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Diversity of Cropping Systems in Chittagong Region

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p>The study was conducted over all 42 upazilas of Chittagong region during 2016 using pre-tested semistructured questionnaire with a view to document the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity in the region. The most dominant cropping pattern Boro−Fallow−T. Aman occupied about 23% of net cropped area (NCA) of the region with its distribution over 38 upazilas out 42. The second largest area, 19% of NCA, was covered by single T. Aman, which was spread out over 32 upazilas. A total of 93 cropping patterns were identified in the whole region under the present investigation. The highest number of cropping patterns was 28 in Naokhali sadar and the lowest was 4 in Begumganj of the same district. The lowest crop diversity index (CDI) was observed 0.135 in Chatkhil followed by 0.269 in Begumganj. The highest value of CDI was observed in Banshkhali, Chittagong and Noakhali sadar (around 0.95). The range of cropping intensity values was recorded 103−283%. The maximum value was for Kamalnagar upazila of Lakshmipur district and minimum for Chatkhil upazila of Noakhali district. As a whole the CDI of Chittagong region was 0.952 and the average cropping intensity at the regional level was 191%. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 109-122</p
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Diversity of Cropping Systems in
Chittagong Region
S M Shahidullah1*, M Nasim1, M K Quais1 and A Saha1
ABSTRACT
The study was conducted over all 42 upazilas of Chittagong region during 2016 using pre-tested semi-
structured questionnaire with a view to document the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity
and crop diversity in the region. The most dominant cropping pattern Boro−Fallow−T. Aman occupied
about 23% of net cropped area (NCA) of the region with its distribution over 38 upazilas out 42. The
second largest area, 19% of NCA, was covered by single T. Aman, which was spread out over 32 upazilas.
A total of 93 cropping patterns were identied in the whole region under the present investigation. The
highest number of cropping patterns was 28 in Naokhali sadar and the lowest was 4 in Begumganj of the
same district. The lowest crop diversity index (CDI) was observed 0.135 in Chatkhil followed by 0.269
in Begumganj. The highest value of CDI was observed in Banshkhali, Chittagong and Noakhali sadar
(around 0.95). The range of cropping intensity values was recorded 103−283%. The maximum value was
for Kamalnagar upazila of Lakshmipur district and minimum for Chatkhil upazila of Noakhali district.
As a whole the CDI of Chittagong region was 0.952 and the average cropping intensity at the regional
level was 191%.
Key words: Crop diversity index, land use, cropping system, soybean, and soil salinity
1Rice Farming Systems Division, BRRI, Gazipur; *Corresponding author’s E-mail: shahidullah4567@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
The Chittagong region consists of ve districts
viz Chittagong, CoxBazar, Noakhali, Feni and
Lakshmipur. The area belongs to mainly AEZ-
23, AEZ-18, AEZ-19, AEZ-29 and AEZ-17 which
characterized by heavy monsoon rainfall,
low soil fertility and exposure to cyclone
(FAO, 1988). There are many location-specic
constraints for agriculture in this region and
dispersed over the whole area. The limitations
are severe ash oods, dry-season soil salinity,
extremely acid soils, lack of irrigation water,
poor drainage, bank erosion, very steep slopes
and occurrence of peat soil. Among the socio-
economic problems difcult communication,
remoteness of interior areas from urban markets
and input supply, and service centres are focal
features.
Cropping system is the crop production
activity of a farm, which includes all cropping
patterns grown on the farm resources, other
household enterprises and the physical,
biological, technological and socioeconomic
factors or environments. A cropping pattern
is the yearly sequence, temporal and spatial
arrangement of crops in a given land area. It
is dependent on physical, historical, social,
institutional and economic factors as well as
government policies (Agrawal and Kassam,
1976). The cropping pattern and the changes
therein depend on a large number of factors
like climate, soil type, rainfall, agricultural
technology, availability of irrigation facilities
and other inputs, marketing and transport
facilities and growth of agro-industries (Neena,
1998; Gadge, 2003; Rashid et al., 2005).
The yields of cereal crops are tending to
stagnation, even in favourable environments.
Moreover, cultivable land area is decreasing
day by day in the country. In this context,
there is no other alternative but to address less
favourable and unfavourable environments.
To increase the system productivity of the
Bangladesh Rice J. 21 (2) : 109-122, 2017
110 Shahidullah et al
total environment it needs to bring diversity
in enterprises for better utilization of limited
resources. A detailed information package
on land situation and cropping systems is
a prerequisite for a fruitful development
programme. Diversied cropping pattern may
be option for the farmers as a coping strategy
against risks (Mandal and Bezbaruah, 2013).
Typology of different cropping systems is
the base for the managers of these systems to
intensify production (Shriar, 2000). There is a
strong need for judicious and appropriate use
of limited resources in case of intervention
selection that does not lead to increased mal
adaption or inequity in the society over long
term. Existing trends of available agricultural
lands is most essential requirement for any
land use planning related to farming and food
security in a sustainable manner. Therefore,
an increased understanding of arable land use
based on the cropping system is essential for the
appropriate intervention in sustainable way. In
these context, existing cropping patterns along
with their diversity of such complex agricultural
region are very crucial for risk minimization
and overall productivity improvement. The
present study was designed with the following
specic objectives to:
• Understand the existing cropping patterns
scenario in Chittagong region
• Visualize the existing land use pattern at
upazila and regional level
• Determine the crop diversity and cropping
intensity at local and regional level.
METHODOLOGY
Forty-two upazilas of Chittagong, CoxBazar,
Feni, Noakhali and Lakshmipur districts
under Chittagong agricultural region were
the locale of this study. Data were collected
using double stage procedure. At initial stage,
data were collected through pre-tested semi-
structured questionnaire from 42 pre-assigned
Sub-Assistant Agriculture Ofcers (SAAO)
of each upazila during November 2015 at
upazila level. SAAOs were purposively pre-
selected by Agriculture Extension Ofcers
(AEO), Additional Agriculture Ofcer (AAO)
and Upazila Agriculture Ofcer (UAO) or
altogether. Prior to data collection, the pre-
tested questionnaire was explained along with
proper guidelines to the AEOs or UAOs or
both and handed over to them at each Deputy
Director’s ofce of Department of Agricultural
Extension (DAE) during monthly meeting for
the sake of accurate data collection. The lled
questionnaires were collected by the scientists
of RFS Division, checked and analyzed to nd
the inconsistencies of the supplied data before
validation workshop. All the inconsistencies
among the information were documented.
The collected data along with documented
inconsistencies were discussed in district
level workshop for necessary correction and
validation. Second stage of data collection was
day-long data validation workshop at district
level. The workshop dates were 20 January for
Feni; 17 February for Lakshmipur; 20 March for
Noakhali; 7 August for CoxBazar and 8 August
2016 for Chittagong. Four eld-workers i.e.
one SAPPO and three SAAOs experienced and
engaged in crop-based data documentation,
all ofcers from all upazilas viz UAOs, AEOs,
AAEOs, DD (DAE), DD (Horticulture), DD of
Seed Certication Agency, DTO and ADDs,
one representative from Agricultural Training
Institute (ATI) and scientists of BRRI Regional
Station, Sonagazi, participated in the data
validation workshop. The number participants
of validation workshop ranged from 51 to
119 in each district. All the participants were
divided into three to four groups for data
validation. Each group was facilitated by two
RFSD scientists to nalize and validate the data
and authenticated data were captured. Crop
diversity index was calculated by using the
following equation described by Kshirsagar et
al. (1997).
CDI A
a
1
i
i
ij
j o
n2
= -
=
c m
/
Where, CDIi = Crop Diversity Index
aij =Area planted to the jthcrop in the ith
location
Ai = Total area planted under all crops
Cropping Systems in Chittagong 111
The index is zero for a land area growing
only one crop. It approaches unity as the
level of diversity increases. Compilation and
processing of collected data were done using
Micro Soft Excel programme. Descriptive
statistics were used to facilitate the presentation
of the ndings.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Land use
Table 1 presents the status of agricultural
land utilization. The net cropped area of
the Chittagong region is 655,870 ha. Crops
occupied the particular land for round the
year were considered under annual crops. The
major annual crops reported in the region were
pineapple, sugarcane, banana, papaya, betel
leaf, ginger and turmeric. The annual crops
area in different upazilas ranged from zero to
1,610 ha. The annual crops area accounted only
1.71 % of the net cropped area (NCA) in the
region. At a glance, the region occupied 28%
single cropped area (SCA), 49% double cropped
area (DCA), 20% triple cropped area (TCA).
The quadruple cropped area was also seen as
a very negligible area (0.08%) and is limited in
only
two upazilas viz Raipur of Lakshmipur and
Chakaria of CoxBazar district. The SCA had the
major share of NCA in Fatikchhari, Mirsharai,
Patiya and Sandwip upazilas of Chittagong
district; Teknaf upazila of CoxBazar district;
Begumganj, Chatkhil, Kabirhat and Sonaimuri
upazilas of Noakhali district followed by
corresponding double cropped area (DCA).
Most of the upazilas were dominated by DCA.
The exceptions were Chandanaish of Chittagong
district, Kutubdia of CoxBazar district and
Kamalnagar of Lakshmipur district where triple
cropped area were dominating (Table 1). The
area which could not be dened in the form of
denite pattern, was considered as others whose
coverage is less than 1% of the NCA.
Cropping patterns of Chittagong
In total 93 cropping patterns were observed
in Chittagong region of which eight cropping
patterns with exclusive rice crop covers about
57% of the NCA. There were 19 cropping
patterns with exclusive non-rice crop covering
only 2.5% of the NCA. Rest of the NCA i.e.
over 40% area was covered by 66 rice - non rice
cropping patterns (Appendix 1).
Rice and non-rice crops at a glance
Table 2 presents eight cropping patterns
where rice is the only crop round the year.
It comprised of about 57% of the NCA in the
region. Among them single rice, double rice and
triple rice areas represented around 27%, 28%
and 2% respectively. It reected the unparallel
dominance of rice in the cropping systems in
Chittagong region. In the case of individual
pattern Boro−Fallow−T. Aman had the highest
coverage (23%) and was recorded in 38 upazilas
out of 42. The second dominant pattern single
T. Aman area occupied 19% of NCA, which was
reported in 32 upazilas. Single Boro covered 7%
area with its existence in only 12 upazilas.
In the current investigation, 19 cropping
patterns were identied free from rice. Out of
these 19 patterns, rst 12 were arranged in the
descending order in Table 3. The rest seven
patterns with negligible area coverage are
presented in Table 7 where they are arranged
with other patterns of different categories. The
total area of the 19 patterns was only 2.51% of
NCA. So, it is clear from the study that exclusive
rice area is about 23 folds of exclusive non-rice
area. Among these 19 patterns, three patterns
comprised of year-round vegetables distributed
over majority of the upazilas. Year-round
vegetable production system was observed
about two-thirds of the non-rice cropping
area and mainly practiced on or beside the
homestead area.
Pulse crops
Twenty cropping patterns were holding
different pulse crops (Table 4). Among them
grasspea was covering the largest area whereas
pea was in the smallest area. Three cropping
patterns of grass pea jointly covered more than
7% of NCA. Felon (Vigna unguiculata) occupied
the second position in pulse crop cultivation in
112 Shahidullah et al
Table 1. Land use of different upazilas in Chittagong region (area in hectare), 2014-15.
Upazila Area of
upazila
Annual
crop SCA DCA TCA QCA Other NCA C.I. (%)
01 Anwara 16413 40 1520 4210 2540 0 130 8440 212
02 Banshkhali 39000 680 2890 9550 4520 0 140 17780 205
03 Boalkhali 13753 10 2600 3270 200 0 130 6210 160
04 Chandanaish 20199 410 2230 3190 3910 0 120 9860 213
05 Fatikchhari 75676 660 12010 8950 300 0 140 22060 144
06 Hathazari 25506 670 3100 6450 0 0 100 10320 163
07 Lohagara 25887 150 2200 8170 300 0 130 10950 181
08 Mirsharai 48800 110 10800 3590 8550 0 110 23160 190
09 Patiya 31647 180 6350 4470 2550 0 130 13680 171
10 Rngunia 34775 300 6100 10780 1200 0 120 18500 172
11 Rauzan 24300 60 4000 7700 520 0 130 12410 171
12 Sandwip 38800 1490 12270 3910 6445 0 125 24240 170
13 Satkania 28240 220 2800 8890 710 0 100 12720 182
14 Sitakunda 48400 200 1350 5100 3040 0 110 9800 215
15 Chakaria 50300 370 900 12270 7810 50 170 21570 231
16 CoxBazar 19965 440 550 8605 210 0 135 9940 192
17 Kutubdia 15102 0 150 400 2755 0 95 3400 279
18 Maheskhali 38850 1610 1110 7510 10 0 120 10360 174
19 Pekua 13968 50 0 4695 3125 0 180 8050 239
20 Ramu 39171 150 940 8950 315 0 145 10500 193
21 Teknaf 34938 520 8000 2630 200 0 120 11470 127
22 Ukhia 26180 690 1600 7620 50 0 130 10090 178
23 Chhagalnaiya 13579 70 2600 7725 50 0 125 10570 175
24 Dagonbhuiyan 14771 50 3250 6130 700 0 120 10250 174
25 Feni 31680 50 1000 14270 1350 0 130 16800 202
26 Fulgazi 10492 30 1800 5210 0 0 90 7130 174
27 Parshuram 9918 60 2050 4290 160 0 100 6660 170
28 Sonagazi 28500 20 5600 12160 2550 0 190 20520 185
29 Kamalnagar 31500 80 0 3450 18000 0 150 21680 283
30 Lakshmipur 48845 70 2000 19450 4450 0 150 26120 209
31 Ramganj 16932 50 3950 6590 590 0 120 11300 169
32 Ramgati 37500 100 150 4020 19650 0 280 24200 281
33 Raipur 26260 100 300 12700 2745 450 305 16600 220
34 Begumganj 23766 20 15000 1300 0 0 100 16420 108
35 Chatkhil 13395 80 7870 160 40 0 80 8230 103
36 Companiganj 32400 50 8200 13835 305 0 110 22500 165
37 Hatiya 210137 40 8000 25800 21500 0 150 55490 224
38 Kabirhat 23924 30 7200 4405 110 0 125 11870 139
39 Noakhali 33621 1200 7150 9750 6460 0 140 24700 192
40 Senbag 15937 80 1840 7760 750 0 150 10580 189
41 Sonaimuri 17353 20 10350 70 200 0 130 10770 104
42 Subarnachar 57600 20 11300 21670 4850 0 130 37970 183
Chittagong region 11230 183080 321655 133720 500 5685 655870 191
Cropping Systems in Chittagong 113
Table 2. Cropping patterns with exclusive rice in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area (ha) % of NCA Frequency (no. of upazila)
01 Boro−Fallow−T. Aman 150280 22.92 38
02 Fallow−Fallow−T. Aman 125600 19.15 32
03 Boro−Fallow−Fallow 48710 7.43 12
04 Fallow−Aus−T. Aman 27140 4.14 20
05 Boro−Aus−T. Aman 16070 2.45 18
06 Boro−B.Aman 2850 0.43 3
07 Fallow−Aus−Fallow 1000 0.15 1
08 Boro−Aus−Fallow 900 0.14 5
Total 372550 56.82
Table 3. Cropping patterns with exclusive non-rice in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area (ha) % of NCA Frequency (no. of upazila)
01 Vegetab−Vegetab−Vegetab 5235 0.80 15
02 Vegetab−Fallow−Fallow 3920 0.60 11
03 Vegetab−Vegetab−Fallow 2560 0.39 10
04 Soybean−Fallow−Fallow 2000 0.30 1
05 Tobacco−Sesbania 600 0.09 1
06 Groundnut−Fallow−Fallow 440 0.07 3
07 Chilli−Fallow−Fallow 300 0.05 3
08 S.Potato−Fallow−Fallow 300 0.05 3
09 Felon−Fallow−Fallow 260 0.04 2
10 Coriander−Fallow−Fallow 250 0.04 8
11 W.Melon−Fallow−Fallow 195 0.03 3
12 Chilli−Vegetab−Fallow 130 0.02 5
13-19 Other seven patterns (in Table 7) 280 0.04 -
Total 16470 2.51
Table 4. Area for pulse crops in cropping systems in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area (ha) % of NCA Frequency (no. of upazila)
01 Grasspea−Fallow−T. Aman 30640 4.67 13
02 Grasspea−Aus−T. Aman 16740 2.55 11
03 Felon−Fallow−T. Aman 14630 2.23 28
04 Mungbean−Aus−T. Aman 7040 1.07 9
05 Felon−Aus−T. Aman 5045 0.77 11
06 Mungbean−Fallow−T. Aman 4335 0.66 15
07 Lentil−Fallow−T. Aman 2440 0.37 8
08 Pea−Fallow−T. Aman 730 0.11 5
09 Lentil−Aus−T. Aman 500 0.08 4
10 Felon−Aus−Fallow 420 0.06 2
11 Felon−Fallow−Fallow 260 0.04 2
12 Grasspea−B.Aman 250 0.04 1
13-20 Other eight patterns (in Table 7) 290 0.04 -
Total pulse crops 83320 12.71
114 Shahidullah et al
Chittagong region. There were four cropping
patterns for felon where two were dominants
viz Felon−Fallow−T. Aman and Felon−Aus−T.
Aman. These felon containing cropping
patterns in-together occupy over 3% of NCA.
In the documentation of pulse cropping felon
reported its widest spreading in the region.
One pattern was available in 28 upazilas and
the other existed in 11 upazilas. Finally the
aggregate area of the pulse cropping systems
stood for approximately 13% of the NCA in
Chittagong region. Relatively stress-tolerant
pulse crops like grasspea, felon, cowpea are
easy to cultivate during pre-monsoon in the dry
land (FAO, 1988).
Oil-seed crops
Soybean is the most important one among the oil-
seed crops in Chittagong region. There were 17
cropping patterns for oil-seed crops among which
six patterns had been led by soybean alone (Table
5). The total share of oil-seed cropping patterns was
about 14% of NCA whereas soybean absolutely
occupies over 10%. The second prevailing
groundnut covered over 2%. However, the
dominance of oil-seed crops and its spreading over
the region are not running in the same direction.
The soybean, with its highest coverage, is available
only in six upazilas out of 42. In Bangladesh
there is a vast market of soybean seeds for feed
industries. Loam and sandy soils of the coastal area
were found very suitable for soybean cultivation
(FAO, 1988). Area under soybean cultivation in
Chittagong region is equivalent to the 90% of the
national acreage for the crop.
Vegetables and spices crops
Table 6 presents 35 cropping patterns arranged
in descending order according to area coverage.
Potato and other vegetables of Rabi, Kharif-I
and Kharif-II; spices viz chilli, onion, garlic and
coriander are included in this list. The most
contributing cropping pattern was Vegetab−
Fallow−T. Aman covering about 3% of NCA,
which was distributed over 28 upazilas. The
second one is Chilli−Fallow−T. Aman covering
over 1% of NCA and it is the most available
pattern recorded in 30 upazilas out of 42. The
aggregate area allotted for vegetables and
spices crops was 76,590 hectares that was
equivalent to 11.69% of NCA in the region. The
main spices crop is chilli grown in an area of
13,120 ha (2% of NCA). Probably two friendly
factors encourages the famers for growing
chilli viz favourable environments of charland
and easy availability of women labour for
harvesting and post harvest management of the
crop (FAO, 1988).
Sporadic and distinct cropping patterns
There were some cropping patterns extremely
location-specic, however, with a large area
coverage. These were Soybean−B. Aman,
Soybean−Fallow−Fallow and Soybean−Jute−T.
Aman (Table 5). The Soybean−B. Aman is
grown on 4,300 hectares in Raipur upazila
of Lakshmipur district. Single soybean crop
is limited to only Lakshmipur sadar upazila
(2,000 ha). Soybean−Jute−T. Aman is available
in Kamalnagar (6,400 ha) and Ramgati (13,000
ha) of Lakshmipur district.
Rare cropping patterns
In the present investigation, 24 cropping
patterns have been identied as rare cropping
patterns with a negligible area coverage with
seldom existence (Table 7). These are location
specic system and are limited in one or two
or in some cases three upazilas of the region.
Total area coverage of the 24 patterns is far less
than 1% of NCA. Among them, the highest area
was allotted for Sweet potato−B. Aman and
Wheat−Fallow−T. Aman (100 ha for each). The
smallest area was recorded for four cropping
patterns whose coverage was ve hectares for
each (Table 7).
Most dominant cropping pattern
Boro−Fallow−T. Aman was the most dominant
cropping pattern in Chittagong region. It
covers 22.92% of NCA in the region and is
available in 38 upazilas out of 42 (Table 8). The
highest area under this cropping was recorded
13,700 hectares in Lakshmipur sadar upazila
represents 9.12% of the total Boro−Fallow−T.
Aman area of the region. In consideration of
individual upazila CoxBazar sadar has stood
Cropping Systems in Chittagong 115
Table 5. Cropping patterns with oil-seed crops in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area (ha) % of NCA Frequency (no. of upazila)
01 Soybean−Aus−T. Aman 22600 3.45 5
02 Soybean−Jute−T. Aman 19400 2.96 2
03 Soybean−Fallow−T. Aman 18670 2.85 6
04 Groundnut−Fallow−T. Aman 8630 1.32 16
05 Groundnut− Aus−T. Aman 8350 1.27 6
06 Soybean−B.Aman 4300 0.66 1
07 Mustard−Fallow−T. Aman 2370 0.36 15
08 Soybean−Fallow−Fallow 2000 0.31 1
09 Soybean−Aus−Fallow 700 0.11 1
10 Vegetab−Groundnut−T. Aman 700 0.11 1
11 Mustard−Boro−T. Aman 660 0.10 9
12 Groundnut−Fallow−Fallow 440 0.07 3
13 Mustard−Aus−T. Aman 345 0.05 5
14 Mustard−Boro−Aus−T. Aman 270 0.04 3
15 Potato−Sesame−T. Aman 200 0.03 1
16 Sesame−Fallow−T. Aman 175 0.03 5
17 Fallow−Sesame−T. Aman 10 0.00 2
Total oil-seed crops 89820 13.72
Table 6. Cropping patterns with vegetables and spices crops in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area (ha) % of NCA Frequency (no. of upazila)
01 Vegetab−Fallow−T. Aman 17715 2.70 28
02 Chilli−Fallow−T. Aman 9450 1.44 30
03 Vegetab−Vegetab−T. Aman 8505 1.30 18
04 Vegetab−Boro−T. Aman 8150 1.24 5
05 Vegetab−Vegetab−Vegetab 5235 0.80 15
06 Potato−Fallow−T. Aman 4555 0.69 22
07 Vegetab−Fallow−Fallow 3920 0.60 11
08 Vegetab−Aus−Fallow 2900 0.44 7
09 Vegetab−Vegetab−Fallow 2560 0.39 10
10 Chilli−Aus−T. Aman 2450 0.37 6
11 Boro−Vegetab−T. Aman 1900 0.29 3
12 Vegetab−Boro−Fallow 1800 0.27 2
13 Potato−Boro−T. Aman 1650 0.25 6
14 Fallow−Vegetab−T. Aman 1480 0.23 8
15 Chilli−Aus−Fallow 770 0.12 3
16 Vegetab−Groundnut−T. Aman 700 0.11 1
17 Garlic−Fallow−T. Aman 535 0.08 10
18 Coriander−Fallow−T. Aman 475 0.07 13
19 Chilli−Fallow−Fallow 300 0.05 3
20 Coriander−Fallow−Fallow 250 0.04 8
21 Vegetab−Boro−Aus−T. Aman 250 0.04 1
22 Onion−Fallow−T. Aman 245 0.04 10
23 Potato−Sesame−T. Aman 200 0.03 1
24 Potato−Aus−T. Aman 165 0.03 4
25 Chilli−Vegetab−Fallow 130 0.02 5
26-35 Other 10 patterns (in Table 7) 300 0.05 -
Total for vegetables and spices 76590 11.69
116 Shahidullah et al
for the sixth position in area coverage, however,
it has allocated the highest share i.e. 68% of its
NCA for this pattern alone. Chatkhil, Sitakunda
and Sonaimuri upazila had a negligible area
coverage for this pattern. In some portion of
the double rice area some short duration Rabi
crops can be grown before Boro transplanting
if appropriate varieties and other related
technologies are made available (FAO, 1988).
In the country-wide compilation of data it was
observed that Boro−F−T. Aman was the most
dominant cropping pattern in Bangladesh
covering 2.31 million ha (27% of NCA in the
country) with its distribution in 426 upazilas of
63 districts (Nasim et al., 2017).
Second dominant cropping pattern
The second dominant cropping pattern in
Chittagong region was Fallow−Fallow−T.
Aman. It belongs to 19.15% of NCA of the
region and spread over 32 upazilas (Table 9).
Fatikchhari and Sandwip upazila of Ch
ittagong
district hold the highest are (12,000 ha for
each) under this single T. Aman cropping.
These two upazilas jointly contribute 19%
share of single T. Aman cropping area in the
region. Teknaf stands in the sixth position,
however, this upazila of CoxBazar district
has allocated the biggest share i.e. about 70%
surface of its NCA. Soil salinity is a constraint
for the cultivation of Boro rice and Rabi crops
in Sandwip, Subarnachar, Hatiya and other
saline-prone area. A large area of this pattern
is distributed on the valley where irrigation
water is not sufciently available in winter
season. All these are the limiting factors for
the crop intensication (FAO, 1988). Some
stress-tolerant Rabi crops like grasspea, felon,
cowpea, sesame etc may undergo for trial to
intensify the land-use of the aforesaid system.
In the country-wide compilation of data it was
observed that the single T. Aman was the 3rd
dominant cropping pattern in Bangladesh
covering 5.09 lac ha (6% of NCA in the country)
with its distribution in 162 upazilas of 36
districts (Nasim et al., 2017).
Table 7. Rare cropping patterns covering non-signicant area in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area (ha) % of NCA Freq. Upazila
01 S.Potato−B.Aman 100 0.02 1 Lakshmipur
02 Wheat−Fallow−T. Aman 100 0.02 3 Chhagalnaiya+Parshuram+Companiganj
03 Fallow−Fallow−Blackgram 80 0.01 3 Anwara+Chhagalnaiya+Noakhali sadar
04 Boro−Sesbania−T. Aman 70 0.01 1 Raipur
05 Coriander−Vegetab−Fallow 70 0.01 3 Sitakunda+Ramgati+Maheskhali
06 Lentil−Vegetab−T. Aman 60 0.01 1 Parshuram
07 Blackgram−Aus−T. Aman 60 0.01 2 Rauzan+ Sitakunda
08 Muskmelon−Fallow−Fallow 55 0.01 2 Banshkhali+ Ramu
09 Fallow−B.Aman 50 0.01 1 Kabirhat
10 Vegetab−Fallow−Blackgram 50 0.01 2 Fulgazi+ Parshuram
11 Onion−Aus−T. Aman 45 0.01 3 Sandwip+Sitakunda+Ramgati
12 W.Melon−Aus−T. Aman 35 0.01 2 Sandwip+ Kutubdia
13 Chilli−Vegetab−T. Aman 20 0.00 1 Mirsharai
14 Garlic−Aus−T. Aman 20 0.00 1 Ramgati
15 Mungbean−Aus−Fallow 20 0.00 1 Lohagara
16 Garlic−Vegetab−Vegetab 15 0.00 2 Maheshkhali+Ramu
17 Boro−Vegetab(Float/Norm) 10 0.00 1 Kutubdia
18 Chickpea−Fallow−T. Aman 10 0.00 1 Rangunia
19 Maize−Maize−T. Aman 10 0.00 1 Chakaria
20 Fallow−Sesame−T. Aman 10 0.00 2 Companiganj+ Kabirhat
21 Blackgram−B.Aman 5 0.00 1 Kabirhat
22 Chickpea−Aus−T. Aman 5 0.00 1 Companiganj
23 Garlic−Jute−Fallow 5 0.00 1 Sandwip
24 Onion−Vegtab−Vegetab 5 0.00 1 Maheshkhali
Total 910 0.14
Cropping Systems in Chittagong 117
Table 8. Distribution of the most dominant Boro−Fallow−T. Aman cropping pattern in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Upazila Area (ha) % of upazila NCA % of the pattern in region
01 Lakshmipur 13700 52.45 9.12
02 Chakaria 10000 46.36 6.65
03 Feni 9500 56.55 6.32
04 Rngunia 9100 49.19 6.06
05 Maheskhali 7000 67.57 4.66
06 Senbag 7000 66.16 4.66
07 CoxBazar 6800 68.41 4.52
08 Ramu 6700 63.81 4.46
09 Fatikchhari 6500 29.47 4.33
10 Ukhia 6200 61.45 4.13
11 Chhagalnaiya 5700 53.93 3.79
12 Rauzan 5300 42.71 3.53
13 Dagonbhuiyan 5100 49.76 3.39
14 Satkania 5000 39.31 3.33
15 Raipur 4800 28.88 3.19
16 Hathazari 4600 44.57 3.06
17 Pekua 4500 57.54 2.99
18 Fulgazi 4300 60.31 2.86
19 Parshuram 3600 54.05 2.40
20 Anwara 3300 39.10 2.20
21 Lohagara 3300 30.14 2.20
22 Banshkhali 3000 16.87 2.00
23 Patiya 2600 19.01 1.73
24 Subarnachar 2000 5.27 1.33
25 Boalkhali 1600 25.76 1.06
26 Ramganj 1500 13.27 1.00
27 Mirsharai 1400 6.04 0.93
28 Teknaf 1200 10.46 0.80
29 Kabirhat 1200 10.11 0.80
30 Companiganj 1100 4.88 0.73
31 Chandanaish 700 7.10 0.47
32 Begumganj 700 4.26 0.47
33 Sonagazi 600 2.92 0.40
34 Noakhali 400 1.62 0.27
35 Kamalnagar 200 0.92 0.13
36 Sonaimuri 50 0.46 0.03
37 Sitakunda 20 0.21 0.01
38 Chatkhil 10 0.12 0.00
Chittagong region 150280 22.92 100.00
Third dominant cropping pattern
Single Boro cropping pattern holds the third
largest area coverage 48,710 hectares in Chittagong
region. This area is an equivalent to 7.43% of NCA
in the re
gion. This pattern Boro−Fallow−Fallow
is distributed over only 12 upazilas. Begumganj
has an area of 15,000 ha for single Boro which
stands for 30.79% of the total are under this
pattern in the region
(
Table 10).
Chatkhil ranks
in third position for single Boro area coverage,
however, this upazila has allotted the biggest
share (94.78%) of its NCA. Diversied cropping
pattern may be resort for the farmer as a coping
strategy with ood related risk (Mandal and
Bezbaruah, 2013) but scope of diversication
is limited due to environmental and climatic
condition (FAO, 1988).
118 Shahidullah et al
Fourth dominant cropping pattern
Fourth dominant cropping pattern Grasspea−
Fallow−T. Aman has occupied 30,640 hectares
representing 4.65% share of NCA in Chittagong
region (Table 11). This pattern is distributed
over 14 upazilas where Hatiya ranked in
top position. This upazila has 8,000 ha area
Grasspea−Fallow−T. Aman which is only
14.42% of upazila NCA. Companiganj upazila
ranks in second position with 7,700 ha area for
this pattern, however, this upazila has allotted
the biggest share (34.15%) of its NCA. Grasspea
is a relatively stress-tolerant pulse crop. So, it is
extensively cultivated during pre-monsoon in
the dry land (FAO, 1988).
Fifth dominant cropping pattern
Fifth dominant cropping pattern Fallow−
Aus−T. Aman had been covering 27,140 hectares
representing 4.14% share of NCA in Chittagong
region (Table 12). This pattern is distributed
over 20 upazilas where Hatiya ranked in top
position. This upazila had 8,000 ha area for
Fallow−Aus−T. Aman pattern which is only
14.42% of upazila NCA. Sitakunda upazila had
the 4th largest area 2,800 ha for this cropping,
however, this upazila had allotted the biggest
share (28.57%) of its NCA. Scarcity of irrigation
water compelled the farmers to shift their rice
season. They left Boro and selected rainfed
Aus (FAO, 1988). In this situation, some stress-
Table 9. Distribution of the 2nd dominant F−F−T. Aman cropping pattern in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Upazila Area (ha) % of upazila NCA % of the pattern in region
01 Fatikchhari 12000 54.40 9.55
02 Sandwip 12000 49.50 9.55
03 Subarnachar 11300 29.76 9.00
04 Mirsharai 10800 46.63 8.60
05 Companiganj 8200 36.37 6.53
06 Teknaf 8000 69.75 6.37
07 Hatiya 8000 14.42 6.37
08 Patiya 6200 45.32 4.94
09 Rangunia 6100 32.97 4.86
10 Sonagazi 5600 27.29 4.46
11 Rauzan 4000 32.23 3.18
12 Kabirhat 3500 29.49 2.79
13 Hathazari 3100 30.04 2.47
14 Dagonbhuiyan 3000 29.27 2.39
15 Boalkhali 2600 41.87 2.07
16 Satkania 2550 20.05 2.03
17 Chhagalnaiya 2400 22.71 1.91
18 Banshkhali 2300 12.94 1.83
19 Chandanaish 2200 22.31 1.75
20 Lohagara 2200 20.09 1.75
21 Parshuram 1800 27.03 1.43
22 Fulgazi 1800 25.25 1.43
23 Noakhali 1300 5.26 1.04
24 Ukhia 1200 11.89 0.96
25 Feni 1000 5.95 0.80
26 Maheshkhali 800 7.72 0.64
27 Senbag 600 5.67 0.48
28 Sitakunda 450 4.59 0.36
29 CoxBazar 250 2.52 0.20
30 Kutubdia 150 4.41 0.12
31 Ramgati 150 0.62 0.12
32 Ramganj 50 0.44 0.04
Chittagong region 125600 19.15 100.00
Cropping Systems in Chittagong 119
Table 10. Distribution of the 3rd dominant Boro−F−F cropping pattern in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Upazila Area (ha) % of upazila NCA % of the pattern in region
01 Begumganj 15000 91.35 30.79
02 Sonaimuri 10100 93.78 20.73
03 Chatkhil 7800 94.78 16.01
04 Noakhali 5200 21.05 10.68
05 Ramganj 3900 34.51 8.01
06 Kabirhat 3700 31.17 7.60
07 Senbag 1200 11.34 2.46
08 Chakaria 700 3.25 1.43
09 Anwara 400 4.74 0.82
10 Raipur 300 1.81 0.06
11 Parshuram 250 3.75 0.05
12 Maheshkhali 160 1.54 0.03
Chittagong region 48710 7.43 100.00
Table 11. Distribution of the 4th dominant Grasspea−Fallow−T. Aman cropping pattern in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Upazila Area (ha) % of upazila NCA % of the pattern in region
01 Hatiya 8000 14.42 26.11
02 Companiganj 7700 34.15 25.13
03 Subarnachar 5700 15.01 18.60
04 Sonagazi 5000 24.37 16.32
05 Kabirhat 1600 13.48 5.22
06 Mirsharai 1100 4.75 3.59
07 Feni 900 5.36 2.94
08 Noakhali 500 2.02 1.63
09 Dagonbhuiyan 100 0.98 0.33
10 Anwara 10 0.12 0.03
11 Patiya 10 0.07 0.03
12 Rauzan 10 0.08 0.03
13 Senbag 10 0.10 0.03
Chittagong region 30640 4.67 100.00
Table 12. Distribution of the 5th dominant Fallow−Aus−T. Aman cropping pattern in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Upazila Area (ha) % of upazila NCA % of the pattern in region
01 Hatiya 8000 14.42 29.48
02 Sonagazi 3800 18.52 14.00
03 Sandwip 2900 11.96 10.69
04 Sitakunda 2800 28.57 10.32
05 Noakhali 2800 11.34 10.32
06 Banshkahli 2000 11.25 7.37
07 Ramganj 1200 10.62 4.42
08 Kabirhat 700 5.90 2.58
09 Senbag 600 5.67 2.21
10 Fatikchhari 400 1.81 1.47
11 Satkania 350 2.75 1.29
12 Anwara 300 3.55 1.11
13 Kutubdia 250 7.35 0.92
14 Chandanaish 200 2.03 0.74
15 Chhagalnaiya 200 1.90 0.74
16 Dagonbhuiyan 200 1.96 0.74
17 Mirsharai 150 0.65 0.55
18 Patia 150 1.11 0.55
19 Companiganj 100 0.44 0.37
20 Hathazari 40 0.41 0.15
Chittagong region 27140 4.14 100.0
120 Shahidullah et al
tolerant Rabi crops like grasspea, felon, cowpea,
sesame etc may undergo for trial to intensify
the land-use of the aforesaid system.
Crop diversity and cropping intensity
Higher number of available crops under
cultivation in an area dictates its higher
diversity. Number of cropping patterns is also
a gross indicator of crop diversity. A total of
93 cropping patterns were identied in the
whole area of Chittagong region under this
investigation. The highest number of cropping
patterns was identied 28 in Naokhali sadar
upazila and that was 26 in Companiganj and
Kabirhat; and 25 in Mirsharai (Table 13). The
lowest number of cropping patterns was
identied four in Begumganj followed by
seven in Chatkhil and Fulgazi both. The higher
Table 13. Crop diversity and cropping intensity in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Upazila No. of identied
pattern No. of crop Diversity index for
cropping pattern
Crop diversity
index (CDI) C.I. (%)
01 Anwara 20 13 0.752 0.877 212
02 Banshkhali 15 11 0.889 0.945 205
03 Boalkhali 12 10 0.724 0.853 160
04 Chandanaish 19 14 0.884 0.950 213
05 Fatikchhari 24 20 0.609 0.767 144
06 Hathazari 17 15 0.697 0.806 163
07 Lohagara 12 9 0.810 0.896 181
08 Mirsharai 25 18 0.739 0.846 190
09 Patiya 13 10 0.716 0.868 171
10 Rngunia 17 16 0.637 0.793 172
11 Rauzan 18 15 0.692 0.826 171
12 Sandwip 18 17 0.723 0.890 170
13 Satkania 16 11 0.782 0.879 182
14 Sitakunda 18 16 0.843 0.932 215
15 Chakaria 17 15 0.684 0.863 231
16 CoxBazar 18 14 0.509 0.733 192
17 Kutubdia 9 70.413 0.776 279
18 Maheskhali 13 13 0.521 0.687 174
19 Pekua 11 12 0.598 0.852 240
20 Ramu 16 17 0.546 0.758 193
21 Teknaf 11 11 0.484 0.673 127
22 Ukhia 10 8 0.586 0.746 178
23 Chhagalnaiya 16 15 0.639 0.781 175
24 Dagonbhuiyan 17 18 0.652 0.799 174
25 Feni 11 11 0.647 0.827 202
26 Fulgazi 7 7 0.551 0.726 174
27 Parshuram 12 11 0.611 0.760 170
28 Sonagazi 18 12 0.819 0.916 185
29 Kamalnagar 10 9 0.655 0.872 283
30 Lakshmipur 17 14 0.691 0.859 209
31 Ramganj 17 14 0.786 0.892 169
32 Ramgati 16 15 0.640 0.864 281
33 Raipur 12 10 0.784 0.908 220
34 Begumganj 4 5 0.151 0.269 108
35 Chatkhil 7 7 0.084 0.135 103
36 Companiganj 26 23 0.737 0.857 165
37 Hatiya 15 13 0.872 0.938 224
38 Kabirhat 26 23 0.776 0.867 139
39 Noakhali 28 18 0.886 0.944 192
40 Senbag 13 12 0.523 0.738 189
41 Sonaimuri 8 9 0.091 0.155 104
42 Subarnachar 23 18 0.833 0.926 183
Chittagong region 93 31 0.893 0.952 191
Cropping Systems in Chittagong 121
number of cropping patterns is generally
related to higher level of crop diversity indices.
The upazilas having lower number of cropping
patterns were related to either salinity or water
logging or both. Begumganj and Chatkhil face
both thelimitations. The lowest diversity index
for cropping pattern was recorded 0.084 in
Chatkhil followed by 0.151 in Begumganj. In
a study Shahidullah et al. (2006) also found
lowest values for all the diversity and intensity
parameters in salt affected areas of greater
Noakhali. The highest value of diversity
index for cropping pattern was found 0.889
in Banshkhali upazila of Chittagong district
that was followed by 0.886 in Noakhali sadar
upazila. The lowest CDI was reported 0.135 in
Chatkhil followed by 0.269 in Begumganj. The
highest value of CDI was observed 0.945 in
Banshkhali followed by 0.944 in Noakhali sadar
upazila. The range of cropping intensity values
was recorded 103-283%. The maximum value
was for Kamalnagar upazila of Lakshmipur
district and minimum for Chatkhil upazila
of Noakhali district. As a whole the CDI of
Chittagong region was calculated 0.952 and
the average cropping intensity at regional
level was 191%. In a simultaneous study, the
investigators identied 316 cropping patterns
for whole Bangladesh; where the CDI value
was 0.952 at national level and the national
average of cropping intensity was 200% (Nasim
et al., 2017). Diversied cropping pattern might
enable the farmers compulsion of extracting
the maximum possible use of land in the ood
free period (Mandal and Bezbaruah, 2013).
Singh and Sidhu (2006) reported that a number
of crops like sun hemp, cluster beans and
sorghum had almost disappeared and there
is reduced varietal diversication in rice and
wheat. Crop diversication index of wheat-rice
system decreased from 0.75 in 1975-76 to 0.58 in
2006-07 in Punjab though diversication forces
pests to continuously relocate and re-colonize
their preferred host plants from year to year
(Tscharntke et al., 2005, 2007).
COCLUSION
The cropping intensity of the Chittagong region
was little bit lower than the national average.
Boro−Fallow−T. Aman, Single T. Aman, single
Boro, Grasspea−Fallow−T. Aman, Fallow−
Aus−T. Aman were the dominant cropping
patterns in the region. Exclusive rice area is about
23 folds of exclusive non-rice area. The non-rice
based cropping patterns were either few or area
under those cropping patters were much lower
which are challenges to food and nutritional
security for the people of the Chittagong region.
Based on the ndings of the study, the following
recommendations can be made.
• Initiative has to be taken to increase
productivity of exclusive rice based
cropping pattern as rice is the synonym of
the primary food security. The high yielding
varieties of rice along with recommended
crop management packages to be adopted.
• The upazilas having unique or exceptional
cropping patterns with large area coverage
might be studied in-depth to extrapolate to
similar environments.
• Effort might be invested so that a portion
of single T. Aman area could be brought
under Felon−T. Aman and/or Grasspea−T.
Aman cropping systems.
• In the single Boro area suitable vegetables
might be grown on oating bed system in
wet season.
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Appendix 1. List of cropping patterns in Chittagong region, 2014-15.
Cropping pattern Area(ha) Cropping pattern Area (ha)
01 Boro−Fallow−T. Aman 150280 36 Boro−Vegetab−T. Aman 1900
02 Fallow−Fallow−T. Aman 125600 37 Vegetab−Boro−Fallow 1800
03 Boro−Fallow−Fallow 48710 38 Potato−Boro−T. Aman 1650
04 Grasspea−Fallow−T. Aman 30640 39 Fallow−Vegetab−T. Aman 1480
05 Fallow−Aus−T. Aman 27140 40 Fallow−Aus−Fallow 1000
06 Soybean−Aus−T. Aman 22600 41 Boro−Aus−Fallow 900
07 Soybean−Jute−T. Aman 19400 42 Chilli−Aus−Fallow 770
08 Soybean−Fallow−T. Aman 18670 43 Pea−Fallow−T. Aman 730
09 Vegetab−Fallow−T. Aman 17715 44 Soybean−Aus−Fallow 700
10 Grasspea−Aus−T. Aman 16740 45 Vegetab−Groundnut−T. Aman 700
11 Boro−Aus−T. Aman 16070 46 Mustard−Boro−T. Aman 660
12 Felon−Fallow−T. Aman 14630 47 Tobacco−Sesbania 600
13 Chilli−Fallow−T. Aman 9450 48 Maize−Fallow−T. Aman 595
14 Groundnut−Fallow−T. Aman 8630 49 Garlic−Fallow−T. Aman 535
15 Vegetab−Vegetab−T. Aman 8505 50 Lentil−Aus−T. Aman 500
16 Groundnut− Aus−T. Aman 8350 51 Coriander−Fallow−T. Aman 475
17 Vegetab−Boro−T. Aman 8150 52 Groundnut−Fallow−Fallow 440
18 Mungbean−Aus−T. Aman 7040 53 Felon−Aus−Fallow 420
19 Vegetab−Aus−T. Aman 5500 54 Tobacco−Fallow−T. Aman 400
20 Vegetab−Vegetab−Vegetab 5235 55 Muskmelon−Fallow−T. Aman 345
21 Felon−Aus−T. Aman 5045 56 Mustard−Aus−T. Aman 345
22 Potato−Fallow−T. Aman 4555 57 Chilli−Fallow−Fallow 300
23 S.Potato−Fallow−T. Aman 4390 58 S.Potato−Fallow−Fallow 300
24 Mungbean−Fallow−T. Aman 4335 59 Mustard−Boro−Aus−T. Aman 270
25 Soybean−B.Aman 4300 60 Felon−Fallow−Fallow 260
26 Vegetab−Fallow−Fallow 3920 61 Coriander−Fallow−Fallow 250
27 Vegetab−Aus−Fallow 2900 62 Grasspea−B.Aman 250
28 Boro−B.Aman 2850 63 Vegetab−Boro−Aus−T. Aman 250
29 W.Melon−Fallow−T. Aman 2790 64 Onion−Fallow−T. Aman 245
30 Vegetab−Vegetab−Fallow 2560 65 Potato−Sesame−T. Aman 200
31 Chilli−Aus−T. Aman 2450 66 W.Melon−Fallow−Fallow 195
32 Lentil−Fallow−T. Aman 2440 67 Sesame−Fallow−T. Aman 175
33 Mustard−Fallow−T. Aman 2370 68 Potato−Aus−T. Aman 165
34 S.Potato−Aus−T. Aman 2150 69 Chilli−Vegetab−Fallow 130
35 Soybean−Fallow−Fallow 2000 70-93 Other 24 patterns (Table 7) 910
... folds of exclusive non-rice area. In Bogra region crop diversity is much wider than that of other regions like Sylhet and Chittagong where exclusive rice area covers 37 folds and 23 folds, respectively of exclusive non-rice areaShahidullah et al., 2017). Appropriate cropping patterns may facilitate maximum possible land utilization as well as efficient use of other scarce resources in a sustainable manner. ...
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p>With a view to document the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity, a study was carried out over all the upazilas of Bogra agricultural region during 2015-16. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was properly used for this purpose. In the findings it was recorded that 21.88% of net cropped area (NCA) of the region was occupied by the cropping pattern Boro−Fallow−T. Aman. This pattern was found to be distributed over 27 upazilas out of 35. The second largest area, 13.26% of NCA, was covered by Potato−Boro−T. Aman, which was spread over 17 upazilas. A total of 177 cropping patterns were identified in the whole region in this investigation. The highest number of cropping patterns was identified 36 in Nandigram upazila and the lowest was six in Dupchachia and Kahalu upazila of Bogra district. The lowest crop diversity index (CDI) was reported 0.718 in Raiganj upazila of Sirajganj district followed by 0.734 in Kalai of Joypurhat. The highest value of CDI was observed 0.978 in Pabna sadar followed by 0.972 in Bera upazila. The range of cropping intensity values was recorded 183-291%. The maximum value was for Khetlal upazila of Joypurhat district and minimum for Bera of Pabna. As a whole the CDI of Bogra region was calculated 0.966 and the average cropping intensity at regional level was 234%. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 73-90</p
... In critical comparison, it is clear that exclusive rice area is about four folds of exclusive non-rice area. In Jessore region crop diversity is much wider than that of other regions like Sylhet and Chittagong where exclusive rice area covers 37 folds and 23 folds respectively, of exclusive non-rice area Shahidullah et al., 2017). Appropriate cropping patterns may facilitate maximum possible land utilization as well as efficient use of other scarce resources in a sustainable manner. ...
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p>Thorough understanding and a reliable database on existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity of a particular area are needed for guiding policy makers, researchers, extensionists and development workers for the planning of future research and development. During 2016 a study was accomplished over all 34 upazilas of Jessore region using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire with a view to document the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity in the region. The most dominant cropping pattern Boro−Fallow−T. Aman occupied 32.28% of net cropped area (NCA) of the region with its distribution in all upazilas. The second largest area, 5.29% of NCA, was covered by single Boro, which was spread over 24 upazilas. A total of 176 cropping patterns were identified in the whole region under the current investigation. The highest number of cropping patterns was identified 58 in Kushtia sadar upazila and the lowest was 11 in Damurhuda upazila of Chuadanga district. The lowest crop diversity index (CDI) was reported 0.852 in Narail sadar upazila followed by 0.863 in Jessore sadar upazila. The highest value of CDI was observed 0.981 in Daulatpur followed by 0.978 in Bheramara upazila of Kushtia district. The range of cropping intensity values was recorded 175−286%. The maximum value was for Sreepur of Magura district and minimum for Abhaynagar of Jessore district. As a whole the CDI of Jessore region was calculated 0.955 and the average cropping intensity at regional level was 229%. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 185-202</p
... In critical comparison it is clear that exclusive rice area is about six folds of exclusive non-rice area. In Rajshahi region, crop diversity is much wider than that of other regions like Sylhet and Chittagong, where exclusive rice area covers 37 folds and 23 folds, respectively, of exclusive non-rice area Shahidullah et al., 2017). Appropriate cropping patterns may facilitate maximum possible land utilization as well as efficient use of other scarce resources in a sustainable manner. ...
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p>Attempts have been made in this paper to overview the existing cropping patterns, crops diversity and cropping intensity in Rajshahi region. The study was conducted in all the upazilas of four districts of Rajshahi region during 2014-15 using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The most predominating crop in this area was rice where exclusive rice based patterns occupied 40.48% of NCA. Boro-Fallow-T. Aman was the dominant cropping pattern, occupied 22.83% of NCA in 27 upazilas out of 32. The second dominant cropping pattern in Rajshahi region was Boro-Fallow-Fallow. It occupied 7.23% of NCA of the region and existed in 28 upazilas. Wheat-Fallow-T. Aman was the 3rd dominant pattern and practiced in 4.34% of the NCA in 14 upazilas. The data also revealed that the wheat based patterns stands for 14.7% of NCA. Mustard-Boro-T. Aman was the 4th dominant cropping pattern. A total of 172 cropping patterns were recognized in this region and the maximum (36) numbers of cropping patterns were identified in Paba upazila nearly followed by Durgapur (35) and Chapainawabganj upazila (34) while the lower numbers of cropping patterns were identified in Charghat (11) followed by Bagha (12) upazila of Rajshahi district. The range of cropping intensity values was recorded 171−253%. The maximum value was for Badalgachhi of Naogaon district and minimum for Bagha of Rajshahi district. The overall CDI of Rajshahi region was calculated 0.970 and the average cropping intensity at regional level was 218%. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 237-254</p
... In critical comparison it is clear that exclusive rice area is more or less same as exclusive non-rice area. In Faridpur region crop diversity is much wider than that of other regions like Sylhet and Chittagong where exclusive rice area covers 37 folds and 23 folds respectively, of exclusive non-rice area Shahidullah et al., 2017). Appropriate cropping patterns may facilitate maximum possible land use as well as efficient use of other scarce resources in a sustainable manner. ...
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p>The development of agriculture sector largely depends on the reliable and comprehensive statistics of the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity of a particular area, which will provide guideline to policy makers, researchers, extensionists and development workers. The study was conducted over all 29 upazilas of Faridpur region during 2015-16 using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire with a view to document the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity of this area. From the present study it was observed that about 43.23% net cropped area (NCA) was covered by only jute based cropping patterns on the other hand deep water ecosystem occupied about 36.72% of the regional NCA. The most dominant cropping pattern Boro−Fallow− Fallow occupied about 24.40% of NCA with its distribution over 28 out of 29. The second largest area, 6.94% of NCA, was covered by Boro-B. Aman cropping pattern, which was spread out over 23 upazilas. In total 141 cropping patterns were identified under this investigation. The highest number of cropping patterns was identified 44 in Faridpur sadar and the lowest was 12 in Kashiani of Gopalganj and Pangsa of Rajbari. The lowest crop diversity index (CDI) was reported 0.448 in Kotalipara followed by 0.606 in Tungipara of Gopalganj. The highest value of CDI was observed 0.981 in Faridpur sadar followed by 0.977 in Madhukhali of Faridpur. The range of cropping intensity value was recorded 113- 262%. The maximum value was for Saltha of Faridpur and minimum for Kotalipara of Gopalganj. As a whole the CDI of Faridpur region was calculated 0.971 and the average cropping intensity at regional level was 197%. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 157-172</p
... In critical comparison is clear that exclusive rice area is about three folds of exclusive non-rice area. In Dhaka region crop diversity is much wider than that of other regions like Sylhet and Chittagong where exclusive rice area covers 37 folds and 23 folds, respectively, of exclusive non-rice area Shahidullah et al., 2017). Appropriate cropping patterns may facilitate maximum possible land utilization as well as efficient use of other scarce resources 10080 20 300 2710 550 0 40 3620 206 27 Rupganj 17908 100 6540 3470 100 0 90 10300 136 28 Sonargaon 17166 10 6470 2370 0 0 60 8910 127 29 Belabo 11800 250 500 4850 3050 0 100 8750 227 30 Monohardi 19260 1500 400 8400 1360 0 140 11800 195 31 Narsingdi sadar 21344 240 6000 4000 1360 0 140 11740 158 32 Palash 9013 430 800 3010 600 0 90 4930 187 33 Raipur 31255 10 12000 8670 2010 0 110 22800 156 34 Shibpur 20586 420 900 9290 1460 0 150 12220 201 35 Basail 15626 50 1600 6260 4750 0 190 12850 224 36 Bhuanpur 21638 300 3300 7750 4640 0 110 16100 207 37 Delduar 18400 150 0 9820 2900 0 130 13000 221 38 Dhanbari 13020 500 530 8900 1300 20 150 11400 203 39 Ghatail 45171 4500 1300 20930 2650 0 170 29550 189 40 Gopalpur 19337 10 1625 9645 3345 100 85 14810 213 41 Kalihati 30100 260 3600 11100 5560 80 160 20760 209 42 Madhupur 37047 11000 100 11590 1370 0 140 24200 160 43 Mirzapur 37400 740 3035 17740 5220 0 155 26890 205 44 Nagarpur 26720 560 70 14280 6400 0 150 21460 227 45 Shakhipur 43000 1500 500 15300 4535 0 115 21950 212 46 Tangail sadar 30197 680 2980 11070 5150 50 150 20080 208 Dhaka region -34080 138935 361940 112600 250 5865 653670 191 in a sustainable manner. ...
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p>Sustainable crop production in Bangladesh through improvement of cropping intensity and crop diversity in rice based cropping system is regarded as increasingly important in national issues. Planning of agricultural development largely depends on the authentic, reliable and comprehensive statistics of the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity of a particular area, which will provide guideline to our policy makers, researchers, extensionists and development workers. The study was conducted over all 46 upazilas of Dhaka agricultural region in 2015 using pretested semi-structured questionnaire with a view to document the existing cropping patterns, cropping intensity and crop diversity in the region. From the present study, it was observed that about 48.27% net cropped area (NCA) is covered by exclusive rice cropping systems whereas deep water rice occupied about 16.57% of the regional NCA. The most dominant cropping pattern Boro−Fallow−T. Aman alone occupied about 22.59% of net cropped area (NCA) with its distribution over 32 upazilas out of 46. The second largest area was covered by single Boro cropping pattern, which was spread over 44 upazilas. Total number of cropping patterns was observed 164. The highest number of cropping pattern was identified 35 in Tangail sadar and Dhamrai upazila of Dhaka district and the lowest was seven in Bandar of Narayanganj and Palash of Narsingdi district. The lowest crop diversity index (CDI) was reported as 0.70 in Dhamrai followed by 0.72 in Monohardi of Narsingdi. The highest value of CDI was observed as 0.97 in Tangail sadar followed by 0.95 in Dhamrai of Dhaka and Bhuanpur of Tangail. The range of cropping intensity value was recorded 124-239%. The maximum CDI was observed in Saturia upazila of Manikganj district and minimum in Sreenagar upazila of Munsiganj district. The CDI value for Dhaka region was calculated 0.94 and the average cropping intensity at regional level was 191%. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 123-141</p
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Attempts have been made in this paper to overview the existing cropping patterns, crops diversity and cropping intensity in Rajshahi region. The study was conducted in all the upazilas of four districts of Rajshahi region during 2014-15 using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. The most predominating crop in this area was rice where exclusive rice based patterns occupied 40.48% of NCA. Boro-Fallow-T. Aman was the dominant cropping pattern, occupied 22.83% of NCA in 27 upazilas out of 32. The second dominant cropping pattern in Rajshahi region was Boro-Fallow-Fallow. It occupied 7.23% of NCA of the region and existed in 28 upazilas. Wheat-Fallow-T. Aman was the 3 rd dominant pattern and practiced in 4.34% of the NCA in 14 upazilas. The data also revealed that the wheat based patterns stands for 14.7% of NCA. Mustard-Boro-T. Aman was the 4 th dominant cropping pattern. A total of 172 cropping patterns were recognized in this region and the maximum (36) numbers of cropping patterns were identified in Paba upazila nearly followed by Durgapur (35) and Chapainawabganj upazila (34) while the lower numbers of cropping patterns were identified in Charghat (11) followed by Bagha (12) upazila of Rajshahi district. The range of cropping intensity values was recorded 171−253%. The maximum value was for Badalgachhi of Naogaon district and minimum for Bagha of Rajshahi district. The overall CDI of Rajshahi region was calculated 0.970 and the average cropping intensity at regional level was 218%.
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The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank’s (AIIB) investments in Bangladesh reached USD 2,391.98 million in August 2021 from USD 165 million in 2016, rising at an average rate of 32% per year. The consequence is that in effect, AIIB loans are entrapping the people of Bangladesh and our economy with an onerous debt burden in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic and attempts to move forward into a post pandemic recovery period. So far, the AIIB has invested USD 605 million in the energy sector of Bangladesh, with investments increasing at an average rate of 23% each year. In spite of this level of financing, significantly the AIIB has yet to invest in any RE options (wind, solar) in the country, exposing the bank as an influential financier directly undermining global efforts to protect the climate and community resilience. Among the first flagship investments of the AIIB in Bangladesh was a private sector stand-alone USD 60 million loan approved in 2018 for the Bhola Independent Power Plant (Bhola IPP) - a greenfield gas power project. To this day, three years later, the communities in Bhola are still awaiting information as to how and when they will be compensated for their losses due to unjust land acquisition and canal grabbing by the operator company, Nutan Bidyut Bangladesh Limited (NBBL) which is a subsidiary of Indian conglomerate Shapoorji Pallonji Infrastructure Capital Company Limited (SPICCPL). Due to the lack of appropriate management and disposal of sand and debris from the construction site, the local canal, Mandartoli Shakha Khal, has been filled and blocked on several occasions, causing flooding and damage to crops. Finally, after the filing of several petitions by local people, the operator company temporarily repaired the canal by re-excavation or dredging. In absence of proper and consistent dredging, the betel leaf (paan) farmers have been suffering from water logging every year. Meanwhile, SPICCPL has entered into a deal to sell off the power plant to Mauritius and UK-based Actis Energy for USD 270 million. Before this transfer of ownership is sealed, it is incumbent upon the AIIB as a key investment partner, to compel the borrowing company to pay adequate compensation to the landowners and betel leaf (paan) farmers for the losses and damages they have been subjected to over the last three years as a direct result of the project. The company must also be held accountable for fully rehabilitating the Mandartoli Shakha Khal to its pre-project state. Another stand-alone project financed by the AIIB exposes the role of the AIIB in facilitating fossil fuel-dependent power generation in Bangladesh. In 2019, the AIIB approved a USD120 million loan for the “Power System Upgrade and Expansion Project” (PSUEP), which aims to upgrade and expand the power transmission system in Chattogram. Although the rationale sounds benign, the project in fact directly connects the coal power plants of the Chattogram-Cox’s Bazaar Zone with the national grid through constructing 27-km overhead and underground high voltage transmission lines. Indeed, the actual realities on the ground illustrate the questionable practices of the AIIB project staff in ensuring communities are informed, let alone able to raise concerns without fear of reprisals. For example, though the scant project data made publicly available claims the number of beneficiary families of the PSUEP is 287,000, consultation meetings were organized for only 93 persons (i.e. a mere 0.03 percentage of the population claimed by the bank as beneficiaries). Crucially, administrative and political persons were also included in the consultation with affected communities. As a result, the affected communities were in forced into a position of silence, unable to raise their concerns properly due to fear of potential retaliation and intimidation. According to AIIB policies, the Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) and Resettlement Planning Framework (RPF) must be translated into local languages so that the affected communities can understand the proposed project and its impacts easily. Revealingly, the RPF for this project has been translated into the wrong language and some sections of the texts fail to even be coherent. This situation directly means that the AIIB has failed to uphold the ‘right to know’ of locally affected communities. At this time, it is incumbent upon the AIIB to put an end to its investments in fossil fuel projects and supporting infrastructure. Instead, the bank must take its role as a multilateral development bank with a global footprint seriously, shifting gears towards promoting RE in Bangladesh and beyond; unequivocally supporting the CVF target to achieve reliance on 100% RE by 2050 ─ in line with the Paris Agreement and most up to date scientific recommendations on climate.
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p>Agricultural land use and distribution of cultivated crops expressed in cropping pattern (CP) constitute the base for increasing produtivity. An in-depth study was conducted on the existing CPs of Bangladesh in each and every upazila (sub-districts) using semi structured questionnaire and data validation by the stakeholder consultation workshop conducted in each of 64 districts. Three hundred and sixteen CPs were identified throughout Bangladesh excluding the very minor ones. Topmost five CPs were only rice containing CPs, which covered 51% of the net cropped area. The most dominant CP was Boro- Fallow-T. Aman covering 27% of net cropped area. Results on major cropwise CPs, location-wise CPs, CP diversity and crop diversity etc are also presented herein. Bangladesh Rice j. 2017, 21(2): 1-55</p
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Using farm level survey data, the paper examines the determinants of cropping pattern diversification, and evaluates the role of crop diversification in increasing farm income in flood affected agriculture in the plains of Assam. The results of censored regression on a cross section of 342 randomly selected farms suggest that crop diversification has been adopted as a mechanism to cope with limits imposed by flood. Moreover, the results of a linear regression led to the conclusion that crop diversification has an important role in enhancing farm income. The results reported in the study are quite interesting and useful, and offer important policy suggestions.
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The study was conducted in greater Noakhali district to investigate the major cropping patterns during 2000–2001. Information was collected through a structured interview schedule. A total of 18 major cropping patterns were identified. Most dominant cropping pattern, single T. Aman alone occupied 35% land of net cropped area. The next three, Boro–Fallow–T. Aman, Fallow–B.Aus–T. Aman and single Boro represents 14, 11 and 11%, respectively of the net cropped area. A sharp variation was observed in cropping patterns among the different upazillas. Crop land of Noakhali, Companiganj, and Ramgati is mainly occupied by single T. Aman cropping pattern. Lion share of net cropped area in Feni, Chhagalnaiya, Parshuram and Raipur is covered by Boro–Fallow–T. Aman pattern. Begumganj and Chatkhil are an exception. More than 80% of the cropped area is in these two upazillas is cahracterized by single Boro cropping pattern. The average cropping intensity of the greater Noakhali district was 163%. The highest cropping intensity was 194% in Ramganj and the lowest 115 % was in Begumganj. The highest adoption rate of modern rice varieties was found in Boro–Fallow–T. Aman cropping pattern in all upazillas. The farmers need improved varieties of Aus, T. Aman and minor Rabi crops purposively suitable for coastal area. Researches in these fields should get priority. Single Boro area, especially of Begumganj and Chatkhil is the most potential area for fish culture after the harvest of Boro rice. Key words: Cropping patterns, cropping intensity, coastal area.
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Conservation biological control in agroecosystems requires a landscape management perspective, because most arthropod species experience their habitat at spatial scales beyond the plot level, and there is spillover of natural enemies across the crop–noncrop interface. The species pool in the surrounding landscape and the distance of crop from natural habitat are important for the conservation of enemy diversity and, in particular, the conservation of poorly-dispersing and specialized enemies. Hence, structurally complex landscapes with high habitat connectivity may enhance the probability of pest regulation. In contrast, generalist and highly vagile enemies may even profit from the high primary productivity of crops at a landscape scale and their abundance may partly compensate for losses in enemy diversity. Conservation biological control also needs a multitrophic perspective. For example, entomopathogenic fungi, plant pathogens and endophytes as well as below- and above-ground microorganisms are known to influence pest-enemy interactions in ways that vary across spatiotemporal scales. Enemy distribution in agricultural landscapes is determined by beta diversity among patches. The diversity needed for conservation biological control may occur where patch heterogeneity at larger spatial scales is high. However, enemy communities in managed systems are more similar across space and time than those in natural systems, emphasizing the importance of natural habitat for a spillover of diverse enemies. According to the insurance hypothesis, species richness can buffer against spatiotemporal disturbances, thereby insuring functioning in changing environments. Seemingly redundant enemy species may become important under global change. Complex landscapes characterized by highly connected crop–noncrop mosaics may be best for long-term conservation biological control and sustainable crop production, but experimental evidence for detailed recommendations to design the composition and configuration of agricultural landscapes that maintain a diversity of generalist and specialist natural enemies is still needed.
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Having witnessed a fast growth, the agriculture in Punjab has reached a plateau. To sustain even the existing level, the costs are increasing and natural resources are being depleted due to overuse. This study has examined the use of certain resources and its impact on the cost of production. The data have been collected from different primary and secondary sources. The fast increase in area under rice and wheat appears to be unsustainable due to the fast decline in water table. Therefore, the cost of pumping out water with electricity has been going up, shortage of electric power has resulted in increase in the number of electric and diesel tubewells, further escalating the cost of production. The replenishment of soil health due to depleting macro and micronutrients and increased pesticide-use have also been observed to increase the cost. Thus, the cost on account of these factors together has gone up by Rs 63/t in wheat and Rs 189/t in rice. The varietal diversity of wheat has decreased and that of rice crop has increased during the past two and a half decades. The policy measures to minimize excessive use of natural resources requires suitable input pricing, particularly for water resource, improving input-use efficiency and revamping market forces to encourage diversification of state agriculture from rice to alternative crops.
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Agricultural intensification is a process of raising land productivity over time through increases in inputs of one form or another on a per unit area basis. Its study is important for several reasons, many of which relate to agroforestry objectives. However, the concept of intensification often is poorly defined in the literature and existing methods and approaches to measuring agricultural intensity are problematic, making it difficult to precisely compare particular farming systems. This paper examines the concept of agricultural intensity, its relevance to efficient and sustainable land use, and the ways it can be measured. A review of existing approaches and methods for measuring intensity, such as those based on output, cropping frequency, and agrotechnologies, revealed that these feature a number of problems. Some of these problems relate simply to imprecision and inaccuracy. But others are due to the unsuitability of these approaches in the context of farming environments, such as frontiers, which are characterized by limited production data; unconventional cropping cycles; myriad production strategies, cropping patterns, and crop-fallow cycles on a single farm; and a high level of system dynamism and production variability over time. A modified approach to measuring agricultural intensity, based on fieldwork in Petn, Guatemala, is presented. This approach, which is better suited to frontier regions, employs an agricultural intensity index to help evaluate the intensity of particular farm units based on the technologies and practices used by the farmer, and the degree to which they are used.
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Abstract Understanding the negative and positive effects of agricultural land use for the conservation of biodiversity, and its relation to ecosystem services, needs a landscape perspective. Agriculture can contribute to the conservation of high-diversity systems, which may provide important ecosystem services such as pollination and biological control via complementarity and sampling effects. Land-use management is often focused on few species and local processes, but in dynamic, agricultural landscapes, only a diversity of insurance species may guarantee resilience (the capacity to reorganize after disturbance). Interacting species experience their surrounding landscape at different spatial scales, which influences trophic interactions. Structurally complex landscapes enhance local diversity in agroecosystems, which may compensate for local high-intensity management. Organisms with high-dispersal abilities appear to drive these biodiversity patterns and ecosystem services, because of their recolonization ability and larger resources experienced. Agri-environment schemes (incentives for farmers to benefit the environment) need to broaden their perspective and to take the different responses to schemes in simple (high impact) and complex (low impact) agricultural landscapes into account. In simple landscapes, local allocation of habitat is more important than in complex landscapes, which are in total at risk. However, little knowledge of the relative importance of local and landscape management for biodiversity and its relation to ecosystem services make reliable recommendations difficult.
The importance of multiple cropping in increasing world food supplies. A special publication No
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Agrawal, D J and A H Kassam. 1976. The importance of multiple cropping in increasing world food supplies. A special publication No. 27, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin. pp. 2-3.
Land Resources Appraisal of Bangladesh for Agricultural Development-Report 2: Agroecological regions of Bangladesh
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FAO, 1988. Land Resources Appraisal of Bangladesh for Agricultural Development-Report 2: Agroecological regions of Bangladesh. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 570p.
Influence of changes in cropping pattern on farmers' economic status
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Gadge, S S. 2003. Influence of changes in cropping pattern on farmers' economic status. Indian J. Ext. Edu. 39(1&2): 99-101.