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Depredatory Intersexual Selection As A Mechanism For Population Expansion In The Homo Genus. How Neanderthals Achieved Supremacy As They Contributed To A Spacefaring Polyphenism.

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Abstract

Depredatory intersexual selection as a mechanism for population expansion in the Homo genus. How Neanderthals achieved supremacy as they contributed to a space faring polyphenism.
Depredatoryintersexualselectionasamechanismforpopulation
expansion
1
intheHomogenus.HowNeanderthalsachieved
supremacyastheycontributedtoaspacefaringpolyphenism.
ThiswrittenpieceisacontinuationofmysummaryoftheCalpe2015Conference
2inwhichI
posited inrelationtoancestralhumansthatIfthedirectionality ofpopulation geneflow
was throughmale conquestand usurpation of territories,taking into accountthe
femaleslivinginthoseareas,thatmightbereflectedintheY chromosomemakeupof
themalesrelativetothe mDNA lineagessurviving."AfterreadingDavidReich'sbook,
WhoWeAreAndHowWeGotHere,
who,likeSvantePaabobeforehim (IreadSvantes
book also referenced from in thispiece afterDavids),writesin the unprecedented
unequivocalstyleofarchaeogenetics,IhadsincetheCalpe2015Conferencethepotentialof
expoundingonthethemeoftraceabledepredatoryintersexualselection. Archaeogenetics
conclusivelyanswersarchaicandmodernhumanscladisticsinterpretationimpasseswhich
wouldotherwisehavebeenleftunresolvedbythetraditionalmethodofcomparativeanatomy
ofosseousandotherarchaeologicalremainsofarchaicandmodernhumans. Thispiece
whichIhavewrittenandpublishedjustbeforetheCalpe2018ConferenceonNeanderthalsis
verymuchtheproductofpreparingforthatsameconference,whichIhadendeavoredin
preparingforfromseveralmonthsbefore,whichIhadnotenvisagedwriting.
Humanshavethroughadaptiveculturalselectionmeta-cognitivelyevolvedintoaspeciesthat
deprecatesthehomicidalprojectionsandconsequencesofancestralconspecificdepredation.
Thephenotypicallyextended
3engineerednicheconstructionthatpropagatesthisbehavioral
change,thatperceivesoftheseizureoftheresourcesthatothershaveworkedforordepend
onasdysfunctional,isexpressedbythesamegenomethatourdistinctlyviolentanarchic
ancestorshad,bothdistinguishablephenotypesdescribablebytheblanketdenotationof
polyphenism.
Polyphenism isthephenomenonwheretwoormoredistinctphenotypesareepigenetically
producedbythesamegenomebutspecificallyinthispieceitischangesintheinternal
neuropsychology
4andneuroscience
5thatisbeingreferredtoandnotexternalmorphology.
Thisdifferenceingeneticexpressioninhumans,whoareamenabletobeingtaughttoredirect
theirbehaviorinaspecifiedstructuredwaybyhardwiredplasticity,iscalledsublimation,
(Themodificationofanaturalexpressionofanimpulseorinstincttoonethatissocially
acceptable)whichisculturallytaughtandlearnt.AncestralHominincultureoncebasedon
reproductivebiologyhasevolvedintoabiologyinfluencedbythatculturerenderingitso
behaviorallydistinctitcanbeconsideredanewpolyphenism.Forthepurposesofaclarified
categorization,laterinthispieceIwillbeusingnewstermsIhavecoined,thesebeingthe
human antepolyphenism and human neopolyphenism to be applied as diametrical
phenotypicaldesignationsevincedbythesamegenome.Thiscontrastivelyelucidatesour
ancestralaggressivelyandrocentricprimatephenotypeexpressionandinversely,themodern
manumitted manifestation ofcomplete intersexualuniversalsuffrage and equality of
opportunity,respectively.Thisconceptualtoolisusedtodifferentiateontwoverysharply
distinguishedphenotypicexpressionsofcognitiveorder:the antepolyphenism whereby
environmentalstimulipromptsadapted hardwired responses
6thatlead to persecutory
behaviourthatwouldberegardedinmodernsettingsasillegallyanti-social,andontheother
hand,themodernpolyphenism wherebysublimatedbehaviourwhichhasthroughtemporally
downstream epistemicengineering
6specializedineducationalnicheconstruction,leadtoa
gregariousnesssenseofhumaneness,thereforeabetterqualityoflifeforall. The
neopolyphenismbeingdescribedhereismeantstrictlyinthesenseofamarkeddifferencein
theinternalcognitiveorderofhumansandnotinanywayintendedtodescribeavisually
apparentexternalmorphologicalchangeaswithotherpolyphenismsinnature.Tovisualize
thechangeincognitiveorderthatoverridesandredirectsourancestralbiologicallybased
behaviourwhenthisdoesnottallywithreality,wewilluseasanexamplethenowadays
commonsenseknowledgethatourhomeplanetEarthturnsonitsownaxisorbitingarounda
star,inathoughtexperimentdevisedtoshow how simplyknowingsomethingasfactually
verifiableinsideahumanbraincantotallychangeperspectivesonthephenomenalexperience
oftheworldperceivedontheoutside. Ifyoulookupthetime-lapseastronomicalvideo
7
listedasaninternetaccessiblelinkattheendofthispiece,instep1ofthisexperimentthe
firstthingyouwillseeistheMilkyWayalongwithitsaccompanimentofstarsrotatingtothe
right,aroundthesalientsilhouetteofanAfricanBaobabtree.Ourhuntergathererancestors,
eversincetimeimmemorial,musthaveroutinelygazedandrememberedthepassageofthe
heavensthroughthechangingseasonalnightsky.Theywouldhavehadthesameoutlookas
anyoneviewingthespeededtimelapsevideoforthefirsttime,butattheslowerspeedofthe
planetEarthsrotation,inwhichthecontentoftheskyisturningtotheright.Eventhough
thelatterisjustanopticalillusionandisnotwhatisreallyhappening,itisunderstandable
thatourancestorsbelievedthatsomeversionofthenow discreditedsupersededgeocentric
modelofthisuniverse,whichhadtheEarthatitscenter,wascorrectuntilonlyarecent
numberofcenturiesago. Ourancestorsexperientiallystudiedthestarrynightswiththeir
bodiesfixedonthelandscape,withoutbeingawarethattheywerelivingonaplanetthat
turnedaroundonitsaxiswhilstitorbitsthestarthatweknowasourSun,whichitselforbits
theMilkyWaygalaxy. Becausetheirfieldofviewafferentlyinformedthemthatthenight
skywasturningtotheright,andtheyhadnowayofknowingthatwhattheywerewitnessing
wasthattheEarthwasturningonitsownaxisagainsttherelativelyfixedstars,this
retrospectivelycausedamentalaberrationderivedfromastronomicallyconsumedunknowing
eyes.
Figure1.JanusistheRomangodofbeginnings,gates,transitions,time,duality,doorways,passages,and
endings.Heisusuallydepictedashavingtwofaces,sincehelookstothefutureandtothepastandisthe
appropriatesymbolforbothpolyphenisms,theantepolyphenismandtheneopolyphenism.FromWikipedia.
Continuingthisthoughtexperimentwithstep2,involvingamentaljuggle,haveanotherlook
atthevideosimultaneouslymaintaininginyourmindthattheEarthisturningaroundonits
axis,whichitveritablyis,whilstthestarrybackgroundisgenuinelyrelativelyimmobile. If
youkeepthismindframeconstantwithyoureyesonthevideowithinthelatterparameters,
afteralittlewhile(andalittlesubstantivebasedfaith)youwillnoticeablyseetheBaobabtree
firmlyrootedinthegroundturningtotheleft,togetherwiththerotationoftheearthinthe
foregroundofamotionlessstarlitskybackground,now discernablewithoutanyoptical
illusion.Itisamazingthatthisperceptivefeatispossiblebecauseofsomethingweonly
knowof,whichhasbeenmadeknowablebytechnologicalevolution.Physicallytetheredas
ourbiologicalspeciesistoasubjectiveexperienceofthephenomenonpresentedbythis
universe,wemustinform thatsubjectivitywithphenotypicallyextended
3technologically
derivedobjectiveknowledgethatisfactuallyverifiablethereforeself-reinforcingasabelief
system.Withthelatterthoughtexperimentwecanprovethatanerroneousbeliefsystem
withdistortedbearingson reality canevolvebecauseofthelimitationsofbiological
evolutioninphysicallyexistentialcircumstances,correctablebytechnology. Knowledge
derivedfrom objectivefactsenhanceprospectsofabetterqualityoflifeinagregarious
contextotherwiseblindtothem,bydiscoveringverifiablereasonsforexistencethatimbuea
sharedmotivationalfaith(Beliefsystem),orimprovedcoalitionistresourceextractionfor
sustenance.Itisconduciveofmethodsthatconstructivelyachievethatlifestyle,whoseonly
possiblejointlydesireddirection,oncecognizanttothefact,isforsocialorderwithina
balancedself-sustainingecology. Ifgeneticgroupselectionisindividualselectionfor
gregariousnessinducingtraits,theindividualbeingthevehiclecarrierofgeneticinheritance
8
,
oncethereiscommitmenttoasocietallycontractedverbalorwrittenagreementeveryone
else'senlightenedhardwiredself-interestwillworkagainstanyinfringements. Cognition
thatmindfulnessofone'sparticipatorystatusasacontributiveagentcoginalargersocietal
clockworkleadstoone'sownwellbeingisconducivetothatmindfulness.
Humanshaveonlyrecentlyinourevolutionarypastevolvedasenseoftrulyobjective
verifiabletruthandthatiswhywehavenotbeenabletolookatourselveswithanobjective
eye
9hardwiredwithpropensitiesasweare,noneofushasapsycheformedfrom ablank
slatewithoutinstincts.
10 Lackoffactuallyverifiableevidenceaboutthecosmologicallyand
biologicallyevolutionaryuniverseconstrictedourbreadthofcognitionasconspecifics,
hampered by notknowing thatwhatbiologically makesliving possible isultimately
accountedforinthephysicsoftheperiodicityofachemicallydeterministic
9universeborn
outofnucleosynthesis.Wehumanshavejustmanagedtomathematicallyextractourselves
from aquagmireofinaccurateorcompletelyerroneousconceptsofrealityemanating
primitiveallegoriesofnaturalisticphenomenon.
11a Thesehavebeenmoreakintobroad
approximations,giventhedearthofcorroboratingfactuallyverifiableevidenceavailabletous
asagentsinexistenceasweevolvedgraspingforundeniableobjectivetruths. Examplesof
objectivetruthsaretheArchimedesprinciple,Mendeleevianperiodicityofthechemical
elements,thepropertiesoflightwhichgivesusthecoloursofthelightspectrumandiswhat
weexperienceasaphenomenonfilteredbythecolourbiasesofourownvisualadaptations
11b
,
andfinally,theequationforthespeedoflight,E=mc
2
. Allthelatterarenow perceptible
withoutthesubjectivebiasesofprimitivehumaninterpretation.Iwonderhow ourspecies
willlookattheuniverseitispartofinabout1000yearstimeandhow muchwillour
perceptionshavechangedbythen? Ittookaleapforwardtoevolveoutofthegeocentric
modelofthisuniverseandintheprocessmanypeoplewerepersecutedforbelievingsucha
thing,justasGiordanoBruno
12whoburnttodeathatthestakeintheyear1600duetofalse
accusationswheninstitutionalinertiaerroneouslybelievedhewaswrong.GiordanoBruno
believedinthethennewlyformedCopernicusheliocentricmodelofthisuniversebuthad
extendeditandalreadycorrecteditserrors.Giordanopositedthatthestarshanginginthe
skyweresunsjustlikeourownandthattheytoohadplanetsorbitingthemwhichmighthave
evolvedtheirownbiologicalpathwaysoflife.Allthelatteriscurrentlyknownasfactorat
leastpossibleandhegotkilledforbeingright.AmajoradvancementofhisoverCopernicus
wasthathedidnotthinkthatourSunwasalsothecenteroftheuniverse,thisalsohaving
beenprovednowadays.
12 Surely in thefuturewewillfind new waysofanalyzing
phenomenonorevolvetechnologythatcanextendevenmoreoursensestomakepalpable
whatisnotyetobviouslyapparent.Allthatwillcontributetothefactthathumanityhas
metacognitivelyevolvedtothetruepointofviewthatwearethisuniverseawareofitself.
13
Withsomanyinjusticesinthepastagainstthedaringtobeproventrueinsubstantive
interpretationsofthisuniverse,itsnowonderthatnaturallyaggressivehumanprimateswith
self-centeredcovertmotivationsouttoasserttheirexistenceprojectivelytowardsothers,
evolvedconceptsdisassociatingwhattheyconsideredtheimmaterialmindfrom thematerial
bodyoftencalledCartesiandualism,inhonorofReneDescartes.
14 Howelsecouldhavea
Cartesiandualistexplaintheself-experiencedidentifiablemind,thatisamindthatispurely
thevirtualproductofthephysicalbrainwithoutknowingthatthisbrainisthecentralorganof
thenervoussystem orwhatitsconstitutiveneuronsare? Neuronswereonlyconclusively
demonstratedtobeindividualnervecellsinthe1950sthankstoelectronmicroscopy
15soit
tookanadvancingintechnologicalevolutiontolaytorestinpeaceanydoubtcausingan
artefactualdisembodiedghostinthemachine.
16 Intheinherentmind-bodydualism that
Descartesupheld,consciousnessandself-awarenessaredistinguishedfrom thebrainsothe
logicalmentalexecutionofhis IthinkthereforeIam,” canonlybecontemplatedupon
withinthoseparameters. Therefore,thinkinginerroralongCartesianlines,mythinking
concomitantlyreinforcessomepartofmeexistingasanincorporealmentalbeing.Contrary
toCartesiandualism,physicallyanimatebeingsthatwearewithapsychoneuralidentity,
17I
haveametacognitiveawarenessaboutmythoughtsasvirtualemanationsofmymaterial
brainandIcanfactuallyobjectivelyascertainmysubjectiveexperienceofmymentalactivity.
Trueobjectivity,obtainedfrom verifiablefacts,canbefoundtobevalidwhereverinthis
universeweretheytobetestedforandareaveryrecentarrivalinthementallandscapeofthe
humanevolutionaryscene.AnanalogywithCartesianDualism canbedrawnwiththealso
dualisticempiricistversusnativism debate.
18 Intryingtounderstandhowahumanbeing´s
personalityarises,thecontentionisthattheEmpiricistapproachbelievesthatallknowledge
isobtainedfrom experiencewhilstNativism considersthatthiscomesaboutduetoinnate
traits. Ipersonallycalculated thatweneedinnatetraitswhichmightbeaugmentedby
technologytobeabletoempiricallyascertainanyfactualconclusionontheinnerworkingsof
thebrainandtheprocessitselfisagainedlearnedexperiencesobothcampspartiallyhold
theirgroundandcannotdosowithouteachother.
19 Priorandaroundtheadventofthe
modernityofuniversalintersexualsuffrage,lifeingeneral,asweshallnowseestartingofin
thenextparagraph,wasfocusedandcenteredonmenbeingdominantinapatriarchally
primatestratifiedsocietyand sowerethey veryblinkered,findingobjectivethinking
opaque.
20
Understandably derived from a ubiquitousandrocentric culture thatintersexually has
traditionallyassignedthegivenappellativeofourspecieswiththedenominationofMan,
21
manypeoplehaveforafew decadesnow consideredthistobesexist. Instead,themost
progressiveofcontemporaryscientificallymindedconspecificscategoriseourspeciesas
Humanwhichconceptuallydoesawaywiththeimplicitsexistmessagethatintellectuallifeis
anexclusivemalecentereddomain,asifwomenwerenotabletoachieveanenlightened
senseofcognitiveability,orifintersexuallyinaccordance,areopenlysubmissivetothe
notion. Wemustremainunapologeticinanevolutionarysense,butwithoutcondoningthe
practice,whenentertainingthecausesofantepolyphenicpatriarchallybiasedsexism dueto
intersexually evolved adaptations,and no more sobering a realization ofthisis the
phenomenonofTheWomen'sAntiSuffrageLeague
22 intheearly1900s,inwhichsome
womenoftheirownvolitionwereopposedtowomenbeinggrantedthevoteinUnited
Kingdom parliamentaryelections. Thesociallifeontogeneticallyexperiencedthenwas
demarcatedwithinanentirelygensbasedculture,whichitselfpersistspostuniversalsuffrage,
butwasthenweigheddownbypoliticalsubjugationandintersexualservitudetomen,unlike
wheneveryonegottherighttovote.Commonsenseevidenceofunilaterallypredominantly
patrilinealsurnamesbeingpasseddownintersexuallyandthemaledominantgensculturethat
comesfrom,givescausalreasonsfortheoccurrenceofwomencompetingintrasexuallyby
votingagainsttheenfranchisementofotherwomen,asnoconcurrentmatrilinealsurnames
existedthennorwerepasseddowntothepresent. Notallmenatthetimewereofan
intersexually oppressivedisposition andweknow thatfrom thefactthatwomen did
eventually,inanincreasingnumberofnationsanddifferentdegreesofaccomplishment,get
thesamesuffragerightsasmendid,butthattookseveraldecadestofinallymaterializeas
maritalrapeonlybeguntobeoutlawedinsomepartsoftheworldjustinthe1970s.
23 Does
the lack of self-awareness of matrilineal bloodlines permeating globally dominant
Westernizedculture,thathasspreadtothepointofculturalhomogeneityforourspecies
acrossallfourcornersofthisplanetspaceshipEarth,meanthathumanssufferfrom
androcentricmyopia? Isthisandrocentricmyopiaimpelled byinstitutionalinertiainthat
manyrepresentativesofthelatestscientificparadigms,whilsttheirempiricallyobtainedfacts
areilluminatinglyright,stillusesexistmalepronounsinthemanneroftheirwritingwhenthe
bestpractice,ifwearetobetruetotheempiricalmethodandprofessedadherentstothat
practice,wouldbetouseexpressionsofneutralobjectiveness,thatis,anintellectually
asexualmodeofseeingtheworldwithoutartifactualsubjectivebiases?Inourcaseittakes
twosexestomakeaspecies.Weknowfrom thestudyofgeneticsthatnucleargenomesare
ancestrallyintersexuallybilaterallineages,thatis,halfonaperson´snucleargenomeis
inheritedfromthefemalesandtheotherfromthemales.TheextranuclearmatrilinealmDNA
thatbothsexesinheritfrom theirmothersisasmuchofamarkerofsexuallineageasthe
mammalianpatrilinealYchromosomeinhumans
MoleculargeneticdataofmDNAcanbeusedincombinationwithYChromosomeanalyses
toobtaininformationonpasthumanpopulationsandtheirratioswithregardoftheamountof
breedingmenrelativetotheamountofbreedingwomen. Theresultsfrom therelative
analysesarecompatiblewiththemodernhuman“expansionofeffectivemalepopulation
sizes,andsuggestthatpolygamywasthenormthroughouthistory.
24 Thatwouldmeanthat
onlyasmallpercentageofmenwouldhavecontributedtomostoftheconspecificgenepool
ineverygenerationbeforethebehavioralchangetomonogamycameintocommonpractice,
althoughdefactoordejurepolygamyisstillmuchpracticedinmanypartsoftheworld.
Addingtothat,thereisingenomicstudiesofHomosapiensarecordedvarianceinwhichit
wasthoughtthatthecommonmaleancestorofallmenwasyoungerthanthecommonfemale
ancestorofallwomen.
25 Morerecentstudieshaveplacedtheintersexuallybilateral
divergencescloserintimethoughthereisstillnofullagreementonthisbyeveryoneinthe
field.
25 FurtherbackintimeintheHomogenusancestry,thereisalsosubstantialvariance
between thedemographicsizeofmalesand femalesancestralto presentday human
populationswhicharetemporallyincongruentinprovenanceasconjoinedbilateralmaternal
andpaternalgenomiclineagesfrom cradleperiods. Thisdifferssharplyfrom whatbe
expected had ourlineofdescentbeen derived from a fancifulgeographically static
monogamousendogamy thatneverexogamously bred with genomically differentiated
populations.Suchconsistencywouldbereflected,haditbeenthecase,ineithermaternal
mDNAornucleargenomewidecountsbeingascribedamostrecentancestorofallpresent-
dayhumanswhichwouldnumericallytemporallytally,butweknow from theevidenceit
doesnot.Thedateofthemostrecentsharedancestorofallpresentdayhumansalongthe
"MitochondrialEve"maternallineis160,000yearsagoanddiscrepantly,theageofthemost
recentsharedancestorofallpresentdayhumansanywhereinchromosomes1-22is320,000
yearsago,almosttwiceasold.
26Evenfurtherbackintime,thesametrendisrevealedofthe
mainancestralpopulationofmodernhumans,NeanderthalsandDenisovans(AnAsian
cousinofNeanderthals
27
)thatseparatedfrom thesuperarchaiclineagetheyhadincommon
1,400,000-900,000yearsago
26
,andthegeneticestimateofNeanderthalsandDenisovans
splittingintodifferentiatedforms470,000-380,000yearsago
26
,thelatteralmostprecisely
overlappingconcurrentlywiththeNeanderthalmDNAsplitfromthehumanlineage470,000-
360,000yearsago.ThedistinctlattermDNAsplitfrom humansdoesnotcoincidewiththe
genomicestimateofpopulationseparationbetweenNeanderthalsandhumans770,000-
550,000yearsago
26 andagain,thesameaswiththeinconsistent"MitochondrialEve"
160,000-yearoldsplitcomparedtothe320,000yearsplitleadingtothemostrecentancestral
bilateraldescentintersexuallineagesofallpresentdayhumans.Itsnotsomuchthat
differentsuperarchaicpopulationswentextinctbutmayberather,thankstobilateralgenomic
dates, wemightbeseeingtheannihilationofsomemaleslineswhilstothersprospered
gettingabsorbedbysomeofthefemalelineagesthatsurvivedbutothersdiedouttoo.
Howcouldtheannihilationofdistinctmalelinescomeabout? Ifsexualselection could
selectformaletacticsthatincreasestheirmatingsuccessbutimposesdirectcoststothe
females,
28 then“femalespreferenceformatesclearlyresultinbiasedmatingbecause
femalesonlymatewithmaleswhohavecertainpreferredtraitsoracertainlevelofthattrait.
28 Ifthatdesiredtraitinvolvestheincreasedphysicalstrengthingregariouslyphilopatric
males,lettingthem perform betteratintrasexualcompetition,leadingtoimprovedfitness,
supremacyin depredationadaptationswouldcoevolvewithfemalesnotbeingableto
aggressivelyresistforcedcopulationsbymaleswhoareonaverage20% larger
29andmore
muscular,disproportionallymoremuscularevenwhensizedifferencesareaccountedfor.
29
Menbeingabletophysicallyovercomeanyresistancebywomen,intersexuallywillmake
thembothcoevolvedivergentreproductiveoptimainmaleselectionforfemaletraitsandvice
versa.
28 Whatevidenceisthereofconspecificdepredationasavehicleofreproductionin
humansandothermembersoftheHomogenus?Ifthepercentageofdeathsinwarfare
30is
consistentwithmaleintrasexualcompetitionleadingtoYChromosomelineagespopulation
expansion,
1inthenon-statesocietiesthatexistedbeforestatesocietiesevolvedthereisa
muchlargerproportionwiththetrendmarkedlydecreasingthroughtimeasshowninfigure2
below.
Intheintersexualhumanevolutionstoryviolenceandpolygynyareinextricablyintertwined
29
inthesameway thatwithin parentalinvestmenttheoryviolenceisaconspecifically
distinguishablemalehumantrait,
29 becauseifnurturingmotherswerejustasaggressiveto
theirchildrenasmenareintrasexually,obviouslychildrenwouldnothavemuchofachance
ofsurvivalandthespecieswoulddieout.Therearetwodescribedmeansbywhichviolence
supportspolygyny.First,thepossibilityofhavingaharem isgreaterthemoreviolentand
betteratdiscouragingthroughfearmenareofothermenandsecondly,organizedviolent
warfarecausesashortageofmenwhichotherwisemightcreateasourceofrebellious
disturbancein theotherwisedisproportionatedistributionofwomenasareproductive
resourceinwhichmanymenwouldnothaveachancetobreed.
29 A smallnumberof
breedingmenareallthatareneededtomaintainapopulationandifthesemenaredominantly
polygynoustherewillalwaysbeconsequentlyasignificantnumberofmenwhowillnotbe
abletohavewifeforthemselves.Foreverymalewithaharem of10wivesthereare9men
withnowoman.
29 Manyofthesereproductivelyunsuccessfulmenwouldhavebeenyoung
risktakerswithnothingtoloseandquitedisposedtoviolenceifthereistheopportunityfor
gains.
29 Soifourancestorswerepolygynoussuchasgeneticstudiessuggest
24therewould
havebeenanampleamountofsinglemencompetitivelyeagerforwomentoreproducewith,
plustheresourcesthesewomensdominantpolygynousmenmonopolised,withgreater
incentivetoovercometherisktotryandappropriatethoseresources.
Theartofwarinnonstatesocietiesisbyfaralmostexclusivelythedomainofmen
30 Inmore
recenttimes,accordingtotwoethnographicsurveys,65to70percentofhuntergatherer
groupsareatwaratleasteverytwoyears,90percentengageinwaratleastonceina
generationandvirtuallyalltherestreportaculturalmemoryofwar.
30
Warasanadaptation
hascoevolvedwithdepredatorysexualselectionintheusurpingofalloftheresourcesofmen
Figure2
Percentageofdeathsinwarfare.FromTheBetterAngelsOfOurNature
byothermen,includingpotentiallyreproductivewomen.
9War,withitsensuingforced
copulationsandopportunisticrape isaubiquitousbehaviouralhallmarkofourspecies
occurringfromurbanjunglestoactualrainforestsoranyotherpartoftheworldhumanshave
inhabited,makingarmedconflictamalereproductivestrategy.
9Homosapiensarenotthe
onlyhomininforwhichthereisevidenceofhomicide.A430,000yearoldfossilskull,oneof
28homininskeletonsfoundatTheSimaDeLosHuesossiteintheAtapuercamountainsin
SouthernSpainhastwoholesinitwhichafteraforensicanalysiswasdeterminedtomost
likelytohavebeenintentionallyperpetrated.
31 Thefortuitousfindof28middlePleistocene
hominin skeletonslocatedtogetherdownaverticalshafthadneverconclusivelybeen
explained.Itwasthoughtthattheindividualshadeitherfallenaccidentallydowntheshaftor
thattheyhadaccumulatedtherebecauseoffunerarydoings.
31 Astudyontheoriginsand
evolutionoflethalviolenceinhumans,
32suggeststhatacertainleveloflethalviolencein
humansarisesfrom theoccupationofapositionwithinaparticularlyviolentmammalian
clade,inwhichviolenceseemstohavebeenancestrallypresent.Thismeansthathumans
have phylogenetically inherited theirpropensity forviolence.We believe thatthis
phylogeneticeffectentailsmorethanameregeneticinclinationtoviolence.Infact,social
behaviourandterritoriality,twobehaviouraltraitssharedwithrelativesofH.sapiens,seemto
havealsocontributedtotheleveloflethalviolencephylogeneticallyinheritedinhumans.Our
analysisofhumanlethalviolenceshowsthatlethalviolenceinprehistorichumansmatches
thelevelinferredbyourphylogeneticanalyses,suggestingthatwewere,atthedawnof
humankind,asviolentasexpectedconsideringthecommonmammalianevolutionaryhistory.
Thisprehistoricleveloflethalviolencehasnotremainedinvariantbuthaschangedasour
historyhasprogressed,mostlyassociatedwithchangesinthesocio-politicalorganizationof
humanpopulations.Thissuggeststhatculturecanmodulatethephylogeneticallyinherited
lethalviolenceinhumans.
32
” Myownsuggestion,asImadeinthesecondparagraphtothis
piece,isthatculturecanmodulatethephylogeneticallyinheritedviolenceinhumanstothe
pointofsublimationintoaneopolyphenism whosemindframeisemergentlynonviolent
withinstillprevailingrelativelyerstwhileconspecificviolenceinagivenpopulation.
Ifdepredatorymaleintrasexualselection,togetherwithsubsequentintersexualselectionof
thevictorsofthesurvivingwomenasareproductiveresource,wasabehaviouralstrategyfor
theHomogenusarethereanypotentialcluesastothishavingoccurredfrom theever-
increasingwealthofinformationwehaveonhominins? Neanderthalsweremuchstronger
thanHomo sapiensso in inter/subspecificmaleintrasexualcompetitionhadagreater
advantageoverthem.
33
NeanderthalsarealsoknowntohaveinterbredwithHomosapiensbut
eventhoughthereisevidenceofinterbreedingdirectionallyfrom MaleHomosapiensinto
femaleNeanderthals,onlyHomosapienshassurvived,beitsubjecttodilutedintrogression
from Neanderthalsoraspopulationsthatneverinterbredwiththem suchassub-Saharan
Africans.
34 Weknowfrom theLagerVelhochildfossilsthatNeanderthals/sapienshybrids
werestronglybuilt,strongerthanjustpuresapiens,
35sotheywouldpotentiallyhavehadthe
upperhandoversapienswhohadnotbred,andwithacombinedsapiensgracilenessamore
agileform,whichwouldalsobeanadvantageoverpureNeanderthals. Anotheravenuethat
mightshedlightonincreasedfitnessresultingfromdepredationandforcedcopulationsisthe
genomicallyintersexualbilateralchronologicaldiscrepanciesImentionedbefore. David
Reich's
WhoWeAreAndHow WeGotHere
begsthequestionofwhyaresupposedly
specificsingleY chromosomeormitochondrialDNAlineagestemporallyincongruentand
whydosomegoextinctthroughouttimewhilstotherspersistandrecombinewithoneanother
inotherspecies/subspecies?
26Onelastpossibleadditiontothislatterlineofenquirycomes
from thestudyofnuclearmitochondrialDNA segments,whichisthetransferofgenetic
materialfrom mitochondriatothenucleusandtheirintegrationintothenucleargenome.
36
BecausefiftypercentofthenuclearDNAthatmakesuponeindividualispasseddownfrom
eitherparent,oncemitochondrialmaterialhasintegrateditselfintothenucleargenomeittoo
canbepasseddownbyeitherparentalsex,nolongerrestrictedinbeingonlyinheritedfrom
thematernalline.Ifonedayourtechnologyevolvestothepointthatwewillbeableto
determinetheprovenanceofnuclearmitochondrialDNAsegmentsbyretracinganychange
inthem tothepresentwemightbeableestablishwhetherornot,forexample,hadthe
introgressionofNeanderthalsintosapiensmainlyinvolvedNeanderthalmalesintrasexually
competing forfemalesapiens.Thatcouldpossiblyexplainthetotallackofsurviving
Neanderthalfemalelineagesinthepresentday,butitispossiblethattheycouldhavejust
diedoutaslineagesanyway.Retrievalandpositiveidentificationofarchaeogeneticnuclear
mitochondrialDNA segmentscouldalsohelpclarifyanomaliessuchastheDenisovan
MDNA foundinSimaDeLosHuesosfossils
26 andalsocontributelikewiseinother
archaeogeneticfossilfinds.Thelatterisjustmypersonalspeculationandatthismomentin
timeIdonotknowifiteverwillbepossibletobacktracktothespecific/subspecificorigins
ofnuclearmitochondrialDNAsegments.
Itispossibletobeconclusivethough,thatNeanderthalsweremorecloselyrelatedto
Denisovansandthattheyinterbredwithsapiensatdifferenttimesfromasearlyas100,000
yearsago.
34 Thetechnologicalkitsassociatedwiththefossilhomininfossilsremainsat
SkhulandQafzekcaveswerethesameasthoseusedbyNeanderthals
36despitetheosseous
remainsexhibitingmixedtraitsfoundinarchaicandmodernhumans.Bothanatomically
modernhumansandEuropeanNeanderthalshadbothindependentlyusedflintlithictools
characteristicoftheMousterian.
37 Neanderthaladmixtureintomodernhumanshad
certainlybeenhappeningforatleast100,000yearsintheEurasianregionsothecreatorsof
thesucceedingemergingtechnologiesoftheChatelperronian,Aurignacian andGravvetian
couldwellpossiblyhavegenerallyorwhollybeenmadeupofintrogressedindividuals
descendantsofNeanderthalandsapienssexualunions.Bothhomininevolutionarybranches
priortoadmixturehadthesamedegreeandmanneroftechnologicaldevelopmentandthe
subsequenttechnologicalexplosionbyhybriddescendantsbegsthequestionofwhetherit
wasduetomergingbehaviouraloutlooksculturallypasseddown,orgreaterbiological
resolvableperceptionbyhavinginheriteddesirabletraitsfrom eitherhomininbranchwhich
resultedinabetterprocessingbrain.Ifthishadhappeneditwouldinnowaymeanthat
anyonewithNeanderthalancestryismoreadvancedthananyoneelsealiveontheplanet
withoutsuchancestry.EuropeansdonothaveDenisovanancestrywhichcouldalsothrough
admixturehavecontributedtotheoveralltechnologicalexplosionmentionedbefore.The
humanneopolyphenism makesuseanappropriateenvironmentinwhichtorearitschildren
withsublimationtechniquesthatretrospectivelycurethearchaicpersecutorybehavioural
inadequaciesofourantepolyphenism inthepresentandthathappensonlyduetoacultural
transmission thataimsto makeallmodern solesurviving humansaround the world
humanitarianlyproductive.LivingNeanderthalDNAmadeitintoouterspaceandhasbeen
continuingly living atthe InternationalSpace Station since the 2 November2000.
NeanderthaldescendantsalongwiththeirHomosapiensancestrylanded31yearearlieron
theMoon20July1969. Ifdepredationandrapewasthewayinwhichourancestors
ultimatelysurvivedandsoeventuallyevolvedintomodernsocietywemustremindourselves
thatsuchbehaviourweremerelyadaptationswehaveevolvedoutofthroughcultural
adaptationsasaneopolyphenism whichexpressesitselfasifwewereatotallynew typeof
polyphenism.
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