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Current Trends and Future Implementation Possibilities of the Merkel Tree


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A current popular trend of wallet security research is cryptography. For that Merkle tree is one of the solutions to enhance wallet security. It is basically used for cryptocurrencies, file system authentication, backup system, control system, database, etc. but it can be used for communication authentication and many more. And that is highlighted in this paper by stating the few future Merkle tree implementation possibility with its basic technical requirements. In this survey study also discuss about the Merkle tree concept with its advantages and disadvantages and its implementations such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Hash-based Cryptography, Apache Cassandra, Btrfs, ZES, IPFS with their comparisons.
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© 2018, IJCSE All Rights Reserved 294
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access
Research Paper Vol.-6, Issue-8, Aug 2018 E-ISSN: 2347-2693
Current Trends and Future Implementation Possibilities of the Merkel
Mansi Bosamia1*, Dharmendra Patel2
1Smt. Chandaben Mohanbhai Patel Institute of Computer Applications, CHARUSAT, Changa, Gujarat, India
2Smt. Chandaben Mohanbhai Patel Institute of Computer Applications, CHARUSAT, Changa, Gujarat, India
*Corresponding Author:, Tel.: +91-94280-79200
Available online at:
Accepted: 16/Aug/2018, Published: 31/Aug/2018
Abstract A current popular trend of wallet security research is cryptography. For that Merkle tree is one of the solutions to
enhance wallet security. It is basically used for cryptocurrencies, file system authentication, backup system, control system,
database, etc. but it can be used for communication authentication and many more. And that is highlighted in this paper by
stating the few future Merkle tree implementation possibility with its basic technical requirements. In this survey study also
discuss about the Merkle tree concept with its advantages and disadvantages and its implementations such as Bitcoin,
Ethereum, Hash-based Cryptography, Apache Cassandra, Btrfs, ZES, IPFS with their comparisons.
Keywords Merkle Tree, Bitcoin, Ethereum, Hash-based Cryptography, Apache Cassandra, Btrfs, ZES, IPFS
Considering the fact that now a day everyone needs their data
secure on devices, application, network and databases. So the
current trends of research are wallet security enhancement.
To enhance the security in current time one of the solutions
is Merkle tree. Merkle tree is data structure used for
cryptocurrency with hashing algorithm. Its popular
implementation is Bitcoin. This article study contains the
basic concepts of Merkle tree, Merkle tree node, its
advantages and disadvantages with its current popular
implementation’s basic information and functionality based
comparisons. Also identify the basic technical parameters for
future Merkle tree implementation and suggest the
combination of GUI, Sensor detection and NFC based
innovative system of merkle tree implementations in wireless
This paper organized as follows, Section II contains the
Merkle tree concept which explain using an example and its
advantages and disadvantages, Section III contains the
Merkle tree implementations like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Hash-
based Cryptography, Apache Cassandra, File Systems,
Section IV contains the comparison of merkle
implementations based on its functionality for identifying the
future applications, section V explain future Merkle tree
implementation possibilities, Section VI describes technical
requirements for Merkle tree implementations, and Section
VII contains conclusion with future directions of this paper.
In computer science applications and cryptography, a tree
data structure used for cryptocurrencies is a “Merkle tree”. It
is also called “Binary Hash tree”. Binary hash tree has given
named Merkle tree by Ralph Merkle in 1987 paper titled "A
Digital Signature Based on a Conventional Encryption
Function." This concept is patented by Ralph Merkle in 1979
and proposed the cryptographic hashing. [17, 18] Merkle tree
has hashing paired data as tree leaves or node, then pairing
and hashing the results until the single hash remains as the
Merkle root. Merkle root is the root node of the Merkle tree
with a successor of all the nodes in the tree. In a Merkle tree
context, record may refer the word “transaction”. In a Merkle
tree transaction is a packet of data whose hash communicates
to a leaf node. All the permanent transaction data records in
files that represents as the Merkle tree leaves is called blocks.
The constant transactions are the tree leaves from a single
block access by Merkle root. In Merkle tree each leaf node
has the block data hash and each non-leaf node has its child
nodes cryptographic hash. Merkle tree manages the complete
account ledger of each user’s transactions. See the example of
Merkle Tree in Fig. 1
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Vol.6 (8), Aug 2018, E-ISSN: 2347-2693
© 2018, IJCSE All Rights Reserved 295
Figure 1. An example of Merkle Tree
The structure of Merkle tree shown in Fig. 1, in this example
it contains Transactions ABCD and Hash. This figure is very
basic; an average block generally works with 500 or more
transactions, not just four. All the bottom nodes are leave
nodes and intermediate hash nodes are branches and top hash
indicates the Merkle root. This kind of figure through leaf
nodes of the Merkle tree calculates the number hashes
proportional to the logarithm while the number of
proportional leaf nodes has the hash lists [13]. Merkle root
address stored in the block header such as #492920. This is
not the actual block address its hash of next block. And next
block contains another Merkle root which address of its next
block, and so on. Merkle tree has number of nodes and each
Merkle tree node contains Target hash, Block header, Block
time, Hashed time lock contract proofs and next node
pointer; refer Fig. 2 [9]. And the Merkle tree root node
address is stored in the block of the blockchain.
Figure 2. Merkle Tree Node
Here, brief details of Merkle tree node attributes:
[1]. Target Hash: It is a number that is a hashed block
header have to be less than or equal to in order for new
block to be granted. It is used to identify the input
problems and to adjust the order properly to verify that
blocks are processed capably.
[2]. Block Header: Its size is 80-byte single block to hash
continuously to generate the proof of work. It contains
the valid Merkle root successor from all the transaction
in that block to identify the specific block from complete
[3]. Block Time: The total amount of time to process the
block time start from pushing block from departure
(off-block) to received at destination (on-block). The
block time may vary according to routes of
communication network.
[4]. Hashed Time Lock Contract (HTLC): It is
cryptocurrency channels smart contract to remove the
counterparty risk. It allows the time-bound transactions.
In practical terms, to allow the transaction, if the
payment transaction acknowledgement done by
cryptographic proof in definite timeframe otherwise not.
Log is a one kind of Merkle Tree, which build up from the
hashed records. It has the property for new entry is
consistently added at the last leaf in the tree. One more
property is that once records is logged, entry can’t changed,
if you change then it consider as new record entry in the log.
Also gives the entire audit of each transaction. Equally, hash
tree database allows adding, editing, and removing the
records from whole tree. When a Merkle tree added to the
log, Merkle tree contains total number of leaves with the root
hash. Thus, a Merkle tree is used to quickly and efficiently
identify the changes records to synchronize them in
distributes system. [12]
Basically Merkle tree used to authenticate the stored data,
to manage data and to transmit between computers. These
can verify the received data blocks from senders in peer-to-
peer network that data are received properly, damaged,
changed and real blocks not fake one. Generally, Merkle tree
uses a cryptographic hash function for the hashing. To data
verification sometimes it takes support of checksum method.
There are the some advantages and disadvantages of Merkle
[1]. Gives the large data structures content secure
verification efficiently.
[2]. Maintains consistency, data verification and data
synchronization by decreasing the network input/output
packet size.
[3]. Allows users to authenticate the particular transaction
which exists in the block without accessing the all
blocks in the list.
[4]. Increasing data integration and validation.
[5]. Requires small amount of memory.
[6]. Proofs computation is very easy and fast.
[7]. Requires little and brief information on network for
proofs and management.
[8]. Provides secure information management by a
dictionary mapping tree roots and the leaf counts.
[9]. Supports Simplified Payment Verification (SPV) clients,
blockchain pruning and smart pool miners.
[10]. Quickly and efficiently identify the changed records to
synchronized them in distributes system.
[11]. By the root hash, easy to identify a particular node.
Particular node is m2 or the child pairs for reconstructing
the intermediary root hash.
[12]. Exclusively responsible for appending trees, because the
specific system knows the number of leaves in each tree
from which adding a node or tree.
[13]. Gives overview of hash chains/lists.
[14]. Merkle tree can be implemented for itself data
verification as well as for data store data verification
with separate validation of the data.
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Vol.6 (8), Aug 2018, E-ISSN: 2347-2693
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[1]. Suffers from second-preimage attack because of it is not
able to identify the depth of the tree and attack by
accessing same Merkle hash root for transaction.
[2]. Trusted authority maintains the proof of integrity of the
data amount is become lower.
[3]. For a consistency proof refers the first m leaves in the
tree. When we add a tree, m leaves are combined for
hashes the data verification in order not for changed.
[4]. When the other participants adding a node or a tree in
existing Merkle tree, necessary to notify about number
of leaves to perform consistency check.
[5]. Merkle signatures are not one-time, thus it uses the
private key to sign many messages and this has
potentially large finite limit.
Most used Merkle tree implementations are digital currency,
hash-based cryptography, apache Cassandra, and file system.
Merkle tree can also be implemented in global supply chain,
capital market, Git and Mercurial distributed revision control
system, Zeronet, Dat Protocol, Apache Wave Protocol, the
Tahoe-LAFS backup system, the certificate transparency
framework, tiger tree hash and many more. Health care
industry is upcoming use of Merkle tree. It is used based on
Bitcoin for the NHS and the patient’s data track in real-time.
For example, Deep Mind Health (planning to use), it has
digital ledger for verifiable data audit of patient’s interaction
data in cryptographic manner. That means patients data can
be accessible with changes. [12] In this study, most used
Merkle tree implementations are as below:
A. Digital Currency
Most of digital currency are cryptocurrency and its plays an
important role in economics. In future may bank to be a
technically digital savvy bank. To avoid a troublesome and
fraud, blockchain technology is one of the solution of it [6].
Blockchain based digital currencies uses the secure
decentralized network. As per the measurement study on
different decentralization metrics there are two leading
digital currencies are Bitcoin and Ethereum [1].
Bitcoin is most popular unique digital cryptocurrencies in the
current e-wallet market. Satoshi Nakamoto has been done the
primary Bitcoin implementation of Merkle trees. It uses the
hash function’s compression step to an excessive degree and
that is moderated by using Fast Merkle Trees [13].
According to original Bitcoin paper [10], “Simplified
Payment Verification” procedure can be done based on
accessing corresponding Merkle branch instead of whole
block [7]. Bitcoin is open-source software and its system
runs on a distributed decentralized peer-to-peer network.
Bitcoin is a subset of digital currency which processes the
transaction using the Internet power [6]. In Bitcoin
implementation, block header uses Merkle root to calculate
all the transaction in blockchain. Merkle tree calculates
hashes of transaction and put those pair wise in nodes. It
repeats many times to generate a blockchain. Each Bitcoin
clients uses Merkle tree. It gives better security in low
bandwidth [7].
Bitcoin is public-key cryptography uses the SHA256
hash function to authenticate the Bitcoin transaction by
digital signatures. This hash function is used for generating
Bitcoin addresses, verifying the payments and signing the
transactions. Bitcoin address is an alphanumeric sequence of
characters due to cryptocurrency to secure the sender and
recipient identify in the Bitcoins. Thus, Bitcoin is an
anonymous currency that kind of misunderstood leads.
Bitcoin has benefits such as speedy transactions at low costs,
freedom of payments (with lack of restriction on transaction,
user has liberty to send and receive Bitcoins anyone,
anywhere at any time), merchant benefits (electronic
payment accepted by business, so customers have not to pay
for various fees for transaction and cost effective for
merchants). Bitcoin has risks of Bitcoin stolen (to avoid by
user control on Bitcoin), internal change and volatility,
possibility of criminal activity due to pseudo-anonymity and
easiness of payments, economic risk as its novel use may be
troublemaking to the financial payment markets. If Bitcoin
does the cryptocurrencies mining, then there is possibility of
cryptocurrency attack. But without mining using digital
register it works very fine. This problem accounted in mining
pool so preferably to avoid mining in Bitcoin. [6]
Bitcoin functions on a proof-of-work basis. Proof-of-
work means to create blocks and adding in blockchain to
solve very difficult mathematical problems. By the proof-of-
work Bitcoins security and validity increases with negative
effects such as don’t have to stake results the malicious
activity, large amount of energy require validating
transaction. [4]
Ethereum is blockchain platform which is open and to build
decentralized peer-to-peer applications that run using
blockchain technology. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum is open-
source software, easily adaptable and more flexible [5].
Ethereum blockchain is an extremely powerful shared global
infrastructure that can exchange the cryptocurrencies value
around and represent the ownership of property. Ethereum
allows building secure crypto-assets using smart contracts
such as censorship, fraud or third party interference, and
without any possibility of downtime. It creates a tradable
digital token to use as a currency, an asset, a virtual share, a
membership proof. These tokens use typical coin API to
make any wallet compatible automatically. A total tokens
amount can be set to fixed amount or alter the amount based
on programmed rule set. Ethereum blockchain is like public
ledger of all occurred transactions and each transaction
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blocks are added in a linear chronological order and execute
and verify it. Due to the public ledger full blockchain cannot
be fallacious by single entity. [4] Ethereum used design of
Nakamoto consensus and the GHOST protocol for
sequencing transactions. Block hash used for responding the
client’s blocks request and older clients blocks request
consist a body and header that cannot request individually.
Ethereum was considered to be much more than a
payment system. Ethereum’s protocol is built for Ethereum
system to increase functionally of various smart contracts in
flexible manner. To provide these facility blocks validators
will take a transaction fee for validating smart contract on
each transaction. Ethereum’s protocol focuses on bandwidth
rather than hash rate. [4] The objective of Ethereum is to
bring together the scripting, altcoins and on-chain meta-
protocols to create random consent based applications with
scalability, standardization, completeness, ease of
interoperability and ease of development. Ethereum does this
by Turing-complete programming language with a
blockchain at foundational layer to write own smart contract
for decentralized applications. Ethereum blockchain blocks
contains the copy of the both most recent state and the
transaction list. [8] The Ethereum platform through easily the
new applications creation possible and with the Homestead
release, anyone can use those applications safely [5].
B. Hash-based cryptography
Hash-based cryptography is the universal phrase for creation
of cryptographic primitives supported for the security of hash
functions. It is restricted to digital signatures scheme as
Merkle signature scheme. It is uses combined one time
signature and a Merkle tree structure. One-time signature key
can sign a single message securely but the merkle signature
scheme can sign more than one message securely to expand
the structure. In this hierarchical data structure, to compute
tree nodes a hash function and concatenation are used
frequently. An example of this combined structure is
Lamport signatures. Hash-based cryptography is a kind of
post-quantum cryptography and the security if other post-
quantum cryptographic schemes like lattice-based still needs
the further research. XMSS (eXtended Merkle Signature
Scheme) is hash-bashed signature and from the 2007, it is a
Generalized Merkle Signature Scheme (GMSS). [14] Hash-
based signatures were initially proposed by Merkle in the late
1970s. Hash-based signatures have a potential replacement
for recent signature schemes when large-scale quantum
computers are to be built. There are many reasons for this
such as to provide reliable security against the attacks. Hash-
based signature differs with other post-quantum signature
schemes due to no expensive mathematical operations
computation. It is requires just secure cryptographic hash
function. [11] Hash based signatures used for state
management, authentication, etc.
C. Apache Cassandra
Apache Cassandra is an open-source distributed NoSQL
Database Management System (DBMS) which is freely
available with easy data distribution. It is created at
Facebook and it is different from Relational Database
Management Systems (RDMS). Its data model on Google’s
Bigtable and its distribution design is based on Amazon’s
Dynamo. Apache Cassandra is a decentralized, column-
oriented database, linear scalable, flexible, fault-tolerant,
consistent DBMS. It supports ACID (Atomicity,
Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) properties. It is
designed to handle huge amount of data transversely and
numerous commodity servers with high availability without
compromising the performance and without single point of
failure. It presents stout support for clusters across numerous
data centers and permits low latency process for all clients
with asynchronous master less duplication. It introduced the
Cassandra Query Language (CQL) with easy accessing
interface and Structured Query Language (SQL) support.
[15] Apache Cassandra is being used by some popular and
biggest companies such as Facebook, Twitter, ebay, Cisco,
Rackspace, Netflix, and more. Simply, to handle big data
workloads, the systems use the NoSQL database and Apache
Cassandra supports it. Due to the big data management
Apache Cassandra is leading distributed database with zero
downtime, linear scalability and seamless multiple data
center deployment. It is widely accepted due to large number
of online transaction processing by web companies to
introduced practical data modeling approach with efficient
schema design [7].
D. File System
Merkle tree is also implemented as file system such as Btrfs,
ZES, IPFS, etc.
B-tree F S (Btrfs)
Btrfs is a file system based on copy-on-write theory. It is
designed at Oracle Corporation for use in Linux file System.
It overcomes the limitation of pooling, integral multi-device
spanning, snapshots, and checksums. The Linux scale the
storage with clean interface reliably by all users. Btrfs is
automatic defragmentation and scrubbing features. Due to
the copy-on-write nature it is generally self-healing in some
configuration. It supports online balancing, online volume
growth and shrinking, online block device adding and
deletion, offline file system check, file cloning, sub volumes
snapshots, transparent compression, atomic writable or read
only, block discard, incremental backups, out-of-band data
duplications etc.
Zettabyte File System (ZES)
ZES is a file system and logical volume manager designed
by Sun Microsystems and now owned by Oracle Corporation
to counter data degradation. It is open source data validating
enterprise file system. It is scalable with protection against
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data corruption, supports high storage capacities, efficient
data compression, integration of file system, volume
management, snapshots and copy-on-write clones,
continuous integrity check and automatic repair, etc. ZES
implemented within UNIX like systems.
Inter Planetary File System (IPFS)
Juan Benet designed the IPFS. It generates a content-
addressable in peer-to-peer distributed file system for storing
and sharing hypermedia. It looks for each and every one
computing devices to connect with the same system of files.
Currently, used for open-source project by the community.
Its infrastructure has store for unalterable data, remove
duplicate files from the network and find out the node from
the address for searching a file in the network. IPFS has a
self-certifying namespace, distributed hash table, and an
incentivized block exchange. It has trust on connected nodes
only and no single point of failure. It prevents form DDoS
attacks and saves the distributed content delivery bandwidth.
It has strong limitation of notable users who able block the
site as well as contents of particular websites. IPFS is like the
Web in some ways but it could be view as single Bit Torrent
swarm to swap objects within one Git repository. It gives
content-addressed block storage model with a high
throughput on content addressed hyper links. This creates a
general Merkle DAG which is a data structure based on
blockchain, versioned file systems and a permanent web. [9]
This comparison is based on merkle implementations
functionality, to identify the better implementation to use for
better combination with future applications. To analyse them
refer the below table 1.
Table 1. Comparison of Merkle tree implantations based on its functionality
Apache Cassandra
Merkle Signature
File System
File System
Blockchain Uses
NO, but application
combination may
Partially, if
needed by
NO, but
may use.
may be
Verification, Data
Verification, Data
Distributed over
Based on
YES, based
on request
May be due to
Based on
application use
Partially, if
needed by
Make the web
Based on hash
function used
Sophisticated and
YES, Also dynamic
data model
Complex and
flexible to use
analysis possible
Automated test
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Platform for
Need to new
combined design
mostly use with
Hadoop platform
Different as
per web
Algorithm to
generate Hash
RSA, DSA and
Consistent hashing
algorithm, murmur
hash algorithm to
generate tokens.
different hash
algorithms are
Data Mining
Not easy,
Based on
Based on keys
Based on comparison analysis identify that each
implementation satisfy the basic functionality such as
consistent verification of transaction, its data verification and
data synchronization and due to the cryptography secure, fast,
global, reliable, correct, trustworthy, open-source, distributed,
decentralized easy to use with new implementation
combination by the use of hashing algorithm depends on
proposed application for wallet/database/file system or for
just cryptographic security.
Considering the future implementation, always key concern is
transaction charges to execute. For example, consumers
frequently buy low-cost items using mobile wallet, such as
Rs. 10 keychain, Rs. 100 mobile cover, Rs. 50 shampoo, etc.
But, the bank involvement costs are very high and these costs
are passed on to consumers as transaction fees or other
charges. If we consider third-party payment then transaction
cost increases and complete service provider cost must be
paid. But the current system reversed, allow that transactions
which are not paid with a service provider at risk.
The digital payment riot will have a huge impact on the
digital and physical world by digital cryptocurrency.
Proposed system must be decrease the transaction cost also
manages until its successful execution completed in wireless
environment. Here coin must be used vice-versa and
authenticate by digital signatures Each mobile user transfers
the coin to another user with digital signature hash of
transaction and the public key to another mobile user and uses
this coin for further transaction by double spending
mechanism. Each user verifies the signatures before
establishing a connection in wireless environment. Wireless
connection can be Bluetooth, Radio Wave or NFC (Near
Field Communication). After establishing a connection user
can communicate securely and for more security user can also
implement Merkle tree block chain for transactions such as
used in Bitcoin. The proposed system payment transaction
can work without the trusted third party due to the trusted
payments system with the cryptographic proof using Merkle
tree. It is implemented for peer-to-peer distributed network,
which uses time-stamp server and the transaction’s system
generates time-based calculation proof to avoid the double
Figure 3. Communication between two mobile user using
Merkle trees in wireless environment.
Proposed Merkle tree based system implementation by the
combination of Graphical User Interface (GUI) based app
with sensor detection techniques and NFC network. Here,
overview of the individual implementations is as below:
[1]. According to US9858781B1 patent, GUI based mobile
wallet app performs secures transactions using security
server. Security server listens the user request and
response a user’s public key to the message. User’s
public key is mobile wallet user identification and access
with transaction code. User’s public key may be a matrix
barcode, it can also allow to access user’s multiple
profiles. [2]
[2]. A mobile wallet type device contains a sensor and
transceiver attached with the processor. To perform a
secure transaction it follows blockchain smart contracts.
The device can be accessed using digital key and a
sensor monitor the data behavior with its access period
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Vol.6 (8), Aug 2018, E-ISSN: 2347-2693
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according to contractual ownership. The devices
communication done based on sharing digital keys. A
processor audits access rights and authenticate the
contract using blockchain to identify total transaction
cost. [3]
[3]. NFC technology is complement for various contactless
communication technologies. NFC through many
devices will be connected with each other. These NFC
enabled device contains our preferences, health details,
personal details and even our money details. These
details affect to collect and exchange information, access
control, health care, payment, reliability and coupons,
transportations, and consumer electronics. So user no
needs to carry any other identity cards and physical
wallets anymore. NFC provides numerous benefits such
as Intuitive, Versatile, Open and standards-based,
Technology-enabling, inherently secure, Interoperable,
Security-ready, etc. The blockchain technology is plays
key role to decrease the cost of financial services by cost
sharing through the mining. Thus financial institutions
can reach out to the under banked and unbanked as well
as those that need loaning and fund raising. These are
possible through either decentralized or distributed peer-
to-peer network of cryptocurrency. E-cash disrupted is
solved in early 1990s. In future may sharing economy as
well as assets of us by peer-to-peer network. Even rent
the unused assets with fees. This can be done with NFC
enabled devices efficiently without infrastructure change
and digital trusts can be developed via blockchain
technology. The NFC based devices, user has new way
of life for medical care, education and finance services
to monitor and improvement. [6]
Knowing the technical requirements before implementations
serves the basic precaution for optimal implementations such
as the internal structure documentation is not exhaustive,
hence reproducing the computation of the root hash would
require some reverse engineering, the data structure resides
fully in memory, and the root hash depends on the order of
the updates. To implement this Proposed Merkle tree based
system must follow the basic technical requirements are
mentions below:
[1]. Merkle tree able to store, lookup;
[2]. Merkle tree able to compute root hash predictably by
performing updates in a specific order;
o Helps in block header preparation and verification.
[3]. Merkle tree must have documented internal structure for
reproducing the root has if needed to distinct
implementation by application of updates in same order;
o Helps in block header verification.
[4]. Merkle tree able to return proof of existence in a
verifiable format;
[5]. Merkle tree able to produce "proof of absence" for a key,
i.e. a proof that no value exists in the tree for the key;
[6]. Persistence;
[7]. Space used only once for shared sub trees;
[8]. Garbage collection;
[9]. Erlang bindings.
[10]. Merkle tree whose root hash is dependent only on the
data - not on the order of the updates;
o This may enable parallelization of application of
some transactions in the block;
o This may ease block sharing.
[11]. Ability to persist nodes by direct key in the persistency
layer, i.e. without requiring the persistency layer to
generate an identifier at each insert;
[12]. Parameterized persistence;
[13]. Merkle tree data structure that is already established;
o This would reduce implementation effort in various
o This may reduce documentation effort;
o An opportunity is using Ethereum's "modified
Merkle Patricia tree" (a Merkle compact prefix tree)
to utilize its features.
[14]. Performance.
Merkle tree basically used for cryptocurrencies based
wallets, file system with authentication, backup system,
control system, database, protocol, cryptography, etc. Merkle
tree has various implementation possibilities such as
distributed network, protocol, file system, software but still
new are pending to come to take advantage of it. Based on
comparisons of Bitcoin, Ethereum, Hash-based
Cryptography, Apache Cassandra, Btrfs, ZES, IPFS identify
that Bitcoin is most secure wallet, Merkle signature scheme
provides better authentication and Btrfs and IPFS are better
than ZES file system. Also identifies that Merkle tree
individually cannot be use for wallet security but it must
used inside a blockchain. And just for Validation and
Verification Merkle tree is most suited in the wallet. But this
study analysis may differ according to the different
implementation, combinations and functionality parameters.
According to the application platform integration used for
proposed system hashing algorithms may differ. Bitcoin is
loses its popularity, a new crypto currency will emerge to
substitute it with enhanced security features through the
Merkle tree. Cryptographic security is not limited
cryptocurrency but it can expand to connection and
transaction through a Merkle tree. Each cryptocurrency is a
great and an exciting experiment with Merkle tree for trust
This paper gives the future new innovative
implementation possibility by the combination of GUI,
Sensor detection and NFC based innovative system with
wireless environment for mobile wallet. Also state the basic
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Vol.6 (8), Aug 2018, E-ISSN: 2347-2693
© 2018, IJCSE All Rights Reserved 301
technical parameters to satisfy for the proposed system. In
future we see a great rise of merkle tree use with NFC based
mobile technology being the force behind its explosion. At
that time, it is complicated to guess about cryptocurrency
popularity in the world with lots of uncertainty. But the new
technology comes with these combinations that cannot
ignore by any financial institutions. New technology with
merkle tree adapted for financial services, medical care,
stocks and education. Combination of open-source
technology and cryptocurrency data structure merkle tree
may become an alternative of digital cryptocurrencies with
merged to achieve new objectives.
I would like to acknowledge the for
efficient definition content providing for this study. I thank
my co-author Dr. Dharmendra Patel, Associate Professor,
CMPICA, CHARUSAT, Changa for guidance, support and
valuable comments to greatly improve the paper manuscript.
Last but not the list, we offer our true regards to all of those
who supported us in any respect during the completion of the
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Authors Profile
Mansi P. Bosamia, B.C.A., M.C.A. and
Pursuing Ph.D. at Smt. Chandaben
Mohanbhai Patel Institute of Computer
Applications, Charotar University of
Science and Technology, Changa, Anand,
India. She has more than 5 years teaching
experience and 3 years Research
experience. She has published/presented 6 papers in
national/international conferences/journals of repute. She
wrote 2 books related Data Structures and Algorithms. Her
areas of interest are Computer Algorithms, Data Structures,
Networking, Computer Graphics, Mobile Computing,
Cryptography, etc.
Dr. Dharmendra Patel, B Sc.(I/C), MCA,
SET, Ph.D. (Computer Science). He is
working as Associate Professor at Smt.
Chandaben Mohanbhai Patel Institute of
Computer Applications, Charotar
University of Science and Technology,
Changa, Anand, India. He has published/
presented more than 20 research papers in national/
international journals/conferences of repute. Also, served as
editorial/review board members in many international
journals and have reviewed 25 papers of different
international journals of repute. His areas of interest are Web
Mining, Distributed Operating Systems, Cloud Computing,
Soft Computing, Software Engineering, Data Structures, and
Mobile Computing.
... Merkle ağaçları kavramının (Wikipedia, 2021c), birden çok belgenin bir blok halinde toplanması yeni bir yaklaşım olarak; 1992'de Bayer, Haber ve Stornetta tarafından geliştirmiştir. Merkle ağaçları kavramı güvenli doğrulamayı gerçekleştirirken (Bosamia & Patel, 2018;Wikipedia, 2021c), ilk blok zincirin kavramlaşması da Nakamoto tarafından, kripto-para birimi bitcoin ile gerçekleşmiştir (Wikipedia, 2021a). Bitcoin'in 2009 yılında Satoshi Nakamoto (Trottier, 2013) ismiyle ortaya çıkmasıyla birlikte dijital varlık kavramının güçlenmesi, fikirlerin ortaya çıkmasının motivasyon kaynağını oluşturmaya başladığı söylenebilmektedir. ...
Full-text available
The reproduction of the work of art with technical possibilities has occupied the intellectual and artistic circles with the industrial revolution. The reproduction of the work of art, which started with photography, brought with it some ethical problems and caused it to be experienced in discussions. The forms of production changed by the technologies allows it to change in the social of structure and to reach new realities. In addition to developments that change production forms such as augmented reality and artificial intelligence, new approaches and realities are emerging in the production of works of art. In this article, the production system, method, platforms and value system of non-Fungible Token (NFT), in other words, unchangeable unique assets, which is called crypto art, of the reproduction of the work of art with technical possibilities are examined. At the same time, the sociological and economic aspects of the artist's new field of action, which is gained by the acceptance of the artwork or representative asset attached to the standard contract and account codes that produce unique value, such as ERC721 and ERC-1155 over the Ethereum blockchain, are examined. Details about NFT's blockchain technology, general structure and usage are examined and the concept of crypto art is explained with technical details. The basic structure, limits, usage costs are explained and the methods of being a part of NFT are explained step by step. The crypto-code relationship between smart contracts and Ethereum, which is the key feature of immutable unique assets is explained. The fundamental dependence of the concept of crypto art on motion graphics and the determinants of the production methods of the crypto art work are expressed. Considering the fact that data decentralization is realized with IPFS protocol instead of HTTP protocol and that collective production is a result of hyperreal life forms, the movement of digital art production forms is emphasized. In addition, technological innovations and production methods are examined and discussed starting from the first examples.
... For more security sometimes anonymous transactions can join by bank id [3]. Blockchain can also be used for KYC (Know Your Customer) process by sharing the identity proof not the data [5,11]. Blockchain can be used in other financial services like online payment, transfer of funds, digital assets, issue and trade assets like bonds, crypto-currency like Bit coin, smart contracts, distributed ledger technology for clearing and settlement, public services, internet of things (IoT), security services, reputation systems, insurance sector like insurance deductible and DAO application etc. [5,6]. ...
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The blockchain is a relatively new technology in the field of computer science. It has received enhanced interests in recent years for Research and Scientific Industry. As its first implementation attention is crypto-currency. Blockchain provides as an immutable distributed ledger which performs transactions with untrusted participants in a decentralized network. It forms a new distributed architectures, which has no central authority and has smart contracts to shared states and perform transactions. Blockchain applications are crypto-currency based online wallets, Internet of Things, springing up, financial services, risk management, reputation system, etc. This paper aims to share knowledge on the growing importance of blockchain technology in real-world applications. This paper also focused on Blockchain core components and technologies to lay out the comparisons of typical Consensus Algorithm for security aspects. This comparison and blockchain applications concludes that alternative Merkel tree based blockchains are available in the market for faster and secure transactions.
Full-text available
In the digital world, systems are usually distributed, where health data are fragmented across multiple healthcare providers’ data may be accidentally corrupted or intentionally tampered. A mechanism is important to verify the integrity of the content in the network to ensure the security. The main objective of this paper is to propose a Modified Merkle Tree (MMT) data structure for data storage and data authentication. In this paper, a new Modified Merkle Tree data structure that can ensure storage security with integrity management is proposed. The Merkle Tree data structure, utilized in Blockchain technology is modified in this work for the purpose of designing a new three-stage Modified Merkle Tree based on hashed transactions. The objective of the proposed hashed transaction is to verify the authenticity and integrity of the content. The use of the Modified Merkle Tree data structure is highlighted in designing a system that takes care of Data Authentication, Consistency Verification and Data Synchronization. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been experimented in the healthcare scenario and proved to store and verify the content integrity. The quantitative metrics of the proposed system have been evaluated and compared with the binary Merkle Tree data structure.
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This chapter considers the evolution of alternative digital currencies from DigiCash to Bitcoin, the very digital currency that has spurred the development of this book. Specifically, this chapter explores the general features of Bitcoin and its benefits and risks before suggesting some conditions for a successful cryptocurrency to thrive. The chapter then concludes with optimism about the future of cryptocurrency and its underlying technology.
Blockchain-based cryptocurrencies have demonstrated how to securely implement traditionally centralized systems, such as currencies, in a decentralized fashion. However, there have been few measurement studies on the level of decentralization they achieve in practice. We present a measurement study on various decentralization metrics of two of the leading cryptocurrencies with the largest market capitalization and user base, Bitcoin and Ethereum. We investigate the extent of decentralization by measuring the network resources of nodes and the interconnection among them, the protocol requirements affecting the operation of nodes, and the robustness of the two systems against attacks. In particular, we adapted existing internet measurement techniques and used the Falcon Relay Network as a novel measurement tool to obtain our data. We discovered that neither Bitcoin nor Ethereum has strictly better properties than the other. We also provide concrete suggestions for improving both systems.
The InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is a peer-to-peer distributed file system that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. In some ways, IPFS is similar to the Web, but IPFS could be seen as a single BitTorrent swarm, exchanging objects within one Git repository. In other words, IPFS provides a high throughput content-addressed block storage model, with content-addressed hyper links. This forms a generalized Merkle DAG, a data structure upon which one can build versioned file systems, blockchains, and even a Permanent Web. IPFS combines a distributed hashtable, an incentivized block exchange, and a self-certifying namespace. IPFS has no single point of failure, and nodes do not need to trust each other.
A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Architecture for access management
  • Richard Campero
  • Sean Davis
  • Graeme Jarvis
  • Terezinha Rumble
Campero, Richard, Sean Davis, Graeme Jarvis, and Terezinha Rumble. "Architecture for access management." U.S. Patent 9,858,781, issued January 2, 2018.
Ethereum vs. Bitcoin
  • Julien Harm
  • Josh Obregon
  • Josh Stubbendick
Harm, Julien, Josh Obregon, and Josh Stubbendick. "Ethereum vs. Bitcoin." Creighton University, undated manuscript, retrieved 1 (2017).
A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform
  • Vitalik Buterin
Buterin, Vitalik. "A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform." white paper (2014).
Hash-based Signatures: An outline for a new standard
  • Andreas Hülsing
  • Stefan-Lukas Gazdag
  • Denis Butin
  • Johannes Buchmann
Hülsing, Andreas, Stefan-Lukas Gazdag, Denis Butin, and Johannes Buchmann. "Hash-based Signatures: An outline for a new standard."