (Léguillier et al., 2015). As there is no chemical
structure similarity between ooxacin and tamanu oil neo-
avonoids, the observed high antimicrobial activity of this oil
cannot be explained easily by chemicalstructure features, and its
mode of action should be studied beyond structure relationship
3.2.2 Antifungal activity
Antifungal activities of tamanu oil ethanol extract (at a
concentration of 4 mg/mL) had been reported, showing
stronger inhibiting activity on various fungal strains (Candida
albicans,Candida tropicalis,Aspergillus niger,Aspergillus
fumigatus,Alternaria tenuissima) than uconazole (10 mg)
taken as a positive control (Saravan et al., 2011).
3.3 Anti-inammatory
The calophyllolide molecule in Calophyllum inophyllum
oil had been reported to possess an anti-inammatory activity,
comparatively to hydrocortisone (10 mg) taken as positive
control on formaldehyde induced arthritis inammation,
showing an effectiveness from its efcient dose (ED) of
140 mg/kg and its lethal dose (DL) of 2.5 g/kg (Bhalla et al.,
1980). Calophyllolide, isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum,
had been shown to prevent a prolonged inammatory process
by reducing myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and down-
regulation of the pro-inammatory cytokines-IL-1b, IL-6,
TNF-a, but up-regulation of the anti-inammatory cytokine,
IL-10. The underlying molecular mechanism was also related
to an increase of M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-
regulation of M2-related gene expression (Nguyen et al.,
3.4 Wound healing
Tamanu oil promotes wound healing in keratinocyte cells
(HaCaT) and also in broblast cells (HMDF). Tamanu oil was
emulsied to obtain TOE (tamanu oil emulsion) from which
wound healing experiments were realized on both keratino-
cytes (HaCaT) and broblasts (HDF) conuent and then
scratched monolayer cells using different concentrations of
TOE (1/100, 1/200 and 1/400) or 25 mg/mL Vitamin C. Wound
closure was followed by video microscopy (fully motorized
microscope) during 24 h Wound healing assays showed that
1%TOE accelerated the wound closure of the scratched
broblast monolayer: the gap was closed after 14 h, faster than
in vitamin C-treated cells (Ansel et al., 2016).
Calophyllolide (isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum)
was also reported to reduce brosis formation and effectively
promoted wound closure in mouse model and so showing a
plausible role for calophyllolide in accelerating the process of
wound healing through anti-inammatory activity mecha-
nisms (Nguyen et al., 2017).
3.5 Dermal and epidermal extra-cellular matrix effects
The skin-active effect of tamanu oil emulsionwas
investigated on human skin cell cultures (keratinocytes and
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P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL
dermal broblasts) showing: cell proliferation, glycosamino-
glycan and collagen production as well as wound healing
activity (Ansel et al., 2016).
The skin-active effect of tamanu oil emulsion(TOE) was
investigated on human skin cell cultures (keratinocytes
HaCAT and dermal broblasts HDF) showing cell prolifera-
tion (for up to 18 h incubation time) with an increase (relative
to the control cells) of 1040% for HaCaT (0.251% TOE) and
of 520% for HDF at all dilutions.
Glycosaminoglycan(GAG) and collagenproduction,as well
as wound healing activities were evaluated by application of 1%
TOE on treated cells (HaCaTand HDF). An increase of collagen
production(10 to 40%) wasobserved with a similar level forboth
cell types depending on the duration of incubation.
Transcriptomic analysis on treated cells revealed gene
expression modulation including 223 genes involved in
metabolic process for main biological pathways implied in
the observed cell activities (Conesa et al.,2005;Harrow
et al., 2012). On the 201 sequences, whom the cellular
component was assigned, 59.7% are membrane products. A
signicant assignation for the extracellular relationships is
observed with 37.3% of sequences to cell periphery, 27.36%
to extracellular region and 13.93% to cell junction. For the
biological process of these gene products (192 sequences
were assigned), 56.25% are involved in response to stimulus
(response to abiotic, chemical, endogenous stimuli, etc.)
such as cell migration and hypoxia, 74.28% are involved in
metabolic process, such as 2-galactosyltransferases and 1-
fucosyltransferase (FUT9) implied in O-glycan biosynthe-
sis, 11.98% are involved in cell adhesion and 13.20% in cell
The biological processes of re-epithelialization following a
wound are well-known (Martin, 1997;Sivamani et al., 2007;
Krafts, 2010). They imply epidermal cell migration and
proliferation, restoration of barrier function by the consolida-
tion of the extra-cellular matrix, and remodeling with collagen
ber rearrangement and cell junctions development. It is
important to notice that the differently expressed and annotated
genes are mostly implied in these different processes (Ansel
et al., 2016).
Bioactive neoavonoid constituents in TOE may contrib-
ute to these biological activities. Altogether consistent data
related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought
new highlights on mechanisms involved in these biological
processes induced by tamanu oil effect on human skin cells
(Ansel et al., 2016).
4 Conclusions
Biological activity studies conrmed skin-active effects of
tamanu oil treatment and an antimicrobial (antibacterial and
antifungal) protection, anti-inammatory, wound healing,
promotion of extra-matrix cellular (production of GAG and
collagen). The biological properties may explain the use of
tamanu oil as an active cosmetic ingredient recorded as
Calophyllum inophyllum seed oilby the INCI (International
Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients). Due to its properties
and benets, tamanu oil is included in different cosmetic
formulation as an active ingredient such as for skin
regeneration, after sun protection, soothing and irritation
calming, wrinkle and stretch mark prevention (Hostettmann,
2011). Indeed traditional uses of tamanu oil such as monoï
ingredient was good source of inspiration for its cosmetic
modern uses and new ways of valuation.
As shown for tamanu oil, an ethnocosmetic product,
cosmetopoeia conceptcares about traditional cosmetic and
dermocosmetic uses of natural products and should be
investigated by a multidisciplinary approach integrating
complementary elds such as: biodiversity, ethnobotany,
ethnocosmetology, traditional knowledge, ABS (access to
genetic resources and Benet Sharing), world heritage,
phytochemistry, biological activities, bioassays, natural prod-
ucts valuation. Focus on Cosmetopoeia conceptwill launch
discussions about renewing interests of plants of the pastfor
future valuationsnamely as biosourcing ingredient for
cosmeceuticals and will inspire innovative ways for sustainable
development of different countries and cultures over the world.
Acknowledgements. We are grateful to Cosmetic-Valley for
their nancial support to this project.
Conicts of interest. The authors declare that they have no
conicts of interest in relation to this article.
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Cite this article as: Raharivelomanana P, Ansel J-L, Lupo E, Mijouin L, Guillot S, Butaud J-F, Ho R, Lecellier G, Pichon C. 2018. Tamanu
oil and skin active properties: from traditional to modern cosmetic uses. OCL,
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P. Raharivelomanana et al.: OCL
... Calophyllum inophyllum L. (commonly called tamanu, with local names nyamplung and bintangor) is currently being developed as an alternative renewable fuel source through biological processes (bioenergy) as diesel fuel. Calophyllum inophyllum can produce 11.7 kg crude oil per tree, and the oil content per fruit is 65-75% higher than that of other vegetable oil-producing plants such as palm, Jatropha, etc. [28][29][30]. However, the use of nyamplung oil as a biofuel has not yet become a business, even though a study conducted by Sharmini and Tan in Malaysia [31] showed it was economically feasible. ...
... In Indonesia, tamanu oil has been developed as a business commodity to meet the needs of the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries in Indonesia and other countries [28]. Tamanu oil is extracted from the seeds of C. inophyllum plants [29]. Peatlands are the original habitat of some species of Calophyllum (bintangor). ...
... C. inophyllum from Indonesia has been reported to have excellent fatty acid content, as shown in Table 2. Calophyllum spp. are rich in bioactive compounds, which are found in almost all parts of the plant and have various biological functions, such as wound treatment, so they have potential use in medicines and cosmetics [29,83] C. lanigerum contains calanoide A, which has potential as an HIV medicine [84][85][86]. C. ferrugenineum and C. incrassatum have high antioxidant effects [83]. ...
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Indonesia’s tropical peatlands are one of the world’s largest carbon sinks, and they are facing the threat of extensive degradation and conversion. The Indonesian government is committed to peat restoration. However, restoration is still a costly, top-down approach lacking community participation, and is focused on the 3R scheme (rewetting, revegetation, and revitalization). Peatland restoration businesses are part of the innovative effort to finance this endeavor. Unfortunately, there is not much information available about the pre-conditions required to create a restoration business. This study seeks to understand the enabling conditions for the development of peatland restoration, with a focus on the tamanu oil business, and to assess whether the same situation might apply in the context of the restoration of degraded peatland. PEST analysis is used to describe the macro-environmental factors of the tamanu oil business and its development opportunities in degraded peatlands. Tamanu oil-based peat ecosystem restoration businesses offer good prospects because of the growing it has grown the bioenergy and biomedical markets, and they can cover a larger area of degraded peatland landscape. For tamanu oil businesses to succeed in peat ecosystem restoration, we recommend that policy documents at various levels include tamanu as a priority commodity for peatland restoration and alternative community businesses, followed by planting programs by all stakeholders. The government and social organizations must take positions as initiators and catalysts, establish a significant number and extent of pilot tamanu plantations, and create a mutually supportive business climate between entrepreneurs and peatland managers.
... Natural products have long been explored as a potential source of novel treatments, and tamanu oil is no exception. Various parts of this tree have been found to have potential use against different diseases, particularly skin-related ailments such as eczema, psoriasis, burns, acne, dermatoses, and even the treatment of wounds [1][2][3]. In this paper, we will review the pharmacological properties of tamanu oil and extracts derived from tamanu nuts, namely, its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound-healing, and antioxidant properties. ...
... Tamanu oil, derived from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum L., is obtained from an evergreen, pantropical tree growing around seashores in Asia, Africa and Pacific countries. In French Polynesia, the tree is locally called "tamanu" tree, and various parts of the plant have been used over time for various medicinal purposes and even as active ingredients in cosmetics [2]. One of the most commonly used parts of the plant is the nut as depicted in Figure 2. e kernels have an oil content of around 75%. e oil obtained from the nuts of the tamanu plant has been traditionally topically applied on the skin and mucous membrane lesions to prevent skin infections and even to reduce the appearance of a scar. ...
... Over the years, tamanu oil has been recommended for various skin issues such as eczema, acne, psoriasis, burns, skin cracks, and dermatoses. It has also been used for its pain-relieving properties in rheumatisms and sciatica and for its analgesic properties in wound healing [1,2]. In addition, tamanu oil is used in Fiji to treat a number of other ailments, such as joint pain and conjunctivitis, and even to prevent rash in infants. ...
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Tamanu oil, derived from the nut of Calophyllum inophyllum L., has been traditionally used to treat various skin-related ailments. In recent years, this oil is increasingly gaining popularity as researchers continue to search for novel natural alternative therapies for various skin diseases. There have been a number of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating various skin-active properties of tamanu oil, and it has been proven to have potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic, and even wound-healing abilities. These properties make tamanu oil an especially interesting candidate for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). This multifaceted disease is marked by the disruption of the skin barrier function, chronic inflammation, and skin microbiome dysbiosis with limited treatment options, which is free from adverse events and inexpensive, making it desperate for a new treatment option. In this review, we examine previous in vitro and in vivo studies on AD-relevant pharmacological properties of tamanu oil in order to evaluate the potential of tamanu oil as a novel treatment option for AD.
... Nowadays, TO is also considered as a potential source for cosmetic industry (acne, dry skin, hair loss, etc.), a fast growing field looking for natural ingredients (Ansel et al., 2016;Raharivelomanana et al., 2018;Saechan et al., 2021). ...
... The composition of TO is rather complex. Triacylglycerols make the main class of components; eleven fatty acids have been reported: saturated fatty acids with a relative high percentage of stearic acid (25-35%) together with palmitic acid (8-14%); unsaturated fatty acids, comprising oleic and linoleic acids, each one accounting for 25-40% (Nguyen and Tran, 2016;Raharivelomanana et al., 2018). However, this figure is highly dependent on the extraction process and on the country where the nuts are harvested (Crane et al., 2005;Kartika et al., 2019). ...
... But the most prominent fact about TO is the presence of an ethanol-soluble group of (polar) compounds, called resin, in the range of 10-30%. Above listed benefits of crude TO are likely to originate from its bioactive compounds such calophyllolids, but also neoflavonoids, xanthone and pyranocoumarin derivatives (Morel et al., 2000;Nguyen et al., 2017;Raharivelomanana et al., 2018). These bioactive compounds were shown to bring antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-UV properties (Saravanan et al., 2011;Shanmugapriya et al., 2016;Cassien et al., 2021) and some of them have been used for the development of an antihuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug (Wei-Hsien et al., 2015), or known for their osteogenic activity (Liu et al., 2015). ...
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Tamanu ( Calophyllum inophyllum L.) oil is a non-food oil used in traditional medicine, and with potential applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. However, this oil, obtained by pressing the nuts, is being used as crude oil, in spite of a variable but large amount of non-lipids (called resin) being entrained. Although these should not be seen as impurities owing to their known bioactivity in many fields, not only they are responsible for the poisonous nature impeding human consumption in addition to bad smell, but they contribute to the poor oil quality, especially low stability and associated short shelf life. The present study aimed at purifying a crude tamanu oil sample through a combination of simple steps: deresination with ethanol, degumming using hot water, neutralization (KOH), bleaching with activated carbon, and deodorization. Ethanol 96% was more efficient for deresinating, compared to methanol, resulting in the extraction of 44–46% w/w of resin within 10 min (temperature 40 °C; oil:ethanol 1:1.5 w/v). Oil quality was checked in the industrial crude sample and in the fully refined product. The applied process strongly improved the color from dark brown to light golden yellow, decreased the acid value (62 down to 0.11 mgKOH/g of oil), and the viscosity (181 to 130 mPa.s). The saponification value was lowered from 206 to 180 mgKOH/g oil. The peroxide value was only slightly lowered from 85 to 55 mgO 2 /kg oil, thus pointing out the peculiar chemical nature of tamanu oil. Improving this important quality parameter would require additional research work, together with fine-tuned optimization of experimental conditions for a panel of crude oil samples; this was out of the scope of present work. This preliminary study shows that refining steps widely applied at industrial scale could help improving the quality of tamanu oil – an underused natural feedstock – for enhanced application in health and cosmetic fields.
... Hasil yang diperoleh yaitu minyak nyamplung berbentuk cair dengan warna kuning kecoklatan hingga kehijauan dan mempunyai bau khas kacang-kacangan seperti kenari [16]. ...
... Sehingga diperoleh bobot jenis minyak nyamplung sebesar 0,9261. Hasil tersebut masuk dalam range bobot jenis pada penelitian sebelumnya yaitu 0,890-0,934 [16]. ...
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Emulgel is an emulsion of both O/W and W/O which is made into a gel by mixing it with a gelling agent. One of the gelling agents that is often used is HPMC because it can produce a clear gel, easily soluble in water, and has low toxicity. Nyamplung oil has wound healing activity by stimulating cell proliferation and the production of collagen and GAG (glycosaminoglycans). The purpose of this study was to find out that nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L) oil can be made into a good emulgel preparation, has the effect of healing cuts, to determine the effect of variations in HPMC concentration on the physical quality and stability of the emulgel, and in accelerating the healing of cuts. This study used three formulas containing 1%, 2%, and 3% HPMC plus one control formula. Emulgel is made by mixing emulsion with gel and contains 1% nyamplung oil, then physical quality tests are carried out : organoleptic, homogeneity, pH, adhesion, dispersibility, viscosity test, emulgel type test, stability test. The wound healing activity test was carried out on the back of New Zealand rabbits. The percentage of treatment results were statistically analyzed. The results showed that all nyamplung oil emulgel formulas could be made ini emulgel preparations, had good physical quality and stability and had the effect of wound healing. The effect of gelling agent concentration affects the speed of wound healing. The result of the most optimal wound healing activity test is the formula 2.
... thermodynamic parameters, it was necessary to identify the different types of fatty acids present in the oils because the thermodynamic parameters are governed significantly by viscosity. Table 3 shows the composition and the percentage of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids present in the oils identified through gas chromatographic analysis by [3,28,29]. Shorter fatty acid chains (C 8 to C 16 CPO/VCO showed low values of ΔE a ΔH ‡ ΔG ‡ because of the presence of short fatty acid chains having weak intermolecular interactions amongst them. These short chains however, undergoes extensive orientation in order to flow. ...
Knowledge about the viscous thermodynamic properties of vegetable oils is important for better understanding for the development of biodiesels. In this work, temperature dependent dynamic viscosities and densities of vegetable oils extracted from Cocos nucifera, [Copra oil (CPO) and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO)], Calophyllum inophyllum (CaliO) and Canarium indicum (CiO) were determined experimentally. CaliO and CiO exhibited high viscosity compared to CPO/VCO due to the presence of long unsaturated fatty acid chains. Polar lipids dominated CaliO resulting in high density while non-polar lipids resulted in low density of CiO. The Eyring model was used to estimate the viscous thermodynamic activation energy parameters; Ea (kJ mol−1) ΔH‡ (−1), ΔS‡ (−1.K−1) and ΔG‡ (kJ). For CPO/VCO: Ea = 24.4, ΔH‡ = 23.8, ΔS‡ = 927. For CaliO: Ea = 26.0, ΔH‡ = 25.9, ΔS‡ = 924 and for CiO: Ea = 27.5, ΔH‡ = 26.7, ΔS‡ = 921. The positive and high ΔH‡ value in CiO corresponded to high ordering in the oil while the high value of ΔS‡ in CPO/VCO signified high disorientation during flow. The viscosity and the activation energy parameters correlated well with the nature and the proportion of the different types of fatty acids present in the oils.
... Two coumarin-type components of C. inophyllum are calanolides A and B. 54 The resinous compounds in tamanu oil, which are attributed to the healing activity of the oil, contain mostly secondary metabolites from neoflavonoids and pyranocoumarin derivatives. 55 Mechanism. The oil possesses cicatrizing properties, and antiinflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal activity. ...
Wound healing is a sophisticated process that results in the repair of damaged tissues. Any impairment to this process can lead to non-healing (chronic) wounds. Since these can cause a massive burden on the healthcare system, alternative therapies that promote wound healing should be considered. Therapies of natural origins that are safe and with no adverse side effects are especially promising. Vietnam, a tropical-climate country, has many medicinal plants that possess the potential for healing wounds. This report explores the use of some common plants used in Traditional Vietnamese medicine and their molecular mechanisms.
... Tamanu oil also could allow the skin to retain moisture, act as a protective barrier or occlusive agent, and decrease transepidermal water loss (TEWL). 6 The topical application of oleic acid inhibited UV-induced collagen degradation by downregulating MMP-1 expression through AP-1 and NF-kβ inhibition. Topical FFAs also increase pro-collagen I through upregulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression. ...
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Background: UV-B irradiation is the major causative factor in photoaging. Photoaging increases MMP-1 significantly and cause damage to collagen by forming ROS. The monounsaturated free fatty acids and antioxidant compounds in Tamanu oil have been studied to inhibit the emergence of MMP-1 and maintain collagen amount. The study aimed to investigate topical Tamanu oil in inhibiting MMP-1 expressions and collagen decrease in male Wistar rats’ skin exposed to UV-B. Methods: A randomized post-test-only control group design was performed on 36 male Wistar rats, aged 2-3 months old with 180-220 grams body weight. They were assigned to two groups: the placebo group and the Tamanu oil group. Both groups were given the same amount of UV-B exposure for four weeks totalling in 840 mJ/cm2 of dosage radiation. Their dermis was examined for MMP-1 using Immunohistochemistry and collagen amount using Picro Sirius Red staining. Results: A comparative analysis was done to show the difference between groups. The mean expression of MMP-1 in the control group was 34,03±2.97 cell/HPF and the Tamanu oil group was lower at 22.73±2.68 cell/HPF. The mean amount of collagen dermis in the control group was 38.90±11.64 % and the Tamanu oil group was higher at 65.66±8.13 %. A significant difference was shown in the two groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Topical Tamanu oil has proven to hinder the increase of MMP-1 expressions and collagen amount in male Wistar rats’ skin exposed to UV-B.
... Moreover, nanoemulsion containing black cumin oil also presented this effect [75]. In another study with Tamanu fixed oil, emulsions were developed with 1% of the oil that showed HaCaT proliferation and wound closure was observed after 24 h [76]. ...
Despite the potential of Passiflora spp. as potential as source of bioactive compounds, poor aqueous solubility and stability issues restrict their use in pharmaceutical field. The most suitable approach to overcome such limitations is the development of formulations based on proper delivery systems. Among them, nanoemulsions have been widely used as carrier systems that can guarantee better cutaneous performance of herbal oils. This study evaluated physicochemical properties and cellular effects of seed oils from four varieties of wild Passiflora spp. The fatty acids profile of the seed oils was analyzed by gas chromatography and cell viability assay was performed on J774 macrophages. The nanoemulsions were prepared for the different seeds oils and cell proliferation was evaluated on HaCaT keratinocytes. The oils presented a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid (>65%) and no cytotoxic effects were observed on J774 cells up to 100 μg/mL. All nanoemulsions presented droplet size about 200 nm, narrow polydispersity index (<0.300) and overall, physicochemical properties consistent with good stability after 90 days of storage. The oils and nanoemulsions induced proliferation of keratinocytes, where nanoemulsions prepared with P. alata oil was the most effective, reaching 150% effect. These findings demonstrate proper cytocompatibility of oils from wild Passiflora spp. and their ability to stimulate the proliferation of keratinocytes, which suggest their potential use as herbal bioactives for dermal healing. Their incorporation in nanoemulsions is an innovative approach for obtaining nanotechnological dermatological products through a sustainable concept that can reach organoleptic characteristics superior to the in natura product.
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Essential oils are concentrated liquids of intricate combinations of volatile substances, extracted from various plant parts. Several bioactive substances with antibacterial and antioxidant activities are abundant in essential oils. Some essential oils have also been employed in medicine. Due to the risk associated with employing synthetic preservatives, the use of essential oils as natural additives for extending the shelf life of food products has also drawn considerable attention. They are used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries for their functional properties. There are various methods for extraction, but both the quality and the percentage yield of essential oil never remain the same. So, innovative and non-conventional techniques of essential oils extraction from medicinal plants were evoled to get quantitative and qualitative yield. In the present article, we searched and reviewed innovative techniques used for the extraction of essential oils from medicinal and aromatic plants through electronic searches of PubMed, Medline, Wiley, Scopus, and Google Scholar. For the extraction of essential oils, several innovative/non-conventional techniques have been reported in literature. Extraction of essential oil by using innovative techniques retards the risk of losing the essential components of plants, maintains the quality, reduces chemical risk, extraction time, acts eco-friendly, and increases the percentage yield of the essential oils. This paper presents the success story of innovative extraction methods of essential oils in accordance with sustainable development and environmental protection.
Biolubricants, often referred as biobased lubricants or bio-lubes, are developed from a variety of vegetable oils. Constraints in this area are associated with the growth of a globally accessible biodegradable base stock, their continuous supply as well as desired physicochemical properties. Nyamplung ( Calophyllum inophyllum ), a tropical plant, has been identified as a promising biofuel and biolubricant source for a sustainable future. Nyamplung is a genus of an evergreen tree commonly found along the coastal regions in the world. Seed oil from Nyamplung is a nonedible seed with a high oil content of 50–70%. The most widely used techniques for extracting oil from nyamplung seeds are mechanical extraction and solvent extraction. For various applications for maintenance and industrial purposes instead of lubricants based on vegetable petroleum, it is necessary to modify them using additives to overcome their shortcomings.
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This book is aimed at ethnobotany students, doctors studying herbal medicines, and anyone else who wants to learn something about Polynesian cultures and their herbal medicine heritage. The presence of color photos will greatly assist those wanting to identify the medicinal plants, particularly those species discussed in the other books produced by Isle Botanica, such as Tongan Herbal Medicine and Samoan Herbal Medicine. The book is not meant to be used as a practical guide for someone taking or administering medicine, since the information was collected with the understanding of the healers that it was not for this purpose, and dosage is consequently not given. The use of medicinal plants dates to prehistoric times when ancient people found that ingestion or application of certain herbs and barks was effective in treating some of the ailments that plagued them. Herbal medicine is a part of virtually all cultures, and the South Pacific islands that comprise Polynesian are no exception. Even today herbal medicine is used at one time or another by a large percentage of the Polynesians living in Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, the Society Islands, Hawai'i, and New Zealand, especially during infancy and childhood. While plants used for food, shelter, dyes, and many others aspects of the material culture of Tonga are easy to see and study, the use of plants for medicines is more esoteric. To elucidate this poorly known facet of Polynesian culture, the author undertook a study of Polynesian herbal medicine, which involved interviews with over 75 local healers over a several-year span. The book is divided into four chapters. The first, "Introduction to Polynesia," includes sections on the islands, the people, the languages, and the migrations. The second chapter, "Traditional Polynesian Medical Practices," includes sections on the applicable literature, the ailments of the ancient Polynesians, the epidemics, the causation of illness, medical practices, the treatment of injuries, Polynesian massage, and a summary. The third chapter, "Polynesian Medical Practices Today," includes a discussion of current medicinal practices in five parts of Polynesia - Tonga, Samoa, Tahiti, the Cook Islands, and Hawaii. The fourth chapter, "The Medicinal Plants," comprises an enumeration and discussion of 90 of the most commonly used medicinal plants in Polynesia. These are arranged in alphabetical order by scientific name. Each species has a detailed, close-up color photo and the following information: (1) scientific name; (2) family to which the plant belongs; (3) English name or names (if any); (4) Polynesian names in Samoa, Tonga, the Cook Islands, the Society Islands, and Hawaii; (5) a botanical description (6) distribution; (7) habitat in which the plant is found; and (8) uses, both medicinal and non-medicinal, in Polynesia and elsewhere in the world. Following the four chapters is a bibliography of pertinent literature, an index to the scientific names, and an index to Polynesian names.
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Due to the high-cost and limitations of current wound healing treatments, the search for alternative approaches or drugs, particularly from medicinal plants, is of key importance. In this study, we report anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the major calophyllolide (CP) compound isolated from Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. The results showed that CP had no effect on HaCaT cell viability over a range of concentrations. CP reduced fibrosis formation and effectively promoted wound closure in mouse model without causing body weight loss. The underlying molecular mechanisms of wound repair by CP was investigated. CP markedly reduced MPO activity, and increased M2 macrophage skewing, as shown by up-regulation of M2-related gene expression, which is beneficial to the wound healing process. CP treatment prevented a prolonged inflammatory process by down-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines—IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, but up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This study is the first to indicate a plausible role for CP in accelerating the process of wound healing through anti-inflammatory activity mechanisms, namely, by regulation of inflammatory cytokines, reduction in MPO, and switching of macrophages to an M2 phenotype. These findings may enable the utilization of CP as a potent therapeutic for cutaneous wound healing.
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Oil from the nuts of Calophyllum inophyllum, locally called "Tamanu oil" in French Polynesia, was traditionally used for wound healing and to cure various skin problems and ailments. The skin-active effect of "Tamanu oil emulsion" was investigated on human skin cells (keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts) and showed cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan and collagen production, and wound healing activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the treated cells revealed gene expression modulation including genes involved in the metabolic process implied in O-glycan biosynthesis, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation. The presence of neoflavonoids as bioactive constituents in Tamanu oil emulsion may contribute to these biological activities. Altogether, consistent data related to targeted histological and cellular functions brought new highlights on the mechanisms involved in these biological processes induced by Tamanu oil effects in skin cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
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Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Calophyllaceae) is an evergreen tree ethno-medically used along the seashores and islands of the Indian and Pacific Oceans, especially in Polynesia. Oil extracted from the seeds is traditionally used topically to treat a wide range of skin injuries from burn, scar and infected wounds to skin diseases such as dermatosis, urticaria and eczema. However, very few scientific studies reported and quantified the therapeutic properties of Calophyllum inophyllum oil (CIO). In this work, five CIO from Indonesia (CIO1), Tahiti (CIO2, 3), Fiji islands (CIO4) and New Caledonia (CIO5) were studied and their cytotoxic, wound healing, and antibacterial properties were presented in order to provide a scientific support to their traditional use and verify their safety.
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The GENCODE Consortium aims to identify all gene features in the human genome using a combination of computational analysis, manual annotation, and experimental validation. Since the first public release of this annotation data set, few new protein-coding loci have been added, yet the number of alternative splicing transcripts annotated has steadily increased. The GENCODE 7 release contains 20,687 protein-coding and 9640 long noncoding RNA loci and has 33,977 coding transcripts not represented in UCSC genes and RefSeq. It also has the most comprehensive annotation of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) loci publicly available with the predominant transcript form consisting of two exons. We have examined the completeness of the transcript annotation and found that 35% of transcriptional start sites are supported by CAGE clusters and 62% of protein-coding genes have annotated polyA sites. Over one-third of GENCODE protein-coding genes are supported by peptide hits derived from mass spectrometry spectra submitted to Peptide Atlas. New models derived from the Illumina Body Map 2.0 RNA-seq data identify 3689 new loci not currently in GENCODE, of which 3127 consist of two exon models indicating that they are possibly unannotated long noncoding loci. GENCODE 7 is publicly available from and via the Ensembl and UCSC Genome Browsers
The Indian flora is extensively utilized as source of any drugs mentioned in the traditional systems of medicine. There is a continuous and urgent need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action for new and re-emerging infectious diseases. Therefore, researchers are increasingly turning their attention to folk medicine; looking for new leads to develop better drugs against microbial infections. The aim of the current study was to investigate antimicrobial activity of the various extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum L. An ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Family: Clusiaceae) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinically important bacterial and fungal sp. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Calophyllum inophyllum revealed a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antibacterial and antifungal herbal formulation.
An essential feature of a healed wound is the restoration of an intact epidermal barrier through wound epithelialization, also known as re-epithelialization. The directed migration of keratinocytes is critical to wound epithelialization and defects in this function are associated with the clinical phenotype of chronic non-healing wounds. A complex balance of signaling factors and surface proteins are expressed and regulated in a temporospatial manner that promote keratinocyte motility and survival to activate wound re-epithelialization. The majority of this review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate keratinocyte migration in the re-epithelialization process. This includes a review of cell attachments via desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and integrins, the expression of keratins, the role of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, eicosanoids, oxygen tension, antimicrobial peptides, and matrix metalloproteinases. Also reviewed are recently emerging novel mediators of keratinocyte motility including the role of electric fields, and signaling via the acetylcholine and beta-adrenergic receptors. These multiple regulators impact the ability of keratinocytes to migrate from the wound edge or other epidermal reservoirs to efficiently re-epithelialize a breach in the integrity of the epidermis. New discoveries will continue to uncover the elegant network of events that result in restoration of epidermal integrity and complete the wound repair process.