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Three taxa, Bulbophyllum cariniflorum var. orlovii (sect. Pleiophyllum), B. sonii (sect. Anisopetalon) and B. ustulata (sect. Brachystachya) are described as new for science. All of these novelties are local endemics of Vietnam. Additionally, four species, B. flavescens (sect. Aphanobulbon), B. ovatum (sect. Desmosanthes), B. physocoryphum (sect. Macrocaulia) and B. wendlandianum (sect. Cirrhopetalum) are recorded for the flora of Vietnam for the first time. These species are endemic of the Indochinese Peninsula in a broad sense, except for B. flavescens having wide distribution in western Malesia. Data on ecology, phenology, distribution, brief relevant taxonomic notes, as well as colour photographs and line drawings of the type and voucher specimens are provided for all reported taxa. Lectotypification is provided for B. wendlandianum.
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Phytotaxa 369 (1): 001–014
http://www.mapress.com/j/pt/
Copyright © 2018 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
Accepted by Zhong-Jian Liu: 10 Aug. 2018; published: 12 Sept. 2018
https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.369.1.1
1
New species of Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) in the flora of Vietnam
LEONID V. AVERYANOV1, NONG VAN DUY2, NGUYEN HOANG TUAN3, MAXIM S. NURALIEV4,5, TATIANA
V. MAISAK1 & NGUYEN CONG ANH6
1Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2, Prof. Popov str., 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia;
E-mail: av_leonid@mail.ru; av_leonid@yahoo.com
2Tay Nguyen Institute for Scientific Research, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Dalat, Vietnam
3University of Pharmacy, 15 Le Thanh Tong, Hoan Kiem, Hanoi, Vietnam
4Joint Russian-Vietnamese Tropical Scientific and Technological Center, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam
5Department of Higher Plants, Biological Faculty, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, 12, Leninskie Gory, 119234 Moscow,
Russia
6Te Xang primary school, Dak Song village, Te Xang commune, Tu Mo Rong district, Kon Tum province, Vietnam.
E-mail: conganhkt2013@gmail.com
Abstract
Three taxa, Bulbophyllum cariniflorum var. orlovii (sect. Pleiophyllum), B. sonii (sect. Anisopetalon) and B. ustulata (sect.
Brachystachya) are described as new for science. All of these novelties are local endemics of Vietnam. Additionally, four
species, B. flavescens (sect. Aphanobulbon), B. ovatum (sect. Desmosanthes), B. physocoryphum (sect. Macrocaulia) and B.
wendlandianum (sect. Cirrhopetalum) are recorded for the flora of Vietnam for the first time. These species are endemic of
the Indochinese Peninsula in a broad sense, except for B. flavescens having wide distribution in western Malesia. Data on
ecology, phenology, distribution, brief relevant taxonomic notes, as well as colour photographs and line drawings of the type
and voucher specimens are provided for all reported taxa. Lectotypification is provided for B. wendlandianum.
Keywords: Orchidaceae, plant taxonomy, plant diversity, nature protection
Introduction
Bulbophyllum Thouars (1822 tab. sp. 3, u) is one of the largest genera in the orchid family. It comprises about 2000
species distributed in tropical and subtropical zone of the World with the highest diversity in tropics of Africa and
Asia (Seidenfaden & Wood 1992, Comber 1990, 2001, Pearce & Cribb 2002, Chen et al. 2009, Vermeulen et al. 2015,
Zhou et al. 2016). In Vietnam, 122 species of this genus from 14 sections were documented until now (Seidenfaden
1992, Averyanov 1994, Averyanov & Averyanova 2003, Nong & Averyanov 2015, Averyanov et al. 2015, 2016b,
Averyanov & Maisak 2017). Meanwhile, the diversity of this genus in Vietnam and neighboring countries is very far
from being acceptably inventoried. This is particularly true for miniature canopy epiphytes with small flowers very
easily overlooked and rarely collected during botanical surveys. Recently discovered taxa from this ecological group
new for science, Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Reichenbach (1861: 258) var. orlovii Aver., B. sonii Aver. & N.V.Duy, B.
ustulata Aver. and new for the flora of Vietnam, B. cariniflorum, B. flavescens (Blume 1825: 313) Lindley (1830: 54),
B. ovatum Seidenfaden (1979: 68), B. physocoryphum Seidenfaden (1979: 51), B. wendlandianum (Kraenzlin 1891:
612) Dammer (1907: 87) are presented in this paper.
Material and Methods
Specimens of the new taxa and records suitable for description were collected during 2016–2017. Some previously
gathered herbarium and living collections also provided additional materials. Fresh flowers and inflorescences from
living plants were fixed and stored in 70% ethanol. Measurements of the floral parts for the description were made on
both herbarium and liquid-fixed material. According to our observations, fresh flowers and their fleshy parts shrink
AVERYANOV ET AL.
2 Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press
up to 15–20% in size during the drying process of making herbarium specimens, and thus it should be noted that
the according measurements underestimate the actual size of flower parts. In descriptions of quantitative characters,
infrequent extreme values (i.e. rarely occurring minimal and maximal values) of a variation range are parenthesized
respectively before and after a normal variation range. Paragraphs for studied species are arranged below according to
species name in alphabetic order. The annotation for each species includes the following data in separate lines:
– accepted name and main synonyms occurring in regional literature;
– data on type or authentic specimens;
– description and name etymology (for newly described taxa);
– lifeform, summarized available data on ecology, habitat elevation, phenology and observed rarity;
– distribution in Vietnam (mostly by listing the country provinces according to the current official administrative
division (Vietnam Administrative Atlas 2007)) and general distribution;
– brief notes on taxonomy, supposed relations and/or biology;
abbreviated and unified text of herbarium labels including geographical locality, collection date, collectors’
names, collection number, acronym of herbarium where the cited specimen is housed and its barcode.
Illustrations of voucher specimens are provided for all recorded species. Analytical photos of various portions of
the living plants were taken prior to drying for making voucher herbarium specimens and compiled into digital colour
plates. Online version of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2018) was followed for estimation of preliminary
species conservation status.
Taxonomic treatment
New taxa of Bulbophyllum Thouars in the flora of Vietnam
Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Reichenbach
1861: 258, Seidenfaden 1979: 212, fig. 155, Pearce & Cribb 2002: 463, Chen et al. 2009: 439, Xu et al. 2010: 372, 373, fig. 515a, b. (B.
sect. Pleiophyllum J.J.Smith 1914: 34). Type:—INDIA. India, Khasia Hills, Lobb s.n. (holotype K-LINDL: K000894440!).
= Bulbophyllum densiflorum Rolfe 1892: 139. Type:—INDIA. “E Himalaya, cult. N. Campany s.n.” (holotype K).
= Bulbophyllum pantlingii Lucksom 1994: 551; Pearce & Cribb 2002: 464. – B. flavidum Lucksom 1993: 71, non Lindl. 1830: 83.
Type:—INDIA. Northeastern India “Sikkim, Lachung Valley, S.Z. Lucksom 207 (holotype CAL, isotype Herbarium of Gangtok
Forest Department).
Distribution:—Nepal, Bhutan, India, SW China (S. Xizang), N. Thailand, NW. Vietnam.
B. cariniflorum var. orlovii Aver., var. nov. (Fig. 1 & 2A–D)
Type:—VIETNAM. “24 July 2017, N. Orlov, L. Averyanov AL 275(holotype LE: LE01042144), prepared from cultivated plant collected
in northwestern Vietnam (NW. Vietnam, Lai Chau province, Sin Ho district, Sa De Phin, 22º18′55.0″N, 103º13′31.8″E, remnants
of highly degraded primary forest among limestone outcrops on rocky slopes of karstic stream valley at elevation 1690 m a.s.l.,
epiphyte on tall trees, 1 June 2017, N.L. Orlov, L.K. Iohanssen s.n.).
Etymology:—The variety honors a famous herpetologist Dr. N. Orlov, the plant discoverer.
Description:—Clustering epiphyte and lithophyte, leafy during anthesis. Pseudobulbs with 2–3 leaves at apex,
densely crowded on short rhizome, touching each other, pale yellowish-green to pale green, ovoid to broadly ovoid,
(1.8)2.5–3.0(3.4) cm tall and wide, distinctly compressed, naked, glossy when young, longitudinally ribbed, becoming
irregularly wrinkled with age. Leaves subsessile; leaf blade herbaceous to leathery, oblong broadly lanceolate to
oblong narrowly ovate, (10)12–18(20) cm long, (2.0)2.5–3.6(4.2) cm wide, narrowing into short conduplicate petiole-
like base (6)8–12(14) mm long, obtuse at apex. Inflorescence pendulous dense-flowered raceme with more or less
erect peduncle; peduncle (4)5–7(8) cm long, rather stout, straight, arching at apex, with 2(3)–4(5) sterile bracts; rachis
(2.0)3.0–5.0(6.5) cm long, straight or slightly curved, nodding, longitudinally ribbed, with many spirally arranged
flowers opening simultaneously. Floral bracts papyraceous, almost horizontally spreading, narrowly ovate, concave,
acute, (2.2)2.4–2.6(2.8) mm long, (1.4)1.5–1.6(1.8) mm wide, finely erose along margin. Pedicel and ovary (2.0)2.2–
2.4(2.5) mm long, obconoid, longitudinally grooved. Flowers not widely opening, (2.8)3.0–3.2(3.4) mm wide; sepals
and petals pale yellow-green, lip yellow. Median sepal erect, ovate, concave, (3.8)4.0–4.2(4.3) long, (1.8)2.0–2.2(2.3)
NEW SPECIES OF BULBOPHYLLUM (ORCHIDACEAE) Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press 3
mm wide, obtuse to acute, entire or finely erose-denticulate along the margin. Lateral sepals narrowly ovate, concave,
(5.6)5.8–6.0(6.2) mm long, (2.4)2.5–2.7(2.8) mm wide (being flattened), joined along lower edges completely or
free on (0.6)0.8–0.9(1.0) mm from base. Petals straight, forward directed, triangularly lanceolate, acute, (2.9)3.0–
3.2(3.3) mm long, (0.7)0.8–0.9(1.0) mm wide near slightly oblique base, finely erose-denticulate along margin. Lip
fleshy, oblong narrowly ovoid, (2.8)3.0–3.2(3.3) mm long, (1.7)1.8–2.0(2.1) mm wide, recurved near base, slightly
grooved near base, simple, entire, with no keels or auricles, rounded at apex. Column pale yellow, cylindrical, slightly
broadening towards apex, (1.9)2.0(2.1) mm tall, (0.8)0.9–1.0(1.1) mm wide, with forward directed foot (1.1)1.2–
1.4(1.6) mm long, at front with ovate, concave stigma, at apex with falcate, acuminate stelidia 0.5–0.6 mm long,
curved back and placed on sides of operculum. Operculum pale yellow, hemispheric, (0.7)0.8(0.9) mm in diameter,
truncate and papillose at front, bilobed and glabrous at back. Fruits unknown.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Clustering epiphyte and lithophyte. Broad-leaved evergreen
humid forests on limestone. 1650–1750 m. Fl. July–August. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status—DD.
Distribution:—Northern Vietnam (Lai Chau province, Sin Ho district). Endemic.
Notes:Bulbophyllum cariniflorum has for a long time been taxonomically placed into a rather formal artificial
group of deviated Bulbophyllum species known as a B. section Pleiophyllum (Seidenfaden, 1979; Pearce & Cribb,
2002; Chen et al. 2009). All these species have more or less similar 2-leaved pseudobulbs that is quite unusual for
the genus. Meanwhile, species of this section show hardly close relations. At least B. cariniflorum and its close allies,
such as B. triste Reichenbach (1861: 253) and B. viridiflorum (Hooker 1890: 779) Schlechter (1910: 108) look much
more close to some members of B. sect. Anisopetalon (Hooker 1825: tab. 149) Lindley (1846: 181) according to their
floral morphology. Our plant undoubtedly belongs to this group and most close to B. cariniflorum distributed mainly
in the Himalayas. However, it distinctly differs from other known specimens of this species in such morphological
details as large, slightly flattened, often 3-leaved pseudobulbs (1.8)2.5–3.0(3.4) cm tall and wide (vs. 2-leaved ovoid
pseudobulbs 1–1.5 cm tall), large leaves (10)12–18(20) cm long (vs. 12–15 cm long), long panicle (2.0)3.0–5.0(6.5)
cm long (vs. 2–3 cm long), narrowly ovate floral bracts (vs. narrowly lanceolate) and falcate, back curved stelidia (vs.
straight erect subulate stelidia).
Described variety belongs to species newly recorded in the flora of Vietnam. The discovery of our plant in Vietnam
essentially extends the known species distribution area to the East and represents its first record in eastern Indochina.
Bulbophyllum flavescens (Blume) Lindley
1830: 54, Comber 1990: 290, fig., 2001: 719, fig., Vermeulen 1991: 51, fig. 14, pl. 5D, Seidenfaden & Wood 1992: 459, fig. 208l–q, pl.
33a (B. sect. Aphanobulbon Schleichter 1911: 181).
Diphyes flavescens Blume (1825: 313). Type:—JAVA. “Herb. Lugd. Batav. Java. Blume” (isotype L: L0058183!).
(Fig. 2E–J)
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Clustering branch epiphyte. Primary evergreen broad-leaved forests
on silicate rocks, commonly along mountain stream. 900–1000 m. Fl. in culture February–March. Rare. Estimated
IUCN Red List status—DD.
Distribution:—Northern Vietnam (Nghe An province, Quy Hop district). Peninsular Malaysia, Philippines,
Sumatra, Java, Borneo.
Notes:—The discovery of this species previously believed to be a Malesian endemic in northern Vietnam is
remarkable and unexpected. The newly discovered quite isolated location expands known distribution area of this
species almost 2000 km in northwestern direction and illustrates well the connection of Malesian flora with marginal
tropical floras of mainland Asia. At the same time, the discovered Indochinese population certainly possesses relict
nature and surely represents ancient geographical isolation resulted in some morphological divergence. The studied
Vietnamese plants well differ from quite variable specimens described in details from the main area of the species
distribution (Comber 1990, 2001, Seidenfaden & Wood 1992) in larger flowers with sepals 13–15 mm long (vs. sepals
6–8 mm long in Peninsular Malaysia and 10–11 mm long in Sumatra and Java) and narrowly lanceolate leaves 1.6–2
cm wide (vs. broadly lanceolate leaves 2–3 mm wide). In this connection, our plants probably represent a separate
variety and need additional studies.
Studied specimen:—VIETNAM. Northern Vietnam, Nghe An province, Quy Hop district, Pu Hoat reserve,
19º46′10.0″N, 104º47′10.7″E, 993 m a.s.l., on the shore of a fast cascading stream in the primary forest, 16 June
2016, N.L. Orlov, L.K. Iohanssen s.n.; flowered in culture 20 February 2018, N.L. Orlov, L. Averyanov NLO-054 (LE:
LE01042151!).
AVERYANOV ET AL.
4 Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 1. Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f. var. orlovii Aver. A. Flowering plant. B. Portion of inflorescence. C. Portion of rachis
with removed flowers and flower, side view. D. Intact flower, frontal view. E. Floral bract, adaxial and side view. F. Median sepal, side and
frontal view. G. Lateral sepals, frontal view and view from the back. H. Flattened petals. I. Column and lip, side view (sepals and petals
removed). J. Lip, side view at a different angle. K. Lip, frontal view and view from the back. L. Column, frontal view (lateral sepals and
column foot removed). M. Column with shifted operculum, side view. N. Operculum, view from above, frontal view and view from below.
All drawn from the type (AL 275) by L. Averyanov.
NEW SPECIES OF BULBOPHYLLUM (ORCHIDACEAE) Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press 5
FIGURE 2. Bulbophyllum cariniflorum Rchb.f. var. orlovii Aver. (AL 275) A. Flowering plant. B. Pseudobulb with leaves. C. Inflorescence.
D. Portion of inflorescence. Bulbophyllum flavescens (Blume) Lindl. (NLO-054) E. Flowering plant. F. Inflorescence. G. Portion of
inflorescence. H. Flower, frontal view. I, J. Enlarged flowers, half side and frontal views. Bulbophyllum ovatum Seidenf. (CPC 3740a) K.
Flowering plants. L. Inflorescences. M. Flowers. Bulbophyllum physocoryphum Seidenf. (Nuraliev M.S. 1576) N–O. Flowering plants.
P-R. Flowers, side, half side and frontal views. Photos taken by N. Orlov (A–J), L. Averyanov (K–M) and M. Nuraliev (N–R), correction
and design by L. Averyanov.
AVERYANOV ET AL.
6 Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press
Bulbophyllum ovatum Seidenfaden
1979: 68, fig. 37 (B. sect. Desmosanthes (Blume 1825: 313) J.J.Smith 1914: 34).
(Fig. 2K–M)
Type:—THAILAND. Peninsular Thailand, “Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Khao Luang, 1500 m, 1968/05/23 Beusekom, C.F. van;
Phengkhlai, C., 976” (isotypes C: C10016167; C10016168; C10016169).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Primary broad-leaved, mixed and coniferous forests (with Dacrydium
elatum and Dacrycarpus imbricatus) on rocky limestone, commonly near mountain tops. 750–800 m. Fl. in culture
September–October. Not common. Estimated IUCN Red List status—DD.
Distribution:—Northern Vietnam (Quang Binh province, Minh Hoa district). Thailand.
Notes:—Our specimens look identical with the species described from southern Thailand (Seidenfaden 1979)
and initially regarded as local endemic of the Malay Peninsula. The population of this species discovered in northern
Vietnam is distant from locus classicus at more than 1200 km in NNE direction.
Studied specimen:—VIETNAM. Northern Vietnam, Quang Binh province, Minh Hoa district, Thuong Hoa
municipality, environs of Mo O O O village, around point 17°38’00.4”N, 105°55’57.9”E, Kalap Mountain, primary
mixed and coniferous forest (with Dacrydium elatum and Dacrycarpus imbricatus) on very steep rocky slope and on
rocky top of remnant mountain composed with highly eroded solid crystalline limestone at elevation 750–800 m a.s.l.,
creeping epiphyte on steep shady rocky slope close to mountain top and on top, occasional, 25 July 2011, N.T. Hiep,
L. Averyanov, N.S. Khang, N.Q. Vinh, CPC 3740a, flowered in culture on 26 September 2017, flowers yellow, fragrant
(LE: LE01042145).
Bulbophyllum physocoryphum Seidenfaden
1979: 51, fig. 25. (B. sect. Macrocaulia (Blume 1825: 318) Averyanov 1994: 279; = B. sect. Monilibulbus J.J.Smith 1914: 33).
(Fig. 2N–R)
Type:—THAILAND. Peninsular Thailand “Muang Lan, Ranong, GT 6211” (C).
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Branch and canopy epiphyte. Primary evergreen broad-leaved forests
on silicate rocks, commonly along streams. 950 m. Fl. April–May. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status—DD.
Distribution:—Southern Vietnam (Gia Lai province, K’Bang district). S. Thailand, Cambodia.
Notes:—Recent discovery of this species in southern Vietnam and in Cambodia (Averyanov et al. 2016a) provides
evidence of its much border distribution in southern Indochina than it was expected before.
Studied specimen:—CAMBODIA. Southern Cambodia, Kampot province, Phnom Bokor National park, 16
December 2014, E. Konstantinov, K-366 (LE: LE01042146!). VIETNAM. Southern Vietnam, Gia Lai prov., K’Bang
distr., Son Lang municipality, Kon Chu Rang nature reserve, 29 km ESE of Mang Den town, forest, river bank,
epiphytic, 14°31′00″N, 108°32′32″E, elev. 950 m, 28 May 2016, Nuraliev M.S. 1576 (LE: LE01042147!).
Bulbophyllum sonii Aver. & N.V.Duy, sp. nov. (B. sect. Anisopetalon (Hooker 1825: tab. 149))
Lindley, 1846: 181, = B. sect. Racemosae Bentham & Hooker 1883: 502, = B. sect. Careyana Pfitzer 1888: 179).
(Fig. 3, 4A–D)
Type:—VIETNAM. Southern Vietnam, 17 October 2017, N.V. Duy, N.X. Son, L. Averyanov, T. Maisak AL 298 (holotype LE: LE01042148!),
prepared from cultivated plant collected in southern Vietnam, Lam Dong province, Bidoup Mt., evergreen broad-leaved mountain
forest on granite, Nghiem Xuan Son s.n.
Etymology:—The specific epithet refers to the name of plant discoverer and distinguished orchid grower from Dalat
town, Nghiem Xuan Son.
Description:—Creeping trunk epiphyte with long wiry rhizome and numerous erect pseudobulbs. Rhizome
semi-woody, dull yellowish-grey, flexuose, 1.4–1.8 mm in diameter, to 16 cm long. Pseudobulbs 1-leaved, distant at
(0.5)1.5–2.0(2.2) cm, green to yellowish-green, narrowly ovoid to ovoid, (0.8)1.0–1.6(2.0) cm tall, (0.4)0.6–0.8(1.0)
cm wide, with many light green to almost white roots densely clustering at base; young pseudobulbs smooth, with
partially disintegrated papyraceous or membranaceous remains, naked when old, longitudinally irregularly wrinkled.
Leaves subsessile; leaf blade leathery, oblong broadly lanceolate, (8)10–12(13) cm long, (0.8)1.0–1.4(1.8) cm wide,
narrowing into short conduplicate petiole-like base (4)5–6(7) mm long, acute, below light green with prominent
dark green median vein. Inflorescence pendulous, short dense-flowered raceme; peduncle thin, down arcuate,
NEW SPECIES OF BULBOPHYLLUM (ORCHIDACEAE) Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press 7
FIGURE 3. Bulbophyllum sonii Aver. & N.V.Duy. A. Flowering plant. B. Inflorescence. C. Intact flower, view from above (left) and from
below (right). D. Intact flower, side view. E. Papillae on abaxial surface of sepals. F. Flower with sepal and petal removed, side view. G.
Flattened sepals and petals. H. Lip, side view. I. Lip, view from above. J. Lip, view from below. K. Intact column, frontal view. L. Intact
column, side view. M. Column with operculum removed, frontal view. N. Operculum, frontal and side views. O. Operculum, view from
below. P. Pollinia. All drawn from the type (AL 298) by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
AVERYANOV ET AL.
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FIGURE 4. Bulbophyllum sonii Aver. & N.V. Duy (AL 298) A. Flowering plant. B. Pseudobulb and young inflorescence. C, D.
Inflorescence. Bulbophyllum ustulata Aver. (NLO-053) E. Flowering plant. F. Pseudobulbs. G. Young inflorescence with involucral bract.
H. Inflorescence. I. Portion of inflorescence. J, K. Flowers, side and frontal views. Photos taken by N.V. Duy, N.X. Son (A–D) and N.
Orlov (E–K), correction and design by L. Averyanov.
NEW SPECIES OF BULBOPHYLLUM (ORCHIDACEAE) Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press 9
(0.8)1.2–1.8(2.0) cm long, green to brown, glossy to glaucous, with (2)3–5(6) light green sterile bracts; rachis (0.6)0.8–
1.6(2.0) cm long, straight or slightly curved, down directed, with dense, spirally arranged flowers. Floral bracts light
green, herbaceous, at acute angle to almost horizontally spreading, narrowly triangular, concave, acuminate, (3.0)3.5–
5(5.5) mm long, as long as flowers or slightly shorter, (0.4)0.6–0.8(1.0) mm wide, glabrous. Pedicel and ovary
(1.6)1.8–2.0(2.2) mm long, dull brown to pale brown-purple; pedicel terete; ovary distinctly broader than pedicel,
longitudinally grooved, 3-angular in cross section, (1.2)1.4–1.5(1.6) mm long, 0.8–1.0 mm in diameter. Flowers not
resupinate, not widely opening, (2.2)2.5–3.0(3.2) mm wide; sepals and petals purple, lip pale yellowish with purple
tint on the disc. Sepals and petals concave, outside densely haired by white setose papillous hairs. Median sepal
erect to forward directed, ovate, 3-nerved, (3.4)3.6–3.8(4.0) mm long, (2.0)2.2–2.4(2.6) mm wide, with recurved
acute apex, finely erose-ciliate along margin. Lateral sepals obliquely narrowly ovate, 3-nerved, (4.2)4.6–4.8(5.0)
mm long, (2.4)2.6–2.8(3.0) mm wide (being flattened), joined along lower edges completely or free on 1–2 mm from
base, apically fused, forming upcurved broadly triangular obtuse apex. Petals straight, forward directed, oblong ovate,
(2.4)2.6–2.8(3.0) mm long, (1.4)1.6–1.8(2.0) mm wide, blunt to almost rounded at apex, finely erose-ciliate along
margin, with 1 prominent median vein. Lip fleshy, oblong obovoid, flattened and longitudinally concave, (2.5)2.6–
2.8(3.0) mm long, (1.5)1.6–1.8(2.0) mm wide, recurved and slightly grooved near base, simple, entire, glabrous, with
no keels or auricles, blunt to almost rounded at apex. Column white, erect, broadening from rather narrow base to the
apex, (1.0)1.1–1.2(1.3) mm tall, (0.9)1.0(1.1) mm wide, with distinct down and forward directed foot (1.9)2.0–2.2(2.3)
mm long, at front with almost round, concave stigma, at apex with large filiform-falcate stelidia 1.0–1.2 mm long,
placed on sides and exceeding operculum. Operculum greenish, helmet-shaped, (0.8)0.9(1.0) mm tall and wide, finely
verruculose at apex, slightly inflated and glabrous on sides, truncate at front, with opening exposing pollinia. Pollinia
2, ovoid, each with 1 groove. Fruits unknown.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Creeping branch epiphyte. Evergreen broad-leaved mountain
forests on granite. Fl. in culture December–January. Extremely rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status—DD.
Distribution:—Southern Vietnam (Lam Dong province, Lac Duong district, Bidoup Mountains). Endemic.
Notes:—The new species belongs to the rather formal group of species with simple lip (having no auricles or
any other ornamentation) belonging to B. sect. Anisopetalon (= Racemosae). Bulbophyllum brevispicatum Z.H.Tsi
& S.C.Chen (1994: 555) and B. triviale Seidenfaden (1979: 111) are probably most close to our plant. Some species
with auriculate lip, e.g. B. allenkerrii Seidenfaden (1979: 112) and B. bittnerianum Schleichter (1910: 108), also show
certain similarity with the new species. Our plant strikingly differs from all more or less similar known species in its
dwarf habit, pendulous inflorescence, twice smaller flowers and curious setose hairiness on abaxial surface of sepals
consisting of white dense papillous hairs.
Bulbophyllum ustulata Aver., sp. nov. (B. sect. Brachystachya Bentham & Hooker 1883: 504; = B. sect. Globiceps
Schlechter 1912: 704).
(Fig. 4E–K, 5)
Type:—VIETNAM. Northern Vietnam, 31 October 2017, N.L. Orlov, L.K. Iogansen NLO-053 (holotype LE: LE01042149) prepared from
cultivated plant originated from northern Vietnam: “Vietnam, Nghe An Province, Truong Son Range, Phu Xai Lai Leng Mountain,
broad-leaved, evergreen montane forest on granite around point 19°11′47.9″N 104°11′05.1″E, at elevation about 2498 m a.s.l., 8
May 2017, N.L. Orlov, L.K. Iogansen s.n.
Etymology:—The specific epithet refers to firebrand appearance of almost black inflorescence of the newly described
species.
Description:—Creeping trunk epiphyte with short rhizome and erect, very small, densely crowded pseudobulbs.
Rhizome semi-woody, dull yellowish, (2.0)2.4–3.0(3.5) mm in diameter, up to 8 cm long, with many slender roots.
Pseudobulbs 1-leaved, touching each other, green, subglobose, smooth, (4)5–6(7) mm in diameter, with partially
disintegrated papyraceous or fibrous brown remains. Leaves conduplicate, subsessile; leaf blade leathery to rigid,
oblong broadly lanceolate to oblong narrowly obovate, (12)14–26(28) cm long, (2.0)2.5–3.5(4.0) cm wide, obtuse,
narrowing into grooved petiole-like base (2)4–7(8) cm long. Scape arising from the base of pseudobulb, erect, arching,
(16)18–24(28) cm long, green in basal half, dark purple-brown toward the apex, with 3–5 broad papyraceous sheathing
bracts near base; spike nodding, at base with one large involucral sheathing acute bract (1.0)1.2–1.5(1.8) mm long,
(5)6–7(8) mm wide; rachis pink to dark purple, fleshy, (5)6–8(10) cm long, with many dense, spirally arranged flowers.
Floral bracts purple, herbaceous, deltoid to triangular, acute, straight, slightly concave, (2.2)2.3–2.5(2.6) mm long,
slightly shorter than median sepal, (1.8)2.0(2.2) mm wide, glabrous. Ovary dark purple, obconoid, (0.8)0.9–1.0(1.1) mm
long and wide, longitudinally 6-grooved, pedicel almost completely reduced. Flowers not resupinate, dorso-ventrally
AVERYANOV ET AL.
10 Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press
flattened, shell-shaped, overlapping, (4.2)4.3–4.5(4.6) mm long, (2.8)2.9–3.1(3.2) mm wide, entirely dark purple to
almost black. Median sepal forward directed, triangular, at apex attenuate and upward curled, 3-nerved, (3.7)3.8–3.9(4)
mm long (being flattened), (2.2)2.3–2.5(2.6) mm wide near base, adaxially glandular hairy in the middle. Lateral sepals
oblique, half-ovate, slightly convex to almost flat, (3.8)4.0–4.2(4.4) mm long, (1.7)1.8–2.0(2.1) mm wide, 3-nerved,
pimpled, connate along lower edges, free at apex, acute, divergent. Petals narrowly ovate, 1-nerved, (1.8)2.0–2.2(2.3)
mm long, (0.9)1.0(1.1) mm wide, tapering into attenuate, recurved apex. Lip fleshy, recurved, ovate, simple, without
auricles, (1.8)2.0–2.2(2.4) mm long, (1.8)1.9–2.1(2.2) mm wide, grooved at base, finely glandular pimpled, with 2
glabrous keels prominently rising near base, blunt at apex. Column erect, short and broad, 0.5–0.6 mm long and wide;
with distinct, forward directed foot; at front with narrowly triangular, concave stigma bordered proximally by inflated
margin; at apex with large subulate, forward directed stelidia 0.8–1.0 mm long, geniculated near base. Operculum
almost flat, 2-lobed, 0.45–0.50 mm wide. Pollinia 2, narrowly ovoid, each with 1 deep groove dividing pollinium into
2 unequal particles. Fruits unknown.
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Creeping trunk epiphyte. Primary evergreen broad-leaved
montane forests on granite. 2400–2500 m. Fl. in culture October–November. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List
status—DD.
Distribution:—Northern Vietnam (Nghe An province, Ky Son district, Phu Xai Lai Leng Mountain). Endemic.
Notes:—The new species belongs to B. sect. Brachystachya (= B. sect. Globiceps) and is allied to some Himalayan
taxa, namely Bulbophyllum conchiferum Reichenbach (1861: 253), B. cylindraceum Lindley (1830: 53) and B.
khasyanum Griffith (1851: 284). Similarly, to these species, our plant possesses very small pseudobulbs, elongate,
nodding, spadix-like, dense inflorescence with small sessile, flattened, overlapping flowers densely appressed to rather
fleshy rachis. Meanwhile, the discovered plant cannot be identified as any of the above-mentioned species. Among the
mentioned species, the new species may be most close to B. conchiferum undeservedly regarded as a synonym of B.
khasyanum (Pearce & Cribb 2002), which type specimen has short, almost head-like spike. Inflorescence and flowers
of B. ustulata fits well the excellent analytical drawing presented on type herbarium specimen of B. conchiferum stored
at K [K000894441] in elongate rachis, dense, shell-like sessile flowers, acuminate, revolute apex of median sepal,
acuminate recurved petals, 2-keeled lip and long stelidia. However, our plant differs from B. conchiferum in large
involucral sheathing bract at the base of rachis (a feature that is also observed in typical samples of B. cylindraceum),
glandular hairy median sepal, straight stelidia (vs. stelidia at the middle upward bent) and fleshy inflated margin of
stigma close to the base of column foot.
The new species was collected in a single location near summit of Phu Xai Lai Leng Mountain very close to the
Laotian border.
Bulbophyllum wendlandianum (Kraenzl.) Dammer
1907: 87; Seidenfaden 1972: 112, 1973: 27, fig. 1, 1979: 150, fig. 100, non J.J.Smith 1912: 29 (B. sect. Cirrhopetalum (Lindley 1830: 58)
Reichenbach 1861: 259).
Cirrhopetalum wendlandianum Kraenzlin 1891: 612. Lectotype (designated here):—MYANMAR. Imported from British Burmah,
Wendland (?). Icon “Cirrhopetalum wendlandianum Kraenzl.” (Reichenbach, 1892, Xenia Orchidacea 3, tab. 243).
= Cirrhopetalum collettii Hemsley in Hooker 1890: 773; id., 1896: 131, pl. 20. Type:—MYANMAR. Eastern Burma; Shan Hills, alt. 6000
ft., 1888, Collett 744 (holotype K: K000829939); non Bulbophyllum collettii King & Pantling 1897: 585.
= Cirrhopetalum proliferum Hort., nom. nud. (Hand-list … 1896: 57).
(Fig. 6)
Habitat, phenology and conservation status:—Trunk and branch epiphyte. Primary evergreen and semideciduous
broad-leaved forests on silicate rocks. 1600–1700 m. Fl. March–April. Very rare. Estimated IUCN Red List status—
DD.
Distribution:—Southern Vietnam (Kon Tum province, Tu Mo Rong district). N. Myanmar, N. Thailand.
Notes:—The present discovery extends known distribution area of this species to almost 1000 km in SE direction
and adds one more eastern Himalayan species to the flora of Vietnam. There are few doubts that this rare species may
also be found in northern Laos. This species may be regarded as a true endemic of northern Indochina.
Type herbarium material of B. wendlandianum was most likely destroyed or lost: “I do not know if a type specimen
of Kränzlin’s plant exists, …” (Seidenfaden 1972). Hence, the drawing which was probably based on the original
material is designated here as a lectotype.
NEW SPECIES OF BULBOPHYLLUM (ORCHIDACEAE) Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press 11
FIGURE 5. Bulbophyllum ustulata Aver. A. Flowering plant. B. Portion of inflorescence. C. Floral bract, adaxial surface. D. Intact flower,
view from above. E. Intact flower, side view. F. Intact flowers, view from below. G. Sepals and petals. H. Median sepal, half side view. I.
Median sepal, sagittal section. J. Flattened median sepal, adaxial surface. K. Flattened median sepal, abaxial surface. L. Lip: frontal view,
side view and view from below. M. Column with operculum removed, view from above. N. Column with operculum removed, frontal
view. O. Operculum. All drawn from the type (NLO-053) by L. Averyanov and T. Maisak.
AVERYANOV ET AL.
12 Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 6. Bulbophyllum wendlandianum (Kraenzl.) Dammer Digital epitype, d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0281/N.C.
Anh, N.H. Tuan s.n. Photos by N.H. Tuan, correction and design by L. Averyanov.
NEW SPECIES OF BULBOPHYLLUM (ORCHIDACEAE) Phytotaxa 369 (1) © 2018 Magnolia Press 13
Studied specimen:—VIETNAM. Southern Vietnam, Kon Tum province, Tu Mo Rong district, Dak Ha commune,
Ngoc Leng village, primary evergreen and semideciduous broad-leaved forest on ferralitic rock mountain with red soil
at elev. 1600–1700 m a.s.l., around point 14°55’35”N, 107°56’17”E, 3 April 2017, Nguyen Cong Anh, Nguyen Hoang
Tuan s.n. (LE: LE01042150). d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0281/N.C. Anh, N.H. Tuan s.n. 2017
(Fig. 6).
Acknowledgements
Leonid V. Averyanov carried out this research in the framework of an institutional research project of the Komarov
Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences “Study of the flora of Indochina”. The work of Maxim S.
Nuraliev was carried out in accordance to Government order for the Lomonosov Moscow State University (project
No. AAAA-A16-116021660105-3) and research work of Nong Van Duy was supported from Tay Nguyen Program
2016–2020. Authors cordially thanks field orchid explorers, N. Orlov, L. Iohanssen, N.T. Hiep, N.S. Khang, N.Q. Vinh
and N.X. Son for their collections used in present study.
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The orchid flora of Vietnam is the richest among all other regional floras of mainland Asia. Successive inventories show an increasing orchid number from 411 species in the year 1934, 718 spp. in 1992-1994, 897 spp. in 2003-2005, 1005 spp. in 2009 and 1090 species & 160 genera figured in 2011. Since last inventory, 116 species and 13 genera have been additionally discovered and documented in Vietnam. The present report summarizes published and new original data for the last 5 years. When the new data presented here were included, the orchid flora of Vietnam should comprise at least 1213 documented species from 174 genera. One genus discovered for this period in Vietnam has broad distribution in mainland subtropical and temperate Asia (Cephalanthera), 8 genera have broad Malesian distribution (Abdominea, Hymenorchis, Cordiglottis, Grammatophyllum, Macropodanthus, Microtatorchis, Octarrhena, Tuberolabium) and 4 genera are endemics of Indochina (Bidoupia, Drymoda, Lockia, Vietorchis). At least 116 species were discovered in Vietnam during last five years. Among them, 63 were discovered and documented as a new species for the flora of the country. These species form 4 groups: species with Mainland Asia – Himalayan distribution (19 species), species of South-Chinese floristic province (9 species), Malesian species (15 species), species of Indochinese Peninsula (20 species). Other 53 discovered species are local endemics of following floristic provinces: South-Chinese floristic province (6 species), North-Indochinese floristic province (15), Central-Annamese floristic province (4 species) and South-Annamese floristic province (28 species). All newly described endemics well illustrate unique character of local aboriginal floras of eastern Indochina and reveal some peculiar specific evolutionary threats in the orchid family. Brief illustrated data on floral morphology, distribution and ecology are provided for all newly discovered species. Expected IUCN Red List national status is identified for these species as well. Largest part of discovered species (67 species, or 58%) belongs to threatened categories: VU (20 species, or 17%), EN (25 species, or 22%) and CR (22 species, or 20%). Other discovered species (49 species, or 42%) belong to non-threatened categories: DD (32 species, or 28%) and LC or lover risk (17 species, or 15%). Totally for the last five years in studied area were discovered and described three new genera – Bidoupia Aver., Lockia Aver. and Vietorchis Aver., as well as at least 54 species new for science – Aerides phongii*, Bidoupia phongii*, B.khangii, Bulbophyllum bidoupense, B.blaoense, B.glabrichelia, B.phitamii, B.setilabium, B.striatulum, B.tipula, Cheirostylis glandulosa, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum*, C.lecongkietii*, C.phitamii*, C.tricornutum, Cordiglottis longipedicellata, Cymbidium repens*, Dendrobium congianum, D.thinhii*, Eria grandicaulis, E.praecox, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Gastrochilus kadooriei, Hymenorchis phitamii*, Liparis caudata, L.honbaensis, L.longibracteata, L.longispica, L.ngoclinhensis, Lockia sonii*, Luisia parviflora, Malaxis subtilis, Miguelia cruenta*, Nervilia mekongensis, Oberonia dolichostachys, O.janae, O.ngoclinhensis, O.rhizoides, O.sonlaensis, O.tatianae, Octarrhena minuscula, Odontochilus aureus, Paphiopedilum tamphianum*, Podochilus rotundipetala, Sarcoglyphis tichii*, Schoenorchis hangianae*, S.scolopendria, Taeniophyllum phitamii, Tainia acuminata, T.cornuta, Trichoglottis canhii*, Vanda gracilis*, Vanilla atropogon* and Vietorchis furcata. Almost all these taxa are strict endemics of Vietnam. Orchids, names of which are marked above by asterisk (*) stand presently on the verge of full extinction.
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The paper summarizes all hitherto reported data on the orchids of Vietnam and provides brief information on valid names, distribution (inside and outside the country), living forms, ecology, frequency and conservation status of the species.
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Herbarium material collected in 2013–2015 in Cambodia and Laos provides 298 new localities for 167 orchid species (from 57 genera). Almost all reported locations are new on the territory of studied countries. These data provide substantial basis for understanding of present day distribution of rare species needed protection. Among reported species, 8 species are new for the flora of Cambodia (Bulbophyllum macranthum, B. orientale, B. physocoryphum, B. retusiusculum, Dendrobium pachyphyllum, Eria tenuiflora, Pholidota recurva, Thelasis pygmaea) and 43 species are new for the flora of Laos (Bulbophyllum ambrosia, B. andersonii, B. bicolor, B. bisetoides, B. delitescens, B. depressum, B. forrestii, B. lilacinum, B. longibrachiatum, B. psyhoon, Calanthe alismifolia, C. sylvatica, Cheirostylis pusilla, Cleisostoma melanorachis, C. subulatum, C. williamsonii, Coelogyne eberhardtii, C. leucantha, C. ovalis, Dendrobium eriiflorum, D. falconeri, D. trantuanii, D. williamsonii, Didymoplexis pallens, Epigeneium fuscescens, Eria apertiflora, E. bambusifolia, E. pachyphylla, Flickingeria fimbriata, Gastrochilus suavis, Liparis mannii, L. sootenzanensis, Luisia ramosii, Oberonia kwangsiensis, O. maxima, Pelatantheria insectifera, Phalaenopsis braceana, Pholidota yunnanensis, Schoenorchis scolopendria, S. tixieri, Tainia cordifolia, Thrixspermum calceolum). Five species (Dendrobium minusculum, Oberonia simplex, Porpax capuccinorum, P. laosensis and Taeniophyllum filiferum) discovered in Cambodia in Laos are described as new for science. One genus (Didymoplexis) was found in Laos at first. Such rare ornamental species as Aerides falcata, A. flabellata, A. rosea, Arundina caespitosa, Ascolabium pusillum, Bulbophyllum bicolor, Calanthe cardioglossa, Coelogyne assamica, C. calcicola, C. eberhardtii, C. flaccida, C. trinervis, Dendrobium aphyllum, D. christyanum, D. chryseum, D. chrysotoxum, D. crepidatum, D. dixanthum, D. falconeri, D. fimbriatum, D. findleyanum, D. gratiosissimum, D. jenkinsii, D. loddigesii, D. nobile, D. senile, D. thyrsiflorum, D. trantuanii, D. trigonopus, D. williamsonii, Doritis pulcherrima, Gastrochilus suavis, Holcoglossum kimballianum, H. subulifolium, Hygrochilus parishii, Paphiopedilum concolor, P. dianthum, Phalaenopsis braceana, Schoenorchis scolopendria, S. tixieri, Spathoglottis affinis, Tainia cordifolia, Vanda brunnea, V. denisoniana, V. flavobrunnea become presently very rare on the territory of studied local floras and badly need protection to prevent their extinction in nature.
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This paper summarizes results of joint efforts of professional botanists and orchid enthusiasts on studies of Vietnamese native orchids during years 2013–2016. It provides new original data about the discovery of 1 genus (Grammatophyllum Blume) and 29 orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam. Valid name, main synonyms, data on type, ecology, phenology, estimated IUCN Red List status, distribution, studied specimens, as well as brief taxonomic and biological notes are provided for each species and varieties. Eight species (Bidupia khangii, Bulbophyllum striatulum, B. tipula, Cleisostoma dorsisacculatum, Cymbidium repens, Dendrobium congianum, Flickingeria xanthocheila, Podochilus rotundipetala) and two varieties (Phreatia densiflora var. vietnamensis, P. formosana var. continentalis) are described as new for science. One combination (Bulbophyllum bicolor var. funingense) is proposed. An illustrated annotated list of all studied species and varieties is arranged in alphabetical order. Including present data, the known orchid flora of Vietnam comprises currently at least 1210 documented species from 172 genera.
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In this study, an updated checklist of Orchidaceae for China is presented based on all recently available literature and online resources relevant to new taxa, national or regional new records, and new taxonomic papers. This checklist includes 208 genera and 1695 taxa. Additionally, two new national records for Orchidaceae from Yunnan, viz. Rhomboda lanceolata and Porpax elwesii, are reported with detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations.
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Bulbophyllum bidoupense (sect. Brachystachyae) and Schoenorchis hangianae (sect. Pumila) are described and illustrated as species new for science. Both species are local endemics of the Bidoup mountain system belonging to the South Annamese floristic province of the Indochinese floristic region within Lam Dong and Khanh Hoa provinces of southern Vietnam. Schoenorchis hangianae and allied S. scolopendria are rather isolated species recognized among their congeners by plagiotropic creeping plant habit.
Identification guide to Vietnamese orchids
  • L V Averyanov
Averyanov, L.V. (1994) Identification guide to Vietnamese orchids (Orchidaceae Juss.). World and Family, S.-Petersburg, 432 pp. [In Russian]
  • L V Averyanov
  • K S Nguyen
  • T T Nguyen
  • P T Nguyen
  • V D Nong
  • V C Nguyen
  • C C Xuan
Averyanov, L.V., Nguyen, K.S., Nguyen, T.T., Nguyen, P.T., Nong, V.D., Nguyen, V.C. & Xuan, C.C. (2015) New orchids in the flora of Vietnam. Wulfenia 22: 137-188.