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Research Study of Wadi Gaza The Impact of Pollution in Wadi Gaza on the lives and Livelihoods of Palestinian Communities and an Analysis of Feasible Actions to Address the Problem Photos from Wadi Gaza

Authors:
  • National Institute for Environment and Development (NIED)

Abstract and Figures

Through funding from Forum Syd through ActionAid Sweden, ActionAid Palestine in partnership with Al Aqsa Club are working in the Middle Area of Gaza to strengthen the capacity and organization of five communities in Middle Area to better analyze vulnerabilities, risks and threats, document IHL and develop community-led risk reduction and preparedness plans to reduce risk and strengthen community resilience. These interventions will strengthen the ability of the vulnerable groups, particularly women and youth and their communities to cope with protracted threats and shocks, have meaningful access to services, protection and improved accountability with relevant actors. As part of the project activities and since Wadi Gaza is one of the targeted communities under the Forum Sys Project, ActionAid is interested in reviewing the literature and previous researches conducted regarding the Wadi Gaza area. The idea is to identify any feasible measures which AA and affected communities can support/fundraise for/advocate on. to so, this a comprehensive desk review was made by Pioneers Consulting team aiming at collecting and reviewing all related and available studies, researches, and report so as to have them compiled in this one comprehensive literature review report.
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Research Study of Wadi Gaza
The Impact of Pollution in Wadi Gaza on the lives
and Livelihoods of Palestinian Communities and
an Analysis of Feasible Actions to Address the
Problem
Submitted by:
Development Pioneers Company for
Consultations
Research Team
Dr. Ahmed H. Hilles Dr. Azzam Abuhabib
Eng. Dima Al Haj Eng. Afnan Ashor
Submitted to:
ActionAid
April, 2018
Photos from Wadi Gaza
( Photo by Mandy Lara Sirdah, 2018)
i
Table of Contents
List of Tables ............................................................................................................. iii
List of Figures ............................................................................................................ iii
Abbreviations ............................................................................................................ iv
1. Brief ........................................................................................................................ v
1.1 About ActionAid ................................................................................................ v
1.2 About project ..................................................................................................... v
Introduction: .............................................................................................................. 1
General Overview: .................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Vulnerability of Wadi Gaza ................................................................................ 5
2 General Description of Wadi Gaza: ........................................................................... 5
2.1Climatic Features: ............................................................................................... 5
2.2 Soil Type:........................................................................................................... 6
2.3.1Wadi as Catchment Area for Rainwater: ....................................................... 7
2.3.2Surface water of the Wadi: ............................................................................ 9
2.3.3Groundwater .............................................................................................. 10
2.4Economic aspects and population: ..................................................................... 10
3.Official Managerial Considerations Related to Wadi Gaza ....................................... 11
3.1Wadi's Land Ownership: ................................................................................... 11
3.2Institutional Framework ................................................................................... 12
3.3Administrative Mechanism: ............................................................................... 12
3.4Legal Rights: .................................................................................................... 13
3.5Management Infrastructure and Organizations .................................................. 13
3.6Responsibilities: ................................................................................................ 14
4.Laws and Regulations Regarding Wadi Gaza: ......................................................... 15
4.1International Legal Instruments ........................................................................ 15
4.2Local Laws and Policies Toward Wadi Gaza: ..................................................... 17
4.2.1Nationally ................................................................................................... 17
4.2.2Locally Legislations: ................................................................................... 18
5.Value of Wadi Gaza ................................................................................................ 19
5.1Cultural heritage ............................................................................................... 19
5.1.1Tall Ajjoul Ancient Site: .............................................................................. 19
5.1.2Tell Sakan: ................................................................................................. 20
5.1.3Tal Assanam: .............................................................................................. 20
ii
5.1.4Tal Al-Khbeineh: ........................................................................................ 20
5.1.5Tal Umamer: .............................................................................................. 20
5.2Medicinal Plant Diversity in the Flora of Wadi Gaza: ......................................... 21
5.3Biodiversity in Wadi Gaza: ................................................................................ 21
5.4Human use of Wadi Gaza: ................................................................................. 25
5.4.1Agriculture: ................................................................................................ 25
5.4.2Recreation .................................................................................................. 25
5.4.3Hunting and fishing .................................................................................... 26
5.4.4Extraction: ................................................................................................. 26
5.4.5Education, demonstration and research ....................................................... 26
5.4.6Grazing ...................................................................................................... 27
5.4.7Sewage discharge ........................................................................................ 27
5.4.8Garbage dump ............................................................................................ 27
5.4.9Human use outside and affecting the site:..................................................... 27
5.4.10Water Use: ................................................................................................ 28
6.Challenges Threatening Wadi Gaza: ....................................................................... 28
6.1Pollution of Wadi Gaza: .................................................................................... 28
6.1.1Pollution with Wastewater: ......................................................................... 28
6.1.2Impact of Wastewater on Surface Water and Aquatic Wildlife: .................... 32
6.1.3Impact of wastewater on Groundwater Resources ........................................ 35
6.1.4Wastewater solution in the coming future: ................................................... 35
6.1.5Industrial and hazardous waste: .................................................................. 36
6.1.6Pollution by Solid Waste: ............................................................................ 36
6.2Wadi Gaza flooding ........................................................................................... 38
6.3Poaching and illegal hunting: ............................................................................. 38
7.Conclusions and Recommendations: ....................................................................... 39
8.References: ............................................................................................................ 41
iii
List of Tables
Page
Table1: The Wadi Gaza Morphology…………………………………………
1
Table 2: Population around Wadi Gaza area………………………………….
2
List of Figures
Page
Figure 1: The Wadi Gaza………………………………………………………..
2
Figure 2: Wadi Gaza and its Location in the Gaza Strip………………………..
3
Figure 3: The Watersheds of extended through the region of the Gaza Strip…..
4
Figure 4: Soil types in the Gaza Strip…………………………………………...
7
Figure 5: Average Rainfalls on Wadi Gaza Area……………………………….
8
Figure 6: Groundwater Level Contour Map…………………………………….
9
Figure 7: Role of relevant institutions and their responsibilities regarding Wadi
Gaza……………………………………………………………………………..
14
Figure 8: Lampides boeticus (Lycaenidae)……………………………………..
23
Figure 9: Wastewater flowing through Wadi Gaza …………………………….
29
Figure 10: Sewage discharge to the sea from Wadi Gaza (downstream)……….
30
Figure 11: Wadi Gaza polluted basin…………………………………………..
31
Figure 12: Wadi Gaza Interim treatment plant………………………………….
31
Figure 13: Discharge point of raw wastewater to the seashore from Wadi
Gaza……………………………………………………………………………..
33
Figure 14: Algae blooming because of wastewater in Wadi Gaza……………...
34
Figure 15: Wastewater and construction debris in Wadi Gaza…………………
37
Figure 16: Wadi Gaza polluted basin by solid waste…………………………...
37
Figure 17: Dead animals at Wadi Gaza…………………………………………
38
iv
Abbreviations
BSc
Bachelor of Science
CBD
Convention on Biological Diversity
CMWU
Coastal Municipalities Water Utility
DANIDA
Danish International Development Agency
EQA
Environmental Quality Authority
EUCC
Environmental Unit and Climate Change
IBA
Important Bird Area
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross
ISOCARP
International Society of City and Regional Planners
IUCN
International Union for Conservation of Nature
MEA
Ministry of Environmental Affairs
MOAG
Ministry of Agriculture
MOLG
Ministry of Local Government
MOPIC
Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation
MOPWH
Ministry of Public Works and Housing
MOTA
Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities
MSc
Master of Science
NGOs
Non-governmental organizations
NW
Northwest
PCBS
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
PCBs
Polychlorinated biphenyl
PWA
Palestinian Water Authority
SW
Southwest
TDS
Total dissolved solids
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNDP/PAPP
The UNDP Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNRWA
United Nations Relief and Works Agency
USA
United States of America
USAID
United States Agency for International Development
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