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Bangladesh National Health Accounts 1997-2015 (BNHA-V)

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... This may be because of prolonged symptom onset to hospital arrival time [15]. Revascularization procedures are frequently delayed in Bangladesh, where the majority (67%) of healthcare expenditure is out-of-pocket [40]. Most revascularization procedures are often delayed during which patients and family secure financial resources for the intervention, a practice not compatible with treatment guidelines for acute MI of the European Society of Cardiology [41]. ...
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Background There is a paucity of data regarding acute phase (in-hospital and 30-day) major adverse cardiac events (MACE) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Bangladesh. This study aimed to document MACE during the acute phase post-STEMI to provide information. Methods We enrolled STEMI patients of the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from August 2017 to October 2018 and followed up through 30 days post-discharge for MACE, defined as the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Demographic information, cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical data were registered in a case report form. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis to identify potential risk factors for MACE. Results A total of 601 patients, mean age 51.6 ± 10.3 years, 93% male, were enrolled. The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.8 ± 2.4 days. We found 37 patients (6.2%) to experience an in-hospital event, and 45 (7.5%) events occurred within the 30 days post-discharge. In univariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of developing 30-day MACE was observed in patients with more than 12 years of formal education, diabetes mellitus, or a previous diagnosis of heart failure. In a multivariate analysis, the risk of developing 30-day MACE was increased in patients with heart failure (hazard ratio = 4.65; 95% CI 1.64–13.23). Conclusions A high risk of in-hospital and 30-day MACE in patients with STEMI exists in Bangladesh. Additional resources should be allocated providing guideline-recommended treatment for patients with myocardial infarction in Bangladesh.
... This may be because of prolonged symptom onset to hospital arrival time [15]. Revascularization procedures are frequently delayed in Bangladesh, where the majority (67%) of healthcare expenditure is out-of-pocket [35]. Most revascularization procedures are scheduled post-discharge during which time patients and family secure nancial resources for the intervention, a practice not compatible with treatment guidelines for acute MI of the European Society of Cardiology [36]. ...
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Background: There is a paucity of data regarding acute phase (in-hospital and 30-day) major adverse cardiac events (MACE) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Bangladesh. This study aimed to document MACE during the acute phase post-STEMI to provide information. Methods: We enrolled STEMI patients of the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from August 2017 to October 2018 and followed up through 30 days post-discharge for MACE, defined as the composite of total death, myocardial infarction, and coronary revascularization. Demographic information, cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical data were registered in a case report form. The Cox proportional hazard model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis to identify potential risk factors for MACE. Results: A total of 601 patients, mean age 51.6±10.3 years, 93% male, were enrolled. The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.8±2.4 days. We found 37 patients (6.2%) to experience an in-hospital event, and 45 (7.5%) events occurred within the 30 days post-discharge. In univariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of developing 30-day MACE was observed in patients with more than 12 years of formal education, diabetes mellitus, or a previous diagnosis of heart failure. In a multivariate analysis, the risk of developing 30-day MACE was increased in patients with heart failure (hazard ratio = 4.65; 95% CI, 1.64–13.23). Conclusions: A high risk of in-hospital and 30-day MACE in patients with STEMI exists in Bangladesh. Additional resources should be allocated providing guideline-recommended treatment for patients with myocardial infarction in Bangladesh.
Total Health Expenditure by Provider and Revenue of the Financing Schemes
Total Annex Table 37: Total Health Expenditure by Provider and Revenue of the Financing Schemes, 2009 and 2010 (Million Taka) 2009