Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-asthmatic activity of Phyllanthus niruri L. leaves extracts

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... It is identified in Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas, including South East Asia, Southern India, and China. P. niruri L. has been extensively reported in traditional and folk medication systems such as Ayurveda and Siddha to treat various diseases including diabetes mellitus, jaundice, asthma, joint pain, immunomodulator, loss of appetite, constipation, injuries, as antimicrobial, conjunctivitis, gonorrheal diseases of males and females, inflammatory diseases, skin itching, kidney stones or failures, and urogenital disease [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. Curative properties of P. niruri are due to the presence of polyphenols, include classes of chromones, coumarins, lignans, stilbenes, xanthones, and flavonoid [17][18][19]. ...
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Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the neurological, behavioral, and autonomic changes of Phyllanthus niruri in Swiss albino mice using Irwin’s method. Methods: A total of 24 mice was divided into four groups of six each (3-male, 3-female in each group). Aqueous extract of P. niruri was prepared. Based on body weight aqueous extract was given to the mice by orally through gavage tube (Group I – 300 mg/kg, Group II – 600 mg/kg, Group III – 900 mg/kg, and Group IV – 1200 mg/kg). Neuropharmacological profile is studied for each mice using Irwin’s observational test, the mice were observed for 4 h after oral administration for various behavioral, neurological, and autonomic changes at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 h. Results: P. niruri showed negligible actions at 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight. At 900 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg P. niruri showed certain behavioral and neuronal changes. P. niruri increased alertness, stereotypy, restlessness, irritability/aggressiveness in behavioral profile indicating that the drug is a CNS stimulant. Furthermore, it showed mild tremors in neurological profile indicating CNS excitation. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of P. niruri at 900 mg/kg and 1200 mg/kg showed changes in behavioral profile, neurological profile, showing it as CNS stimulant properties. Since it is an observational study further research should be done to explore CNS stimulant properties in various in vivo studies.
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Objective: To evaluate the Acute toxicity study and Anti-asthmatic activity of Zeal Herbal Granules. Materials & Methods: In the present study, acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD guideline 423. Anti-asthmatic activity of Zeal Herbal Granules was investigated against compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation. Percentage mast cell degranulation was calculated at different concentration level i.e.1, 10, 100 and 1000μg/mL. Results: Zeal Herbal Granules showed significant protection of rat mesenteric mast cells from disruption caused by compound 48/80. Significant dose dependent effect was observed in percentage mast cell degranulation at different dose level of Zeal Herbal Granules in comparison to negative control. 26.83% mast cell degranulation was observed at 100μg/mL dose level of Zeal Herbal Granules. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Zeal Herbal Granules has significant anti-asthmatic activity against compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation comparable to that produced by Ketotifen fumarate. There was no lethal and toxic reactions found among the tested animals. Zeal Herbal Granules can be a safe and effective drug for patient with asthmatic complaints.
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The aim of study was to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Elephantopus scaber leaves. In the present study, ethanol extract of Elephantopus scaber leaves was evaluated for preliminary phytochemical screening and antiasthmatic activity using histamine and acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm, mast cell degranulation and histamine induced constriction on isolated guinea pig tracheal chain at different dose levels. Student's t-Test and Dunett's test were used for statistical analysis. The result of present investigation showed that the ethanolic extract of E. scaber significantly (P<0.001) decreased the bronchospasm induced by histamine, acetylcholine and protected mast cell degranulation as compared to control groups. It also decreased the histamine induce constriction on isolated guinea pig trachea in dose-dependent manner. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of steroids, saponin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in the extract. The present study concludes that the antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of E. scaber leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids or steroids. Antiasthmatic action of the E. scaber could be due to its antihistaminic, anticholinergic and mast-cell-stabilizing property.
The incidence of allergic asthma has almost doubled in the past two decades. Numerous epidemiological studies have linked the recent surge in atopic disease with decreased exposure to infections in early childhood as a result of a more westernized lifestyle. However, a clear mechanistic explanation for how this might occur is still lacking. An answer might lie in the presently unfolding story of various regulatory T-cell populations that can limit adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 (T(H)2)-cell-mediated allergic airway disease.
Allergic rhinitis represents a global health issue affecting between 10% to 25% of the world population, with increasing prevalence over the last decade. Although often trivialized by patients and doctors, allergic rhinitis is a significant cause of morbidity, in addition to its substantial economic impact. While allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory disorder of the upper airways, inflammation alone is insufficient to explain the chronic nature of the disease. An exciting concept which has recently emerged in asthma concerns the role of the bronchial epithelium as a key regulator of airway inflammatory and remodelling responses in asthma. It has been shown by our group that the disruption and alteration in the function of the lower airway epithelium in asthma leads to the generation of a variety of stimuli that lead to the restructuring of the airway wall. This raises interesting questions regarding a similar role for the upper airway epithelium in allergic rhinitis. This review aims to interpret past and current research into allergic rhinitis, and to address specific areas where future research is warranted, particularly in relation to the possibility of an altered upper airway epithelial phenotype in allergic rhinitis.
Asthma is a variable disease, and various factors can lead to an increase (or decrease) in asthma symptoms and the level of asthma control. Pub Med was searched for recent articles dealing with asthma variability, environmental factors and co-morbid conditions that affect asthma control, and for publications which identified tools to facilitate patients' response to asthma variability. Variability in asthma symptoms may be a response to the individual's environment (e.g. seasonal variation, cigarette smoke, and air pollutants) or personal factors (e.g. inhaler technique, pregnancy, exercise). Co-morbid diseases such as allergic rhinitis may also impact significantly on asthma variability and control. Documenting asthma variability and assessing both adherence and possible triggers over time may allow patients and physicians to develop treatment programmes that anticipate, rather than follow, changes in the level of asthma symptoms. Personalised asthma control plans which take into account factors affecting symptom variability may enable patients to modify medication and their environment prophylactically in anticipation of a known trigger or at the first sign of an asthma exacerbation.
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