Article

Toward an Integrative and Fine-Grained Insight in Motivating and Demotivating Teaching Styles: The Merits of a Circumplex Approach

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Abstract

Guided by Self-Determination Theory, we offer an integrative and fine-grained analysis of teachers’ classroom motivating style (i.e., autonomy support, structure, control, and chaos) to resolve existing controversies in the literature, such as how these dimensions relate to each other and to educationally important student and teacher outcomes. Six independent samples of secondary school teachers ( N = 1332; M <sub>age</sub> = 40.9 years) and their students ( N = 1735, M <sub>age</sub> = 14.6 years) read 12 ecologically valid vignettes to rate four dimensions of teachers’ motivating styles, using the Situations-in-School (SIS) questionnaire. Multidimensional scaling analyses of both the teacher and the student data indicated that motivating and demotivating teaching could best be graphically represented by a two-dimensional configuration that differed in terms of need support and directiveness. In addition, eight subareas (two subareas per motivating style) were identified along a circumplex model: participative and attuning, guiding and clarifying, demanding and domineering, and abandoning and awaiting. Correlations between these eight subareas and a variety of construct validation and outcome variables (e.g., student motivation, teacher burnout) followed an ordered sinusoid pattern. The discussion focuses on the conceptual implications and practical advantages of adopting a circumplex approach and sketches a number of important future research directions.

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... Empirical research concludes that students with autonomous motivation obtain good academic results and benefit from the support of teachers in their autonomy. It also concludes that teaching style (teachers' style of motivation) is malleable and that the theoretical concept of support in autonomy is reflected in the pedagogical practices carried out in the classroom (Reeve, 2004;Kember et al., 2009;Berger & Girardet, 2016;Cheon & Reeve, 2015;Aelterman et al., 2019). According to the SDT, when teachers encourage student autonomy, competence, and personal relationships with their teaching styles and practice, student engagement improves as their internal motivation increases. ...
... Both dimensions correlate positively, which suggests that support for student autonomy is generally linked to the provision of structure and order in the classroom. Both dimensions predict the behavioural engagement of students (Jang et al., 2010;Aelterman et al., 2019). Meanwhile et al., (2009) defend that the support for autonomy and structure in the teaching proposed by teachers promotes self-regulation learning (SRL) as it enables the basic psychological needs of students to be met: need for autonomy and need for competence. ...
... In this context, teachers' teaching style appears as an especially critical element, with the style involving a high degree of structuring of the teaching and support for student autonomy being associated with positive educational results. However, the style that entails a high degree of control is associated with negative results (Aelterman et al., 2019). The conceptualisation of teaching styles and their translation into pedagogical practices has progressed on the basis of empirical research, one of the latest studies of which is this author's. ...
Conference Paper
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This project aims to contribute to the reduction of early leaving from Basic Vocational Education and Training (BVET) and Intermediate Vocational Education and Training (IVET). Recent research confirms the influence of the teaching styles and pedagogical practices of teachers on the development of student engagement, as well as academic performance, and the prevention of early leaving from education and training. Thus, taking the Self Determination Theory (SDT) as a theoretical reference, this project focuses on the analysis of the teaching styles and practice of teachers in secondary vocational education and on their influence on the educational performance of students and on the prevention of early leaving from vocational education and training (ELVET). The methodology is mixed and is structured in two phases: an initial descriptive-explanatory phase in which teaching practices are identified and analysed based on the administration of two validated questionnaires (Situations in School-SIS-and the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale-TSE) and a second phase that corresponds to the implementation and transfer of successful educational practices as a strategy for preventing ELVET. The results will enable us to provide evidence, strategies, and instruments that will contribute to the improvement of knowledge concerning the teaching styles and pedagogical practices of teachers and the bearing these have on students' academic performance, as well as the transfer of tools and successful pedagogical practices for the prevention and reduction of early leaving from these levels of education. This project is subsidized by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness within the framework of the 2019 R&D&I Programme aimed at overcoming social challenges (reference PID2019-108342RB-100).
... Een docent die alles op zijn beloop laat en geen duidelijk plan heeft, draagt hiermee niet bij aan het gevoel van competentie van de student, maar belemmert dit gevoel juist (Aelterman et al., 2019). Een docent veroorzaakt chaos als er geen of onvoldoende instructie, hulp, en feedback wordt geboden (Stroet et al., 2015) en wanneer een afwachtende houding wordt aangenomen (Aelterman, 2014). ...
... behoefte-ondersteunend versus behoefte-ondermijnend en hoog directief versus laag directief (Aelterman et al., 2019;Vermote et al., 2020). De eerste dimensie beschrijft de mate van informatie en de tweede dimensie de mate van controle. ...
... Onderzoeksvraag 1: Percepties van Studenten over Motiverend LesgevenUit onderzoek weten we dat de behoefte-ondersteunende docentbenaderingen een positieve invloed hebben op de autonome motivatie van de student, en behoefte-ondermijnende docentbenaderingen invloed hebben op de gecontroleerde motivatie (e.g.,Aelterman et al., 2019). Ook in onze eerste beschrijvende studie (n = 623) in de Nederlandse hbo-context(Leenknecht et al., 2017), bleek dat studenten die van mening zijn dat hun docenten veel behoefte-ondersteunende benaderingen toepassen meer autonoom gemotiveerd waren. ...
Article
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Samenvatting: In het Hoger Onderwijs verwachten we van studenten dat ze hun ei-gen leerproces kunnen aansturen en vanuit zichzelf gemotiveerd zijn om te studeren. Met andere woorden, we verwachten autonome motivatie van studenten. Zowel in theorie als praktijk blijft het een belangrijk vraagstuk hoe deze autonome motivatie kan worden gestimuleerd. Met een serie van vijf onderzoeken wilden we een bijdrage leveren aan [1] de toepassing van motivatieprincipes in het hoger onderwijs en [2] de theorievorming, specifiek in de context van het hoger onderwijs. We hebben steeds motiverend lesgeven onderzocht vanuit het perspectief van de student met behulp van vragenlijsten in beschrijvend en scenario-onderzoek. Resultaten onderstreepten het belang van motiverend lesgeven voor motivatie en prestatie van studenten in het hoger onderwijs. Vanuit het perspectief van de student kunnen drie motiverende do-centbenaderingen worden onderscheiden: autonomie ondersteuning, structuur, en betrokkenheid. We vonden dat percepties van studenten over een docent worden opgebouwd uit de ervaren toepassing van deze benaderingen (docentgedrag), de aard van de docentbenadering in algemene zin (ondersteunend of ondermijnend) en de context van de opleiding en het instituut (denk aan het docententeam en staf). Hieruit kunnen we concluderen dat consequent toepassen belangrijker is, dan in iede-re situatie alle benaderingen toe te passen Trefwoorden: Motivatie, lesgeven, Hoger Onderwijs, Formatief toetsenf [Martijn Leenknecht m.j.m.leenknecht@hz.nl Artikel ontvangen [01-10-21]; geaccepteerd [12-12-21]; online gepubliceerd [30-12-21] * De beschreven onderzoeken in dit artikel zijn onderdeel van het proefschrift "Stu-dent's Perspective on [de]Motivational Teaching Approaches in Higher Education", dat op 24 maart 2021 werd verdedigd door dhr. Leenknecht ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Een hard copy van het proefschrift is verkrijgbaar op verzoek. Motiverend lesgeven in het Hoger Onderwijs In een context, zoals het Nederlandse Hoger Onderwijs, waarin we van studenten ver-wachten dat ze zelf hun leerproces aansturen (Bailey, 2013; Brooks & Everett, 2008; Leese, 2010), willen we dat de reden om in actie te komen, de motivator, steeds meer vanuit de student zelf komt. Docenten willen niet stap voor stap moeten zeggen wat een student 5
... The factor of structure is necessary to enhance need satisfaction, especially competence need satisfaction. Teachers can implement structure with appropriate guidance and clarify to help learners feel competent to engage in activities (Aelterman et al. 2019). In particular, providing positive feedback combined with corrective feedback, which includes information on what can be done differently to perform better, could impact students' motivational experiences during lessons (De Meester et al. 2020). ...
... In particular, providing positive feedback combined with corrective feedback, which includes information on what can be done differently to perform better, could impact students' motivational experiences during lessons (De Meester et al. 2020). However, it is important to note that providing feedback can be introduced both in an autonomy-supportive or controlling way (Aelterman et al. 2019). On the one hand, providing informational positive feedback brought clear benefits to students' motivation and interest (Stroet, Opdenakker, and Minnaert 2013). ...
... On the one hand, providing informational positive feedback brought clear benefits to students' motivation and interest (Stroet, Opdenakker, and Minnaert 2013). On the other hand, providing feedback with clear expectations, which turns into a one-way communication delivered by teachers only, might pressure students to act and think in certain ways (Aelterman et al. 2019). The third practice is interpersonal involvement and individual interaction involving relatedness-support. ...
Background: Affective learning has been recognised increasingly as a significant outcome of physical education. This focus on the affective domain comes at a time when there is increasing concern about health and wellbeing of children and young people and, in particular about the rising prevalence of mental health issues. The literature established that a number of approaches that could produce affective learning outcomes that may offer a positive contribution to children and young people’s health and wellbeing. These approaches to physical education could be characterized as pedagogies of affect. One underpinning theory informing pedagogies of affect is Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Pedagogical research grounded in SDT has shown the significance of need-supportive teaching behaviour in physical education as it has a direct impact on pupils’ positive affective learning outcomes. However, little has been known about what is happening right before need-supportive teaching behaviour occurs during class. Purpose: This study aims to address the research questions of how aware are teachers of their own need-supportive teaching behaviour and why do they behave in the ways they do in practising pedagogies of affect. Methods: Data were generated through filmed videos and self-confrontation interviews. We filmed two indoor lessons which the same teacher delivered to the same classes. Within a month after the observations, the teachers participated in the self-confrontation interviews about their teaching behaviour and concerns that arose during the observed lessons while watching selected recorded video clips. The scenes were selected when teachers were offering meaningful choices of activities, offering feedback including either aspect of need-support or control, and interacting with pupils individually. This paper reported data from five physical education teachers in Scottish secondary schools. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes in relation to teachers’ awareness of observed teaching behaviour. Findings: We highlighted how the teachers responded through the following three themes: (1) recognised benefits of offering meaningful choices; (2) different intentions of offering feedback and individual interactions; (3) the need for supporting pupils with behavioural issues. The first theme indicated teachers’ knowledge in terms of being able to explain why offering meaningful choices works effectively in terms of pupils’ affective learning. The second theme demonstrated teachers’ intentions behind offering feedback and individual interactions. There were teachers’ intentions of securing their pupils’ confidence, motivation, positive mindset, and wellbeing as prioritised outcomes. In contrast, teachers offering feedback to keep running a lesson might not be effective for pupils’ affective learning. The third theme highlighted teachers’ expectations of pupils’ behaviour to implementing need-supportive teaching, especially for pupils with additional support needs. Meanwhile, we remain alert to the possibility that some of the teachers’ interactions with pupils who have additional support needs could be construed in SDT terms as controlling teaching. Conclusion: We conclude that how well teachers are willing to learn from their pupils and how well teachers know the contextual factors about pupils such as their feelings, needs, and interests could be a fundamental requirement for implementing need-supportive teaching behaviour for pupils’ mental health and wellbeing within pedagogies of affect.
... In the educational context, research with physical education teachers indicated that need satisfaction is related to the use of autonomy-supportive practices, such as taking students' perspective and giving a meaningful rationale and more structuring practices, such as providing help and guidance (Taylor et al., 2008). The present study aimed to move beyond past work that focused on a more limited set of teaching dimensions by conducting a comprehensive investigation of how experiences of both need satisfaction and need frustration relate to the motivating and demotivating teaching styles, as identified by Aelterman et al. (2019). ...
... To assess teachers' teaching style, we made use of the Situations-In-School Questionnaire-Education (SISQ-E), which has recently been developed by Aelterman et al. (2019). This vignettebased self-report questionnaire provides 15 authentic teaching situations, balanced between proactive (e.g., "You are thinking about classroom rules. ...
... On a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (does not describe me at all) to 7 (does describe me extremely well), teachers were asked to indicate to what extent each of the responses described their own teaching behavior. The original research paper of Aelterman et al. (2019) shows good psychometric properties for the scale, and, in the present sample, good internal consistencies for all teaching styles were observed, varying between 0.81 (i.e., structure) and 0.85 (i.e., control). ...
Article
Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined the explanatory role of teachers’ need-based experiences in the association between teachers’ perceived social pressure (i.e., from the principal, colleagues, and students) and their personal adjustment and motivating teaching style. In total, 482 secondary school teachers (M age = 39.9 years) participated in this questionnaire-based study. Teacher need satisfaction was primarily related to adaptive work adjustment (i.e., job satisfaction) and a motivating teaching style (i.e., provided autonomy support and structure), while need frustration was primarily related to maladjustment (i.e., emotional exhaustion) and a demotivating teaching style (i.e., provided control and chaos). Need-based experiences played either a partial or fully mediating role in the relation between different sources of social pressure and all but one outcome (i.e., chaos). Pressure from students yielded the strongest relation to teacher outcomes, suggesting that the need for targeting this source in intervention research and daily school life. Overall, the present findings highlight the unifying role of need-based experiences as a critical mechanism underlying the relation between different sources of pressure and both teachers’ personal adjustment and their motivating teaching style.
... That is, teachers can support students' autonomy by showing interest in students' preferences, provide them with choice and decision making, take their perspectives, and respect them as autonomous individuals (e.g., Cheon et al., 2019). Teachers can support students' competence through clear expectation communicating style and provide step-by-step "how-to" arrange strategists and behaviors rather than "what to do" (e.g., Aelterman et al., 2019;Cheon et al., 2019). Teachers can support students' relatedness by relating to them, ...
... show interest in what they do, and show interest in spending time with them (Rocchi et al., 2017;Sheldon & Filak, 2008). Teachers' need-supportive behaviors have been found to increase students' experience of need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, engagement, skill learning, and well-being (Aelterman et al., 2019;Behzadnia et al., 2019;Cheon et al., 2018;Vasconcellos et al., 2020). In contrast, when social contexts would not support students' basic needs or create a need-thwarting climate, it results in students' need frustration, controlled motivation, fear of failure, and ill-being (Bartholomew et al., 2018;Behzadnia, 2021;Haerens et al., 2015). ...
... To do this, through a PowerPoint presentation, evidence on the benefits of need-supportive interventions, and reducing need-thwarting behaviors were presented, and research staff (first author) discussed "what-to-do" (Table 1) along with "how-to-do" (Tables 2) the instructions in class activities. That is, we provided methods on "how-to-do" instructional behaviors that followed up by need-supportive teaching activities (e.g., Aelterman et al., 2019;Cheon et al., 2018;Cheon et al., 2019;Reeve & Cheon, 2016;Ryan & Deci, 2017;Sheldon & Filak, 2008;Sparks et al., 2016;Weinstein et al., 2018). At the end of part 1, the research staff reviewed the instructions and provided some experiences in working with students and practical examples in a group discussion. ...
Article
Objectives The present study tested a need-supportive teaching approach to enhance the experience of need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and well-being, and to decrease need frustration, controlled motivation, amotivation, and ill-being among students with intellectual disability in physical education activities. We further tested the effects of experimental condition in predicting students’ need satisfaction and need frustration, motivational regulations, and well-being and ill-being over the semester. Design Experimental study. Methods Ninety eight students with mild and borderline intellectual disabilities (Mage = 16.53, SD = 3.22; female = 63.3%) attended in this experimental semester-long study. Teachers (N = 6) of students randomly assigned into either an experimental (need-supportive teaching style) or a control (usual teaching style) condition. Students filled out the targeted questionnaires at the beginning (T1), middle (T2), and the end of the semester (T3). Findings The results showed that students of the teachers in the experimental condition reported higher need satisfaction and positive affect, and lesser need frustration, amotivation, and negative affect than students of the teachers in the control condition. The results also showed that experimental condition predicted positively T3 need satisfaction, whereas and negatively predicted T3 need frustration, amotivation, and negative affect. Conclusion Findings highlight the importance of teachers’ need-supportive teaching behaviors to enhance positive outcomes, and decreasing their negative outcomes in students with intellectual disabilities in PE.
... We anticipated, however, to observe more elevated levels of relative autonomous motivation along the line of congruence (when both aspects of structure would be increasing) than the line of incongruence (when one aspect would be increasing and the other would be decreasing) (Hypothesis 2). We presumed so because limited research toward this direction has shown that students benefit more when teachers provide both guidance and clarify their expectations toward their students (Aelterman et al., 2019). ...
... To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies showing each of the four components comprising structure (Skinner et al., 1998) to relate to autonomous motivation. These results complement previous studies which indicated links between perceived structure and desired educational outcomes (e.g., Aelterman et al., 2019;Jang et al., 2010). ...
... By relying on SDT as well, Aelterman et al. (2019) have conceptualised structure through vignettes as guiding and clarifying. Guiding refers to instructional practices that foster progress through scaffolding by providing proper and customised help and support and mutual and respectful interaction. ...
Article
Background: Provision of structure in classroom settings constitutes one of the pillars of conducive learning environments. However, little is known whether the particular elements of provided structure-namely, contingency, clear expectations, help and support, and monitoring-are equally important for student learning and motivation. Aims: In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to investigate to what extent students' autonomous motivation is linearly and curvilinearly related to their perceptions of their teachers' contingency, clear expectations, help and support, and monitoring. Sample: Participants were 12,036 Turkish adolescent students (age range: 15-19 years; 54.4% males) from 446 classes, nested into 24 public schools. Methods: Cross-sectional, based on student ratings of their self-determined motivation and their teacher structure provision and autonomy support. Results: Multilevel and ordinary least-squares polynomial regression analyses showed all the four perceived structure elements to predict autonomous motivation, with expectations and contingency (especially when coupled with monitoring) being even more important predictors than the other elements. Response surface analyses also showed strong positive relation between autonomous motivation and all the possible pairs of the four elements of perceived structure along the line of congruence, suggesting an additive effect when teachers are thought to be contingent and helpful and supportive (or monitor their students, or clearly communicate their expectations). Conclusions: These findings imply the key role that teachers could play in enhancing their students' autonomous motivation by providing all the elements of structure.
... (Reeve, 2009;Reeve & Cheon, 2021). Within SDT, and through the circumflex model recently proposed by Aelterman et al. (2019), four main motivational interpersonal styles in teachers are distinguished. They proposed a circular structure through two main axes, where the vertical axis shows the degree of directivity used and the horizontal axis ranges from least to greatest satisfaction of needs (see Fig. 1). ...
... A number of interventions have been conducted during the past years, which confirm that teachers can learn to support autonomy, and when they do, students benefit from it in many different ways (Cheon et al., 2012(Cheon et al., , 2018(Cheon et al., , 2020Reeve & Cheon, 2021). Similarly, with autonomy support, a structure-based teaching style where the teacher provides strategies, help, and support also seems to be able to satisfy students' needs much more than a control-based motivational style (pressure) or chaos (laissez-faire) where there is possibly a less satisfaction and greater thwarting of these needs (Aelterman et al., 2019;Bartholomew et al., 2011Bartholomew et al., , 2018De Meyer et al., 2014;Jang et al., 2016). ...
... A number of studies conducted in the last years back up the importance of teachers putting into practice a need-supportive environment (Reeve, 2006;Reeve & Cheon, 2021). We need different policies which help teachers develop the skills to provide autonomy support and provide structure in an autonomy-supportive way (Aelterman et al., 2019;Cheon et al., 2020). It also suggests that students with a reported high level of participation in the classroom, are more likely to concentrate, learn, and ask and answer questions, being also more connected to the classroom dynamic and therefore enjoying higher academic achievement (Wang & Holcombe, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-Determination Theory conceptualizes basic psychological needs (BPN) for autonomy, competence and relatedness as essentials for the learner to experience, maintain, and promote well-being, personal growth, and learning. However, the evidence of its influence in the classroom is still limited, especially in basic education (ages six to 14). The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of empirical evidence addressing the association of basic psychological needs on motivation, well-being, engagement, and academic achievement in elementary and middle school students. A comprehensive search of studies published in peer-review articles (2000-2021) was conducted on six electronic databases, and from 204 articles retrieved, 32 articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies showed that all psychological needs satisfaction were positively associated with intrinsic motivation and engagement. In contrast, due to the lack of studies that met methodological quality, the hypothesis that need satisfaction positively influences the well-being and academic achievement of elementary school students cannot be fully supported. The findings underscore the role of teachers in supporting pupils' psychological needs, not only for early adolescents, but also for children. However, the strength of the evidence is tempered by the lack of studies for each variable studied. Further experimental research on this topic should elucidate how educators can harness the benefits of need-supportive environment to improve the motivation, well-being, engagement and achievement of children in their communities.
... In this sense, multiple studies have focused on analyzing the effect of basic psychological needs (BPN) on improving students' motivational processes towards learning (Haerens et al., 2015;Ng et al., 2016;Sánchez-Oliva et al., 2017). Also, how teachers develop the teaching-learning process in their subject can lead to greater satisfaction or frustration of students' needs (Aelterman et al., 2019;Haerens et al., 2015;Vasconcellos et al., 2020). ...
... These gender differences in the students' perceptions, regardless of the subject analyzed, must be considered by the teacher when developing a behavior appropriate to this reality. Specifically, several studies have shown that teaching behaviors based on interpersonal styles in which the students' individual differences are addressed and which support the students' autonomous work improve their levels of satisfaction and reduce the frustration scores of the BPN (Aelterman et al., 2019, Haerens et al., 2018Vasconcellos et al., 2020). In this sense, it is essential to transmit messages and treat each subject in a differentiated emotional way, according to the students' gender and their expectations and interests. ...
... These results could be related to those obtained by Tsai et al. (2008), who found that teacher support of the need for autonomy in subjects as different as Mathematics, English, and Language and Literature increased the students' interest and enjoyment. In the educational context, there is much evidence showing that interpersonal teaching styles are essential to achieve positive effects on students' satisfaction of the BPN and their perceptions during their learning (Aelterman et al., 2019;Haerens et al., 2018;Teixeira et al., 2020;Vasconcellos et al., 2020), whereas controlling styles directly affect students' frustration of the BPN and negatively affect their attitude during the training process (Bartholomew et al., 2018;Jang et al., 2016, Salazar-Ayala et al., 2021. In addition, the results show that the subject of PE generates higher values in the satisfaction of autonomy, competence, and social relatedness, as well as enjoyment, while obtaining lower scores in the frustration of autonomy, competence, and social relatedness, in addition to perceived usefulness and boredom. ...
... From the perspective of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2017), students experience engagement to the extent that it satisfies innate, psychological needs for autonomy (i.e., feeling that actions emanate from the self), competence (i.e., feeling successful or efficacious), and relatedness (i.e., feeling connected to and mutual caring with others). Research has widely documented that teachers who tap into these natural resources with supportive instructional practices enhance their students' engagement (e.g., Aelterman et al., 2019;Jang et al., 2016;Patall & Zambrano, 2019). As such, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement can be thought of as the psychological-behavioral reactions to whether learning environments satisfy psychological needs. ...
... An autonomy supportive teaching style is open, understanding, and encouraging. The underlying idea of autonomy supportive instruction is consistently taking the perspective of students when structuring activities and communicating instruction in ways that allow students to feel they are engaging in those activities because they reflect their own values, preferences, interests, and goals (Aelterman et al., 2019;Reeve, 2009). Several core components have emerged as key to an autonomy-supportive teaching style, including providing opportunities for making choices, providing meaningful rationales that convey the usefulness and importance of tasks and topics, accepting students' negative emotions and empathizing, and being open to and incorporating students' perspectives by actively welcoming student input (Patall & Zambrano, 2019;Reeve, 2009). ...
Article
Agentic engagement refers to students’ proactive and constructive contribution into the flow of classroom instruction and activities. Given its potential as a student-initiated pathway to promoting motivation and learning, the goal of this study was to describe agentic engagement from the perspectives of racially diverse students in urban high school science classrooms. A secondary goal was to consider the relation between belonging to an underrepresented group in science (i.e., female, Black, and/or Latino) and thoughts and behaviors pertaining to agentic engagement. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 68 students using phenomenological methods to examine what, how, why, when, and who questions regarding the use of agentic engagement in science classes. Results focused on the following themes. (a) Students identified a variety of strategies for enacting agentic engagement (e.g., suggestions), though their use was described as rare. (b) Students emphasized the importance of style or approach for enacting agentic engagement in constructive and effective ways, with Black and Latino students noting the importance of avoiding disrespect and approaching teachers privately and girls mentioning using a group approach. (c) Students identified three rationales for agentically engaging, including to elicit teacher support, support personal experiences of motivation and learning, and create a more desirable learning environment for the classroom community. (d) Students discussed a variety of factors that made agentic engagement more or less likely, including teacher factors (e.g., encouragement, discouragement) and student factors (e.g., personality). Boys mentioned teacher encouragement more frequently than girls. Implications for theory, research, and practice are discussed.
... Most studies on controlling teaching thus far have been cross-sectional in nature and have focused on secondary school students. These studies have shown that when adolescents perceive their teacher as controlling, they report a lower quality of motivation, as reflected by more controlled motivation (Aelterman et al., 2019a;Assor et al., 2005;De Meyer et al., 2016a;Haerens et al., , 2018, amotivation (Aelterman et al., 2019a;Assor et al., 2005;De Meyer et al., 2016a;Haerens et al., , 2018Leo et al., 2020), and less autonomous motivation (De Meyer et al., 2016a;Haerens et al., , 2018Kaplan, 2018;Leo et al., 2020;Soenens et al., 2012b). Moreover, controlling teaching also relates to more behavioral maladjustment in school, as indicated by higher levels of disengagement and self-handicapping strategies (Collie et al., 2019;, lower levels of engagement (Assor et al., 2005;Kanat-Maymon et al., 2021;Kaplan, 2018;Leo et al., 2020), lower quantity and quality of homework (Collie et al., 2019), and lower achievement (Collie et al., 2019;Soenens et al., 2012b). ...
... Most studies on controlling teaching thus far have been cross-sectional in nature and have focused on secondary school students. These studies have shown that when adolescents perceive their teacher as controlling, they report a lower quality of motivation, as reflected by more controlled motivation (Aelterman et al., 2019a;Assor et al., 2005;De Meyer et al., 2016a;Haerens et al., , 2018, amotivation (Aelterman et al., 2019a;Assor et al., 2005;De Meyer et al., 2016a;Haerens et al., , 2018Leo et al., 2020), and less autonomous motivation (De Meyer et al., 2016a;Haerens et al., , 2018Kaplan, 2018;Leo et al., 2020;Soenens et al., 2012b). Moreover, controlling teaching also relates to more behavioral maladjustment in school, as indicated by higher levels of disengagement and self-handicapping strategies (Collie et al., 2019;, lower levels of engagement (Assor et al., 2005;Kanat-Maymon et al., 2021;Kaplan, 2018;Leo et al., 2020), lower quantity and quality of homework (Collie et al., 2019), and lower achievement (Collie et al., 2019;Soenens et al., 2012b). ...
... Similar profiles with coaches from various sports have been reported by Reynders et al. (2020), who investigated, in separate cluster analyses, two dimensions of needsupportive coaching style (i.e. autonomy support and structure) and two kinds of need-thwarting coaching styles: demanding (where discipline is imposed through assertive, commanding and threatening language) and domineering (where compliance is sought through the coach's authority; see Aelterman et al., 2019). Specifically, they distinguished between autonomy support versus demanding, autonomy support versus domineering, structure versus demanding and structure versus domineering. ...
... Third, our assessment of competence support did not include the clarifying expectations dimension, as assessed in some other widely validated scales (e.g. Aelterman et al., 2019;Belmont et al., 1988). Fourth, the generalization of our results cannot be guaranteed, as this study focused exclusively on PE as a subject of the lessons in a specific country (i.e. ...
Article
On the basis of self-determination theory, we aimed to identify students’ perceptions of interpersonal teaching style profiles (i.e. within-teacher combinations of six dimensions of need-supportive and need-thwarting behaviours of autonomy, competence and relatedness) and to examine, through a cross-sectional design, the possible associations between these teaching profiles and students’ behavioural and emotional engagement. Participants were 2065 students ( n teachers = 38) of Physical Education (PE) ( M age = 11.96 ± 1.95; range = 10–16 years; 1042 girls) nested in 98 classrooms from elementary ( n = 915) and secondary ( n = 1150) Spanish schools. Students filled out questionnaires in a paper and pencil format during the last semester of the school year. A four-cluster solution was found to be the most suitable: (a) a high-low group (i.e. high in perceived need-support and low in need-thwarting), (b) a low-high group (i.e. low in perceived need-support and relatively high in need-thwarting), (c) a low-low group (i.e. low in both need-support and need-thwarting) and (d) a mixed group (i.e. low in autonomy support, high in autonomy-thwarting and relatively modest-to-high in competence and relatedness support and thwarting). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant differences in students’ behavioural and emotional engagement as a function of cluster membership. Post hoc comparisons showed that the high-low group reported the highest levels of engagement and the low-high group the lowest ones. Furthermore, the mixed group scored the second highest level of engagement – higher than the low-low and the low-high group. These results suggest that teachers who fail to support students’ needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness – either by using or not using need-thwarting instructional practices – might undermine students’ engagement.
... En general, los videotutoriales tienden a tener un efecto positivo en el rendimiento de los estudiantes. En este sentido, los vídeos mejoran la motivación y la autonomía de los estudiantes [35] y les permiten regular su carga de trabajo volviendo a ver las clases en cualquier momento [36]. ...
... En el aprendizaje electrónico, en el que la intervención del profesor no es directa, la motivación, el entorno, las tareas, los educadores y los materiales desempeñan un papel esencial para que los alumnos aprendan de forma autónoma [55]. Como hemos mencionado anteriormente, el uso del formato de videotutoriales promueve la autonomía del estudiante [35]. En concreto, el formato de vídeo da a los estudiantes la posibilidad de elegir cuándo participar, lo que se percibe como una herramienta que aumenta el grado de autonomía del estudiante [56]. ...
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La pandemia de Covid-19 ha afectado a todos los ámbitos de la vida, incluida la educación. Las universidades se han visto obligadas a impartir sus clases en un entorno semipresencial u online, lo que ha llevado a los profesores a adaptar sus metodologías tradicionales de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Los profesores de la asignatura Matemáticas de las Operaciones Financieras de la Universidad de Almería (España) han creado video-tutoriales para que los alumnos puedan pre-parar de forma autónoma la parte teórica de la asignatura, dejando las clases presenciales para los ejercicios prácticos. Este artículo pretende analizar la eficacia de los video-tutoriales y la autonomía que finalmente consiguen los alumnos en su aprendizaje. Para ello, se ha realizado un cuestionario en el que, a través de 21 preguntas, se han evaluado los constructos Autonomía, Eficacia, Profundidad, Formato, Reto y Uso. A partir de estas seis variables latentes, el modelo propuesto mediante la metodología de Modelización de Ecuaciones Estructurales por Mínimos Cuadrados Parciales (PLS-SEM) reveló que los estudiantes consideraban que el Formato y la Profundidad de los video-tutoriales eran cruciales para un aprendizaje realmente efectivo en su desempeño y para promover su autonomía. En cambio, las variables Reto y Uso fueron mal valoradas. Este artículo presenta un modelo de valoración original, que tiene la virtud de lograr una predicción del 78,6% y, además, tiene un alto poder predictivo. Abstract The Covid-19 pandemic has affected all walks of life, including education. Universities have been forced to teach in a blended or online environment, which has led professors to adapt their traditional teaching-learning methodologies. The professors of the subject Mathematics of Financial Operations at the University of Almeria (Spain) have created video tutorials so that students can autonomously prepare the theoretical part of the subject, leaving the face-to-face classes for the practical exercises. This article aims to analyse the effectiveness of video tutorials and the autonomy finally achieved by students in their learning. For this purpose, a questionnaire was carried out in which, through 21 questions, the constructs Autonomy, Effectiveness, Depth, Format, Challenge and Use were assessed. Based on these six latent variables, the proposed model using the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) methodology revealed that students considered the Format and Depth of the video tutorials crucial for genuinely effective performance learning and promoting their autonomy. On the other hand, the variables Challenge and Use were poorly rated. This article presents an original valuation model, which has the virtue of achieving a prediction of 78.6% and, in addition, has high predictive power.
... Need satisfaction can be facilitated through meaningful interactions with key socialization figures, such as teachers and parents (Ahmad et al., 2013, Vansteenkiste & Ryan, 2013. Current SDT literature defines need support primarily by parents' and teachers' ability to provide autonomy support and structure (Aelterman et al., 2019, Moè & Katz, 2020a. Parents who provide autonomy support give meaningful rationales, offer choices which children value, seek and acknowledge children's perspectives and nurture children's internal motivation, interest, and enjoyment. ...
... When rules, guidelines, and contingencies are spelled out, and clear feedback is provided for behavior, children are most likely to achieve success and have a sense of perceived control. Autonomy support and structure are considered to be motivating because they satisfy children's basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Aelterman et al., 2019), as defined by STD. In contrast, parents and teachers who use psychologically controlling and chaotic practices are likely to frustrate children's three basic psychological needs. ...
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Research anchored in self-determination theory (SDT) has demonstrated the positive effects of parental need support on children’s ability to formulate a clear and integrated identity. However, much less is known about what motivates parents’ identity formation processes and how these processes are related to their parenting practices. Integrating SDT with identity formation theorizing, this study investigated mothers’ identity processing style as a possible mediator of the relationship between their own need-based experiences and their parenting practice. In total, 429 Israeli mothers of preschool children (age 3–6 years) participated in the study. Participants provided information about their experience of psychological need satisfaction and frustration, identity processing styles, identity commitment, and parenting practices. Results showed that mothers whose basic psychological needs were satisfied were more likely to provide autonomy support and structure in their interactions with their children. This relationship was mediated by mothers’ tendency to adopt a more informational identity processing style and higher identity commitment. In contrast, mothers’ experiences of need frustration were associated with psychologically controlling and chaotic practices through diffuse-avoidant identity processing style. A normative identity style mediated the association between mothers’ need frustration and their use of psychological control and structure. Our findings suggest that the satisfaction of mothers’ basic needs provides them the inner resources to explore existing identity options and facilitates greater self-organization and integrated identity development. In contrast, the frustration of mothers’ psychological needs has an energy-depleting effect on mothers.
... EFL online collaborative activities also promote learners' affective and metacognitive skills, such as self-awareness and self-regulation (Chatterjee & Correia, 2020). Moreover, previous findings highlight a central argument that instructors' contribution to planning an effective instructional design is required when supporting learner participation in a collaborative EFL classroom (Aelterman, Vansteenkiste, Haerens, Soenens, Fontaine, & Reeve, 2019). ...
... In the context of L2 writing, metacognitive strategies help students achieve learning goals. Similarly, cognitive strategies serve the purpose of regulations and goal achievement and are driven by metacognitive planning and organization processes (Aelterman et al., 2019). Examples of cognitive strategies with L2 writing include using a dictionary, translation tools, read-aloud techniques, and other explicit actions focused on completing a writing piece. ...
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The issue addressed here concerns how second language (L2) speaking strategies mediate the relationship between L2 writing strategies and the social presence component of the community of inquiry (CoI) framework within the context of fully online courses that combined learning management system (LMS) for writing tasks and videoconferencing for live classroom discussion. L2 writing strategies related to planning and reviewing contribute to composing tests that students want to upload, present, and discuss, and this sharing is expected to foster classroom social behaviors and consequent language gains. For the current study, a cross-sectional survey of 256 university students was initiated to investigate the mediating effect L2 speaking strategies have on the relationship between L2 writing strategies and social presence. The results indicated positive path coefficients between review strategies and speaking strategies, review strategies and social presence, planning strategies and speaking strategies, and speaking strategies and social presence. Further, speaking strategies explain the relationship between planning strategies and social presence, indicating full mediation. Partial mediation was found for the path between review strategies and social presence. Recognizing how L2 writing and speaking strategies relate to one another and how that relationship influences a CoI illustrates the interconnectivity between language skills. Evidently, increased attention to planning and reviewing strategies results in a final composition worth sharing and discussing, and such sharing and discussion are building blocks to a vibrant social presence.
... EFL online collaborative activities also promote learners' affective and metacognitive skills, such as self-awareness and self-regulation (Chatterjee & Correia, 2020). Moreover, previous findings highlight a central argument that instructors' contribution to planning an effective instructional design is required when supporting learner participation in a collaborative EFL classroom (Aelterman, Vansteenkiste, Haerens, Soenens, Fontaine, & Reeve, 2019). ...
... In the context of L2 writing, metacognitive strategies help students achieve learning goals. Similarly, cognitive strategies serve the purpose of regulations and goal achievement and are driven by metacognitive planning and organization processes (Aelterman et al., 2019). Examples of cognitive strategies with L2 writing include using a dictionary, translation tools, read-aloud techniques, and other explicit actions focused on completing a writing piece. ...
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... In compliance with SDT's perspective on human psychological flourishing, intrinsic instructional goals are particularly needs supportive (Deci and Ryan, 2014;Niemiec et al., 2014). It has also been established that the adoption of intrinsic instructional goals permeates several aspects of daily teaching, as it affects the quality of the relationship with students, the positive attitude towards each student's growth rate, the autonomy-supportive motivational style, the satisfaction of the BPNs of the students, the disposition for empathy and the unconditional positive regard (Aelterman et al., 2019;Jang, 2019;Ryan et al., 2019). Further, interventional studies have shown that a) the promotion of autonomous motivation and needs satisfying conditions and b) the suggestion of intrinsic goals to students, are malleable in teachers Reeve et al., 2019). ...
... As a consequence, participants will be asked about the needs of children and adolescents regardless of a particular situation. In this case, criterion validity could be checked by examining correlations between the BPNs' recognition with the motivational practices of teachers (Aelterman et al., 2019) and personality factors like narcissism (Sedikides et al., 2018). Of course, it should be also examined, how this new construct is linked to teachers' real behaviors. ...
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Centered on the Basic Psychological Needs Theory, recent theoretical underpinnings were used and initial empirical processes were initiated to conceptualize, develop and validate a new questionnaire about how teachers shape instructional goals. In a first exploratory study, 188 university graduates and 211 in-service teachers from both the general and special education domains were recruited to recognize the basic psychological needs of an adolescent with physical and mild cognitive disability presented in a short video vignette. In the second confirmatory study, the sample consisted of 239 in-service teachers. According to the results, the new instrument demonstrated acceptable psychometric qualities. For instance, the goodness-of-fit indices CFI and NNFI were both good (1.00) in the confirmatory factor analysis. In both studies, the recognition of the basic psychological needs was involved in a series of statistically significant correlations with participants’ intrinsic life goals (R ≥ .34), state empathy (R ≥ .38) and intrinsic instructional goals (R ≥ .51). This preliminary research suggested that participants integrated the new concept in their intrinsic motivational style. Overall, the results highlight the importance of recognizing the basic psychological needs by including this construct both in research and practice.
... forest soil, tree trunk, clipboard) or in which order they work themselves through working stations. The balance of a controlled structure plays a decisive role in patterns of autonomy-supportive teaching [67], which is a particular challenge but also an opportunity for the teachers, particularly in initially unstructured natural environments [68]. Therefore, it seems quite reasonable to assume that autonomy is particularly promoted by EOtC. ...
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Background Given a suboptimal state of mental health among children, an urgent need exists to seek approaches related to health promotion in this population’s settings, such as in schools. Increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and improved school motivation could be crucial for children’s mental health. Based on self-determination theory, paths can be identified that could lead to such improvements by strengthening the basic psychological needs (BPN). This study aimed to examine the impact on and the relationships among HRQoL, school motivation and BPN within the promising concept of education outside the classroom (EOtC). Methods In this exploratory study, we employed a between-subjects cohort study design with no blinding or randomisation. We surveyed fifth graders (mean = 10.1 years) attending EOtC (experimental group [EG], n = 25) and normal indoor lessons (control group, [CG], n = 41) at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of a semester. We used the translations of validated questionnaires and established linear mixed-effects models to evaluate whether the students in EOtC show higher scores of HRQoL and school motivation and, whether the satisfaction of BPN of autonomy (PAut), competence (PCom), social relatedness with classmates (PSRC) and teachers (PSRT) show associations with these outcomes. Results Regarding intrinsic and identified motivational regulation, results showed significant increases over time in the overall sample and significant higher scores in the EG than in the CG. For HRQoL, no group differences were found, but a significant decrease over time in the EG. Regarding possible associations between the outcomes and BPN, such could only be found between HRQoL and PSRC, but not for the other BPN and not for motivational regulation and BPN. Conclusions Without having been able to explain this on the basis of increased BPN values, our results show that EOtC can support improvements in specific regulation types of school motivation. This could contribute to an improvement in the mental health situation in children, as school represents a major stressor for them. Future steps in terms of researching HRQoL in this setting are discussed, as this pilot study does preliminary work for necessary examinations, e.g. in structural equation approaches.
... Existe un modelo teórico, denominado modelo circular (Aelterman et al., 2019;Escriva-Boulley, 2021), que explica que los docentes de Educación Física pueden desarrollar hasta cuatro estilos motivacionales diferentes. Por un lado, el estilo de apoyo a la autonomía ayuda a satisfacer la autonomía del alumnado, mientras que el estilo controlador genera frustración de la autonomía. ...
Chapter
Puede descargar gratuitamente el capítulo, así como el libro completo en el siguiente enlace: https://doi.org/10.26754/uz.978-84-18321-22-1 You can download the chapter for free, as well as the complete book (in Spanish) at the following link: https://doi.org/10.26754/uz.978-84-18321-22-1
... Learning environments can contribute toward BPNS and BPNF by supporting and/ or thwarting students' basic psychological needs. Such changes in BPNS and BPNF affect the quality of students' motivation, well-being, and ill-being (Aelterman et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2019). BPNS can serve as a buffer in times of stress and promote psychological self-regulation, life satisfaction, and wellbeing (see Vansteenkiste and Ryan, 2013;Vansteenkiste et al., 2020), especially during the pandemic (e.g., Vermote et al., 2021). ...
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Self-determination theory assumes that the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness are associated with motivational regulation. As these basic psychological needs may have been affected by the shift to distance learning, students' motivational regulation and vitality may have suffered as well. The purpose of this study was to examine the motivational regulation, satisfaction, or frustration of the basic psychological needs and vitality of university students before and after the transition to forced distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic: Two student samples from Austria and Germany were studied: One was surveyed before the conversion to distance learning (N = 1,139) and the other at the beginning of forced distance learning (N = 1,835). The instruments used were the Scales for the Measurement of Motivational Regulation for Learning in University Students (SMR-L), the German version of the Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale, a scale developed by the authors to differentiate the assessment of social relatedness, and the German version of the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results show that the satisfaction of basic psychological needs was significantly lower and the frustration thereof substantially higher during the distance learning period than before the pandemic. Intrinsic motivation and identified regulation were significantly lower during the forced distance learning period, and more controlled forms of motivation were higher than before the pandemic. Structural equation models showed that 42% of the students' vitality can be explained by motivational regulation and the satisfaction and frustration of their basic needs. Motivational regulation styles functioned (differentiated according to the degree of autonomy) as mediating variables between basic needs and vitality. In terms of theoretical implications, the distinction between approach and avoidance components of introjected regulation was shown to be adequate and necessary, as they explain the outcome vitality differently. The support and avoidance of frustration of basic Müller et al. Basic Needs, Motivation, and Vitality Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org 2 November 2021 | Volume 12 | Article 775804 psychological needs should be considered in distance learning to promote the quality of motivation and students' vitality.
... The current work suggests that some students should have their need for competence met as an initial requirement in order to experience autonomy or work successfully in an autonomysupportive environment. According to Self-Determination Theory, Aelterman et al. (2019) propose that setting up clear expectations or guidelines, adjusting the difficulty level of learning activities to students' skills, or providing positive feedback to students will foster students' competence. With students' motivational demands for autonomy and competence being met, they can realize the benefits of openinquiry lab investigations. ...
Article
Inquiry-based laboratory activities, as a part of science curricula, have been advocated to increase students’ learning outcomes and improve students’ learning experiences, but students sometimes struggle with open-inquiry activities. This study aims to investigate students’ perceptions of inquiry-based learning in a set of laboratory activities, specifically from a psychological (i.e., Self-Determination Theory) perspective. Students’ ratings of the level of inquiry in these activities indicate that students’ perceptions of inquiry align with the instructor-intended amount of inquiry in each exercise. Students’ written responses, explaining their ratings, indicate that students’ perceptions of the amount of inquiry in a given lab exercise relate to their feeling of freedom (or autonomy), competence, and relatedness (or support), during the inquiry-based learning activities. The results imply that instructors implementing inquiry-based learning activities should consider student motivation, and Self-Determination Theory can be a useful diagnostic tool during teaching development.
... Furthermore, offering the opportunity to manage more unit content might allow students to engage with it, which will be required while observing their peers or demonstrating skills [58]. Structuring and planning lessons by, for example, setting clear objectives before the activities, also enhances competence in learning environments [62], and this can be easily seen in the SEM, where students are provided with the entire information about what they are going to do and about what the teacher expects from them. ...
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The sport education model (SEM) has been suggested to have a positive impact on students' motivational processes within the physical education setting. However , there is no evidence about how this methodology can affect such processes in the unconventional scenario provoked by the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a SEM-based teaching intervention on students' basic psychological needs (BPN), intrinsic motivation, and behavioral engagement in physical education. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study was carried out in which two groups of secondary students (Mage= 14.61, SD= 0.5) were taught a basketball unit following either the SEM or traditional teaching. Previously validated questionnaires were administered both before and after the intervention. The results showed that students following the SEM methodology significantly improved their autonomy satisfaction (MPre = 3.09 vs. Mpost = 3.63), competence satisfaction (Mpre = 3.48 vs. Mpost = 4.17), and relatedness satisfaction (MPre = 3.79 vs. MPost = 4.43), as well as their behavioral engagement (MPre = 4.05 vs. MPost = 4.48), while students in the control group reported lower relatedness satisfaction after (M = 3.54) than before (M = 4.13) the intervention. This study thus contributes to the understanding of how teaching in a COVID-19 scenario has affected students' motivational responses, and interesting implications for the current situation are provided.
... Because teachers are at the center of the learning materials and the students, they are key figures in promoting students' motivation and achievement (e.g., Wentzel, 2009). Indeed, research shows that teaching quality is crucial for students' academic achievement (e.g., Baumert et al., 2010;Higgins et al., 2014;Gustafsson et al., 2018) and motivation (Maulana et al., 2016;Aelterman et al., 2019). Therefore, teaching quality can be considered a critical process variable within the CIPO model (Klieme, 2013). ...
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Several studies show that teaching quality is an important predictor of students' academic achievement. However, less is known about factors that are important for teaching quality. In the present study, it was hypothesized that school population composition [i.e., students' socioeconomic status (SES) and migration background], workload, and teachers' utility values toward teaching would be important factors related to their teaching quality. The Dutch Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) 2018 was explored (N = 1,884, secondary school teachers and 116 school leaders) to test our hypotheses. Data gathering followed a two-step procedure. Firstly, 200 schools were randomly selected. Secondly, 20 teachers within each school were randomly selected. Multi-item scales operationalized teaching quality on teachers' self-reported classroom management, cognitive activation, clarity of instruction, and positive student-teacher relationships. Multilevel analyses showed that teachers' social utility value was positively associated with all dimensions of teaching quality, whereas personal utility value was only associated with classroom management and clarity of instruction. Teachers working at schools with moderate shares of students from a socioeconomically disadvantaged background reported higher clarity of instruction (β = 0.42), and moderate and high shares report lower cognitive activation (β =-0.40, β =-0.33, respectively) than those working at schools with low shares. Student-teacher relationships were rated more positively by teachers working at schools that reported no students with a migrant background than those working at schools with a small share (β = 0.33). Moreover, teachers working at schools with high shares of students with migration backgrounds (β =-0.17) reported more negative relationships. These results suggest that dealing with low-SES students at schools affects the cognitively-focused elements of teaching quality, while dealing with students with a migration background seems to affect the social teaching qualities of teachers.
... For instance, asset-based perceptions could drive educational initiatives that align curriculum with culturally responsive teaching practices that leverage students' funds of knowledge with classroom content and assessments [2]. Additionally, faculty who diversify their teaching practices and student interaction methods are more likely to understand their students better, yielding better engagement and overall higher learning outcomes [14]. ...
... All three types of practices and classroom processesautonomy-support, mastery-orientation, and teacher-student closeness-imply that teachers attend to and adapt their behavior to students' learning-related and socioemotional needs, and all three types of practices support students' motivation and engagement in learning (autonomy-support: Aelterman et al., 2019;Flunger et al., 2019;mastery-orientation: Kalyar et al., 2018;Schiefele & Schaffner, 2015;closeness: Zee & Koomen, 2020). However, supporting evidence for the hypothesized positive effects of teachers' perceived competence and self-efficacy on these instructional practices and processes stems primarily from research on teacherreported practices (e.g., mastery-orientation: Wolters & Daugherty, 2007;autonomy-support: Woolfolk Hoy et al., 1990), whereas evidence on student-reported or both teacher-and student-reported practices is mixed (e.g., Lauermann & Berger, 2021;Sadowski & Woodward, 1983;Schiefele & Schaffner, 2015;Zee & Koomen, 2017). ...
Article
Teachers’ teaching-related competence beliefs such as perceived teaching ability and self-efficacy have been linked to their occupational well-being and external evaluations of instructional quality. However, researchers have struggled to establish a reliable empirical link between teachers’ competence beliefs and students’ academic outcomes. To clarify these puzzling results, this research synthesis reviews different conceptualizations of teachers’ competence beliefs and their hypothesized effects on students, and focuses in particular on student-reported classroom processes and outcomes in authentic K–12 classrooms. This review revealed considerable ambiguity concerning the conceptualization and assessment of teachers’ competence beliefs in empirical research. Furthermore, there is a paucity of empirical evidence testing central assumptions about the associations between different types of beliefs about teaching competence, mediating processes such as instructional quality, and student outcomes in authentic K–12 settings. This research synthesis identifies important gaps in existing research that warrant attention and outlines directions for future research.
... Systematic reviews and meta-analyses consistently show that inquiry-based instruction and collaborative learning are most effective when accompanied by high levels of teacher guidance (Alfieri et al., 2011;van Leeuwen & Janssen, 2019). Research on self-determination theory similarly indicates that a guiding instructional approach (i.e., high in autonomy support and structure) correlates most strongly with positive student outcomes (Aelterman et al., 2019). Our finding suggests that when teachers give students the opportunity to solve problems independently as well as the scaffolding needed for students to achieve their goals, students may experience a sense of effectiveness as well as greater control over the learning process. ...
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To effectively cultivate students’ growth mindset, it is important to identify contextual factors that may communicate mindset messages to students. The present study examined the association of students’ growth mindset with various dimensions of teacher beliefs (mindset, self-efficacy), teaching practices (guided inquiry, group work, task differentiation, in-class ability grouping, mastery and normative evaluations), and school climate (holistic development, in-school ability grouping). Participants were 2200 ten-year-old students, 358 teachers, and 65 principals from Finnish elementary schools that participated in the OECD Survey on Social and Emotional Skills. Multilevel analyses show that students endorsed more of a growth mindset in classrooms where teachers used guided inquiry and in schools that emphasized students’ social-emotional development. In contrast, students endorsed more of a fixed mindset when teachers assigned different tasks to different students based on ability. Implications for how to combine teaching practices to support students’ growth mindset are discussed.
... According to SDT, one way to support an individual's autonomy involves avoiding engaging in controlling behaviors and inspiring an individual to make his or her own choices (Ryan and Deci, 2020). Autonomy-thwarting behaviors, such as dictating what someone should do, urging someone to behave in a particular way or promoting the "right" course of action without asking what an individual wants, may result in demotivation and disengagement in the given context (Aelterman et al., 2019;Reeve and Jang, 2006). Autonomy need satisfaction is key to fulfilling relatedness needs; it has been suggested that the more freedom and satisfaction of autonomy needs a person has satisfied, the stronger his or her relationships with others will be (Keller, 2016), while ignoring successes or failing to respond to one's initiations results in low levels of relatedness . ...
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Purpose It has been suggested that social impacts on young people are stronger in collectivistic societies than in individualistic societies due to stronger social norms. Therefore, the satisfaction of psychological needs might be more challenging for students in collectivistic societies. As Azerbaijani society is collectivistic, the purpose of this study was to explore the ways in which the need for the self-determination of Azerbaijani master's students is met in relation to their social circles. Design/methodology/approach Forty-four Azerbaijani master's students were interviewed for this study, and their answers were analyzed from the perspective of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness within self-determination theory (SDT). Findings The findings of the current study suggest that Azerbaijani students' social environment is not supportive of furthering higher education through achieving a master's degree, and in some cases, this negatively affects students' well-being. Families in Azerbaijan mainly view higher education as being employment focused due to experiences of employment insecurity in the country. Research limitations/implications The participants of the current study were from middle- and low-income families in Azerbaijan, as the interviewer obtained basic information on the educational and occupational situations of participants' families in addition to the interviewees' own states. Perhaps due to financial needs, it was mainly found that families valued making money over long-term self-development aspirations in their children. Reaching larger numbers of participants, future studies may purposefully sample individuals from higher-income families to reveal whether families with fewer financial concerns were more autonomy-supportive in the aspirations by young people to further their education or how the pattern of their support varied due to socioeconomic status. Practical implications It is hoped that the presented results may guide the relevant authorities in the regulation of the employment strategies of youth in Azerbaijan, as high levels of youth unemployment and massive shifts to self-employment and low-skilled occupations create few opportunities to realize self-development aspirations in Azerbaijan. More efficient policies should be implemented to improve recruitment to good-quality jobs and increase the value of skills and knowledge in employment. Social implications Interconnected cultural factors determine families' views of furthering education and affect how they satisfy the psychological needs of students in their education lives. It is anticipated that the present study will be useful for students mainly from developing countries in coping with their social environments in pursuing their self-development aspirations. Originality/value Unlike previous studies, the authors suggest that through “gained autonomy”, Azerbaijani youth who comply with their elders when less experienced tend to gain control over their personal decisions by providing positive information about overseas experiences. The concept of “gained autonomy” also contributes to SDT in illustrating how members of collectivistic societies can attempt to satisfy their basic psychological needs.
... Gacs et al. [3] also suggested using teaching platforms or tools that could support a communicative environment and taking advantage of authentic materials and multilingual online communities. Wang and Chen [69], and Aelterman et al [71] advocated real-time synchronous interaction in distance language learning, which was used by about 90% of the respondents in the survey. For students' part, they need to be more motivated to participate in class activities and interact with peers and the instructor in order to practice English. ...
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Online education, including college English education, has been developing rapidly in the recent decade in China. Such aspects as e-readiness, benefits and challenges of online education were well-researched under normal situations, but fully online language teaching on a large-scale in emergencies may tell a different story. A survey of 2310 non-English-major college students and 149 English teachers from three types of twelve higher education institutions in Wuhan was conducted to evaluate their readiness for online English education during the COVID-19 pandemic, to figure out challenges encountered by them and to draw implications for future online college English education. Quantitative statistics gathered using two readiness scales adapted from previous studies showed that both cohorts were slightly below the ready level for the unexpected online transition of college English education. The overall level of readiness for students was 3.68 out of a score of 5, and that for teachers was 3.70. Individual differences were explored and reported. An analysis of qualitative results summarized six categories of challenges encountered by the students, i.e. technical challenges, challenges concerning learning process, learning environment, self-control, efficiency and effectiveness, and health concern. Though the students reported the highest level of readiness in technology access, they were most troubled by technical problems during online study. For teachers, among three types of challenges, they were most frustrated by pedagogical ones, especially students’ disengagement in online class. The survey brought insights for online college English education development. Institutions should take the initiative and continue promoting the development of online college English education, because a majority of the respondents reported their willingness and intention to continue learning/teaching English in online or blended courses in the post-pandemic period. They are supposed to remove technical barriers for teachers and students, and assess the readiness levels of both cohorts before launching English courses online. Institutions should also arrange proper training for instructors involved, especially about pedagogical issues. Language teachers are suggested to pay special attention to students’ engagement and communication in online courses.
... For example, noticing students' boredom could initiate teachers to choose a different instructional approach before students start off-task activities (Nett et al., 2010). Furthermore, taking the perspective of adolescents, teachers will be able to recognize their need for autonomy, which would collide with a controlling classroom management strategy (Aelterman et al., 2019;Eccles & Midgley, 1989). Yet, effective classroom management may be less dependent on teacher empathy than emotional support is. ...
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Teachers’ social-emotional competence has received increasing attention in educational psychology for about a decade and has been suggested to be an important prerequisite for the quality of teacher-student interactions and student outcomes. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge about the association between one central component of teachers’ social-emotional competence—their empathy—with these indicators of teaching effectiveness. After all, empathy appears to be a particularly promising determinant for explaining high-quality teacher-student interactions, especially emotional support for students and, in turn, positive student development from a theoretical perspective. A systematic literature research yielded 41 records relevant for our article. Results indicated that teachers reporting more empathy with victims of bullying in hypothetical scenarios indicated a greater likelihood to intervene. However, there was neither consistent evidence for a relationship between teachers’ empathy and the degree to which they supported students emotionally in general, nor with classroom management, instructional support, or student outcomes. Notably, most studies asked teachers for a self-evaluation of their empathy, whereas assessments based on objective criteria were underrepresented. We discuss how these methodological decisions limit the conclusions we can draw from prior studies and outline perspective for future research in teachers’ empathy.
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Introduction. The dependence of autonomous motivation of teachers on the principal’s leadership style was previously considered on the basis of the concept of transformational leadership by B. Bass, whereas its relationship with the styles described in the concept of K. Levin is understudied. The mediators of relations between leadership styles and teachers’ motivation are not sufficiently studied. According to the self-determination theory, such mediators can include psychological climate. Aim. The aim of the current research was to develop an integrative concept of leadership styles by K. Lewin and the theory of self-determination by E. Deci and R. Ryan model of dependence of teachers’ professional motivation and work engagement on the principal’s leadership styles. An additional task was to analyse the mediating role of the psychological climate of the school staff. Methodology and research methods. The correlational research was realised with the sample comprising 238 secondary school teachers in Biysk. The participants answered the Professional Motivation Questionnaire, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Style of Leadership Questionnaire and Group Atmosphere Scale. During processing of obtained data the authors used correlation analysis, t-tests for comparison of means and structural equation modelling. Results. The elaborated structural model demonstrates that the democratic leadership style of the school principal is positively related to the autonomous motivation of teachers directly and indirectly through the psychological climate. The principal’s liberal leadership style is inversely related to teachers’ work engagement. In terms of self-determination theory, these results reflect different opportunities to meet the basic psychological needs of employees in teams with different psychological climate and principal’s leadership style. Scientific novelty includes elaborated model describing the relationship of principals’ leadership styles according to K. Lewin’s typology with autonomous motivation and work engagement of teachers. The revealed effect of partial mediation of relations between democratic leadership style and autonomous motivation of teachers through psychological climate clarifies the ideas about the system of socio-psychological factors of professional motivation. Practical significance consists in usage of the results for improvement of psychological training of principals, optimisation of their leadership style for creating better psychological atmosphere and support for teachers’ productive motivation.
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Regular exercise is beneficial for physical and psychological health. Unfortunately, approximately one in four adults and the majority of adolescents do not meet recommendations for weekly exercise participation. A commonly cited cause for not meeting these recommendations is a lack of motivation, yet few studies have attempted to manipulate motivation. Thus, directional conclusions citing lack of motivation as a cause for insufficient exercise may not be warranted. The current project compares the efficacy of two experimentally manipulated motivational strategies on exercise behaviour in two groups of individuals: those meeting recommendations for exercise participation and those not meeting recommendations. Participants exercised at a self-selected pace after being randomly assigned to watch a video intended to cue either intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. Though effort was largely similar across subjects, effects of the cues on affective response to exercise and post-exercise motivational outcomes differed based on group and condition.
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Expanding research on the relative impact of different autonomy-supportive strategies employed by teachers across domains, the present study investigated the variation in 4 lesson-specific autonomy-supportive strategies (providing choices, rationales, accepting frustration, and stimulating interests) and 6 aspects of students' motivation and engagement in 2 domains with a repeated measurement design. For 3 weeks, 202 Dutch students from 8 eighth grade classes and 1 ninth-grade class and 12 teachers completed lesson-specific measures at the end of Math and German lessons. Students' perceptions of teachers' autonomy support and their motivation and engagement varied considerably across lessons within a domain (variance at the within-student level ranged from 19% to 51%). In random intercept-random slope models, we found that all autonomy-supportive strategies showed meaningful associations with aspects of students’ motivation and engagement. We did not find substantial domain-dependency in the associations between autonomy support and the outcomes.
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The continuation of work that undermines employee well-being necessitates an investigation into the antecedents of work design. Therefore, we examined how autonomy supportive and controlling leadership—as defined in self-determination theory (SDT)—relate to employees’ job resources, job demands, and well-being. Using a cross-sectional ( N = 501) and a daily diary study ( N = 123), we found that autonomy supportive leadership relates to employees’ work engagement via job resources both at the between- and within-person levels. However, only the cross-sectional study evidenced a relationship between autonomy supportive leadership and exhaustion via job resources. Controlling leadership related to exhaustion via job demands at the between-person level in both studies but not at the within-person level. Alongside implications for the literature on SDT, work design theory, the leadership literature, and workplace re-enchantment, we advance concomitant insights to practitioners. JEL CLASSIFICATION: I31, J81, M12
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Background: Traditionally, Physical Education (PE) has adopted a multi-skills approach, where children generally engage in decontextualised practice of sport techniques to develop specific movement skills and facilitate sports participation. This approach has been critiqued for having a weak conceptual and philosophical justification, and a lack of empirical proof of its educational value. The SAMPLE-PE research project set out to challenge this by creating two PE curricula distinguished by contrasting theories of motor learning: information processing theory and ecological dynamics. While both approaches have shown promise in enhancing children’s movement skills, to date, there has been little consideration of their impact on the motivational climate of primary PE lessons. This study explored to what extent traditional PE, ecological dynamics, and information processing theory-based approaches create empowering and disempowering motivational climates when viewed through a self-determination and achievement goal theory lens. Method: Forty-four PE lessons were video recorded and coded by two trained researchers using the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System. ANOVA, MANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests were run to explore differences in data on motivational climate under the three different pedagogical approaches. Results: The group taught with concepts from ecological dynamics (referred to as Ecological) displayed a significantly lower disempowering motivational climate in comparison to the group taught with a basis in information processing theory (referred to as IPT) and the traditional PE groups. The ecological group revealed significantly more autonomy support than the traditional PE and the IPT group. The IPT group methods provided significantly more structure than traditional PE and the ecological group. Conclusion: The findings of this study have shown how the approach taken in delivering PE in primary schools may differentially affect motivational climates. Results imply that underpinning PE with theories of motor learning provides differing, viable and beneficial alternatives to create positive learning environments, compared to traditional PE practices.
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Digital homework today is an observable fact of school practice, which resulted from the distance learning experience during the COVID-19 pandemic and the development of online platforms that provide EdTech products of this kind. Yet, not enough reflection of this issue has happened so far. The article attempts to summarise recent research on homework to answer the question: what kind of digital homework has the potential to improve teaching and learning? First, the article compares research findings on the effect of homework and homework-related teaching practices to outline deficiencies in three aspects of homework: the quality of homework, the quality of feedback, and autonomy support. Then it demonstrates digital homework variability using the SAMR model. Finally, the author suggests solutions for three named aspects of homework on different levels of the SAMR model. For homework quality, higher levels of technology integration bring new task designs and more complex learning objectives. For feedback quality, it means being able to collect and employ learning data which was impossible earlier. For autonomy support, it makes homework relevant to students’ goals and interests. Recommendations provided might be helpful for the design and development of new educational technologies, as well as for better use of digital homework in teaching practice.
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Depression occurs within an interpersonal context. Research has shown that depressed individuals perceive significant others as rejecting and unsupportive; however, the thoughts, feelings and behaviours of significant others are often underexamined. Guided by interpersonal theory and self-determination theory, this thesis examined the associations between significant others' basic psychological needs, helping motivations, and interpersonal behaviours toward depressed individuals in an undergraduate sample (Study 1) and a community sample (Study 2). Need satisfaction and autonomous motivation to help were generally associated with more dominant and loving support (i.e., directive and nurturing) whereas need frustration and controlled motivation to help predicted less helpful forms of support (i.e., critical and avoidant). Autonomous motivation to help further interacted with basic psychological needs to predict supportive behaviours. When autonomous motivation to help was low, frustrated providers were more critical and avoidant toward depressed individuals. Significant others who were generally satisfied with their needs, on the other hand, provided more directiveness and nurturance despite lacking autonomous motivation to help. The moderated findings differed for North American and non-North American participants in Study 2. These studies highlighted the interpersonal and motivational aspects of support provided to depressed individuals from the perspective of significant others.
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Puede descargar gratuitamente el capítulo, así como el libro completo en el siguiente enlace: https://doi.org/10.26754/uz.978-84-18321-22-1 You can download the chapter for free, as well as the complete book (in Spanish) at the following link: https://doi.org/10.26754/uz.978-84-18321-22-1
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En este capítulo abordaremos se aborda qué climas motivacionales se pueden desarrollar durante las clases de Educación Física desde la teoría de las metas de logro (Ames, 1992; Nicholls, 1989) para obtener consecuencias positivas de índole afectivo, cognitivo y comportamental. Asimismo, se detallan propuestas y ejemplos que ayuden a los docentes a generar un clima tarea y reducir el clima ego en las clases de Educación Física. Para ello, Ames (1992) inicialmente enumeró seis ámbitos o elementos donde intervenir denominados áreas TARGET, que son las siglas en inglés de tarea (Task), autoridad (Authority), reconocimiento (Recognition), agrupación (Grouping), evaluación (Evaluation) y tiempo (Timing). Manipulando estos elementos conseguiremos promover un clima tarea en las clases de Educación Física.
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Background: Consistent with self-determination theory (SDT), teachers may differ in the motivating style used to motivate students in physical education (PE). When relying on need-supportive behaviors, teachers attempt to provide students with opportunities for choices and initiative (autonomy support), valuable information and feedback (competence support), and an emotional and affective environment (relatedness support). Alternatively, teachers relying on need-thwarting behaviors tend to adopt a controlling language (autonomy thwarting), unclear goals toward the task (competence thwarting), and cold links with students (relatedness thwarting). While competence, autonomy, and relatedness supportive and thwarting behaviors are theoretically distinct in the instructional practice, every teaching behavior may co-occur to different degrees. Grounded in SDT, the only existing person-centered study in PE showed that PE teachers' autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching behaviors can be combined through the students' eyes, being associated with different motivational outcomes. Purpose: Adopting a person-centered approach, this research aimed to extend previous knowledge by examining how different combinations of students' perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness supportive and thwarting teaching behaviors are associated with students' need satisfaction, need frustration, and motivation in PE. Method: A sample of 478 middle school students (53.97% girls) participated in the study. First, a two-step cluster analysis using autonomy, competence, and relatedness supportive and thwarting behaviors was run to identify different motivating teaching profiles. Subsequently, a multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences between the retained clusters and students' need-based experiences and motivational regulations. Results: Two of these profiles were characterized by the dominant presence either of need-supportive (i.e. 'high need-support-low need-thwarting') or need-thwarting behaviors (i.e. 'low need-support-high need-thwarting'), while they were found to be similarly present in the two remaining profiles (i.e. 'moderate need-support-need-thwarting', and 'moderate need-support-high need-thwarting'). The 'high need-support-low need-thwarting' profile obtained the highest scores on need satisfaction and autonomous forms of motivation, accompanied by the lowest levels of need frustration and amotivation. The ‘moderate need-support – need-thwarting’ profile reflected low scores on need frustration, introjected and external regulation, and amotivation. The ‘moderate need-support – need-thwarting’ and the ‘low need-support – high need-thwarting’ profiles showed the highest scores on need frustration, introjected and external regulation, and amotivation. Conclusions: This research underscores that teachers may combine need-supportive and need-thwarting behaviors in their instructional practice. Results revealed that the ‘high need-support – low needthwarting’ profile showed the most optimal outcomes, while the ‘low need-support – high need thwarting’ profile yielded the least optimal outcomes. Given that the ‘high need-support – low need-thwarting’ profile showed a more optimal pattern of outcomes than the ‘moderate need-support – high need-thwarting’ profile and the ‘moderate needsupport – need-thwarting’, results suggest that students’ perception of need-thwarting teaching behaviors is detrimental even when the instructor is additionally perceived to be need-supportive. PE teachers are recommended not only to develop a motivating teaching style characterized by high levels of need-supportive behaviors, but also to avoid need-thwarting behaviors in their instructional practice, in order to enhance students’ motivational experiences.
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Promoting students' well-being and motivation at school is of critical importance to address developmental declines in student motivation and rising prevalence of adolescents' mental health issues. The present study examined the effects of a multicomponent professional development training course for teachers combining self-determination theory-based intervention and positive psychology intervention on both teachers' and students' outcomes. The efficacy of the intervention was assessed using a two-armed parallel cluster randomized controlled trial involving 45 secondary school teachers and their 819 students. Teachers in the intervention condition followed a two-days training on students' motivation and well-being and on ways of adopting facilitating behaviors, while those in the control condition did not benefit from the training. At both pre-and post-intervention, as well as at follow-up (i.e., 2 months post-intervention), teachers and students completed self-report questionnaires measuring work/school satisfaction, motivation for work/school, perceived motivating style, work engagement for teachers and emotional regulation skills for students. Linear mixed models revealed that the intervention is effective both at the teacher level, leading to an improvement in motivating style, motivation, work engagement and job satisfaction, and at the student level, leading to improvements in students' perceived teacher's autonomy supportive motivating style, school motivation, and school satisfaction. The present findings indicate that a short training course combining these two approaches can be effective both for promoting teachers' and students' motivation and satisfaction, and thus provides a useful cost-effective intervention.
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Self-determination theory is one of the most established motivational theories both within second language learning and beyond. This theory has generated several mini-theories, namely: organismic integration theory, cognitive evaluation theory, basic psychological needs theory, goal contents theory, causality orientations theory, and relationships motivation theory. After providing an up-to-date account of these mini-theories, we present the results of a systematic review of empirical second language research into self-determination theory over a 30-year period (k = 111). Our analysis of studies in this report pool showed that some mini-theories were well-represented while others were underrepresented or absent from the literature. We also examined this report pool to note trends in research design, operationalization, measurement, and application of self-determination theory constructs. Based on our results, we highlight directions for future research in relation to theory and practice.
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Web‐based scientific inquiry learning is characterized as providing an autonomy‐supportive environment for students to solve scientific problems. However, as a complementary approach for improving students' learning, structure‐supportive strategies in a web‐based learning environment deserve further exploration. Whilst both teachers and platforms could make essential contributions in providing structure support, research findings concerning how teachers could successfully interact with the platform in such an environment are scarce. Grounded on self‐determination theory, two quasi‐experimental studies with pre and post measurements were conducted to address two questions. First, whether structure support could improve students' inquiry learning in an autonomous web‐based inquiry learning environment? Second, what is the relationship between teachers and platforms in doing this? As hypothesized, study 1 provides empirical evidence on the effectiveness of applying structure‐supportive instructional strategies in autonomous web‐based scientific inquiry. Study 2 confirmed that students performed best in the class with high structure support provided by both teachers and platforms. The results shed light on the positive impacts of integrating both autonomy and structure support and emphasize the critical role of teachers in a web‐based inquiry learning environment. Additionally, they infer a possible causal link between the efficient application of structure strategies and students' learning outcomes. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic A web‐based scientific inquiry learning environment is helpful in assisting science inquiry learning. However, appropriate scaffolding is critical for students in regulating their learning. The autonomy‐ and structure‐supportive strategies could positively influence students' academic performance in the traditional face‐to‐face environment. However, how to integrate both strategies in web‐based learning environments deserves more exploration. Both teachers and platforms should make important contributions in providing structure support, but empirical evidence on how to integrate both are highly needed. What this paper adds The findings of the current study contribute to the growing body of literature by highlighting the potential importance of self‐determination theory (SDT) in designing instructional strategies from an integrated perspective, particularly in a web‐based scientific learning environment. The results shed light on the positive impacts of integrating both autonomy and structure support, but also provide more implications inferring a possible causal link between the efficient application of structure strategies and students' learning outcomes. The results further indicated the essential role of teachers in a web‐based inquiry science environment. Implications for practice and/or policy As we recognize the significance of autonomy‐supportive web‐based learning environments, its weaknesses should not be ignored. In designing such a platform, appropriate structure‐supportive strategies should be integrated to assist Chinese students in self‐regulating their learning. It is of practical significance for teachers to explore how to better cope with the use of platforms in the classroom and provide meaningful guidance for their students. What is already known about this topic A web‐based scientific inquiry learning environment is helpful in assisting science inquiry learning. However, appropriate scaffolding is critical for students in regulating their learning. The autonomy‐ and structure‐supportive strategies could positively influence students' academic performance in the traditional face‐to‐face environment. However, how to integrate both strategies in web‐based learning environments deserves more exploration. Both teachers and platforms should make important contributions in providing structure support, but empirical evidence on how to integrate both are highly needed. What this paper adds The findings of the current study contribute to the growing body of literature by highlighting the potential importance of self‐determination theory (SDT) in designing instructional strategies from an integrated perspective, particularly in a web‐based scientific learning environment. The results shed light on the positive impacts of integrating both autonomy and structure support, but also provide more implications inferring a possible causal link between the efficient application of structure strategies and students' learning outcomes. The results further indicated the essential role of teachers in a web‐based inquiry science environment. Implications for practice and/or policy As we recognize the significance of autonomy‐supportive web‐based learning environments, its weaknesses should not be ignored. In designing such a platform, appropriate structure‐supportive strategies should be integrated to assist Chinese students in self‐regulating their learning. It is of practical significance for teachers to explore how to better cope with the use of platforms in the classroom and provide meaningful guidance for their students.
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Teachers’ behaviour is a key factor that influences students’ motivation. Many theoretical models have tried to explain this influence, with one of the most thoroughly researched being self-determination theory (SDT). We used a Delphi method to create a classification of teacher behaviours consistent with SDT. This is useful because SDT-based interventions have been widely used to improve educational outcomes. However, these interventions contain many components. Reliably classifying and labelling those components is essential for implementation, reproducibility, and evidence synthesis. We used an international expert panel (N = 34) to develop this classification system. We started by identifying behaviours from existing literature, then refined labels, descriptions, and examples using the experts’ input. Next, these experts iteratively rated the relevance of each behaviour to SDT, the psychological need that each behaviour influenced, and its likely effect on motivation. To create a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of behaviours, experts nominated overlapping behaviours that were redundant, and suggested new ones missing from the classification. After three rounds, the expert panel agreed upon 57 teacher motivational behaviours that were consistent with SDT. For most behaviours (77%), experts reached consensus on both the most relevant psychological need and influence on motivation. Our classification system provides a comprehensive list of teacher motivational behaviours and consistent terminology in how those behaviours are labelled. Researchers and practitioners designing interventions could use these behaviours to design interventions, to reproduce interventions, to assess whether these behaviours moderate intervention effects, and could focus new research on areas where experts disagreed. Educational impact and implications statementThe things teachers do in class have an important influence on their students’ motivation, engagement, and learning. This study uses an international expert panel to identify the teacher behaviours most likely to influence motivation—specifically, teacher behaviours that increase the more healthy, autonomous motivation that comes from within students. This list of behaviours, agreed upon by the experts, could be used by teachers trying to improve their practice, policymakers trying to scale interventions, and researchers trying to assess which behaviours best predict student outcomes.
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Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed to (a) identify profiles of parental autonomy support and control and (b) examine how these profiles predict indicators of adolescents' career development (i.e., autonomy and competence in career exploration and indecision). To this end, we used three annual waves of data covering the postsecondary transition: the last 2 years of secondary school (T1 and T2) and 1 year after graduation (T3). The sample included 637 French-Canadian adolescents (54% girls; Mage at T1 = 14). Latent profile analyses were conducted to identify parenting profiles at T1 and T2, which were then associated with the indicators of career development at T2 and T3, respectively, while controlling for their autoregressive effects and sociodemographic information. Four comparable profiles were identified at both waves (i.e., Autonomy Supported, Generally Controlled, Mixed, and Guilt Induced), with a fifth profile (i.e., High Expectations) emerging only at T2. As expected, Autonomy Supported adolescents reported the highest levels of autonomy and competence and the lowest levels of indecision at both T2 and T3. The expected maladaptive nature of the Generally Controlled profile, however, was found only at T3, when this profile of adolescents became clearly differentiated from the autonomy supported profile on their career development outcomes. Regardless of the saliency of one specific controlling strategy, parental control hampered adolescents' career development, undermining autonomy and competence in career decision-making. These findings reiterate the benefits of autonomy support and the costs of parental control in adolescents' career development particularly in the long run. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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Self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2017) and its central supporting theory of basic psychological needs (BPNT) provide a useful and relevant theoretical background to explore and reflect on the practice of Advising in Language Learning. In this chapter we examine how the advising process, based on promoting reflection and transformation in learning behaviour through dialogue, is supportive of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness. The authors draw on SDT’s theoretical underpinnings and relevant examples of advising practice to illustrate ways in which advising can be understood as an autonomy-supportive endeavour, in which learning advisors are responsive to learners’ perspectives, and play an important role in facilitating a need-supportive learning climate. Drawing on the literature of SDT and advising, and our experience as advisors, we will illustrate how conditions supportive of learners’ autonomy, competence and relatedness can be facilitated within advising encounters, highlighting key techniques used in practice. This theoretical rationale will lead to a taxonomy of practical, autonomy-supportive behaviours to enhance the practice of advising, and questions for further research will be identified for future exploration.
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Motivatie is cruciaal bij het revalideren van je patiënt. Heel vaak wordt een patiënt gemotiveerd door externe factoren. Motivatie wordt pas duurzaam wanneer een patiënt ook vrijwillig gemotiveerd wordt. Binnen dit hoofdstuk gaan we aan de slag met de ‘zelfdeterminatietheorie’, een wetenschappelijk onderbouwde motivatietheorie. Aan de basis van deze theorie liggen drie basisbehoeften die iedereen nodig heeft: autonomie, verbondenheid en competentie. Het bevredigen van de autonomie, verbondenheid en competentie van een patiënt zal leiden tot vrijwillige motivatie, wat op haar beurt leidt tot betere uitkomsten op het vlak van gedrag, gezondheid en mentaal welzijn. Dit hoofdstuk geeft praktische tips om te werken aan een motiverende behandelingsstijl, zodat dit toegepast kan worden binnen jouw eigen therapeutische context. Het toepassen van een motiverende behandelingsstijl bij het revalideren van patiënten kan een cruciale rol spelen in het blijvend motiveren van de patiënt en een gemotiveerde patiënt leidt tot een gemotiveerde kinesitherapeut.
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This study aimed to determine the association between students' perception of teacher leadership (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive) and students' psychological needs (i.e., need satisfaction and need frustration) in Mathematics, English as a foreign language, Spanish Language and Literature, and Physical Education. Participants were 858 students (346 boys and 512 girls), who completed questionnaire measures at three temporal points over an academic course. They were aged between 13 and 17 years (M = 14.83, SD = 0.74) from 118 different classes and 32 secondary schools of southwestern Spain. We conducted multilevel modeling analysis (MLM), using the linear mixed modeling procedure for each dependent variable (i.e., need satisfaction and need frustration), including the different subjects, the three measurements over the academic course (i.e., Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3), and the leadership styles (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive leadership) as independent variables. The results showed that transformational leadership was positively related to students' need satisfaction and negatively to their need frustration. Transactional leadership was positively associated with students' need frustration, and passive leadership negatively predicted students' need satisfaction and positively predicted need frustration. Differences were found as a function of the time and the subject in the associations between variables. These findings suggest that teachers should adopt transformational behaviors to satisfy the students’ psychological needs.
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Personal and social development constitutes an important goal of physical education (PE) curricula worldwide. Few studies have analysed how PE teachers perceive and operationalise personal and social development goals in their lessons. This study sought to investigate the implemented curriculum of in-service PE teachers, that is, how PE teachers perceive and operationalise personal and social development goals. In sum, 12 experienced primary school PE teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. Deductive-inductive content analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings are discussed under three themes. The first theme, goal versus means, relates to personal and social development as a goal in itself or as a means to achieve other goals. This duality is discussed in relation with how teachers organise their lessons, the tasks and activities they provide, and how they divide children into groups. The second theme, the teacher's role versus children's role, relates to the struggle PE teachers face with delegating responsibilities to children. Under the third theme, (lack of) curriculum line, we discuss the structure or curriculum line that is missing in the pursuit of personal and social development goals. Future research and practice should devote time and effort to training PE teachers to realise personal and social development goals in a more structured and systematic way.
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Autonomy-supportive teaching strongly predicts positive functioning in both the students who receive autonomy support and the teachers who give it. Recognizing this, the present paper provides conceptual and operational definitions of autonomy support (to explain what it is) and offers step-by-step guidelines of how to put it into practice during classroom instruction (to explain how to do it). The focus is on the following six empirically validated autonomy-supportive instructional behaviors that, together, constitute the autonomy-supportive motivating style: take the students’ perspective, vitalize inner motivational resources, provide explanatory rationales, acknowledge and accept negative affect, rely on informational and nonpressuring language, and display patience. For each act of instruction, I define what it is, articulate when it is most needed during instruction, explain why it is educationally important, and provide examples and recommendations of how to put it into practice.
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Autonomy-supportive and controlling styles of teaching are usually considered to be the opposite ends of a single continuum. An alternative view, however, is that individuals can perceive both styles simultaneously, which suggests that they are different constructs (Bartholomew, Ntoumanis, Ryan, Bosch, & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, 2011). Using cluster analysis, Study 1 (N = 160) confirmed that both teaching styles were perceived by students. Four clusters appeared depending on the student's score on the measures of autonomy and controlling styles (high autonomy-high control; low autonomy-low control; high autonomy-low control; low autonomy-high control). Participants in the high autonomy-low control cluster reported the highest self-determined motivation in their studies. Using path analysis and mediational analyses, Study 2 (N = 127) tested the independence of the two styles by studying the process through which they influenced motivation. The results showed that need satisfaction (specifically, the need for autonomy) mediated the path between perceived autonomy-supportive teacher behavior and motivation, and that need-thwarting (specifically, the need for autonomy and relatedness) mediated the path between perceived controlling teacher behavior and self-determined motivation, which in turn predicted academic performance. These results add to the existing literature supporting the independence of the two styles.
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The present study investigated whether satisfaction and frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, as identified within Basic Psychological Need Theory (BPNT; Deci and Ryan, Psychol Inquiry 11:227-268, 2000; Ryan and Deci, Psychol Inquiry 11:319-338, 2000), contributes to participants' well-being and ill-being, regardless of their cultural background and interpersonal differences in need strength, as indexed by either need valuation (i.e., the stated importance of the need to the person) or need desire (i.e., the desire to get a need met). In Study 1, involving late adolescents from Belgium and China (total N = 685; Mean age = 17 years), autonomy and competence satisfaction had unique associations with well-being and individual differences in need valuation did not moderate these associations. Study 2 involved participants from four culturally diverse nations (Belgium, China, USA, and Peru; total N = 1,051; Mean age = 20 years). Results provided evidence for the measurement equivalence of an adapted scale tapping into both need satisfaction and need frustration. Satisfaction of each of the three needs was found to contribute uniquely to the prediction of well-being, whereas frustration of each of the three needs contributed uniquely to the prediction of ill-being. Consistent with Study 1, the effects of need satisfaction and need frustration were found to be equivalent across the four countries and were not moderated by individual differences in the desire for need satisfaction. These findings underscore BPNT's universality claim, which states that the satisfaction of basic needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence represent essential nutrients for optimal functioning across cultures and across individual differences in need strength.
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The present intervention study examined whether physical education (PE) teachers can learn to make use of autonomy-supportive and structuring teaching strategies. In a sample of 39 teachers (31 men, M = 38.51 ± 10.44 years) and 669 students (424 boys, M = 14.58 ± 1.92 years), we investigated whether a professional development training grounded in self-determination theory led to changes in (a) teachers' beliefs about the effectiveness and feasibility of autonomy-supportive and structuring strategies and (b) teachers' in-class reliance on these strategies, as rated by teachers, external observers, and students. The intervention led to positive changes in teachers' beliefs regarding both autonomy support and structure. As for teachers' actual teaching behavior, the intervention was successful in increasing autonomy support according to students and external observers, while resulting in positive changes in teacher-reported structure. Implications for professional development and recommendations for future research are discussed.
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The present study introduced “agentic engagement” as a newly proposed student-initiated pathway to greater achievement and greater motivational support. Study 1 developed the brief, construct-congruent, and psychometrically strong Agentic Engagement Scale. Study 2 provided evidence for the scale’s construct and predictive validity, as scores correlated with measures of agentic motivation and explained independent variance in course-specific achievement not otherwise attributable to students’ behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement. Study 3 showed how agentically engaged students create motivationally supportive learning environments for themselves. Measures of agentic engagement and teacher-provided autonomy support were collected from 302 middle-school students in a 3-wave longitudinal research design. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that (a) initial levels of students’ agentic engagement predicted longitudinal changes in midsemester perceived autonomy support and (b) early-semester changes in agentic engagement predicted longitudinal changes in late-semester autonomy support. Overall, these studies show how agentic engagement functions as a proactive, intentional, collaborative, and constructive student-initiated pathway to greater achievement (Study 2) and motivational support (Study 3). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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We investigated the role of three beliefs in predicting teachers’ motivating style toward students—namely, how effective, how normative, and how easy-to-implement autonomy-supportive and controlling teaching were each believed to be. We further examined national collectivism–individualism as a predictor of individual teachers’ motivating style and beliefs about motivating style, as we expected that a collectivistic perspective would tend teachers toward the controlling style and toward positive beliefs about that style. Participants were 815 full-time PreK-12 public school teachers from eight different nations that varied in collectivism–individualism. All three teacher beliefs explained independent and substantial variance in teachers’ self-described motivating styles. Believed effectiveness was a particularly strong predictor of self-described motivating style. Collectivism–individualism predicted which teachers were most likely to self-describe a controlling motivating style, and a mediation analysis showed that teachers in collectivistic nations self-described a controlling style because they believed it to be culturally normative classroom practice. These findings enhance the literature on the antecedents of teachers’ motivating styles by showing that teacher beliefs strongly predict motivating style, and that culture informs one of these beliefs—namely, normalcy.
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Using the field's state-of-the-art knowledge, we designed, implemented, and assessed the effectiveness of an intervention to help physical education (PE) teachers be more autonomy supportive during instruction. Nineteen secondary-school PE teachers in Seoul were randomly assigned into either an experimental or a delayed-treatment control group, and their 1,158 students self-reported their course-related psychological need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, amotivation, classroom engagement, skill development, future intentions, and academic achievement at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester. Observers' ratings and students' self-reports confirmed that the intervention was successful. Repeated-measures ANCOVAs showed that the students of teachers in the experimental group showed midsemester and end-of-semester improvements in all dependent measures. A multilevel structural equation model mediation analysis showed why the teacher-training program produced improvements in all six student outcomes - namely, teachers in the experimental group vitalized their students' psychological need satisfaction during PE class in ways that teachers in the control group were unable to do, and it was this enhanced need satisfaction that explained the observed improvements in all six outcomes.
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Drawing from self-determination theory, three studies explored the social-environmental conditions that satisfy versus thwart psychological needs and, in turn, affect psychological functioning and well-being or ill-being. In cross-sectional Studies 1 and 2, structural equation modeling analyses supported latent factor models in which need satisfaction was predicted by athletes' perceptions of autonomy support, and need thwarting was better predicted by coach control. Athletes' perceptions of need satisfaction predicted positive outcomes associated with sport participation (vitality and positive affect), whereas need thwarting more consistently predicted maladaptive outcomes (disordered eating, burnout, depression, negative affect, and physical symptoms). In addition, athletes' perceptions of psychological need thwarting were significantly associated with perturbed physiological arousal (elevated levels of secretory immunoglobulin A) prior to training. The final study involved the completion of a diary and supported the relations observed in the cross-sectional studies at a daily level. These findings have important implications for the operationalization and measurement of interpersonal styles and psychological needs.
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Three field experiments with high school and college students tested the self-determination theory hypotheses that intrinsic (vs. extrinsic) goals and autonomy-supportive (vs. controlling) learning climates would improve students' learning, performance, and persistence. The learning of text material or physical exercises was framed in terms of intrinsic (community, personal growth, health) versus extrinsic (money, image) goals, which were presented in an autonomy-supportive versus controlling manner. Analyses of variance confirmed that both experimentally manipulated variables yielded main effects on depth of processing, test performance, and persistence (all ps <.001), and an interaction resulted in synergistically high deep processing and test performance (but not persistence) when both intrinsic goals and autonomy support were present. Effects were significantly mediated by autonomous motivation.
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Self-determination theory defines two important dimensions of teaching style: autonomy support and structure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the synergistic relationship of perceived teacher autonomy support and the provision of structure in the prediction of self-regulated learning. Students (N=526) completed questionnaires assessing perceived autonomy support, structure, and self-regulated learning. First, autonomy support and structure were found to be positively correlated, suggesting that the support of student autonomy generally goes hand in hand with the provision of structure and order in the classroom. Second, moderated regression analyses indicated that structure but not autonomy support yielded a main effect on self-regulated learning, although this main effect was qualified by a structure by autonomy support interaction. The interaction suggests that structure was associated with more self-regulated learning under conditions of moderate and high autonomy support only. Therefore, when teachers want their students to evaluate themselves, to plan their study activities, and to think about themselves as learners, the teachers are encouraged to provide help, instructions, and expectations in an autonomy-supportive way.
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Background: According to Self-Determination Theory, teachers and sport coaches can differ in the motivating style they rely upon to motivate young people. When endorsing an autonomy-supportive motivating style, instructors try to identify, vitalize, and nurture youngsters’ inner motivational resources. In contrast, instructors with a dominant controlling motivating style rather pressure youngsters to think, feel, or behave in prescribed ways. While the dimensions of autonomy support and control can be conceptually differentiated, in reality both dimensions may co-occur to different degrees. Purpose: The present study investigates to what extent perceived autonomy support and control can be combined and which motivating style then yields the most optimal pattern of outcomes. Research design: Multi-Study with Cross-Sectional Design. Findings: In two studies, conducted among elite athletes (N = 202; Mage = 15.63; SD = 1.70) and students in physical education (N = 647; Mage = 13.27; SD = 0.68) reporting on their instructor’s motivating style, cluster analyses systematically pointed towards the extraction of four motivating profiles. Two of these groups were characterized by the dominant presence of either autonomy support (i.e. high-autonomy support) or control (i.e. high control), while the two dimensions were found to be equally present in the two remaining groups (i.e. high–high or low–low). Results revealed that the high-autonomy support group showed to the most optimal pattern of outcomes (e.g. need satisfaction, autonomous motivation), while the high-control group yielded the least optimal pattern of outcomes. Results further showed that perceiving one’s instructor as high on control is detrimental (e.g. higher need frustration, amotivation) even when the instructor is additionally perceived to be autonomy-supportive. Finally, it appeared better to be relatively uninvolved than to be perceived as exclusively high on control. Conclusions: When coaches or teachers are perceived to be high on autonomy support and low on control, this is likely to benefit youngsters’ motivation and well-being. Also, while some instructors, particularly those who are functioning in a more competitive context where pressure is considered more normative, may endorse the belief that the combination of autonomy support and control yields the most effective cocktail to motivate young people (e.g. using competitive and game-based activities to make it fun, while treating ‘the losers’ with punishments such as push-ups or humiliating comments), this perspective is not supported by the findings of the current study. Apart, from its theoretical relevance, the findings of the present study are valuable for future intervention development.
Chapter
During the past few years, SDT scholars have progressively developed knowledge that helps to better understand the roots of students’ maladaptive motivational functioning. This body of work was advanced by the recognition that the frustration of the psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness plays a distinct role in the elicitation of maladaptive motivational functioning. Given the presumed critical role of experiences of need frustration, an increasing number of studies have shed light on the role of need thwarting in general and controlling teaching in particular in the prediction of defiance and other maladaptive outcomes at school. This rapidly growing body of work, which has either made use of self-reports or observations of controlling teaching, is reviewed herein. In addition, we provide an overview of previous studies on antecedents of controlling teaching and sketch a number of research directions for future research. The chapter closes with a set of practical recommendations for teachers.