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When Emotions Go Social - Understanding the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Social Network Use

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Abstract

Information systems (IS) research has shown that there is a vast array of motivators and reasons for using social networking sites. Nonetheless, emotional intelligence (EI) has for the most part been neglected by IS-research outside the organizational context. We therefore introduce the concept of EI to social media research and adopt a measurement model. We derive a hypothesis from literature and conduct a survey-based pre-study to investigate the relationship between EI and Facebook use. While our initial hypothesis - indicating a positive relationship between EI and an individual's Facebook use - cannot be confirmed, we discovered a heterogeneity in our sample that left us with two subgroups. Our analysis shows that those groups display contrasting relationships between EI and Facebook use that should be investigated further. We contribute to theory by applying the concept of EI in a social media context as well as uncovering a relationship between EI and social network use. Our research results also have practical implications for social network design and social media marketing.

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... The emergence of social networking sites and Internet technologies in recent years has facilitated and improved the quality of global communications in education. 35,46 Moreover, the major factors of using social media are identified, such as professional usefulness, popularity, ethics, barriers, and innovativeness found a correlation among most of them, and further work was also suggested to explore social media usage construct. 46 It was recommended that the relationship between EI and usage of social media networks must be investigated further. ...
... 35,46 Moreover, the major factors of using social media are identified, such as professional usefulness, popularity, ethics, barriers, and innovativeness found a correlation among most of them, and further work was also suggested to explore social media usage construct. 46 It was recommended that the relationship between EI and usage of social media networks must be investigated further. Additionally, the contribution to the theory by using the concept of emotional intelligence in the context of social media need to be uncovered. ...
... Studies have shown that emotional intelligence and social networking sites influence each other positively. 46 Mursidi et al 67 conducted a survey of prospective teachers in Indonesia. The results indicated that emotional intelligence and social media usage have a positive relationship, helping online teaching. ...
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... Direct and Indirect relationships were analyzed by using the bootstrapping method with 5000 bootstrap samples and 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals. Hornung et al. [11] presented the relationship between EI and Facebook R ⃝ use. A sample of 105 individuals (60 female and 44 male participants) was taken. ...
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This study examines how affect influences self-disclosure on social network (SN) websites. We test two competing models that build on direct causation theory and affect heuristic theory, respectively. In a direct effect model, affect steers self-disclosure, independent of cognitive cost-benefit appraisals. The indirect effect model instead suggests that affect influences self-disclosure by adjusting perceptions of benefits and costs. The empirical comparison of the models relies on survey data from more than 500 university students. Overall, affect influences self-disclosure indirectly by adjusting the benefits people perceive. In particular, affect toward self-disclosure and toward SN websites relate positively to self-disclosure motivators; their perceived values appear amplified in the presence of positive affect. We also offer a plausible, alternative explanation of the observed positive relationship between privacy risk and self-disclosure according to an indirect effect model, in which self-disclosure is driven mainly by motivators, whereas the effects of inhibitors depend a posteriori on self-disclosure. These findings call for a reconsideration of any exclusive focus on the direct impacts of affect on technology use, as is common in previous research, and suggest the importance of affective factors for understanding social technology uses and managing customer relationships.
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The aim of the research was to investigate the potential relationship between internet addiction and depression in adolescents. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on a sample of 336 high school students in Belgrade, Serbia. Each student was given a questionnaire consisting of Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), Young Internet Addiction Test (IAT) as well as general questions related to internet and social networking site (SNS) use. The results of our study indicate that internet use and level of internet addiction measured with IAT scale are positively correlated with depressive symptoms. No such relationship existed between the time spent on social networking sites and depression, as well as between depression symptoms and SNS-related activities such as the number of Facebook friends. Neither the time spent on SNSs nor SNS-related activities had significant effect on the observed relationship between level of internet addiction and depression.
Book
Everyone knows that high IQ is no guarantee of success, happiness, or virtue, but until "Emotional Intelligence," we could only guess why. Daniel Goleman's brilliant report from the frontiers of psychology and neuroscience offers startling new insight into our "two minds"--the rational and the emotional--and how they together shape our destiny.Through vivid examples, Goleman delineates the five crucial skills of emotional intelligence, and shows how they determine our success in relationships, work, and even our physical well-being. What emerges is an entirely new way to talk about being smart. The best news is that "emotional literacy" is not fixed early in life. Every parent, every teacher, every business leader, and everyone interested in a more civil society, has a stake in this compelling vision of human possibility.
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Context There is an increasing awareness among Software Engineering (SE) researchers and practitioners that more focus is needed on understanding the engineers developing software. Previous studies show significant associations between the personalities of software engineers and their work preferences. Objective Various studies on personality in SE have found large, small or no effects and there is no consensus on the importance of psychometric measurements in SE. There is also a lack of studies employing other psychometric instruments or using larger datasets. We aim to evaluate our results in a larger sample, with software engineers in an earlier state of their career, using advanced statistics. Method An operational replication study where extensive psychometric data from 279 master level students have been collected in a SE program at a Swedish University. Personality data based on the Five-Factor Model, Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and Self-compassion have been collected. Statistical analysis investigated associations between psychometrics and work preferences and the results were compared to our previous findings from 47 SE professionals. Results Analysis confirms existence of two main clusters of software engineers; one with more “intense” personalities than the other. This corroborates our earlier results on SE professionals. The student data also show similar associations between personalities and work preferences. However, for other associations there are differences due to the different population of subjects. We also found connections between the emotional intelligence and work preferences, while no associations were found for self-compassion. Conclusion The associations can help managers to predict and adapt projects and tasks to available staff. The results also show that the Emotional Intelligence instrument can be predictive. The research methods and analytical tools we employ can detect subtle associations and reflect differences between different groups and populations and thus can be important tools for future research as well as industrial practice.
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Emotional intelligence is a type of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use the information to guide one's thinking and actions (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). We discuss (a) whether intelligence is an appropriate metaphor for the construct, and (b) the abilities and mechanisms that may underlie emotional intelligence. © 1993.
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This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision making, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions, are described. Then, I propose how emotional intelligence contributes to effective leadership by focusing on five essential elements of leader effectiveness: development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust; encouraging flexibility in decision making and change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.
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An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.
Conference Paper
Complementary to the increasing popularity of social web sites (e.g., Facebook and Twitter) in the private realm, social software has also drawn the attention of organizations in recent years, leading to increasing adoption rates of enterprise social software platforms (ESSPs) in organizations. Often motivated by employees’ changing communication behavior and demands, companies tend to disregard the business motives for social software adoption, namely the benefits the tools provide to the users. To identify such benefits, we collected a rich set of qualitative data aiming at investigating the benefits social software users gain by using ESSPs. Based on the collected data as well as on theory, we propose a conceptual model comprising the potential benefits that ESSP usage brings about and the contextual factors influencing the identified usage-performance relationships.
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This tutorial explains in detail what factorial validity is and how to run its various aspects in PLS. The tutorial is written as a teaching aid for doctoral seminars that may cover PLS and for researchers interested in learning PLS. An annotated example with data is provided as an additional tool to assist the reader in reconstructing the detailed example.
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This paper sets out the theoretical foundation of emotional intelligence (EI) as a constellation of traits and self-perceived abilities. The discriminant validity of trait EI is explored in two studies. In study 1 (N = 227), the psychometric properties of the BarOn Emotional Quotient inventory were scrutinized through confirmatory factor analysis and the measure was found to be unifactorial. When the EQ-i was examined concurrently with the Eysenck Personality Profiler, a clear trait EI factor emerged in Eysenckian factor space. In study 2 (N = 166), a modified version of the EQ-i was examined concurrently with the NEO PI-R and a truncated trait EI factor was isolated within the Five-Factor Model. Results are discussed with explicit reference to established personality models and it is concluded that trait EI can be conceptualized as a distinct composite construct at the primary level of hierarchical trait structures. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Recently, increasing numbers of scholars have argued that emotional intelligence (EI) is a core variable that affects the performance of leaders. In this study, we develop a psychometrically sound and practically short EI measure that can be used in leadership and management studies. We also provide exploratory evidence for the effects of the EI of both leaders and followers on job outcomes. Applying Gross' emotion regulation model, we argue that the EI of leaders and followers should have positive effects on job performance and attitudes. We also propose that the emotional labor of the job moderates the EI–job outcome relationship. Our results show that the EI of followers affects job performance and job satisfaction, while the EI of leaders affects their satisfaction and extra-role behavior. For followers, the proposed interaction effects between EI and emotional labor on job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intention are also supported.
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Despite a great deal of popular interest and the development of numerous training programs in emotional intelligence (EI), some researchers have argued that there is little evidence that EI is both useful and different from other, well established constructs. We hypothesized that EI would make a unique contribution to understanding the relationship between stress and three important mental health variables, depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. University students (n=302) participated in a cross-sectional study that involved measuring life stress, objective and self-reported emotional intelligence, and mental health. Regression analyses revealed that stress was associated with: (1) greater reported depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among people high in emotional perception (EP) compared to others; and (2) greater suicidal ideation among those low in managing others' emotions (MOE). Both EP and MOE were shown to be statistically different from other relevant measures, suggesting that EI is a distinctive construct as well as being important in understanding the link between stress and mental health.
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Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee, Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence, Boston: Harvard Business School Press (2002), 306 pp. Dennis N.T. Perkins, with Margaret P. Holtman, Paul R. Kessler, and Catherine McCarthy, Leading at the Edge: Leadership Lessons from the Extraordinary Saga of Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition, New York: AMACOM (2000), 268 pp. Charles C. Manz, Emotional Discipline: the Power to Choose How You Feel, San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. (2003), 234 pp. Cliff Hakim, We Are All Self-Employed: How to Take Control of Your Career, San Francisco: Barrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. (2003), 261 pp.
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Does a recently introduced ability scale adequately measure emotional intelligence (EI) skills? Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; J. D. Mayer, P. Salovey, & D. R. Caruso, 2002b), the authors examined (a) whether members of a general standardization sample and emotions experts identified the same test answers as correct, (b) the test's reliability, and (c) the possible factor structures of EI. Twenty-one emotions experts endorsed many of the same answers, as did 2,112 members of the standardization sample, and exhibited superior agreement, particularly when research provides clearer answers to test questions (e.g., emotional perception in faces). The MSCEIT achieved reasonable reliability, and confirmatory factor analysis supported theoretical models of EI. These findings help clarify issues raised in earlier articles published in Emotion.
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To demonstrate the utility of the emotional intelligence (EI) construct in organizational studies, this study focuses on the effect of EI on job performance among research and development scientists in China. We argue that EI is a significant predictor of job performance beyond the effect of the General Mental Ability (GMA) battery on performance. This predictor effect is supported by results on a study of research and development scientists working for a large computer company in China. Our results also show that a self-reported EI scale developed for Chinese respondents, the WLEIS, is a better predictor of job performance than the scale developed in the U.S., the MSCEIT. Implications of the findings are discussed.