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The results of the several years' long research of impact of energy efficiency measures in the 70 selected public buildings were presented within two interactive areas among themselves, in the research of the impact on energy savings and reduction of CO 2 emissions and the results of the consumers' satisfaction survey of these investments. After the completion of the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the selected public facilities significant energy savings have been achieved in the range of 15% to 63%, with an average energy saving of 38% for all surveyed public buildings. The annual reductions of CO 2 emissions are achieved to the similar range between 15% and 64% with an expected average of 38%. The average annual specific energy consumption for space heating in public analyzed buildings compared to the before and after implementation phases of energy efficiency measures is showed substantial reductions. Significant energy consumption savings have been achieved for all 70 refurbished buildings, with annual savings of an average of 34.77% which amounts to 17,818,764 kWh/year over entire project. Differences in average annual specific CO 2 emissions reduction follows the same pattern as energy consumption, which is 13709 t/a. The Equity Payback Period (EPP) for EE Measures is 5.5 years. For the part of the detailed study of the customer satisfaction assessment, the authors has selected batch of 5 characteristic buildings from the group of 17 public buildings with 165 respondents to identify and measure the level of end users satisfaction, the perception of indoor air and thermal comfort, the awareness on the EE measures, and the additional benefits of EE upgrades (eg. reductions of sick leave days, increasing productivity, increasing budget for other priorities, etc.).
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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET)
Volume 9, Issue 4, July - August 2018, pp. 333342, Article ID: IJARET_09_04_034
Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=9&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6480 and ISSN Online: 0976-6499
© IAEME Publication
EVALUATION OF IMPLEMENTED ENERGY
EFFICIENCY MEASURES IN PUBLIC
BUILDINGS IN KOSOVO
Kreshnik Muhaxheri
PhD Candidate, Architect, PIU of World Bank Project of EEM in Kosovo
Florian Nepravishta
Professor, Dean of Faculty of Architecture and Civil Engineering, PUT, Albania
Ramadan Alushaj
Professor, Mechanical Faculty, PUT, Albania
ABSTRACT
The results of the several years’ long research of impact of energy efficiency
measures in the 70 selected public buildings were presented within two interactive
areas among themselves, in the research of the impact on energy savings and
reduction of CO2 emissions and the results of the consumers’ satisfaction survey of
these investments.
After the completion of the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the
selected public facilities significant energy savings have been achieved in the range of
15% to 63%, with an average energy saving of 38% for all surveyed public buildings.
The annual reductions of CO2 emissions are achieved to the similar range between
15% and 64% with an expected average of 38%. The average annual specific energy
consumption for space heating in public analyzed buildings compared to the before
and after implementation phases of energy efficiency measures is showed substantial
reductions.
Significant energy consumption savings have been achieved for all 70 refurbished
buildings, with annual savings of an average of 34.77% which amounts to 17,818,764
kWh/year over entire project. Differences in average annual specific CO2 emissions
reduction follows the same pattern as energy consumption, which is 13709 t/a. The
Equity Payback Period (EPP) for EE Measures is 5.5 years.
For the part of the detailed study of the customer satisfaction assessment, the
authors has selected batch of 5 characteristic buildings from the group of 17 public
buildings with 165 respondents to identify and measure the level of end users
satisfaction, the perception of indoor air and thermal comfort, the awareness on the
EE measures, and the additional benefits of EE upgrades (eg. reductions of sick leave
days, increasing productivity, increasing budget for other priorities, etc.).
Key words: EE measures, Customer satisfaction survey, Public buildings, Energy
savings, CO2 emission reductions.
Evaluation of Implemented Energy Efficiency Measures in Public Buildings in Kosovo
http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 334 editor@iaeme.com
Cite this Article: Kreshnik Muhaxheri, Florian Nepravishta and Ramadan Alushaj,
Evaluation of Implemented Energy Efficiency Measures in Public Buildings in
Kosovo. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology,
9(4), 2018, pp 333342.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=9&IType=4
1. INTRODUCTION
In most of the existing public buildings the implementation of energy efficiency measures has
greatly reduced the heating and cooling energy needs. However, in most of them, the
consumption of both thermal energy and electricity has increased without a corresponding rise
in the quality of indoor climate and thermal comfort.
The WB and EU funded projects of implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in
public buildings in Kosovo since 2012 has involved the energy efficient refurbishment of 70
public buildings in Kosovo (administrative buildings, schools and hospitals). The purpose of
this investment was to encourage more effective use of energy across Kosovo with the major
goal to implement energy efficiency improvement in public buildings and the verification of
the energy cost savings as well as CO2 emission reductions achieved by these energy
efficiency measures
Administrative buildings, hospitals and schools are the most appropriate types of
public buildings where energy efficiency measures and the achievement of comfort and
quality environment can be analyzed. This is justified by the fact that these measures
contribute to increasing the productivity and sustainability of employees, patients,
students and moreover ensuring a healthy environment and comfort for work, for health
and education purposes. Unfortunately, in practice, public buildings face the same or
even more intense problems of energy performance of buildings and comfort problems
compared to other buildings.
This paper presents the results of the analysis for implemented Energy Efficiency
Measures (EEM) on building envelope, heating system and lighting in public buildings
and data’s selected from the qualitative and quantitative customers satisfaction study
before and after implementation of EE measures, summarizing the results, discussion of
results and conclusions for specific institutions and buildings and in general as well.
2. METHODOLOGY
The concept of this study in implementing and verifying EE measures and savings through
analysis is done on the "whole system" basis, i.e. not trying to isolate savings from an
individual measure, such as lighting upgrades or upgrades of U-values.
During the measurements authors has used standard testing methods, according to
procedures which are based on national and/or international standards, test procedures
provided by the manufacturer, international recommendations and guidelines. For the test
methods used, were prepared appropriate technical procedures and describing the equipment
used for testing, examination procedures, environmental conditions, as well as the Protocols
of the examination form for collection of the measurement results for each respective
procedure.
For this purpose different instrumentation and devices has been used to collect
measurement data of building energy performance, indoor air quality and lighting and
building heating systems. Thermal imaging camera was used to make visible and display in
the form of thermal images, the temperature influenced by radiation above the testing surface.
Combustion analyzers were used to measure the percentage of oxygen, carbon monoxide and
Kreshnik Muhaxheri, Florian Nepravishta and Ramadan Alushaj
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carbon dioxide and the temperature of the flue gas and ambient temperature as well. The
multi-function measuring instrument is used as a reliable instrument for analyzing Indoor Air
Quality parameters.
During the realization of the project, regular social monitoring surveys were conducted. In
total, 165 end-users (such as students, professors, administrative and technical staff, patients,
and medical staff) were interviewed in 5 institutions before and after the retrofitting works.
The survey methodology utilized quantitative (survey questionnaires for research in the
institutions with the institutions’ users) and qualitative (in- depth interviews with decision
makers in relevant institutions and local self-governments) approaches to systematically
measure the social impact of project activities.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The U-value as a measure of the heat transmission of the building envelope is the dominant
factor in its thermal performance evaluation and plays an important role in reducing of the
buildings energy consumption. Therefore, in details are analyzed the constituent elements of
the building envelope and their corresponding U-values such are exterior walls, windows,
doors, floors and roofs by comparing their impact on the phases before and after the
implementation of the Energy Efficiency Measures.
U-values have changed substantially and the proportion of thermal energy consumption
has decreased proportionally as well. Results of U-values for external walls after
implementation of EE measures reached levels from 0.25W / m2K to 0.57 W / m2K, which
are still lower than recommended values (0.60 W / m2K) by EU Climate policies (The
Eurima Ecofys VII study 2007). Similar results are achieved in all other building envelope
elements, so U-values for doors and windows varied from 1.4 W / m2K to 2.8 W / m2K, for
roofs from 0.24 W / m2K to 0.50 W / m2K, and for floors from 0.54W / m2K to 2.94 W /
m2K.
The individual energy consumption of public buildings before the implementation of the
measures was directly related to the character of the building, the construction year, type of
building construction and especially the elements of the building envelope and in specific
cases was also dependent on the heating system, plant and type of interior lighting. In most
cases despite the high consumption in those buildings there was no thermal comfort.
Figure 1 Energy consumption of public buildings before EE measures
Evaluation of Implemented Energy Efficiency Measures in Public Buildings in Kosovo
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This total energy consumption in analyzed buildings was extended to a very large range of
213,042 [kWh / year] for a small school of up to 3,772,193 [kWh / year] for the Technical
Faculty that in addition to the large surface had very poor energy performance of the building.
However, the most realistic indicator is the specific energy consumption before the
implementation of EE measures and these values ranged from 81 [kWh / m2] to the Infective
Clinic in Pristina which had well insulated walls and was renovated in 2013 and up to 649
[kWh / m2] for Primary School in the village of Vërban, Fig.1 presents total energy
consumption before EE measures per groups of buildings.
Specific energy consumptions after EE measures [kWh/m2a] are presented in Figure 2.
Situation has dramatically changed after EE measures and calculations has showed that the
lowest annually energy consumption is reached up to only 17 kWh/m2annualy in the public
building where are implemented all foreseen EE measures.
Figure 2 Specific Energy savings after implementation of EE measures
Achieved specific energy consumption after EE measures varies between 154 [kWh/m2]
for public administrative buildings and 100 [kWh/m2] for University Buildings with an
average of 114 [kWh/m2] for all 70 surveyed public buildings. These values are much lower
than results from the studies made in neighboring countries 144-205 [kWh/m2] in the sample
of 28 public buildings in Serbia (Stankovic at al, 2009), while US research on energy
consumption in commercial buildings, in the sample of 5375 buildings (Torcellini and
Crawley, 2006) shows that the average energy consumption for the researched buildings was
266 [kWh / m2 annually] until ASHRAE standard 90.1-2004 recommends 157 [kWh / m2
annually].
Table 1 Specific energy consumption for groups of public buildings
SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION
Type of building
Number of
buildings
Specific energy consumption
[kWh/m2 a]
Administrative Buildings
3
154
University Buildings
7
100
Hospitals
7
107
Schools
53
116
Total of Buildings
70
7,983
Average values
114
Energy savings analyzes by type of buildings indicates that the largest energy savings are
achieved in the public administrative buildings group with 56.41%, while hospitals are
categorized with a lower savings of 20.73%. The comparative energy savings chart after the
Kreshnik Muhaxheri, Florian Nepravishta and Ramadan Alushaj
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implementation of EE measures is provided below. The average energy savings for 70 public
buildings is achieved 37.71%.
Figure 3 Energy savings for the groups of buildings
Analyses of the achieved results of CO2 emissions reductions after the implementation of
the EE measures shows that the total reduction of CO2 emission is 13709 t/a or 62% of
emissions and lower than average reductions in EU countries. The highest specific reduction
of CO2 emission is achieved in hospitals 380 t/a , while average of reductions is 196 t/a per
70 studied public buildings, Table 2.
Table 2 CO2 emission reductions for groups of public buildings
REDUCTION OF CO2 EMISSIONS
Type of
building
Number of
buildings
Energy
consumption
before EE
measures
[kWh/a]
Energy
consumption
after EE
measures
[kWh/a]
Energy
savings
after EE
measures
[kWh/a]
CO2
emission
reductions
[t/a]
Average of
CO2
emission
reductions
[t/a]
Administrative
Buildings
3
2,150,154.6
937,309
1,212,846
391
130
University
Buildings
7
7741653.1
5,550,537
2,191,116
1,711
244
Hospitals
7
6964927.4
5,520,944
1,443,983
2,658
380
Schools
53
34391715.5
21,420,897
12,970,818
8,703
164
Average values
732121
477567
254554
196
With the main purpose to identify the total and specific investments per implemented EE
measures it is applied EPP methodology realized with the RETScreen software showing that
total investments in all buildings, accomplished in different periods since 2012, has reached
value of 18,680,487 Euro. Converted energy savings based on ERO information were
11,524,905 Euro, while EPP is calculated at 5, 5 years.
For the batch of five public buildings selected based on WB recommendations are realized
both qualitative and quantitative studies as part of Customer Satisfaction Survey, using winter
periods and heating seasons for collection of data for both phases, before and after
implementation of EE measures.
In total 165 end-users (such as students, professors, administrative and technical staff,
patients, and medical staff) were interviewed in 5 institutions before the retrofitting works.
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Results from the Customers Satisfaction survey for Thermal environment survey for all 5
Buildings shows, that majority of the 165 respondents were female around 57%, around 44%
was middle age, between 41-50 years old and most of interviewed were employees
(professors, students, doctors, nurses and other employees) around 81%. Activity level is
related to the occupant’s structure so it is mostly seated in total 67%.
The survey findings revealed certain differences between male and female respondents in
their perceptions of thermal indoor comfort. Women were less satisfied with the heating
overall; more frequently experienced cold, and stated higher temperature ranges as optimal for
their work environment.
Results of thermal environment survey parameters for all buildings, shows that both male
and respondents percept general thermal as acceptable, varying from neutral to slightly warm,
with total of 31% males and 35% of females as neutral, half of males and females as slightly
warm, values defining the thermal comfort as very acceptable, Fig.4. Moreover, more than
87% of respondents were not annoyed and slightly annoyed with the noise level and around
58% of respondents were satisfied and slightly satisfied with the level of lighting.
Figure 4 Thermal comfort perception in CSS
The awareness of energy efficiency measures and their associated benefits were surveyed
as part of general Customer Satisfaction Survey before implementation of EE measure as a
baseline to be compared with the post implementation realized in late 2017. More than 89%
end-users confirmed they are very aware of the works undertaken by the project and were
significantly inspired by the energy efficiency works to be implemented in the public
buildings, and for the application of energy efficiency measures at own homes. Two third of
respondents were aware of benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures and less than
half of respondents (40 percent) interviewed mentioned that they have learned about energy
savings, renewable energy sources, and climate change during implementation of the project.
Almost unanimous satisfaction with the expected results of the works and in future
achieved benefits was recorded during in-depth interviews with decision makers in public
buildings and local self-governments, such as faculty deans and hospital directors and
managerial staff. This is confirmed also with high level of NPI values for qualitative study.
Some perceived discrepancies in thermal comfort of two clinics (Psychiatric Clinic and
Kreshnik Muhaxheri, Florian Nepravishta and Ramadan Alushaj
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Institutes Building) located in the same area are discussed with focus group members and
decision makers during in-depth round table discussions trying to find logical explanation
which will impact improvements of technical solutions during retrofitting works and
implementation of energy efficiency measures. These buildings were in bad condition before
EE measures in regards of buildings envelope and heating system.
Figure 5 NPI values for end users awareness with implemented EE measures
More than 62% of respondents from five Focus Groups highly agree with project
contribution on increasing comfort, productivity and awareness on implemented measures.
The survey showed that all directly measured elements of comfort as well as the quality of the
indoor environment are in field around neutral line and occupants felt significantly
comfortable in University buildings, social care institutions, and administrative facilities. This
clearly shows that planned measures of Energy Efficiency were successfully implemented and
highly recommended for future projects
4. CONCLUSIONS
Achieved results are an important contribution for establishing of detailed databases of energy
efficiency measures for the development of estimates of the total energy efficiency potential
for public buildings in Kosovo and good indicator of the energy performance of the public
buildings in Kosovo and guidelines for future studies.
Based on the identified results, a reasonable range of potential economic savings can be
established in existing school and public buildings of Kosovo, which will serve as good basis
for the design of future strategies for applying EE measures to public buildings.
The results of the second part of the study represent the level of customer satisfaction with
the main aspects defined as objectives for each separate building, before and after renovation,
and as a report summarize the satisfaction of end-users, broken down by age, sex and
according to service (employees, education, health).
Evaluation of Implemented Energy Efficiency Measures in Public Buildings in Kosovo
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Experiences from EU member states shows that other innovative schemes need to be
explored which should be supported by the Government of Kosovo in order to intensify the
implementation of EE measures in public buildings. As a result, energy consumption in public
buildings, which is currently on the average of 115 [kWh / m2 per year], is expected to
significantly contribute meeting EU targets for 2020 and 2030 on Energy Efficiency.
Replacing of existing windows in selected public buildings has been the most commonly
applied EE measure in buildings. Significant energy savings and a reduction of carbon
dioxide emissions of approximately 38% have been achieved with the implementation of
energy efficiency measures. The recorded consumption of energy before EE measures for
public buildings was 306 [kWh / m2 annually] while the average savings after the measures
were 191 [kWh / m2 annually].
The largest specific energy consumption before measures was identified in administrative
buildings and in schools as well and the largest savings of 56.41% and 37.71% respectively
after the implementation of EE measures. In hospitals, the savings are less than 20.73%, but
this is explained by the duration of use of buildings and the highest indoor temperatures to
reach patients' comfort.
U-values improvement results show that energy efficiency can be significantly affected by
the technical solutions of the buildings envelope. In order to increase the energy efficiency of
buildings, the heat losses of the building envelope should be kept to a minimum. This can be
achieved through the qualitative and technically reasonable insulation of roofs, walls,
windows, doors and floors.
The results of the analysis of the thermal environment research parameters for the five
buildings show that both males and females perceive the overall thermal comfort very
similarly, moving from a warm to neutral environment, with a total of 49% of males as a little
warm and 35% of females who perceive the indoor environment as neutral, respectively
comfortable. Further, three-quarters of respondents were annoyed or slightly annoyed with the
noise level, while 35% of respondents rated it neutral and 35% were slightly satisfied with the
lighting level.
Figure 6 Percentage of respondents awareness related to the implemented EE measures
Kreshnik Muhaxheri, Florian Nepravishta and Ramadan Alushaj
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Respondent’s awareness about energy efficiency measures and associated benefits has
been explored as part of the end-users satisfaction survey at both stages of the implementation
of the measures. Over 89% of the beneficiaries confirm that they are fairly and relatively
informed and aware of the nature of the works carried out and are very inspired by the energy
efficiency measures implemented in public buildings and the application of these measures to
their homes. About two-thirds of respondents declared themselves to be aware of benefits
from the implementation of EE measures, while four out of five respondents (83%) stated that
they learned about energy savings, renewable resources and climate change during the
implementation period measures.
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Building and Energy" Formas
  • E Abel
  • A Elmroth
Abel, E., and Elmroth,A., " Building and Energy" Formas, 2007
Energy performance certificates in buildings
  • Eu Commission
  • Energy
EU Commission, DG Energy "Energy performance certificates in buildings" Final Report, 2013
Guidelines on ventilation, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in schools
  • Bs Department For
BS Department for Education "Guidelines on ventilation, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in schools" Building Bulletin 101, June 2016
Energy Efficiency and the Demand for Energy Services
  • D L Harvey
Harvey, D.L.D. " Energy Efficiency and the Demand for Energy Services", Earth scan, Washington DC,2010
U-values for better Energy Performance of Buildings
  • T Boermans
  • C Petersdorff
Boermans,T. and Petersdorff, C. " U-values for better Energy Performance of Buildings", Report established by Ecofys for EURIMA, 2007
Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools
  • C W Bayer
  • S A Crow
  • J Fischer
Bayer,C.W., Crow, S.A., Fischer, J., "Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools", 2000