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Structure and development of science communication research: Co-citation analysis of a developing field


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Since the early 1990s, there has been a considerable increase in the number of scientific studies on science communication, and this increase has been accompanied by a diversification of the research field. This study focuses on one aspect of this development: it analyses how citation network structures within the field have developed over time, and whether science communication research shows signs of becoming a research field or a discipline in its own right. Employing a co-citation analysis of scholarly publications published between 1996 and 2015, it assesses to what extent a coherent communication network exists within science communication research. The results show a field with a diverse internal structure and clear internal changes over time which suggest an increasing emancipation of the field.
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Structure and development of science communication
research: co-citation analysis of a developing field
Adrian Rauchfleisch and Mike S. Schäfer
Since the early 1990s, there has been a considerable increase in the
number of scientific studies on science communication, and this increase
has been accompanied by a diversification of the research field. This study
focuses on one aspect of this development: it analyses how citation
network structures within the field have developed over time, and whether
science communication research shows signs of becoming a research field
or a discipline in its own right. Employing a co-citation analysis of scholarly
publications published between 1996 and 2015, it assesses to what extent
a coherent communication network exists within science communication
research. The results show a field with a diverse internal structure and
clear internal changes over time which suggest an increasing emancipation
of the field.
Scholarly communication; Science communication: theory and modelsKeywords
Along with the rising importance of science communication itself, the scientific
community has started to analyze the characteristics, antecedents and effects of
science communication. Research interest emerged in the 1990s from disciplinary
fields like sociology [e.g. Bucchi, 1998; Peters, 1994; Weingart, 1998], media and
communication science [e.g. Dunwoody, 1980; Goodell, 1977; Ruhrmann, 1992], or
political science [e.g. Miller, 1991; Miller, 1998], as well as from interdisciplinary
fields like the “science and technology studies” [e.g. Callon, 1995; Lewenstein,
1995], among others. Since then, there has been a considerable increase in the
number of scientific studies on science communication [Guenther and Joubert,
2017; Schäfer, 2012]. In addition, and even though most authors of scientific
publications in the field are still based in the U.S. [Guenther and Joubert, 2017, 10f],
the objects of analysis have become more diverse, moving away from a strong early
focus on the Anglophone world and on national, quality print media; and research
designs and methods have diversified as well [Schäfer, 2011; Schäfer and
Schlichting, 2014].
Along with this quantitative growth and diversification, a stronger
institutionalization of the field and an increasing emancipation from mother
disciplines and neighboring fields have been diagnosed by some scholars [for a
differing position see Trench and Bucchi, 2010]. They have argued that research on
Article Journal of Science Communication 17(03)(2018)A07 1
science communication has become “an independent academic field, different from
both science and technology studies and communication and media theory”
[Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 1; cf. Bauer, 2009; Delfanti, 2008]. It has even been
cautiously debated in JCOM — Journal of Science Communication whether the
field “has achieved the status of a discipline” [Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 5].
This study focuses on one aspect of this development: it analyses how citation
network structures within the research field have developed over time. Employing
a co-citation analysis of scholarly publications, it assesses to what extent a coherent
“communication network” [Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 4] exists within the field, or to
what extent different networks continue to co-exist. In doing so, it analyzes a) how
homogenous the field is, i.e. if and how many subcommunities with their own
citation structures can be found, b) how they have developed over time and c) how
strong the linkages between those subcommunities are. Answering these questions
allows us to assess if science communication research has indeed become
institutionalized, at least with regards to the formal communication of scholars in
this field, and if so, when and how it has differentiated itself from other fields or
networks as core
characteristics of
research fields
“Discipline” and “research field” are commonly-used terms in the history and
philosophy of science. Nonetheless, it is difficult to define these concepts precisely,
as “[t]here is considerable ambiguity in the concept” [Sugimoto and Weingart,
2015, p. 775]. Understandings of disciplines, for example, have been developed in
different ways, based on different criteria, and have, consequently, come to
different descriptions [for an overview see Sugimoto and Weingart, 2015,
pp. 778ff.]. Some are based on theoretically developed, deductive
conceptualizations which organize disciplines according to their “cognitive
coherence” [Bulick, 1982, p. 12], to the existence of a social community of scholars
[e.g. Lattuca, 2002], the existence of a specific language [e.g. Krishnan, 2009] or
communicative network [Sugimoto and Weingart, 2015]. Other understandings are
based on disciplinary narratives emphasizing founding figures or influential
publications, crucial conferences or pressing social needs that led to the
establishing of certain disciplines [Sugimoto and Weingart, 2015]. In addition, there
are — partly idiosyncratic — conceptualizations of disciplines that have been
developed, implicitly or explicitly, around certain measurements, i.e. around
publication- or author-based metrics or around certain languages, topics or ideas
which are used to distinguish disciplines [Sugimoto and Weingart, 2015].
As a result, diverse understandings of disciplinarity exist, which poses a difficulty
for an empirical study. This difficulty can be remedied, however, with two
conceptual specifications: firstly, scholars like Good [2000] argue that
“disciplinarity is not a yes or no proposition” (p. 260), and that disciplines have to
be understood as “ever-changing frameworks within which scientific activity is
organized” [Good, 2000, p. 260]. Therefore, the boundaries between a research field
and a discipline are fluid, and come down to the degree to which definitorial core
characteristics of disciplines are fulfilled.
Secondly, scholars have acknowledged that the number of such core characteristics,
which are repeatedly described in scholarly literature, is limited. “[T]here are a few
common axes upon which conceptualizations, disciplinary narratives, and JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 2
measurements revolve” [Sugimoto and Weingart, 2015, p. 775]. Three such ‘axes’
seem to be most common in the respective literature [see Gascoigne et al., 2010;
Schützenmeister, 2008]: firstly, research fields and disciplines are distinguished
along institutional characteristics, i.e. according to whether they have their own
conferences, professional associations, outlets for publication etc. Secondly, they
are delineated along epistemic characteristics, i.e. according to whether they have a
common object, epistemic history and joint modes of scholarly inquiry. Thirdly,
research fields and disciplines are often distinguished based on social and
communicative characteristics.
The first two of these axes have been repeatedly described with regards
to research on science communication. In the case of its institutional characteristics,
scholars have portrayed it as an increasingly institutionalized research field, relying
on a broad range of indicators. Firstly, they have pointed towards established
professional associations and their conferences. They emphasize the international
Public Communication of Science and Technology (PCST) Network, for example,
which was founded in the 1980s, “and held its first international conference in 1989.
Since then it has held 16 formal international conferences and one symposium
in cities from Madrid and Montreal to Cape Town and Seoul. Recent conferences
attracted 500–700 registrants from 50 different countries” [Gascoigne et al., 2010,
p. 2]. They also emphasized other associations and meetings, like the “American
Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) [which] has a strong
tradition of science communication”, the Association of British Science Writers,
or the European Science Events Association with “89 member organisations from
34 countries” [Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 2]. Secondly, they have pointed towards the
journals which have become established in the field, such as “Public Understanding
of Science”, “Science Communication” or “JCOM — Journal of Science
Communication” [e.g. Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 3], and the various introductory and
handbooks which have been published [e.g. Bauer and Bucchi, 2007; Fähnrich et al.,
2018; Bucchi and Trench, 2014; Bonfadelli et al., 2018; Fischhoff and Scheufele, 2013;
Gregory and Miller, 1998; Hall Jamieson, Kahan and Scheufele, 2017; Nisbet et al.,
2017]. In addition, in many countries, assessments of adult scientific literacy have
been established which regularly evaluate science knowledge, comprehension and
attitudes [cf. Bauer, 2009]. Thirdly, they have described how science communication
has been established in higher education, e.g. in chairs at universities
in different countries, in “formal training at college and university levels [which]
began to take shape from 1980”, with the U.S. Directory of Science Communication
Courses and Programs listing “51 courses and programs at 44 separate
universities” or the The European Guide to Science Journalism including courses
in 27 countries, and many more courses being “offered throughout the world”
[Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 3]. Overall, with regards to institutional characteristics,
a number of scholarly observations show a rather clear trend towards
an established, autonomous field devoted to science communication research.
Regarding epistemic characteristics, scholars have described the emergence and
development of core concepts, and of related measurements as a central
characteristic of research fields and disciplines. Even though the field is
interdisciplinary in its origin and in its approach to many of its questions, it has
been argued that it has developed a portfolio of specific concepts and
measurements [Gascoigne et al., 2010]. Concepts and models specific to the field
have been developed, like the early “public understanding of science” approach or JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 3
“deficit model” [e.g. Bauer, 2009],1or the “public engagement with science and
technology” approach [e.g. Bucchi, 2008; Schäfer, 2009]. In addition [and even
though some of the older concepts are difficult to get rid of in public debate, see the
current issue of PUS on “deficit model” Bauer, 2016], an elaboration of these
concepts is visible over time — with the field, e.g., moving from “public
understanding of science” and “deficit model” approaches to more elaborate
“Science in Society” approaches like “public engagement with science and
technology” which take the two-way, dialogical nature of communication and an
active audience into account [e.g. Bauer, Allum and Miller, 2007; Gregory and
Miller, 1998; Schäfer, 2009], or with the field elaborating on earlier approaches of
“scientific literacy” [Miller, 1983] in terms of dimensionality [e.g. Miller, 1998],
measurement [e.g. Pardo and Calvo, 2002] and concept [Kahan, 2016]. The
available publications show that, while models and concepts have been (and still
are often) imported into the field, they have been adapted. Nowadays, a number of
approaches, theories and models exist which are specific to science
communication research.
In contrast to the institutional and epistemic characteristics of science
communication research, their communicative networks have not yet been
sufficiently scrutinized. While “[c]ommunication is recognized as a crucial
component of disciplinarity, thus reinforcing the use of formal scholarly
communication in measurements of disciplinarity” [Sugimoto and Weingart, 2015,
p. 787], the analysis of science communication research exhibits considerable
shortcomings in this respect. Analyses of communication in this field have either
focused on the extent of institutionalized communication on conferences as
measured in participants or presentations [e.g. Gascoigne et al., 2010], or they have
analyzed scholarly publications without looking for network structures [e.g.
Guenther and Joubert, 2017; Gurabardhi, Gutteling and Kuttschreuter, 2004;
Schäfer, 2012]. These analyses have shown, for example, that the number of
publications has increased [Schäfer, 2012], with a “steady stream of books on
science communication reach[ing] the market every year”, the field having a
“strong record of articles”, and the respective conferences having hundreds of
papers and participants [Gascoigne et al., 2010, p. 3]. Scholars have not gone
beyond literature reviews which, however, rarely focus on the communicative
networks existing in the field [e.g. Gregory and Miller, 1998; Bucchi and Trench,
2014], even though written scholarly communication offers a way to do so, and
even though a history of bibliometric analysis exists which provides tools to
analyze these networks [for an overview see Diodato and Gellatly, 2013].
Objectives of the
To address this gap in scholarship, we provide a bibliometric analysis of
publications from studies of science communication. Using co-citation analysis, we
assess the communicative networks within the field as one of the crucial facets of
the development of research fields. This approach helps us to identify specific
subgroups in the field. A co-citation analysis counts how often two “items of earlier
literature are cited together by the later literature” [Small, 1973, p. 265]. Of course,
this purely quantitative criterion is only one possible approach to measure
“disciplinarity” and there are other, more qualitative criteria that Sugimoto and
1Those concepts partly also rested on conceptual foundations taken from other fields. The deficit
model, for example, shows parallels to Freire’s “banking” model in educational science [Freire, 1985]. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 4
Weingart [2015] propose. Still, “co-citation analysis is useful for rendering the
inertia of fields” [White and McCain, 1998, p. 342].
This general aim translates into three research objectives: firstly, we will analyze
which co-citation-based subcommunities exist within the field, and how they can be
characterized. Secondly, we will describe their development over time in order to assess
whether developments towards an increasingly emancipated field or even a
discipline are visible. To assess this, absolute measures of interconnectedness
within scholarly communities are difficult to use, as it is difficult to determine what
extent of homogeneity is needed for a field to be deemed a discipline — but relative
measures, such as comparisons over time, enable observers to identify trends.
Thirdly, we will assess the interconnections between the different subcommunities.
Data and methods Co-citation analysis was used to explore the development of scholarship on science
communication between 1996 and 2015. This method is mainly applied in
bibliometrics [Moed, 2005] to measure researcher performance [Nightingale and
Marshall, 2012], or to analyze the development of concepts such as Corporate
Social Responsibility over time [De Bakker, Groenewegen and Den Hond, 2005].
Such studies typically base their samples on specific (sets of) journals representing
a discipline or research field of interest.
Generally, several databases can be used for citation analyses. We chose the Scopus
database. On the one hand, it covers a number of non-English journals as well as
edited volumes and some books which are not included in the Social Science
Citation Index, providing a better foundation for the analyses of a (potentially)
international research field that is largely based in the social sciences [Gasparyan,
Ayvazyan and Kitas, 2013]. On the other hand, it is less inclusive than Google
Scholar which also includes graduate and undergraduate theses as well as
conference presentations and, thus, ensures a better coverage of the research
field itself.
To acquire an initial set of publications as a starting point for our analysis, we used
the keywords ‘science communication’ or ‘scientific communication’ in Scopus’
internal search tool. The condition for inclusion in the initial sample was that at
least one of the search terms had to appear either in the title, abstract or key words
of a publication (with non-English articles on Scopus usually having an English
abstract, enabling us to search them as well). Before proceeding with our analysis,
we checked for potential biases caused by the inclusion of the keyword “scientific
communication”. Overall, this keyword yielded only few additional publications:
only 328 publications were included in the analysis that included “scientific
communication” exclusively, and all other publications included “science
communication” as well. In addition, the most frequently quoted literature in these
publications is the same as in the rest of the sample [e.g. Latour, 1987; Kuhn, 1962;
Merton, 1973], which shows that at least in terms of citations there is a connection
between the inward-oriented “scientific communication” and the more
outward-oriented “science communication”.
As Scopus does not fully cover scientific publications before 1996 [Gasparyan,
Ayvazyan and Kitas, 2013], we only included publications from 1996 until 2015. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 5
Based on these criteria, a cleansed corpus consisting of 2395 scholarly publications
could be identified, with full bibliographic information and abstracts available.2
This wide selection of publications was further reduced at a later stage based on
the results of the citation networks.
To prepare the data for co-citation analysis [Small, 1973], we first extracted all
references from each publication and created bibliographic couples for each
combination of references. These bibliographic couples were then merged and
further used as an undirected edge table for a network analysis with the R-package
igraph [Csárdi and Nepusz, 2006]. For the final analysis, only publications that
were cited in at least three documents were included in the co-citation analysis.3
With the edge list, an undirected network consisting of 1815 nodes (unique
references) and 53,294 edges (bibliographic couples) was created. In a next step, we
further reduced the network and considered only edges with a minimum weight of
two. Based on this reduced network with only 7703 edges, different communities
could be identified through modularity-based community detection. One of the
most efficient and well established methods is the Louvain-Algorithm [Blondel
et al., 2008]. Instead of using similarity measures, this approach relies solely on the
topology of the network and can incorporate the weights of the edges [Wallace,
Gingras and Duhon, 2009]. Each unique reference can be assigned to a specific
community. We only used communities with at least 20 unique references for
further analysis. Our final analysis included 1238 unique references and 1051 of our
original documents. The strong reduction is not surprising, because we were
selecting our data only based on two general search terms.
In a next step, the original 1051 documents were classified based on the references
they used. If the majority of the quoted references in a document belongs to a
specific community, the document was classified as being part of this community.
In the penultimate step, we identified research topics in the abstracts of the
documents using automated content analysis [Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA):
Blei, Ng and Jordan, 2003]. This method is particularly useful in studying scientific
topics as the seminal study of Griffiths and Steyvers [Griffiths and Steyvers, 2004]
has demonstrated. Abstracts usually include all the relevant topics of an academic
publication. We conducted the LDA with the program MALLET [McCallum, 2002],
within R.4Parameters for the LDA were chosen based on Steyvers and Griffiths
[2007]. Asymmetric dirichlet priors over the document — topic distributions were
2For articles and book chapters with up to three authors, the publication year and page numbers
were included in the id. With this step, it was possible to distinguish multiple publications by the
same author(s) in the same year.
3Researchers usually use such thresholds in co-citation analyses. In the past, these thresholds were
often very high in order to reduce the amount of data, as computational power was a limiting factor.
With these limitations being less salient nowadays, we can conduct citation analyses with
considerably larger data sets. Still, however, setting a threshold is useful to receive more refined
solutions. Accordingly, we decided to use a threshold as low as possible that still provides a clear
solution [see also Klavans and Boyack, 2017; Trujillo and Long, 2018]. The threshold of three used
here means that a bibliographic title had to be quoted in at least 1.2% of our 2.395 publications.
4Before running the model stop words were filtered based on the list available in MALLET
including the words we used as search terms (scientific, science and communication), all numbers
were deleted, hyphens were replaced with space characters and all words were converted to
lower-case. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 6
used [Wallach, Mimno and McCallum, 2009].5After multiple preliminary runs
with different numbers of topics (k), a model with ten topics was chosen for
analysis. The topics with the highest probability were also present in models with a
lower number of topics. More than ten topics did not provide further insights. The
following topics were identified (with the respective words being ordered by their
probability of appearing in the respective topics):
1. Models & Theories including the words “information model system paper
models theory systems process studies technology concept concepts based
complex scholarly”;
2. Open Access, including “access open information internet publishing web
research scientists data impact world system traditional process scholarly”;
3. Higher Education, containing the words “students education learning skills
university results understanding study higher high group knowledge nature
professional groups”;
4. Scientific Networks, including “social network community networks research
sciences field knowledge collaboration disciplines based approach
production fields patterns”;
5. Climate Change, with “climate change global political community important
policy cultural differences activities perceptions risk data focus human”;
6. Scientists & the Public, containing “public scientists understanding
engagement issues technology policy activities work article research
communicate people general communicating”;
7. Empirical Analysis, with “research study information analysis results studies
data findings researchers paper academic countries online content evidence”;
8. News Media and Public Communication, containing “media social
knowledge news society role article discourse context study political popular
cultural debate content”;
9. Applied Science Communication, including “research knowledge
development review health paper management process quality risk
important practice current practices future”; and
10. Citation & Publication Analysis, with “journals articles journal published
authors citation article publication results publications language number
literature international impact”
In the final step, the identified communities were combined with the topics
identified via LDA in order to provide a more robust description, and
differentiation, of the co-citation communities.
5α=50/Tand β=0.01. Hyperparameters were optimized every 20 iterations after 50 burn-in
iterations. Overall 1000 iterations were used to ensure that the log-likelihood stabilizes. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 7
Using co-citation analysis based on 1238 unique references and 1051 of our original
documents, we found eleven co-citation communities in the scholarly literature on
science communication. Subsequently, we assigned individual publications to
these communities, and by employing latent dirichlet allocation (LDA) on these
publications’ abstracts, we could identify the major topics which are used in the
respective communities.
Table 1. Description of co-citation-based communities, their size, typical publications and
Community N Typical Publications Characteristic Topics
Sociology of
188 Latour [1987]: Science in Action
Kuhn [1962]: The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Merton [1973]: The Sociology of Science
Models & Theories /
Citation &
Publication Analysis
Science debates
and the role of
208 Nisbet & Scheufele [2009]: What’s next for science communication?
Boykoff & Boykoff [2004]: Balance as Bias
Nisbet et al. [2003]: Framing Science
Climate Change /
News Media &
Dissemination of
Science via Media
247 Gregory & Miller [1998]: Science in Public
Nelkin [1995]: Selling Science
Hilgartner [1990]: The dominant view of popularization
News Media &
80 Garvey [1979]: Communication: The Essence of Science
Borgman [2007]: Scholarship in the Digital Age
Tenopir & King [2000]: Towards Electronic Journals
Open Access /
Citation &
Publication Analysis
Scientists as
94 Davies [2008]: Constructing communication: Talking to scientists
about talking to the public.
Besley & Tanner [2011]: What science
communication scholars think about training scientists to
Bonetta [2007]: Scientists Enter the Blogosphere
Scientists & the
Media effects on
the broader
46 Nisbet et al. [2008]: Knowledge, reservations, or promise? A media
effects model for public perceptions of science and technology
Miller [1983]: Scientific Literacy
Lee & Scheufele [2006]: The influence of knowledge and deference
toward scientific authority: A media effects model
Empirical Analysis
From PUSto PEST 209 Bauer et al. [2007]: What can we learn from 25 years of PUS survey
research? Liberating and expanding the agenda.
Irwin & Wynne [1996]: Misunderstanding science?
Miller [2001]: Public understanding of science at the crossroads
Scientists & the
54 Bell et al. [2009]: Learning Science in Informal Environments
Ziman [2000]: Real science: What it is, and what it means
Falk & Dierking [2000]: Learning from Museums
Higher Education
Open Access and
digital publishing
23 Lawrence [2001]: Online or invisible?
Johnson [2002]: Institutional Repositories
Antelman [2004]: Do open access articles have a greater research
Open Access
networks in
26 Shannon & Weaver [1949]: The Mathematical Theory of
Girvan & Newman [2002]: Community structure in social and
biological networks
Watts & Strogatz [1998]: Collective dynamics of ’small-world’
Scientific Networks /
Models and
Applied Science
63 Jasanoff [1990]: The Fifth Branch, Science Advisers As Policy Makers.
Fischhoff [1995]: Risk perception and communication unplugged:
twenty years of process
Slovic [1993]: Perceived risk, trust, and democracy
Applied Science
Communication JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 8
The analyzed publications cover a broad topical spectrum. They include the
communication of science to outside audiences via new media and science
education as well as scholarly communication and bibliometric studies (see
Table 1). To identify the communities, we combined the results of the co-citation
analysis with the results of the topic models (see Figure 1). Based on the results, the
following subcommunities could be identified:
1. ‘Sociology of Science’ constitutes one of the largest communities with 188
publications. This community typically cites publications analyzing
sociological aspects of science: on the macro-level, facets like the influence of
social communities for the development of entire scientific paradigms and for
the trajectory of science itself [Kuhn, 1962]; on the meso-level, the social
norms and mechanisms of scientific communities [Merton, 1973]; and on the
micro-level, the role of social influences on scientific work inside the
laboratory [Latour, 1987]. Accordingly, this community is strongly associated
with the “Models & Theories” topic, as well as with “Citation and Publication
2. ‘Science Debates and the Role of Journalism’ represents one of the largest
communities, too, with 208 publications. This community typically quotes
relatively recent publications on the role of media and public debates for
science [Boykoff and Boykoff, 2004; cf. Fischhoff and Scheufele, 2013]. It
focuses on science debates in the public, recognizing that science
communication often, and maybe increasingly, takes place in a social, often
political environment [Scheufele, 2013; Scheufele, 2014]. It concentrates on
appropriate communication strategies to successfully communicate science in
such situations [Nisbet, Brossard and Kroepsch, 2003], and on fruitful ways to
improve science communication in the future [Nisbet and Scheufele, 2009]. It
can be characterized by the “News Media & Public Communication” topic
and by the “Climate Change” topic which has been a recent emphasis within
science communication [Schäfer, 2015].
3. The ‘Media Dissemination of Science’ community shows similarities to
“Science debates and the role of journalism” in that it is also large, containing
247 publications, and focuses on the “News Media & Public Communication”
topic. In contrast to the previous community, however, it represents more
classic texts focusing on, or sometimes criticizing, a more traditional
understanding of science communication via media in which the media play
the role of a disseminator [Gregory and Miller, 1998; Hilgartner, 1990].
4. ‘Scholarly Communication’, in contrast to the abovementioned communities,
is focused on inner-scientific, scholarly communication. The community is
medium-sized with 80 publications. It deals with the general role of
communication as an essential characteristic of science [Garvey, 2014], as well
as with formal scientific communication via publications and its current
changes towards digital publishing [Borgman, 2010; Tenopir and King, 2000].
5. ‘Scientists as Communicators’, another medium-sized community with 94
titles, concentrates on individual scientists as communicators. The
publications assembled here analyse, for example, the perceptions, aims and
strategies of scholars when they communicate with the public [Besley and
Tanner, 2011; Davies, 2008] and when they engage on online communication JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 9
[Bonetta, 2007; Bonetta, 2009]. Accordingly, the topic “Scientists & the Public”
characterizes this community best.
6. ‘Media Effects on the Broader Public’ is a small community which contains 46
publications. Its specific focus lies on the effects of media communication
about science on “lay” audiences, which it analyses on an individual level
using standardized methodology taken from psychology and communication
science. Early on, this community focused on cognitive effects, particularly
on the scientific literacy of the audience [Miller, 1983], whereas later, the
understanding of such a literacy broadened [Miller, 1998] and other,
non-cognitive perceptions of science were also included [Nisbet et al., 2002].
In line with the empirical focus of this community, it is characterized by the
“Empirical Analysis” topic.
7. ‘From PUS to PEST’ is a large community, consisting of 209 publications,
which is mainly concerned with the development of interactions between
scientists and the public. The publications assembled here often deal with the
underlying models of science communication and their development from
“Public Understanding of Science” (PUS) to more dialogical, participatory
modes of “Public Engagement with Science and Technology” (PEST) [Bauer
and Bucchi, 2007; Irwin and Wynne, 1996; Miller, 2001]. In comparison to the
“Media Dissemination of Science” community, the role of the media is less
focused upon here in favor of the broader interactions between science and
8. ‘Science Education’ is a small community which contains 54 publications.
Research in this community mainly focuses on the educational aspects of
teaching science or distributing scientific knowledge in formal learning
contexts like schools or universities, or in informal ones like museums [Falk
and Dierking, 2000; cf. Bell, 2009]. Scientific literacy as a concept is discussed
critically in this community [Shamos, 1995]. In line with the general focus of
the community, the topic “Education” dominates.
9. ‘Open Access’ is a community which, like the “Scholarly Communication”
community, focuses on inner-scientific communication. With only 23
publications, however, it is smaller and focuses on a specific aspect of
scholarly communication: open access [Lawrence, 2001]. It weighs
advantages and disadvantages of ‘green’, ‘gold’ and other forms of open
access, such as increased visibility and a positive impact on research
[Antelman, 2004], and discusses ways to organize open access publications,
e.g. in repositories [Johnson, 2002].
10. ‘Information Networks in Science’ is another small community with 26
publications. Research in this community heavily relies on the mathematical
model of communication [Shannon and Weaver, 1949] and implements the
method of network analysis to identify communication structures in various
scientific disciplines and research fields [Leydesdorff and Rafols, 2009], or
social structures in school classes [Conlan et al., 2011]. In line with the
methodological focus of the community “Scientific Networks” and “Models
and Theories” are the strongest topics.
11. ‘Applied Science Communication’ is a medium-sized community with 63
publications, which is mainly concerned with applied science communication
in fields such as health and risk communication. Research in this community JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 10
focuses on science policy [Jasanoff, 1990], risk communication as well as on
citizens’ risk perceptions [Slovic, 1993]. Many studies belonging to this
community are practical in nature and have a direct impact on science
communicators such as environment or health professionals [Grossberndt,
van den Hazel and Bartonova, 2012]. As the typically cited literature in this
community indicates, “Applied Science Communication” is one of the most
important topics in this community.
Figure 1. Relevance of different topics in the co-citation-based communities. (figure shows
normalized probabilities, i.e. sum to 1 over all topics).
How have the
developed over
Over time, science communication research has grown considerably. Within this
growing field, however, the eleven communities identified in the first step
developed differently. This is clearly visible in our data, which shows that the cited
literature has shifted away from the previously dominant ‘Sociology of Science’
community (see Figure 2). Early on, literature from the ‘Sociology of Science’
clearly was the most quoted in the field. But, as Figure 2 reveals, that there has been
a gradual increase in citations from other communities, most notably from those
focusing specifically on media communication and outside communication of the
scientific community. Overall the breadth of scholarship increased [cf. Schäfer,
2012], with communities like ‘Scientists as Communicators’, ‘Media Effects on the
Broader Public’, ‘From PUS to PEST’ or ‘Science Debates and the Role of JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 11
Journalism’ emerging and gaining in importance. As of now, there is a relative
dominance of communities that have (mediated) communication at their core:
‘Media Dissemination of Science’, ‘From PUS to PEST’, and ‘Science Debates and
the Role of Journalism’.
Figure 2. Relative importance of different communities over time (figure shows percentage
of all citations by community).
Even though the ‘Sociology of Science’ literature is quoted less often in relation to
other communities in recent years, the absolute number of citations from this
community has risen over time, along with the growth of the entire field. The
‘Sociology of Science’ has exhibited a steady growth over the last twenty years
together with the other three largest communities (see Figure 3). Still, however, the
gap between the ‘Sociology of Science’ and ‘Science Debates and the Role of
Journalism’ became larger in recent years. In 2014, the ‘Science Debates and the
Role of Journalism’ literature was quoted three times as often as the ‘Sociology of
Science’ literature.
In our third analytical step, we assess the proximity and interconnections between
the communities. After we classified the cited literature, we checked how often
literature from each community was cited together, i.e. in the same scientific
publication, with literature from the same or other communities. This allows us to
measure the relative distance between the communities, and to visualize the results
using multidimensional scaling (MDS) [Cox and Cox, 2000]. We used the vegan
package in R to calculate a dissimilarity matrix with the Jaccard index [Oksanen
et al., 2016].6
The MDS visualization shows a close proximity between the three communities
which are, currently, quoted most often (see Figure 4). ‘Science Debates and the
Role of Journalism’, ‘From PUS to PEST’, and ‘Media Dissemination of Science’ are
all concerned with aspects of mediated science communication, and are often
6Additionally, we conducted a hierarchical cluster analysis to assess which communities can be
grouped together. This analysis confirmed the visual interpretation of the MDS: the
communication-centric communities can be grouped together. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 12
Figure 3. Relative importance of different communities over time (figure shows percentage
from the different communities).
quoted together in studies of science communication. ‘Applied Science
Communication’, ‘Science Education’, ‘Scientists as Communicators’, and ‘Media
Effects on the Broader Public’ are another group of communities that are proximate
and, accordingly, often cited together. The other four communities are more
distanced from these two groups. Interestingly, the ‘Sociology of Science’
community does not belong to one of the groups, but has a central position in the
research on science communication. This indicates that this literature is not
sistematically quoted together with literature from specific other communities, but
still of importance for all other communities.
Discussion Using co-citation analysis allowed us to identify eleven distinct subcommunities
within science communication research. These communities are of varying size,
characterized by different research foci and epistemological traditions, and have
developed differently in the last 20 years.
The results for all three research questions — i.e. regarding the existing
communities, their development and their proximity to each other - indicate a
number of distinct developments. The field has shifted away from the ‘Sociology of
Science’, a subcommunity that is deeply rooted in sociology and has focused
strongly on the scientific system and its actors, towards communities which are
more media- and communication-centric. Overall, however, the literature of the
‘Sociology of Science’ community is still quoted often. This can be explained with
the most quoted literature from this community. Classics such as Latour [1987],
Kuhn [1962] and Merton [1973], which are basic references for many science
communication scholars, and accordingly, quoted from various communities.
Empirically, this can be observed in the MDA as an isolated yet central position of
the ‘Sociology of Science’ community literature in the SSC. It is also evident when
the absolute numbers of citations are analyzed, which were still rising over time for JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 13
Figure 4. Proximity of the different communities (figure shows result of multidimensional
scaling analysis).
the ‘sociology of science’ — even though the rise of communication- and
media-centric was even more pronounced.7
Regarding the development of science communication research, our analysis of
citation networks shows that the research field has differentiated itself over the
years. Not only did the communication- and media-centric communities emerge
and rise in importance, educational and practitioner-oriented literature became
more important as well. Still, however, our findings suggest that the
communication-centric communities have become the core of the field, accounting
for over 50% of all citations in 2014. This figure could rise even further, as the
literature from these communities is more recent than that from other communities.
It has mostly been published in the last decade, and the future has to show if it will
reach a half-life period similar to the ‘Sociology of Science’ literature that has been
mostly published before the 1990s.
7Still, this data must be interpreted with caution because the literature of the ‘Science debates and
the role of journalism’ community is still very new and citations have most likely not yet reached
their half-life [Abt, 1998]. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 14
It will be interesting to see whether these communities will move even closer
together in the future — which would be a clear sign of a maturing, and
increasingly emancipated, field. Our analysis has shown that the communities
have already come closer, and cover a wide range of methods and topics. Science
communication research has become a well-developed research field, at least with
regards to the indicator we have used here: scholarly citation networks. The future
development of the other two axes of disciplinary development, i.e. of institutional
and epistemological characteristics, will have to show if the field can further its
institutionalization and, maybe, move towards a distinct discipline. Currently, it is
too early for a final assessment.
These results come with some caveats, however, as this study has a number of
limitations. The first and most obvious one is that we have only focused on the
scholarly communication to assess the development of the field. Therefore, we
caution for early conclusions, and advice to further investigate the other ‘axes’
mentioned above.
Another possible weakness is the use of only two keywords at the outset of the
study, and of one of them being “scientific communication”. Even though we
checked the keyword seeds for potential biases, this strategy can be debated and
analyses using other, alternative strategies would be helpful. They could use more
specific keywords such as “science journalism”, for example, to select the initial
article sample, as there may be a considerable amount of publications not explicitly
mentioning “science communication” or “scientific communication” as a keyword.
A different strategy, which is typically implemented in bibliometric studies, would
be to use a sample based on articles from specific journals. While this might have
been appropriate for the analysis of a different, more mature field or discipline. At
the current state of research on science communication, however, it seemed
inappropriate as the respective literature is being published in a wide range of
disciplinary journals. Nonetheless, a variety of approaches would certainly be
helpful to describe the characteristics and developments of a research field as
diverse and dynamic as studies on science communication.
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Authors Adrian Rauchfleisch, Ph. D., is Assistant Professor at the Graduate Intitute of
Journalism at the National Taiwan E-mail:
Mike S. Schäfer, Dr., is Professor of Science Communication at the University of
Zurich. E-mail:
Rauchfleisch, A. and Schäfer, M. S. (2018). ‘Structure and development of scienceHow to cite
communication research: co-citation analysis of a developing field’.
JCOM 17 (03), A07.
The Author(s). This article is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution — NonCommercial — NoDerivativeWorks 4.0 License.
ISSN 1824-2049. Published by SISSA Medialab. JCOM 17(03)(2018)A07 21
... However, recent studies portray environmental communication-and related fields, like science and climate communication-as narrowly focused on traditional communication disciplinary topics, especially mass media and journalism (Pleasant et al., 2002;Comfort and Park, 2018;Rauchfleisch and Schäfer, 2018;Agin and Karlsson, 2021). Due to their design, these studies may not provide a full picture of the field and its evolution. ...
... Using a similar methodology as the current study, Rauchfleisch and Schäfer (2018) conducted a co-citation analysis of the science communication literature from 1996-2016 using the Scopus database, which has been cited as one of the most comprehensive, second only to Google Scholar (Martín-Martín et al., 2018) (The latter, however, delivers inconsistent search results (Gusenbauer and Haddaway, 2020), and suffers from poor quality control (Delgado López-Cózar et al., 2019) and meta-data (Jacsó, 2010)). ...
... Like Rauchfleisch and Schäfer (2018), we also use unsupervised machine learning to analyze text and identify topics and themes characteristic of articles included in this analysis. Topic modeling is a form of unsupervised machine learning that finds broad themes based on words, also known as "topics," in a collection of documents (Maier et al., 2018;Blei et al., 2003). ...
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Recent reviews describe academic scholarship on environmental communication as a subdiscipline of communication studies focused on mass media. However, these reviews may not provide a full picture of the field. We searched one of the most comprehensive citation databases (Scopus) for articles published from 1970 to 2019 containing the root terms environment* communicat*. The dataset ( n = 474) revealed an increase over time in the number of journals that publish environmental communication studies and the breadth of their National Science Foundation disciplinary categorizations. Climate communication, corporate social responsibility, and public engagement and participation represent the most frequent abstract topics. Through co-citation analysis of journals cited in references, we found that the foundational literatures informing the field have grown into dense, interconnected networks across disparate areas of scholarship that span the social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and business. This disciplinary convergence is a positive sign for the field’s potential to address problems of societal importance.
... In every analysis, the 'full counting' method was selected, meaning that each co-citation or bibliographic coupling link has the same weight of 1, as opposed to 'fractional counting', where the weight of a link is fractionalized between the N items in an unit of analysis. For an in-depth discussion about full and fractional counting, see Perianes-Rodriguez et al. (2016) and for discussions on citation minimum, see Rauchfleisch and Schäfer (2018) and Trujillo and Long (2018). ...
Society is already seeing the ecological and economic benefits from restoration projects. However, the challenge is much bigger than the current efforts from ecologists and economists around the world. The Economics of Restoration is the interdisciplinary research field that is believed to have the necessary tools and instruments to solve this restoration gap, yet a better use and understanding of economic aspects and concepts are still needed. A bibliometric analysis of the field of economics of restoration was done in this study. Bibliometrics can offer insights on the intellectual structure of a discipline and thus indicate future paths for research development. The goal of this study was to identify important and influential economics of restoration research themes and key topics that will strengthen decision-making processes for restoration actions if better addressed in the future. The analysis reveals that few studies go beyond costs, lacking a full estimation of benefits. Economic concepts of uncertainty, public goods and specificity of natural capital are not well incorporated yet, and the relationship between governments and markets, as well as the one between communities and investments, require more attention to scale-up restoration worldwide. This study is believed to be the first one using bibliometrics to guide a discussion around economics of restoration and can be subsequentially replicated in other disciplines.
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Zusammenfassung Mehr als zwanzig Jahre nach der Unterzeichnung des Memorandums zu „Public Understanding of Sciences and Humanities“ durch die deutschen Wissenschaftsorganisationen hat sich in Deutschland eine große Anzahl an Akteur:innen und Netzwerken der Wissenschaftskommunikation ausdifferenziert, die auf eine Vielzahl von Formaten und Kanälen zurückgreifen kann, um über Wissenschaft und Forschung zu kommunizieren. Im Kontext der Diskussion gesellschaftlicher Phänomene wie Fake News oder populistischer Strömungen sowie von großen Herausforderungen wie der Bewältigung des menschengemachten Klimawandels oder der Coronapandemie hat die Wissenschaftskommunikation auch im politischen und öffentlichen Raum zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper was to examine health-related misinformation proliferation during the COVID-19 pandemic and its implications on public governance in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach – Because of COVID-19-related restrictions, this study conducted a systematic review. The researchers searched several search engines which include PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to identify relevant studies. A total of 252 peer-reviewed research papers were identified. These research papers were further filtered, and a total of 44 relevant papers were eventually selected. Findings – There is a relationship between the spread of health-related misinformation and public governance. Government coordination and institutional coherence across the different spheres of governance are affected when there are multiple sources of information that are unverified and uncoordinated. Research limitations/implications – This study was limited to a systematic review because of COVID-19 restrictions, and therefore, actual data could not be collected. Moreover, this study was limited to health-related communication, and therefore, its findings can only be generalized to the health sector. Practical implications – Future research in this subject should consider actual data collection from the departments of health and communications to gain an in-depth understanding of misinformation and its implications on public governance from their perspective as frontline departments as far as government communication is concerned. Social implications – Misinformation is an impediment to any fight against a public health emergency. Institutions that regulate communications technology and monitor misinformation should work harder in enforcing the law to deter information peddlers from their practice. This calls for reviewing existing regulations so that online spaces are safer for communicating health-related information. Originality/value – Effective health communication remains a priority for the South African Government during COVID-19. However, with health-related misinformation on the increase, it is imperative to mitigate the spread to ensure it does not impede effective public governance. Government departments in South Africa are yet to develop policies that mitigate against misinformation, and this paper may assist them in doing so. Keywords: Misinformation, South Africa, COVID-19, Public Governance, Health
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Theoretical perspectives of science communication were initially driven by practice, which in turn have influenced practice and further science communication scholarship. The practice of science communication includes a variety of quite diverse roles. Likewise, the scholarship of science communication draws upon a mix of disciplines. I argue that the apparent messiness of science communication scholarship and practice is also its wealth. If blame can be avoided in developing and applying science communication models, and if the coexistence of all science communication models can be embraced then both the scholarship and practice of science communication is likely to be more effective.
In Zusammenhang mit der Digitalisierung der öffentlichen Kommunikation entstehen besondere Herausforderungen für Diskurse um Nachhaltigkeit. Apels diskursethischer Begriff von Verantwortung stellt eine Konzeption dar, die bezogen auf die ethische Dimension des BNE im Allgemeinen, aber gerade auch für die Kommunikation ethischer Fragen als fruchtbar gelten kann, knüpft sie doch an den Anforderungen einer Folgenethik an und berücksichtigt normative Regulative der diskursiven Ebene (Apel 2015, Apel 2016). Mit der systematischen Unterscheidung faktischer und normativer Komplexität und der Differenzierung zwischen darstellender und diskursiver Ebene kann ein Beitrag zu zukunftsfähiger Hochschulbildung geleistet werden, indem zukünftigen Lehrer*innen, aber auch Forscher*innen, systematische diskursethische Reflexionen faktischer und ethischer Inhalte einer BNE insbesondere hinsichtlich digitaler Kommunikation vorgestellt werden, die in Diskursen um Nachhaltigkeitsthemen bedeutsam sind.
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Science communication can be understood as all forms of communication focusing on scientific knowledge and scientific work, both within and outside institutionalized science, including its production, content, use and effects. It encompasses internal and external communication, science journalism and public relations and is thus directed to and by scientists as well as non-scientists, using one-way and dialogue-oriented forms to communicate between science and the public sphere. The present article provides an overview of content analysis of the main communicators of science communication: scientists, universities and scientific institutions and non-scientific, alternative science communicators.
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Science communication has been defined as encompassing “all forms of communication by and about the sciences, within science (professional audience) as well as in the [broader] public sphere (general audience)”. This broad understanding of science communication includes all kinds of communication focusing on scientific work or scientific results, within science or to non-scientists, in one-directional or dialogical form. It also includes communication about the natural sciences, the arts or the humanities, and it has considerable overlaps with research fields such as health communication and risk communication. Content analysis, especially of media content, is a common method in the research field and this article provides an overview of this research.
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Con respecto a la evaluación de los méritos curriculares de los investigadores, las crecientes exigencias institucionales han tenido mucha incidencia tanto en el volumen de trabajos que divulgan las revistas de comunicación, como en las pautas de publicación de los autores. Desde este planteamiento, el propósito del presente estudio consiste en caracterizar esta producción de una manera sistemática, objetiva y cuantitativa. Para ello, se practicó un análisis de contenido de una muestra probabilística de 2103 artículos, pertenecientes a las 7 cabeceras hispánicas de mayor impacto durante el sexenio 2014-2019, e indexadas en el repositorio de SCImago Journal Rank. Los resultados obtenidos refrendan el incremento constante del número de publicaciones, así como un descenso perceptible de su impacto en los últimos años. Del mismo modo, la autoría múltiple se ha convertido en una práctica modal que refleja, a su vez, un mayor protagonismo de investigadores frente a investigadoras entre los primeros autores de los trabajos; unos manuscritos que, a menudo, se traducen al inglés para estimular su internacionalización. En lo concerniente a la filiación, está vinculada al ámbito universitario español (con Madrid y Barcelona como epicentros) y a múltiples disciplinas. Por último, y pese a la existencia de programas de I+d+i a varios niveles (local, regional, nacional e internacional), se constata una insuficiente financiación adicional de la actividad científica. A este respecto, se confirma que el impacto de la investigación aumenta a medida que lo hacen los apoyos económicos, de ahí la conveniencia de disponer, o formar parte, de proyectos financiados.
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European science communication project QUEST surveyed and reviewed different aspects of European science communication, including science journalism, teaching and training in science communication, social media activity, and science in museums. This article draws together themes that collectively emerge from this research to present an overview of key issues in science communication across Europe. We discuss four central dynamics — fragmentation within research and practice; a landscape in transition; the importance of format and context; and the dominance of critical and dialogic approaches as best practice — and illustrate these with empirical material from across our datasets. In closing we reflect upon the implications of this summary of European science communication.
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Specialized and emerging fields of research infrequently cross disciplinary boundaries and would benefit from frameworks, methods, and materials informed by other fields. Document co-citation analysis, a method developed by bibliometric research, is demonstrated as a way to help identify key literature for cross-disciplinary ideas. To illustrate the method in a useful context, we mapped peer-recognized scholarship related to systems thinking. In addition, three procedures for validation of co-citation networks are proposed and implemented. This method may be useful for strategically selecting information that can build consilience about ideas and constructs that are relevant across a range of disciplines.
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Research in the field of science communication started emerging about 50 years ago and has since then matured as a field of academic enquiry. Early findings about research-active authors and countries reveal that scholarly activity in the field has traditionally been dominated by male authors from English-speaking countries in the West. The current study is a systematic, bibliographic analysis of a full sample of research papers that were published in the three most prominent journals in the field from 1979 to 2016. The findings reveal that early inequities remain prevalent, but also that there are indications that recent increases in research outputs and trends in authorship patterns — for example the growth in female authorship — are beginning to correct some of these imbalances. Furthermore, the current study verifies earlier indications that science communication research is becoming increasingly institutionalised and internationalised, as demonstrated by an upward trend in papers reflecting cross-institutional collaboration and the diversity of countries where authors are based. Abstract History of public communication of science; Scholarly communication; Science communication in the developing world Keywords Introduction Science communication is a dynamic, interdisciplinary field of research that draws from a wide range of disciplines and encompasses a wide spectrum of scientific approaches [Schiele, Claessens and Shi, 2012a]. It employs tools and techniques from social and behavioural sciences, as well as from humanities; while scholars in the field are typically trained in social science disciplines such as sociology, communication studies, media studies, or in related fields of humanities such as philosophy or rhetoric [Hornig Priest, 2007; Hornig Priest, 2010].
Diese Studie zeigt am Beispiel der Ozonforschung und der atmosphärischen Chemie, dass eine Entgegensetzung von Interdisziplinarität und Disziplinarität inadäquat ist. Vielmehr treibt die Spannung zwischen der problemorientierten, meist interdisziplinären Forschung und den Disziplinen die wissenschaftliche Dynamik an. Mit der Unterscheidung von Wissenschaft und Forschung wird ein Programm vorgeschlagen, in dem die vielfältigen Kopplungen zwischen den beiden Sphären empirisch analysiert und in ihrem gesellschaftlichen Umfeld betrachtet werden können. Dieser koevolutionäre Ansatz bietet die Lösung zentraler Probleme der Wissenschaftsforschung an.
Through a comprehensive collection of articles, the Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication explores the origin and evolution of our understanding of climate change as it is presented in communication and media. Taking a multifaceted approach, the encyclopedia offers a scholarly examination of the effects of climate change communication on public opinion and policy decisions; journalistic coverage and media portrayals of climate change; communication strategies and campaigns; and the implications of effective communication, including those of outreach and advocacy efforts. Additionally, the encyclopedia reviews climate change communication research methods and approaches. Global in breadth and deeply resourced, the work serves as an essential source of perspective on all aspects of this important area of scholarship.
The cross-disciplinary Oxford Handbook on the Science of Science Communication contains 47 essays by 57 leading scholars organized into six sections: The first section establishes the need for a science of science communication, provides an overview of the area, examines sources of science knowledge and the ways in which changing media structures affect it, reveals what the public thinks about science, and situates current scientific controversies in their historical contexts. The book’s second part examines challenges to science including difficulties in peer review, rising numbers of retractions, publication and statistical biases, and hype. Successes and failures in communicating about four controversies are the subject of Part III: “mad cow,” nanotechnology, biotechnology, and the HPV and HBV vaccines. The fourth section focuses on the ways in which elite intermediaries communicate science. These include the national academies, scholarly presses, government organizations, museums, foundations, and social networks. It examines as well scientific deliberation among citizens and science-based policymaking. In Part V, the handbook treats science media interactions, knowledge-based journalism, polarized media environments, popular images of science, and the portrayal of science in entertainment, narratives, and comedy. The final section identifies the ways in which human biases that can affect communicated science can be overcome. Biases include resistant misinformation, inadequate frames, biases in moral reasoning, confirmation and selective exposure biases, innumeracy, recency effects, fear of the unnatural, normalization, false causal attribution, and public difficulty in processing uncertainty. Each section of the book includes a thematic synthesis.
Climate change research in Argentina focuses on its physical aspects (natural sciences) and not so much on the social aspects, beyond the various surveys measuring perceptions and concerns of Argentinians about climate change. There are few studies that address the problem of communicating the issue from a social sciences standpoint, and these refer to analysis of its coverage in the leading newspapers. And almost all have been published in Spanish. The links between media coverage, policy, and public perceptions in Argentina have not been the subject of academic research thus far. Given the lack of specific bibliography examining the climate change communication from a transversal outlook, in-depth interviews were used to find this out. This study presents an overview of the communication of climate change in Argentina considering not only the journalistic point of view but also that of other social actors. Five areas of interest were defined: the political, the scientific, the media, NGO environmentalists, and what this article refers to as “other sectors.” This fifth area incorporated other voices from the business sector or the non-specialized civil sphere in order to complement the panorama of representative actors that have something to say about the communication of the climate change in Argentina.
This book is written for members of the scholarly research community, and for persons involved in research evaluation and research policy. More specifically, it is directed towards the following four main groups of readers: – All scientists and scholars who have been or will be subjected to a quantitative assessment of research performance using citation analysis. – Research policy makers and managers who wish to become conversant with the basic features of citation analysis, and about its potentialities and limitations. – Members of peer review committees and other evaluators, who consider the use of citation analysis as a tool in their assessments. – Practitioners and students in the field of quantitative science and technology studies, informetrics, and library and information science. Citation analysis involves the construction and application of a series of indicators of the ‘impact’, ‘influence’ or ‘quality’ of scholarly work, derived from citation data, i.e. data on references cited in footnotes or bibliographies of scholarly research publications. Such indicators are applied both in the study of scholarly communication and in the assessment of research performance. The term ‘scholarly’ comprises all domains of science and scholarship, including not only those fields that are normally denoted as science – the natural and life sciences, mathematical and technical sciences – but also social sciences and humanities.
Stakeholders in the science system need to decide where to place their bets. Example questions include: Which areas of research should get more funding? Who should we hire? Which projects should we abandon and which new projects should we start? Making informed choices requires knowledge about these research options. Unfortunately, to date research portfolio options have not been defined in a consistent, transparent and relevant manner. Furthermore, we don't know how to define demand for these options. In this article, we address the issues of consistency, transparency, relevance and demand by using a model of science consisting of 91,726 topics (or research options) that contain over 58 million documents. We present a new indicator of topic prominence - a measure of visibility, momentum and, ultimately, demand. We assign over $203 billion of project-level funding data from STAR METRICS to individual topics in science, and show that the indicator of topic prominence, explains over one-third of the variance in current (or future) funding by topic. We also show that highly prominent topics receive far more funding per researcher than topics that are not prominent. Implications of these results for research planning and portfolio analysis by institutions and researchers are emphasized. Available at