Article

Do sesame seed and its products affect body weight and composition? A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Previous studies on the effect of sesame products consumption on body weight and composition have led to inconsistent results. Relevant databases were searched up to April 2018 to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Data on body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percent, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body adiposity index (BAI) were extracted. Ten studies were included in the systematic review. Sesame products consumption did not significantly affect body weight and BMI (P > 0.05). Only sesame oil significantly decreased the body weight and BMI (P < 0.05). The body fat percent and the BAI were significantly reduced after sesame consumption (P < 0.05). Sesame consumption did not affect other body composition indices (P > 0.05). The present study provided some evidence regarding the beneficial effects of sesame on body adiposity indices. Further studies are still required to confirm our results. Registration code: CRD42017054149.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... This is caused by population growth in regions where the production of these foods is complicated due to the weather conditions [1] Some of these fresh and healthy foods are sprouts, as they have a good quantity of enzymes, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Sesame seeds are oilseeds that have good nutritional characteristics and contain 50-60% oil rich in unsaturated fats, 20% proteins and 6.4-21% carbohydrates [2][3][4]. In addition, they are a good source of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, zinc and magnesium; thus, they are included in people's diets [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for fresh and healthy food has been increasing, and different options for growing sprouts have been presented to solve this, such as traditional techniques and cultivation under controlled conditions. However, sprout farming has not explored all the tools available to produce these foods under controlled conditions. This study presents an alternative to produce sesame seed sprouts in a micro-greenhouse applying intelligent control algorithms for vapor pressure deficit. There was an improvement of 56% in the germination percentage, 2.59 in the germination index, 9.7% in the production of proteins, 1.1% in ash and an increase of 77.03 mm in the sprouts’ length collected in the micro-greenhouse in comparison with the traditional technique. This was achieved by maintaining a mean error for soil moisture at 87% and 0.93 kPa for vapor pressure deficit by applying proportional–integral–derivative, fuzzy logic and neural network control algorithms in the micro-greenhouse. The study shows that the nutritional content, the measured germination parameters and the size are improved in sesame sprout production by applying intelligent control algorithms for vapor pressure deficit in a micro-greenhouse.
... It is member of the Pedaliaceae family, originating in India and is considered as one of the most ancient crops in the world, since it has been cultivated for at least 5,000 years [9]. It has long been used, especially in Asian countries, as a «functional» and traditional food with several health properties [10]. Sesame ranks ninth among the worldwide oilseed crops [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) are rich in unsaturated fats, and also contain tocopherols and lignans (sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol), which may exhibit antioxidant properties. Sesame paste, or tahini, a semi-solid product of sesame, has not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of tahini consumption on oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk indices in healthy men. Twenty healthy men with mean age of 28 years and mean BMI of 25.81 kg/m2 were included in the study. After a 12 h fast, baseline blood and urine samples were collected. After consumption of 50 g of tahini, blood and urine samples were collected at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h postprandially. Serum or plasma samples were used for the measurement of glucose, triglycerides, total phenolic content and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), while levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a were measured in urine samples. Plasma glucose was significantly lower at 1, 3 and 4 h after tahini consumption compared to baseline (p < 0.05). A trend of increase in total phenolic content (p = 0.092) was observed 4 h postprandially. Alongside, significant increases in both serum triglyceride (p < 0.001) and urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2a levels (p = 0.016) were reported at the end of the trial. No differences were reported in FRAP postprandially compared to baseline. Consumption of 50 g of tahini, either as part of a healthy breakfast or by replacing snacks with a less desirable lipid profile, could be a good practice for modern consumers.
Article
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an annual plant whose seeds are purported to be one of the oldest oilseeds used by humans. Although originating in Africa and India, this plant currently is cultivated in diverse regions worldwide from semiarid tropics to temperate areas. This edible seed oil has many routine and diverse uses in food preparation and cooking, and the dehulled seed is included in the preparation of numerous food products, condiments, and confectionaries, imparting a distinctive savory, nutty, roasted flavor. Sesame has a long history of use in traditional medicines for treatment of wounds, asthma, blurred vision, abdominal pain and ulcers, toothaches and gum disease, and migraine, to name a few. More recently, sesame constituents have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that may alleviate conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, and pain. The current narrative summarizes human studies evaluating sesame seeds, oil, and constituents for improving diverse human disorders, and provides suggestions for future research.
Article
Background: Clinical evidences showing the effects of sesame oil on metabolic biomarkers led to inconsistent results. Propose: This meta-analysis was designed to examine the effects of sesame oil on metabolic biomarkers in adults, including the maximum number of clinical trials. Methods: Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were systematically searched to date up to July 2021 to identify eligible clinical trial studies. We obtained the pooled estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects meta-analysis. Result: Meta-analysis showed that sesame oil consumption significantly lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (WMD: -3.268 mg/dl; 95% CI: -4.677, -1.86; P < 0.001), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: -4.847 nmol/dL; 95% CI: -7.051, -2.698; P < 0.001) between the intervention and control groups. Also, this study showed sesame oil consumption significantly decreased HbA1C (WMD: -2.057%; 95% CI: -3.467, -0.646; P = 0.004), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD: -2.679 mmHg; 95% CI: -5.257, -0.101; P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: -1.981 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.916, -0.046; P = 0.045), body weight (WMD: -0.346 kg; 95% CI: -0.641, -0.051; P = 0.021), and body mass index (BMI) (WMD: -0.385 kg/m2; 95% CI:-0.721, -0.049; P = 0.025) after intervention. No significant effect was seen in serum insulin levels (p > .05). Conclusions: The current study provided some evidence regarding the beneficial effects of sesame oil on metabolic biomarkers. Further studies are still required to confirm our results. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40200-022-00997-2.
Article
Full-text available
In poly cystic ovary syndrome multiple cysts formation occurs in female ovaries. It is highly prevalent in developing countries like Pakistan and India. Its symptoms include irregular menstrual cycle, abnormal hair growth pattern, acne and mood swings. This disease is also associated with imbalance in androgen levels (which include testosterone and estrogen) and high insulin levels also called hyperinsulinemia. It also contributes in the development of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancers. Seed cycling is a modern method used in alternate medicine of treating PCOS by using different seeds in the different stages of menstrual cycle. In this review article we will find out how seed cycling is effective in the treatment of PCOS. Flax, sesame, pumpkin and sunflower seed combinations are being used at different stages of female menstrual cycle. Flaxseeds contain lignans, omega 3 fatty acids and fibre which help in relieving the symptoms of polycystic ovaries. Sesame and sunflower seeds contain high number of fatty acids and lignans which helps in balancing hormonal disturbances in female. Losing weight by having diet rich in fibre improve the level of cholesterol and it is also beneficial decreasing the level of insulin resistance, which if not treated can progressed into type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. Herbal medicine in Ayurveda has shown promising effects in relieving pre- menstrual symptoms, hormonal fluctuations and the co-morbidities.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this review is to summarize the available antidiabetic medicinal plants in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with its phytoconstituents and toxicological findings supporting by the latest literature. Required data about medicinal plants having antidiabetic activities and growing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were searched/collected from the online databases including Wiley, Google, PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. Keywords used in search are in vivo antidiabetic activities, flora of Saudi Arabia, active ingredients, toxicological evaluations, and medicinal plants. A total of 50 plant species belonging to 27 families were found in the flora of Saudi Arabia. Dominant family was found Lamiaceae with 5 species (highest) followed by Moraceae with 4 species. β-Amyrin, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rutin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol are the very common bioactive constituents of these selected plant species. This paper has presented a list of antidiabetic plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Bioactive antidiabetic phytoconstituents which showed that these plants have hypoglycemic effects and highly recommended for further pharmacological purposes and to isolate/identify antidiabetes mellitus (anti-DM) active agents also need to investigate the side effects of active ingredients.
Article
Background: Recent investigations have proposed that sesame and canola oils might affect body fat distribution. This study aimed to examine the effects of sesame, canola, and sesame-canola (a blend of sesame and canola oils) oils on body weight and composition in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the context of a randomized, triple-blind, three-way, cross-over clinical trial. Results: Eligible participants were randomized to replace their regular dietary oil with sesame oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and sesame-canola oil (SCO) (with 40% SO and 60% CO). Treatment periods lasted 9 weeks and separated by 4-week wash-out periods. Body weight and composition were measured at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of each intervention phase. In total, 93 participants completed the study. After adjustment for confounders, within-period changes were observed following SO and CO intake for body weight (0.34±0.16 kg and 0.33±0.17 kg) and visceral fat (0.13±0.06% and 0.13±0.05%, P < 0.05), respectively. Body mass index was increased within SO intake (0.13±0.05 kg/m2 , P=0.031). All the treatment oils resulted in reduced waist circumference and index of central obesity (P<0.05). A significant difference in change values was observed for visceral fat between SCO (-0.14±0.07%) and SO (0.12 ± 0.08 %) treatment periods, in females (P=0.02). Conclusion: Sesame and canola oils might lead to a modest favorable body fat redistribution by reducing central adiposity, particularly in females; however, the changes were of little clinical importance. The trial was registered in the Iranian registry of clinical trials as IRCT2016091312571N6 (http://en.irct.ir/trial/12622). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a key regulating enzyme in the lipid metabolism pathway, and its gene polymorphism may be a candidate for modulating the metabolic responses to dietary intervention. We thus examined whether the effects of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism on metabolic profiles were modified by dietary plant oils. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of data collected during a randomized triple-blind cross over trial. A total of 95 patients with type 2 diabetes and 73 non-diabetes individuals completed a 9-weekof the intake of sesame, canola and sesame-canola oils. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each intervention period for biochemical analysis. Genotyping was done using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results: In diabetes patients, B1B1 homozygotes of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism compared with B2 carriers (B1B2 + B2B2) had significantly lower diastolic blood pressure, apoB and apoB: apoA-1,and higher Lp(a) after the intake of sesame-canola oil, as well as lower insulin and HOMA-IR after the intake of sesame oil. There was also a significant effect of genotype on adjusted changes of apoB, apoB: apoA-1, insulin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI. A significant genotype-dietary oils combined effects were observed for diastolic blood pressure, and LDL: HDL, TC: HDL and TG: HDL ratios in diabetes patients. No independent or combined effects of dietary oils and genotypes on outcomes were found in healthy people. Conclusion: There was a modulatory effect of the CETP TaqIB polymorphism on some metabolic traits in response to plant oils in patients with diabetes. Taken together, the intake of sesame-canola and canola oils showed more favorable effects in diabetes patients with B1B1 genotype. Future investigations are needed to confirm these results.
Article
Full-text available
Sesamin, a major lignin isolated from sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and sesame oil, is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Several studies have revealed that oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in a variety of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This comprehensive review summarizes the evidence on the effects of sesamin on CVD and its risk factors, principally due to its antioxidant properties. Specifically, this review highlights the mechanisms underlying the anti-hypertensive, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity, lipolytic effects of sesamin both in vivo and in vitro, and identifies the signaling pathways targeted by sesamin and its metabolites. The data indicates that RAS/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, ERK1/2, p38, p53, IL-6, TNFα, and NF-κB signaling networks are all involved in moderating the various effects of sesamin on CVD and its risk factors. In conclusion, the experimental evidence suggesting that sesamin can reduce CVD risk is convincing. Thus, sesamin can be potentially useful as an adjuvant therapeutic agent to combat CVD and its multitude of risk factors.
Article
The present study aimed to examine the effect of replacing edible oils with sesame oil (SO), canola oil (CO) and sesame-canola oil (SCO) on body weight and composition in adults. Adults without any chronic diseases (n = 77) were entered a 4-week run-in period and then were randomised to receive SO, CO and SCO for their household use in 9-week intervention periods (separated by 4-week washout intervals). Anthropometric measurements, as well as body composition markers, were assessed at baseline, middle and after each intervention period. In total, 73 participants completed the study. Although significant time effects were seen for waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, central obesity index, body adiposity index, muscle mass and body fat percent (p time<.05), the treatment and treatment × time effects were not significant (p>.05). The present clinical trial revealed that CO, SO and SCO might not differently affect body fat and composition. Trial registration code: IRCT2016091312571N6 (http://en.irct.ir/trial/12622).
Article
Background & aims The inter-individual variations of the metabolic markers in response to dietary interventions may be mediated by genetic factors. We examined whether the type of dietary oils can modulate the effects of −75G/A polymorphism in APOA-1 gene on cardiometabolic markers. Methods This study was a randomized, triple-blind, cross-over clinical trial. Participants with and without type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to replace their regular oil with sesame oil, canola oil and sesame-canola oil for 9 weeks. Genotyping was conducted using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results Ninety-five diabetes patients and 73 healthy individuals completed the study protocol. In patients with type 2 diabetes, the A allele carriers experienced greater decrease in systolic blood pressure compared with GG homozygotes following sesame-canola oil intake. Serum levels of HDL-C and TG: HDL ratio was increased and decreased following canola oil intake in patients carrying the A allele rather than non-A allele carriers, respectively. More reductions for risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, except risk of stroke were found in the A allele carriers compared with GG homozygotes after intakes of canola and sesame-canola oils, but not sesame oil. There was also a significant genotype effect as well as genotype-dietary oil interactions on cardiovascular risk scores. In healthy individuals, a considerable decrease in visceral fat was accompanied by a significant increase in HDL-C levels in the A allele carriers compared with non-A allele carriers after sesame oil intake. Conclusion Patients with diabetes carrying the A allele might benefit from canola and sesame-canola oils intakes, and healthy A allele carriers from sesame and sesame-canola oils intakes as well. Future clinical trials are recommended to warrant current findings.
Article
The storage stability of the commercial sesame pastes was evaluated for changes in colloidal stability and oxidative stability. The study was conducted for 180 days at storage temperature of 4°C, room temperature (average 20.5°C) and 40°C. The particle sizes of sesame pastes grew with the rising storage temperatures. The oil separations were highest at room temperature, which might be ascribed to the temperature fluctuation. With the elongation of storage time, the acid values of the sesame pastes rose most obviously at 40°C and slightly at 4°C, respectively. The peroxide value is a more sensitive index, and according to set limit for the 19.7 meq O2/kg peroxide values, the sesame pastes are recommended to be stored no more than 30 days at 40°C, 60 days at room temperature, or 120 days at 4°C, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive diabetics medicated with atenolol (beta-blocker) and glibenclamide (sulfonylurea). This open label trial with two intervention periods comprised 22 male and 18 female patients, 45-65 years old, with mild to moderate hypertension and diabetes. Sesame oil (Idhayam Gingelly oil, V.V.V. & Sons, Virudhunagar, Tamilnadu, India) was supplied to the patients, who were instructed to use it in place of other cooking oils for 45 days. Blood pressure (BP), anthropometric measurements, plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles [total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG)], lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)], electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and chloride), and enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) and nonenzymic (vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and reduced glutathione) antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution. The same patients were then switched over to other oils like palm or groundnut oils as their regular oils at random for another 45 days, and the investigations were carried out again at the end. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased remarkably. When oil substitution was withdrawn, BP values rose again. Body weight, body mass index, girth of waist, girth of hip, and waist:hip ratio were reduced upon substitution of sesame oil. Plasma glucose, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, and TG were decreased. TBARS level was reduced, while the activities of enzymic and the levels of nonenzymic antioxidants were increased. Plasma sodium levels were reduced, while potassium levels were elevated. These results indicate that substitution of sesame oil as the sole edible oil has an additive effect in further lowering BP and plasma glucose in hypertensive diabetics.
Article
Full-text available
Flaxseed consumption may be inversely associated with obesity; however, findings of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The present study aimed to systematically review and analyse RCTs assessing the effects of flaxseed consumption on body weight and body composition. PubMed, Medline via Ovid, SCOPUS, EMBASE and ISI Web of Sciences databases were searched up to November 2016. Mean changes in body composition indices including body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were extracted. Effect sizes were expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed with the I(2) test. Publication bias and subgroup analyses were also performed. The quality of articles was assessed via the Jadad scale. A total of 45 RCTs were included. Meta-analyses suggested a significant reduction in body weight (WMD: -0.99 kg, 95% CI: -1.67, -0.31, p = 0.004), BMI (WMD: -0.30 kg m(-2) , 95% CI: -0.53, -0.08, p = 0.008) and waist circumference (WMD: -0.80 cm, 95% CI: -1.40, -0.20, p = 0.008) following flaxseed supplementation. Subgroup analyses showed that using whole flaxseed in doses ≥30 g d(-1) , longer-term interventions (≥12 weeks) and studies including participants with higher BMI (≥ 27 kg m(-2) ) had positive effects on body composition. Whole flaxseed is a good choice for weight management particularly for weight reduction in overweight and obese participants.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Considering the possible effects of sesamin, the most important sesame lignan, on the prevention of metabolic disorders leading to diabetes, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of sesamin supplementation on glycemic indices, serum levels of lipid profile and Malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with type II diabetes. METHODS: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 44 patients with type II diabetes referring to the endocrine clinic of Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz, Iran (IRCT: 2014061818134N1). Patients were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control. Patients of the intervention group received a daily dose of sesamin (200 mg capsules), and control subjects were administered with an equivalent dose of placebo. Anthropometric indices, fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin level, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated before and eight weeks after the intervention. FINDINGS: Comparison of different indices before and after the intervention indicated that sesamin significantly decreased the serum levels of FBS (138.59±36.89 versus 172.50±53.9 mg/dl) (p=0.016), HbA1c (7.51±1.14% versus 8.28±1.55%) (p=0.002), TC (141.50±29.03 versus 164.54±45.96 mg/dl) (p=0.015), and LDL-C (73.86±18.34 versus 89.22±32.96 mg/dl) (p=0.008) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Moreover, after eight weeks of sesamin treatment in the intervention group, a significant reduction was observed in TG (139.04±78.46 versus 168.31±68.45 mg/dl) (p=0.021), MDA (1.93±0.30 versus 2.21±0.55 µmol/L) (p=0.023), waist circumference (101.65±9.78 versus 103.77±10.84 cm) (p=0.006), and body adiposity index (34.90±5.68 versus 36.02±5.56) (p=0.000). No significant differences were observed in the other studied variables. CONCLUSION: According to the results of this study, daily administration of sesamin (200 mg) significantly improved the glycemic index, lipid profile, and serum MDA levels in type II diabetic patients. Therefore, sesamin could be effective in the prevention and control of type II diabetes complications.
Article
Full-text available
Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
Article
Full-text available
Data suggest that sesame seeds have properties beneficial to modulating lipid disorders and decreasing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ardeh, paste of ground unhulled sesame seeds, on lipid profiles and atherogenic lipid parameters. This randomized clinical trial included 41 patients with type 2 diabetes, who were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: group A (Ardeh 28 g/d, n = 21) and group B (control, n = 20). After an initial two-week washout period, the patients in group A, replaced a part of their usual breakfast with two tablespoon (tbsp) (~ 28 g) Ardeh, while group B patients continued the usual breakfast meal for six weeks; energy content of both breakfast meals was maintained in the same range. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, HDL-C, and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP; log TG/HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, and LDL/HDL-C ratio were determined at baseline and six weeks later. After six weeks, there were significant decreases in serum TG (15.3 mg/dL) and AIP (39 %) in group A. Moreover, slight decreases in serum TC, LDL-C, and other atherogenic lipid parameters and a mild increase in HDL-C also were observed during Ardeh supplementation. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were unchanged during the study period in both groups. Ardeh could have favorable effects in decreasing CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetics.
Article
Full-text available
Sesamin has anti-oxidative functions in vivo. Fatigue is caused in part by oxidative stress. We evaluated whether sesame lignans (sesamin/episesamin = 1/1, 10 mg) with vitamin E (55 mg of alpha-tocopherol) (SVE) could improve subjective statuses and anti-oxidative capacity in humans using questionnaires on fatigue, sleep and physical appearance, as well as low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study was conducted with subjects experiencing daily fatigue. After a run-in period, subjects were administered oral SVE or a placebo (P) for 8 weeks. A questionnaire regarding fatigue, sleep and physical appearance was conducted at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Plasma low-density lipoprotein oxidation lag time was measured as an indicator of anti-oxidative capacity. The per-protocol analysis revealed significant improvements in fatigue status at 4 and 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks in both groups (p < 0.01), and sleep and physical appearance at 8 weeks compared to 0 weeks only in the SVE group (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences observed between the groups. According to the 72-subject subgroup analysis (aged 40 and over), the sleep and physical appearance significantly improved compared to the P group (p < 0.05), and fatigue status showed a tendency for improvement compared to the P group. Anti-oxidative capacity in the SVE group significantly increased compared to the P group (p < 0.01). No adverse events relating to SVE supplementation were confirmed. These results suggest SVE supplementation could safely alleviate daily fatigue and oxidative stress.
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is now recognized not only as a main site of storage of excess energy derived from food intake but also as an endocrine organ. The expansion of adipose tissue produces a number of bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines or adipokines, which trigger chronic low-grade inflammation and interact with a range of processes in many different organs. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of several adipokines associated with obesity and the potential impact on obesity-related metabolic diseases. Multiple lines evidence provides valuable insights into the roles of adipokines in the development of obesity and its metabolic complications. Further research is still required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of a few newly identified adipokines.
Article
Full-text available
The study on natural substances especially, dietary components such as liquid oils affecting cholesterol can be important for therapeutic propose. Sesame seeds with various biomedical actions can be control the hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic effect on lipid profile in human. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare lipid profile changes after olive and sesame oils consumption in hypercholesterolemia. This study was a clinical randomized trial that was performed via parallel design on 48 patients. The patients were randomly allocated in to two groups: A: olive oil and B: sesame oil. After 1 month prescription of Step I National Cholesterol Education Program diet, patients consumed 4 table spoons aprox. 60 g) of refined olive or sesame oil daily as an exchange of other oils, for 1 month. Lipid profiles The P < 0.05 was considered as significant difference. Out of 48 patients, 24 (50%) were men. The mean age was 41.7 ± 8.3 years. The mean of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, before oil consumption was 224.5 ± 22, 256 ± 132, 132.6 ± 9, and 44.5 ± 11 mg/dl. After olive oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, weight, waist and BMI were decreased and HDL-C was increased. After sesame oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C were significantly decreased. Weight, waist were decreased and HDL-C was increased (P > 0.05). Sesame oil had equivalent effect on lipid profile in comparison olive oil and lipid profile improvement was better in sesame oil in LDL-C and TG.
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates the hypoglycemic and antiobesity effect of sesame seed cake (SSC) on rats fed with high fructose diet (HFD). SSC contained dietary fibre, lignans and phenolic compound. One month of HFD feeding induced significantly the obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidaemia, insulin insensitivity and increased atherogenic index (AI). Treatment of SSC along with feed material decreased the weight gain, normalised the blood glucose (BG) level, reduced the serum cholesterol and improved the glucose tolerance significantly. In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), rats fed with HFD supplemented with 2% and 4% SSC significantly reduced the plasma glucose after 120 min of glucose loading, indicating an improved glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the intake of SSC supplementation can be adopted as a therapeutic strategy for the prevention of obesity induced Type 2 hyperglycemia.
Article
Full-text available
Most dietary interventions have metabolic effects in the short term, but long-term effects may require dietary fat changes to influence body composition and insulin action. This study assessed the effect of sustained high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake through walnut consumption on metabolic outcomes in type II diabetes. Fifty overweight adults with non-insulin-treated diabetes (mean age 54+/-8.7 years) were randomized to receive low-fat dietary advice +/-30 g per day walnuts targeting weight maintenance (around 2000 kcal, 30% fat) for 1 year. Differences between groups were assessed by changes in anthropometric values (body weight, body fat, visceral adipose tissue) and clinical indicators of diabetes over treatment time using the general linear model. The walnut group consumed significantly more PUFA than the control (P=0.035), an outcome attributed to walnut consumption (contributing 67% dietary PUFA at 12 months). Most of the effects were seen in the first 3 months. Despite being on weight maintenance diets, both groups sustained a 1-2 kg weight loss, with no difference between groups (P=0.680). Both groups showed improvements in all clinical parameters with significant time effects (P<0.004), bar triacylglycerol levels, but these were just above normal to begin with. The walnut group produced significantly greater reductions in fasting insulin levels (P=0.046), an effect seen largely in the first 3 months. Dietary fat can be manipulated with whole foods such as walnuts, producing reductions in fasting insulin levels. Long-term effects are also apparent but subject to fluctuations in dietary intake if not of the disease process.
Article
Full-text available
In order to examine the effect of dietary long chain fatty acid composition on energy substrate utilization, basal metabolism rate (BMR) and the thermogenic effect of food (TEF) were measured in eight subjects consuming diets varying only in diet fat polyunsaturated: saturated (P:S) ratio. Subjects consumed the low P:S (0.241 ± 0.02) and high P:S (1.65 ± 0.28) ratio diets for seven days using a crossover design. Fat and carbohydrate oxidation during BMT and TEF over 230 minutes after a breakfast meal were determined on days 1 and 7 of each diet period using open circuit respiratory gas exchange. On day 7, BMR respiratory quotient was reduced (P < .05) for the low P:S (0.826 ± 0.005) compared with high P:S (0.853 ± 0.014) ratio diet, resulting in an increased basal fat oxidation rate with low P:S (0.074 ± 0.006 g/min) compared with high P:S (0.059 ± 0.008 g/min) ratio diet feeding. The cumulative contribution of fat oxidation to TEF on day 7 was lower (P < .01) for the low P:S (1.35 ± 1.6 g) compared with high P:S (6.49 ± 0.8 g) ratio diets. This was paralleled by opposite differences (P < .05) in the contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to TEF (21.0 ± 3.0 g and 13.1 ± 3.4 g, respectively, for each diet treatment). On day 1 in subjects switching from either home and alternate test diets, and on day 7, caloric expenditure of TEF after low P:S was not statistically lower compared to the high P:S ratio diet. On day 1 subjects switching from the alternate diet showed a significant decrease (P < .05) in total fat oxidation of TEF after low P:S (13.5 ± 2.4 g) compared to high P:S (17.9 ± 1.6 g) ratio diets. These findings suggest that the long chain fatty acid composition of dietary fat modulates the oxidation of fat and carbohydrate acutely after meal feeding and after chronic feeding.
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of sesame oil on endothelial function and to detect the underlying mechanisms, both in the postprandial state and after long-term consumption. Design: We enrolled 30 hypertensive men in a two-phase study. In the first phase, 26 volunteers consumed 35 g of either sesame oil or control oil. Endothelial function, inflammatory activation and nitric oxide syntase (NOS) inhibition was assessed after a 12-hour fast and 2 hours after consumption of an oil-containing standardized meal. In the second phase, 30 volunteers consumed 35 g of sesame oil or control oil daily for 2 months and the above-mentioned parameters were assessed at baseline, 15, 30 and 60 days. Methods: Endothelial function was estimated by endothelium-dependent FMD (flow-mediated dilatation) of the brachial artery. Results: Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) improved significantly both after acute (p = 0.001) and long-term sesame oil consumption (p = 0.015, p = 0.005 and p = 0.011 for 15, 30 and 60 days respectively). Intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) levels decreased significantly after only 60 days of daily sesame oil intake (p = 0.014). By contrast, no changes were observed in the control group in either phase of the study. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that sesame oil consumption exerts a beneficial effect on endothelial function and this effect is sustained with long-term daily use.
Article
Full-text available
Pre-clinical studies suggest that sesame and its lignans induce beneficial changes in risk factors related to cardiovascular disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of sesame on reducing serum lipids and enhancing antioxidant capacity in 38 hyperlipidemic patients who were divided into two groups randomly. For all individuals along the 60 days of study period, the same drug treatments were considered. Intervention group patients were supposed to eat 40 g white sesame seeds daily, and instead of these calories, 240 kcal was removed from their diet. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured. We assessed lipid profile and oxidative stress indicators such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) before and after the intervention. Significant differences among and between the groups were determined by independent t-test and paired sample t-test using 13th version of statistical package for the social sciences. The results showed that the diet with sesame significantly decreased the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and TC/HDL-C ratio. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) decreased while the activities of GPX and SOD were increased. There were no significant changes in anthropometric indexes such as weight and BMI after consumption of sesame. The results suggested that sesame seed supplementation decreased serum TC, LDL-C and lipid peroxidation, and increased antioxidant status in hyperlipidemic patients.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Funnel plots (plots of effect estimates against sample size) may be useful to detect bias in meta-analyses that were later contradicted by large trials. We examined whether a simple test of asymmetry of funnel plots predicts discordance of results when meta-analyses are compared to large trials, and we assessed the prevalence of bias in published meta-analyses. Design: Medline search to identify pairs consisting of a meta-analysis and a single large trial (concordance of results was assumed if effects were in the same direction and the meta-analytic estimate was within 30
Article
Full-text available
It has been known that hypertension is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Elevation of blood pressure (BP) increases the adverse effect for cardiovascular outcomes. Prevention of increased BP plays a crucial role in a reduction of those outcomes, leading to a decrease in mortality. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary black sesame meal on BP and oxidative stress in individuals with prehypertension. Twenty-two women and eight men (aged 49.8 ± 6.6 years) with prehypertension were randomly divided into two groups, 15 subjects per group. They ingested 2.52 g black sesame meal capsules or placebo capsules each day for 4 weeks. Blood samples were obtained after overnight fasting for measurement of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E levels. Anthropometry, body composition and BP were measured before and after 4-week administration of black sesame meal or a placebo. The results showed that 4-week administration of black sesame meal significantly decreased systolic BP (129.3 ± 6.8 vs. 121.0 ± 9.0 mmHg, P < 0.05) and MDA level (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6 μmol/L, P < 0.05), and increased vitamin E level (29.4 ± 6.0 vs. 38.2 ± 7.8 μmol/L, P < 0.01). In the black sesame meal group, the change in SBP tended to be positively related to the change in MDA (R = 0.50, P = 0.05), while the change in DBP was negatively related to the change in vitamin E (R = -0.55, P < 0.05). There were no correlations between changes in BP and oxidative stress in the control group. These results suggest the possible antihypertensive effects of black sesame meal on improving antioxidant status and decreasing oxidant stress. These data may imply a beneficial effect of black sesame meal on prevention of CVD.
Article
Full-text available
Sesamin is a major lignan in sesame seed. We confirmed that ingestion of sesamin and α-tocopherol synergistically reduced the concentration of blood cholesterol in rats given a high-cholesterol diet. To elucidate the molecular mechanism behind this effect, we analyzed the gene-expression profiles in rat liver after co-ingestion of sesamin and α-tocopherol. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 1% cholesterol diet (HC) or HC containing 0.2% sesamin, 1% α-tocopherol or sesamin + α-tocopherol for 10 days. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, and 10 and livers were excised on day 10. The gene expressions of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), members 5 (ABCG5) and 8 (ABCG8) were significantly increased, while the gene expression of apolipoprotein (Apo) A4 was significantly decreased. ABCG5 and ABCG8 form a functional heterodimer that acts as a cholesterol efflux transporter, which contributes to the excretion of cholesterol from the liver. ApoA4 controls the secretion of ApoB, which is a component of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. These studies indicate that the cholesterol-lowering mechanism underlying the effects of co-ingestion of sesamin and α-tocopherol might be attributable to increased biliary excretion of cholesterol and reduced ApoB secretion into the bloodstream.
Article
Full-text available
Recently, studies have reported that sesame oil lowered blood pressure and improved antioxidant status in hypertensive and diabetic-hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sesame oil with anti-diabetic (glibenclamide) medication as combination therapy in mild-to moderate diabetic patients. This open label study included sixty type 2 diabetes mellitus patients divided into 3 groups, receiving sesame oil (n = 18), 5 mg/day (single dose) of glibenclamide (n = 20), or their combination (n = 22). The patients were supplied with sesame oil [BNB Sesame oil(TM)] except glibenclamide group, and instructed to use approximately 35 g of oil/day/person for cooking, or salad preparation for 60 days. 12 h-fasting venous blood samples were collected at baseline (0 day) and after 60 days of the experiment for various biochemical analysis. As compared with sesame oil and glibenclamide alone, combination therapy showed an improved anti-hyperglycemic effect with 36% reduction of glucose (P < 0.001 vs before treatment, P < 0.01 vs sesame oil monotherapy, P < 0.05 vs glibenclamide monotherapy) and 43% reduction of HbA(1c) (P < 0.001 vs before treatment, P < 0.01 vs sesame oil monotherapy, P < 0.05 vs glibenclamide monotherapy) at the end point. Significant reductions in the plasma TC, LDL-C and TG levels were noted in sesame oil (20%, 33.8% and 14% respectively vs before treatment) or combination therapies (22%, 38% and 15% respectively vs before treatment). Plasma HDL-C was significantly improved in sesame oil (15.7% vs before treatment) or combination therapies (17% before treatment). Significant (P < 0.001) improvement was observed in the activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in patients treated with sesame oil and its combination with glibenclamide. Sesame oil exhibited synergistic effect with glibenclamide and can provide a safe and effective option for the drug combination that may be very useful in clinical practice for the effective improvement of hyperglycemia.
Article
Full-text available
Green tea catechins (GTCs) with or without caffeine have been studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for their effect on anthropometric measures and have yielded conflicting results. The objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs of GTCs on anthropometric variables, including body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). A systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database was conducted through April 2009. RCTs that evaluated GTCs with or without caffeine and that reported BMI, body weight, WC, or WHR were included. The weighted mean difference of change from baseline (with 95% CIs) was calculated by using a random-effects model. Fifteen studies (n = 1243 patients) met the inclusion criteria. On meta-analysis, GTCs with caffeine decreased BMI (-0.55; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.40), body weight (-1.38 kg; 95% CI: -1.70, -1.06), and WC (-1.93 cm; 95% CI: -2.82, -1.04) but not WHR compared with caffeine alone. GTC ingestion with caffeine also significantly decreased body weight (-0.44 kg; 95% CI: -0.72, -0.15) when compared with a caffeine-free control. Studies that evaluated GTCs without concomitant caffeine administration did not show benefits on any of the assessed anthropometric endpoints. The administration of GTCs with caffeine is associated with statistically significant reductions in BMI, body weight, and WC; however, the clinical significance of these reductions is modest at best. Current data do not suggest that GTCs alone positively alter anthropometric measurements.
Article
Full-text available
We studied the effects of dietary intervention with three vegetable oils (Linola, corn or sesame oil, all good sources of gamma-tocopherol) on absolute and relative concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in human serum. The oils contained only small amounts of linolenic acid but varying amounts of oleic and linoleic acids, and they had different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. Forty healthy female students (mean age 26 y) were randomly assigned to one of three groups and consumed a diet that contained one of the three oils for 4 wk. Refined oils were distributed as ingredients in specially prepared buns, in margarine or as dressing. Serum tocopherols, serum lipoproteins and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were measured. The gamma-tocopherol concentrations normalized to serum lipids increased significantly in the corn and sesame oil groups (P < 0.01), and the alpha-/gamma-tocopherol ratios decreased significantly from baseline concentrations in all groups (P < 0.05). The alpha-tocopherol concentrations did not change during the diet period in any of the three groups. Serum cholesterol, serum apolipoprotein B and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations decreased significantly only in the Linola oil group (P < 0.05). These data show that a moderately modified natural diet that contains both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol increases the serum gamma-tocopherol concentration in healthy women without affecting the serum alpha-tocopherol concentration.
Article
Full-text available
The tocopherols, the major vitamers of vitamin E, are believed to play a role in the prevention of human aging-related diseases such as cancer and heart disease, yet little is known concerning determinants of their plasma concentrations. Evidence from animal studies suggests that the dietary source of gamma-tocopherol can significantly affect plasma levels of this tocopherol as well as its functional vitamin E activity. To determine whether plasma levels of tocopherols in humans are similarly altered, a study was undertaken in which subjects (n = 9) were fed muffins containing equivalent amounts of gamma-tocopherol from sesame seeds, walnuts, or soy oil. We observed that consumption of as little as 5 mg of gamma-tocopherol per day over a three-day period from sesame seeds, but not from walnuts or soy oil, significantly elevated serum gamma-tocopherol levels (19.1% increase, p = 0.03) and depressed plasma beta-tocopherol (34% decrease, p = 0.01). No significant changes in baseline or postintervention plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or carotenoids were seen for any of the intervention groups. All subjects consuming sesame seed-containing muffins had detectable levels of the sesame lignan sesamolin in their plasma. Consumption of moderate amounts of sesame seeds appears to significantly increase plasma gamma-tocopherol and alter plasma tocopherol ratios in humans and is consistent with the effects of dietary sesame seeds observed in rats leading to elevated plasma gamma-tocopherol and enhanced vitamin E bioactivity.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate whether dietary fatty acid (FA) composition and energy restriction (ER) interactively influence obese (ob) gene expression, rats consumed diets containing beef tallow, safflower, or fish oil ad libitum (AL) or at 60% AL intake. Circulating leptin concentrations were higher (P < 0.0001) after AL feeding, but were not influenced by dietary fat. ER decreased (P < 0.0001) weight gain and visceral adipose weight, which were positively correlated (r = 0.40 P < 0.001, r = 0.58 P < 0.0001) with circulating leptin levels. Visceral adipose ob mRNA levels were greater in animals fed unsaturated fats, particularly safflower oil, which had the highest ob mRNA levels. Circulating leptin levels did not parallel ob mRNA levels, except for the greater abundance detected in AL adipose in comparison to ER animals. In addition, visceral FA profiles reflected dietary fat source and were influenced by an interaction of dietary fat and energy. These data demonstrate that dietary fat, particularly from a plant or marine source, and ER interactively influence ob mRNA levels; however, alterations in ob mRNA do not confer changes in circulating leptin, with the exception of ER, which is a key determinant. Thus, dietary intake is an important regulator of leptin production; however, the significance of these modest changes in diet-induced obese animals requires further study.
Article
Full-text available
The influence of the source of dietary fat on postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation rates, was examined in twelve postmenopausal women aged 57-73 years, with BMI 21.9-38.3 kg/m(2). A single blind, randomised, paired comparison of two high-fat, isoenergetic, mixed test meals was conducted. The major source of fat was either cream (CREAM) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). RMR, diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and substrate oxidation rates over 5 h were measured by indirect calorimetry. There were no differences in body weight, RMR, fasting carbohydrate or fat oxidation rates between the two occasions. DIT (EVOO 97 (SD 46) v. CREAM 76 (SD 69) kJ/5 h and EVOO 5.2 (SD 2.5) v. CREAM 4.1 (SD 3.7)% energy) did not differ between the two test meals. The postprandial increase in carbohydrate oxidation rates, relative to their respective fasting values (DeltaCOX), was significantly lower following the EVOO meal (EVOO 10.6 (SD 8.3) v. CREAM 17.5 (SD 10) g/5 h; paired t test, P=0.023), while postprandial fat oxidation rates (DeltaFOX) were significantly higher (EVOO 0.0 (SD 4.4) v. CREAM -3.6 (sd 4.0) g/5 h; P=0.028). In the eight obese subjects, however, DIT was significantly higher following the EVOO meal (EVOO 5.1 (SD 2.0) v. CREAM 2.5 (sd 2.9) %; P=0.01). This was accompanied by a significantly lower DeltaCOX (EVOO 10.9 (SD 9.9) v. CREAM 17.3 (SD 10.5) g/5 h; P=0.03) and significantly higher DeltaFOX (EVOO 0.11 (SD 4.4) v. CREAM -4.1 (SD 4.5) g/5 h, P=0.034). The present study showed that olive oil significantly promoted postprandial fat oxidation and stimulated DIT in abdominally obese postmenopausal women.
Article
Previous studies on the effect of sesame products consumption on body weight and composition have led to inconsistent results. Relevant databases were searched up to April 2018 to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Data on body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percent, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body adiposity index (BAI) were extracted. Ten studies were included in the systematic review. Sesame products consumption did not significantly affect body weight and BMI (P > 0.05). Only sesame oil significantly decreased the body weight and BMI (P
Article
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, stroke and renal failure. Sesame consumption may benefit blood pressure (BP) due to its high polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, phytosterol and lignans content. To clarify this, a systematically review and meta-analysis of controlled trials have been conducted. The PubMed (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Cochrane Library (Central) databases were systematically searched until August 2016. Eight controlled trials with a total of 843 participants met the eligibility criteria. A random effect meta-analysis showed sesame consumption can reduce systolic BP (-7.83 mmHg, 95% CI:-14.12, -1.54; p < 0.05, I2=99%) and diastolic BP (-5.83 mmHg, 95% CI: -9.58, -2.08; p < 0.01, I2=98%). To reduce the heterogeneity, the meta-analysis was limited to high methodology quality trials (n = 4), which resulted in a significant reduction in systolic BP (-3.23 mmHg, 95% CI:-5.67, -0.79, I2=33%) and a non-significant reduction in diastolic BP (-2.08 mmHg, 95% CI: -4.85, 0.69, I2=62%). This study concluded that sesame consumption can reduce systolic and diastolic BP. However, further investigations with larger sample sizes and better methodology quality are required to confirm the BP lowering effect of sesame consumption.
Article
Background: Sesamin is one of the most abundant lignans in sesame and has multiple functions and high values such as antioxidative effect and promoting-immunity function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sesamin supplementation on glycemic status, serum levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectinin patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes participated in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: intervention group (sesamin capsules; 200 mg/day, n = 24) and control group (placebo capsules; 200 mg/day starch, n = 24). Anthropometric indices and serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and adiponectin were assessed at the baseline and after 8 weeks. Result: Sesamin supplementation caused a significant reduction in FBS, HbA1C and TNF-α levels compared with the placebo (p < 0.05). Waist circumference, hip circumference, body adiposity index (BAI), FBS, HbA1c, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were decreased, and adiponectin levels were increased significantly in the intervention group at the end of study (p < 0.05). Conclusion: According to the beneficial effects of sesamin supplement on glycemic status and inflammatory factors, it may be considered as a supplementary therapeutic approach for diabetic patients. However, future investigations are needed in this field.
Article
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders associated with cardiovascular disease. Animal and human experimental studies have shown the beneficial effects of sesame oil on the components of the metabolic syndrome; however, the effect of Ardeh (grounded sesame seed) is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine effect of Ardeh on components of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 40 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups, the control and Ardeh consumers. The breakfast energy content of participants, was planned at around 270 kcal. In the Ardeh consumer group, part of their breakfast was replaced by 2 Tsp Ardeh, whereas controls consumed the usual breakfast. Waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and HDL-C were measured at baseline and again 6 weeks after intervention. Results: In the Ardeh consumer group after six weeks mean serum triglyceride concentration decreased significantly (144±9.8 vs. 175±11.4 mg/dL) (P<0.05) and HDL-C increased (51.7±1.7 vs. 11.5 mg/dL), compared with controls. Means of other components of metabolic syndrome showed no significant changes between Ardeh consumer and control groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that consumption of 28 g/d Ardeh has a beneficial effect on some components of metabolic syndrome, findings that need to be confirmed by further investigations.
Article
Increased plasma lipid profiles are among the most important risk factors of CHD and stroke. Sesame contains considerable amounts of vitamin E, MUFA, fibre and lignans, which are thought to be associated with its plasma lipid-lowering properties. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence and identify the effects of sesame consumption on blood lipid profiles using a meta-analysis of controlled trials. PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched (from 1960 to May 2015). A total of ten controlled trials were identified based on the eligibility criteria. Both the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Rosendal scale were used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. The meta-analysis results showed that consumption of sesame did not significantly change the concentrations of total blood cholesterol (-0·32 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·75, 0·11; P=0·14, I 2=96 %), LDL-cholesterol (-0·15 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·50, 0·19; P=0·39, I 2=96 %) or HDL-cholesterol (0·01 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·00, 0·02; P=0·16, I 2=0 %). However, a significant reduction was observed in serum TAG levels (-0·24 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·32, -0·15; P<0·001, I 2=84 %) after consumption of sesame. It was concluded that sesame consumption can significantly reduce blood TAG levels but there is insufficient evidence to support its hypocholesterolaemic effects. Further studies are required to determine the potential effect of sesame consumption on lipid profiles and cardiovascular risk factors.
Article
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the healthy diet with sesame seed consumption on anthropometric indices, lipid profile and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in overweight and obese women with MetS. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 51 overweight and obese women with MetS were given recommendations for a healthy diet with (n=22) and without (n=24) supplementation 50 g/day of sesame seed powder for 6 weeks. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, waist circumference to height ratio, percentage of body fat mass, LAP (Lipid Accumulation Product) and serum levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, TC/HDL-C ratio and AIP were determined at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: Reductions in weight, waist circumference, and BMI were not significant at end of study. Also, no significant differences were observed in other anthropometric indices. The reductions in lipid profile and AIP were not significant. Findings, HDL-C showed no significant increase. Conclusion: Daily consumption of 50 g sesame seed for 6 weeks had no effect on the anthropometric parameters, lipid profile or AIP in women with metabolic syndrome. However, more investigations are necessary to confirm these findings.
Article
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Oxidative stress has a critical role in the pathogenesis of RA and CVD. Sesamin, the main lignin constituent of sesame, has several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sesamin supplementation on anthropometric indices, lipid profile, blood pressure, and oxidative stress markers in women with RA. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 patients with RA were randomly divided into 2 groups (intervention and control). Patients consumed 200 mg/day sesamin supplement and placebo in the intervention and control groups, respectively, for 6 weeks (spring 2014). At baseline and at the end of the study, anthropometric indices and blood pressure were assessed. Serum concentrations of lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were also determined. At the end of study, sesamin supplementation significantly decreased serum levels of MDA (p = 0.018) and increased TAC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in patients with RA (p = 0.020 and p = 0.007, respectively). In the sesamin group, the mean of weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat, systolic blood pressure, and the concentration of other lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) were also significantly decreased at the end of study compared to baseline values (p < 0.05). However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant in this regard (p > 0.05). Sesamin exhibited a protective effect on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with RA. However, further investigation is suggested.
Article
Considering the high prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) and since until now there has not been any human studies to evaluate the effect of sesame in OA patients, this study was designed to assess the effect of administration of sesame on inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with knee OA. Fifty patients with knee OA were allocated into two groups namely control and sesame group. 25 patients in the control group received 40 g placebo powder per day while 25 patients in the sesame group received 40 g of sesame seed daily during two months of study along with standard medical therapy. Serum total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. In the sesame group, a significant decrease in serum MDA and hs-CRP were seen after two months of study (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in post-treatment serum values of MDA, TAC and hs-CRP between two groups (P>0.05). Serum IL-6 decreased significantly in both groups compared with baseline during the two-month study (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in mean serum IL-6 between two groups after treatment (P=0.001). Sesame seed is a natural and safe substance that may have beneficial effects in patients with knee OA, and it may provide new complementary and adjunctive treatment in these patients.
Article
Up to now there have been no human studies to evaluate the effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in osteoarthritis patients; this study was designed to assess the effect of administration of sesame on clinical signs and symptoms in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fifty patients with knee OA referred to the only specialty and subspecialty orthopedic centers in the north-west of Iran, were selected and divided into two groups, namely control and sesame groups. Twenty-five patients in the control group received standard treatment while 25 patients in the sesame group received 40 g/day sesame by oral administration during 2 months of the study along with standard drug therapy. The KOOS Questionnaire, Timed Up and Go (TUG) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) tests were used for clinical assessments. There was significant difference in pain intensity between the two groups (P = 0.004) after treatment. The mean score of the KOOS Questionnaire in both treatment and control groups was significantly increased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with baseline. The mean score of the TUG Questionnaire in both treatment and control groups was significantly decreased (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with baseline. There was significant difference in post-treatment scores of the KOOS Questionnaire (P = 0.009) and TUG (P = 0.002) between the two groups. The present study showed a positive effect of sesame in improving clinical signs and symptoms in patients with knee OA and indicated the fact that sesame might be a viable adjunctive therapy in treating OA.
Article
Worldwide obesity has reached a pandemic proportion. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by 2020, two thirds of the global disease burden will be attributable to obesity and obesity associated complications. Existing anti-obesity drugs, affecting one of the fundamental processes of the weight regulation in human body, have displayed serious side effects which outweigh their beneficial effects. Clinical and non-clinical researchers in this area are now facing a challenge to search for non-pharmacological alternatives for the prevention of obesity. Dietary interventions and life style changes with enhanced physical activity are two such options. Considering the importance of dietary interventions, the present review highlights the role, significance and potential of functional food ingredients for the management of obesity and associated co-morbidities.
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of sesame on lowering serum lipids and enhancing antioxidant capacity in 21 hyperlipidemic patients. Subjects were instructed to consume their regular diet for 2 weeks before starting the experimental diet. The experimental diet with 40 g roasted sesame was consumed for 4 weeks and the regular diet followed for another 4 weeks. Body weights and fasting blood were determined at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The results showed that the diet with sesame significantly decreased the levels of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. The time for erythrocyte hemolysis and the lag phase of LDL oxidation were significantly increased by sesame ingestion. A diet containing sesame slightly reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances in LDL. The beneficial effects of sesame disappeared when patients returned to their regular diets. Sesame in this study appeared to exert beneficial effects on serum lipids and to improve antioxidant capacity in hypercholesterolemic patients.
Article
The total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant status (TAS), free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and metal chelating capacity of extracts of whole black and whole white sesame seeds and their hull fractions in 80% aqueous ethanol were investigated. The TPC of whole black sesame seeds and hull extracts were 29.9±0.6 and 146.6±0.6mgcatechinequivalents/g crude ethanolic extract, respectively. The corresponding values for white sesame were 10.6±1.6 and 29.7±0.9mgcatechinequivalents/g crude ethanolic extract. The TAS as determined by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay and expressed as Trolox equivalents was highest for black sesame hulls (65.9±1.7) while white seeds showed the lowest (4.4±0.6). Free radical scavenging capacity of sesame extracts (5–40μg/mL) was measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical. The highest scavenging capacity was obtained at 40μg/mL and was 94.9±0.8, 25.1±0.4, 14.4±0.9 and 2.5±0.4 for black sesame hulls, black sesame seeds, white sesame hulls and white sesame seeds, respectively. Inhibition of LDL oxidation at 100ppm level was highest for black sesame hulls (96.7%) followed by those for white sesame hulls (84.6%), black sesame (78.4%) and white sesame seeds (57.3%). Sesame products displayed good ferrous ion chelating capacities, which ranged from 12% to 46% and 17% to 62% at 50 and 100ppm levels, respectively. Results demonstrated considerable antioxidant activity of sesame products tested especially black sesame hulls.
Article
The second edition of this best-selling book has been thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the significant changes and advances made in systematic reviewing. New features include discussion on the rationale, meta-analyses of prognostic and diagnostic studies and software, and the use of systematic reviews in practice.
Article
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of sesame oil, as sole edible oil, in hypertensive patients who were on medication with nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker. A sample of 396 hypertensive patients (aged 58 ± 3.8 years; 215 men and 181 women) participated in this study. Forty patients were treated only with nifedipine while three hundred and fifty-six patients were treated with nifedipine and instructed to use sesame oil in place of other edible oils for 60 days. The consumption of sesame oil remarkably reduced the (systolic and diastolic blood pressure from 166 ± 4.2 and 101 ± 3.1 to 134.2 ± 3.4 and 84.6 ± 3.0, respectively) blood pressure. The dosage of the drug also reduced, as there was a fall in blood pressure during sesame oil consumption. Plasma levels of sodium decreased while potassium and chloride increased significantly. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) level significantly decreased while activities of enzymic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) and concentrations of non-enzymic antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and reduced glutathione) increased in nifedipine-sesame oil group. Nifedipine group showed a significant reduction in blood pressure, lipid peroxidation and improvement in reduced glutathione, however, the values are significantly lower than nifedipine-sesame oil group. These results suggest that dietary substitution of sesame oil, in nifedipine-taking hypertensive patients, has an additive effect in the reduction of blood pressure and plays an important role in the modulation of electrolytes and in the reduction of lipid peroxidation and elevation of antioxidants.
Book
The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (the Handbook) has undergone a substantial update, and Version 5 of the Handbook is now available online at www.cochrane-handbook.org and in RevMan 5. In addition, for the first time, the Handbook will soon be available as a printed volume, published by Wiley-Blackwell. We are anticipating release of this at the Colloquium in Freiburg. Version 5 of the Handbook describes the new methods available in RevMan 5, as well as containing extensive guidance on all aspects of Cochrane review methodology. It has a new structure, with 22 chapters divided into three parts. Part 1, relevant to all reviews, introduces Cochrane reviews, covering their planning and preparation, and their maintenance and updating, and ends with a guide to the contents of a Cochrane protocol and review. Part 2, relevant to all reviews, provides general methodological guidance on preparing reviews, covering question development, eligibility criteria, searching, collecting data, within-study bias (including completion of the Risk of Bias table), analysing data, reporting bias, presenting and interpreting results (including Summary of Findings tables). Part 3 addresses special topics that will be relevant to some, but not all, reviews, including particular considerations in addressing adverse effects, meta-analysis with non-standard study designs and using individual participant data. This part has new chapters on incorporating economic evaluations, non-randomized studies, qualitative research, patient-reported outcomes in reviews, prospective meta-analysis, reviews in health promotion and public health, and the new review type of overviews of reviews.
Article
Standard behavioral obesity treatment produces poor long-term results. Focusing on healthy eating behaviors rather than energy intake may be an alternative strategy. In addition, important behaviors might differ for short- vs long-term weight control. Our aim was to describe and compare associations between changes in eating behaviors and weight after 6 and 48 months. We performed secondary analysis of data collected during a randomized weight-loss intervention trial with 48-month follow-up. We studied 481 overweight and obese postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women on the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study. We measured changes in weight from baseline to 6 and 48 months. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between 6- and 48-month changes in eating habits assessed by the Conner Diet Habit Survey and changes in weight. Analyses were conducted in the combined study population and stratified by randomization group. At 6 months in the combined population, weight loss was independently associated with decreased desserts (P<0.001), restaurant eating (P=0.042), sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.009), and fried foods (P<0.001), and increased fish consumption (P=0.003). Results were similar in intervention participants; only reduced desserts and fried foods associated with weight loss in controls. At 48 months in the combined population, weight loss was again associated with decreased desserts (P=0.003) and sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.011), but also decreased meats/cheeses (P=0.024) and increased fruits/vegetables (P<0.001). Decreased meats/cheeses predicted weight loss in intervention participants; desserts, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fruits/vegetables were independently associated in controls. Changes in eating behaviors were associated with weight change, although important behaviors differed for short- and long-term weight change and by randomization group. Future studies should determine whether interventions targeting these behaviors could improve long-term obesity treatment outcomes.
Article
The effect of strain and location grown on the sesmin, sesamolin, and sesamol content of oils from sesame seed chosen to represent a wide variety of genetic material is reported. Only differences in sesamin content due to strain were significant. Three of four oils exposed as the oil to 100°F. became rancid in two to three months. Rancidity of the oil was accompanied by lesser sesamin and sesamolin contents, and the ultraviolet spectrum of the oil was much altered. Oil from seed exposed as the seed to the same conditions for six months did not become rancid even though most of the seeds were damaged in threshing. The sesamol content of all the oils subjected to the accelerated ageing procedure increased, but the increase was greatest in the rancid oils. Frost damage of sesame seed markedly diminished the sesamin and sesamolin content of the oil.
Article
A lignan compound, P3, having strong antioxidative activity was found to be formed in high concentration during the industrial bleaching process of unroasted sesame seed oil. P3 (named sesaminol) was identical to a minor constituent previously isolated from acetone extract of sesame seed. It was shown that sesamolin in unprocessed sesame oil is the source of seaseminol, and the formation of seasaminol was confirmed by the model experiment with corn oil to which sesamolin had been added. Sesaminol was not so greatly removed by the deodorization process that follows bleaching as was sesamol, and it was shown to be at a concentration of ca. 100 mg/100g in commercial refined unroasted seed oil. The antioxidative activity of sesaminol was foughly equal to those of sesamol and γ-tocopherol by the thiocyanate method. Therefore, it seems that the antionxidative activity of refined unroasted seed oil is mainly attributed to sesaminol.
Article
Fatty acids and lignans in ground flaxseed and sesame seed are absorbed, metabolized, and exert some health benefits in vivo. However, it is unclear if they are absorbed, metabolized, and exert health benefits when consumed as unground whole seed; therefore, it was investigated in this study. In a randomized crossover study, 16 postmenopausal women supplemented their diets with food bars containing either 25 g unground flaxseed, sesame seed, or their combination (12.5 g each) (flaxseed+sesame seed bar, FSB) for 4 wk each, separated by 4 wk washout periods. Total serum n-3 fatty acids increased with flaxseed (p<0.05) and FSB (p=0.064) while serum n-6 fatty acids increased with sesame seed (p<0.05). Urinary lignans increased similarly with all treatments (p<0.05). Plasma lipids and several antioxidant markers were unaffected by all treatments, except serum gamma-tocopherol (GT), which increased with both sesame seed (p<0.0001) and FSB (p<0.01). In conclusion, fatty acids and lignans from unground seed in food bars are absorbed and metabolized; however, except for serum GT, the 25 g unground seed is inadequate to induce changes in plasma lipids and several biomarkers of oxidative stress.
Article
Sesamin, one of the lignans contained in sesame, has been considered to have medicinal effects. It has been reported that sesamin suppressed the development of hypertension in rats. In this study, using a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effect of 4-wk administration of sesamin on blood pressure (BP) in mildly hypertensive humans. Twenty-five middle-aged subjects with mild hypertension were divided into two groups, matched by age and body mass index. Twelve subjects were allocated to 4-wk intake of capsules with 60 mg sesamin per day and 13 subjects to 4-wk intake of a placebo (period 1). After a 4-wk washout period, the subjects received the alternative administration for 4 wk (period 2). BP decreased with statistical significance with the administration of sesamin (systolic: 137.6+/-2.2 to 134.1+/-1.7 mmHg, p=0.044, diastolic: 87.7+/-1.3 to 85.8+/-1.0 mmHg, p=0.045), but little changed with the placebo (systolic: 135.0+/-1.8 to 135.1+/-1.7 mmHg, diastolic: 85.9+/-1.2 to 86.6+/-1.2 mmHg). In conclusion, 4-wk administration of 60 mg sesamin significantly decreased BP by an average of 3.5 mmHg systolic BP and 1.9 mmHg diastolic BP. These results suggest that sesamin has an antihypertensive effect in humans. Epidemiological studies suggested that a 2-3 mmHg decrease in BP reduces the rate of cardiovascular diseases; therefore, it is considered that BP reduction achieved by sesamin may be meaningful to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Article
Pre-clinical studies suggest that sesame and its lignans induce beneficial changes in risk factors related to cardiovascular disease and increase the bioavailability of mammalian lignans. However, only very few intervention trials have investigated the potential bioactivities of sesame in humans. We aimed to investigate the effects of sesame supplementation in humans on blood lipids, blood pressure, systemic oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and mammalian lignan metabolism. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over intervention trial at a university research centre. Overweight or obese men and women (n=33) consumed 25g/d of sesame ( approximately 50mg/d of sesame lignan) and an iso-caloric placebo matched for macronutrient composition for 5 wks each. Each intervention period was preceded by a 4-wk washout period. Blood lipid profiles, day time ambulatory blood pressure, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers and urinary mammalian lignans were measured before and after each intervention. Results are presented as the effect of sesame supplementation relative to placebo. Urinary excretion of the mammalian lignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, increased by approximately 8-fold (P<0.001). Blood lipids and blood pressure were not altered. In addition, markers of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and lipid peroxidation (F(2)-isoprostanes) were not affected. Supplementation with 25g/d of sesame can significantly increase the exposure to mammalian lignans. However, this did not cause any improvement in markers of cardiovascular disease risk in overweight or obese men and women.
Article
This paper examines eight published reviews each reporting results from several related trials. Each review pools the results from the relevant trials in order to evaluate the efficacy of a certain treatment for a specified medical condition. These reviews lack consistent assessment of homogeneity of treatment effect before pooling. We discuss a random effects approach to combining evidence from a series of experiments comparing two treatments. This approach incorporates the heterogeneity of effects in the analysis of the overall treatment efficacy. The model can be extended to include relevant covariates which would reduce the heterogeneity and allow for more specific therapeutic recommendations. We suggest a simple noniterative procedure for characterizing the distribution of treatment effects in a series of studies.
Article
Lipids play an extraordinary range of roles in normal and deranged metabolism. In diabetes and obesity, lipids have often been seen just as impacting on the energy balance equation. New data are extending our understanding of how lipid subclasses influence carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at multiple control points: from the modulation of membrane proteins to the regulation of gene transcription.
Article
We investigated the antioxidant properties of sesaminol, a major component of sesame oil, on the oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro. Sesaminol inhibited the Cu2+-induced lipid peroxidation in LDL in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 36.0 +/- 10.0 nM. Sesaminol was a more effective scavenger than either alpha-tocopherol or probucol in reducing the peroxyl radicals derived from 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) in aqueous solution. In addition, as determined by the secondary products of lipid peroxidation identified by using immunochemical methods, sesaminol completely inhibited the formation of 4-hydroxy-nonenal (4-HNE)- and malondialdehyde (MDA)-adducts in a concentration-dependent manner. Probucol and alpha-tocopherol at the same concentration exhibited a lesser inhibitory effect. Our findings suggest that sesaminol is a potentially effective antioxidant that can protect LDL against the oxidation.
Article
In this randomized and placebo-controlled trial, safety and lipid-lowering effect of fish and corn oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with sesame oil that is mainly saturated were studied in 60 hemodialysis cases allocated to 4 different treatment groups. Each group (n = 15) received either fish oil (1.5 g), corn oil (4.5 g), sesame oil (4.5 g), or placebo, daily. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were measured before and after 2 months of therapy. Serum HDL-c increased, but LDL-c decreased significantly after fish and corn oil therapy. In addition, serum triglyceride decreased significantly after supplementary fish oil. The ratios of LDL-c to HDL-c, total cholesterol to HDL-c, and triglyceride to HDL-c decreased significantly after fish and corn oil therapy. Sesame oil had no significant effect on the lipid profile of hemodialysis patients. Our results suggest that short-term low-dose supplementary polyunsaturated fatty acids are safe and beneficial for the lipid abnormalities of hemodialysis patients.