Designing and Experimenting Semi-automatic Green Grass Jelly
Zaqlul Iqbal#, Drupadi Ciptaningtyas*
#Department of Agricultural Engineering, Brawijaya University, Malang, 65145, Indonesia
*Department of Agricultural and Bio-system Engineering, Padjadjaran University, Sumedang, 40600, Indonesia
Abstract— In Indonesia, green grass jelly is widely known as traditional drink obtained from soaking grass jelly leaves in the water.
Nowadays, the production process of grass jelly was conducted manually, which consumes lots of time and energy. Therefore, this
research aimed to design a semi-automatic green grass jelly squeezer to accelerate and simplify the production process. Moreover, the
squeezer performance and several quality parameters of the jelly produced by the squeezer were examined. The designing process of
green grass jelly squeezer was conducted through several stages. Those were concept design, manufacture and assembled stage,
performance test, modification, and examination. The result shows that the most efficient production process was at 6000 RPM and
the digital value of 540. The measurements of Soluble Solid (SS) and gel strength show that jelly produced by the squeezer has higher
SS and Fmax than the control. The sensory evaluation shows jelly with the digital value of 520 get the best consumer acceptance, which
means the consumer prefer neither too dense nor too solid green grass jelly. The result shows that no effect of digital value and RPM
on syneresis examination.
Keywords— grass jelly; semi-automatic; squeezer.
Grass jelly is a gel obtained from soaking the leaves or
other parts of a particular plant in the water. In Indonesia,
grass jelly is known as a traditional functional drink which
has specific health benefit , . Both Cyclea Barbata
Miers and Mesona Palustris Bl, varieties of grass jelly, were
commonly used as raw material to make grass jelly , .
Fig. 1 shows those four kinds of leaves . Grass jelly
derived from Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves known as green
grass jelly—the widest grass jelly consumed in Indonesia
beside the black grass jelly that derived from Mesona
Palustris Bl leaves .
Nowadays, agribusiness scale for green grass jelly is
smaller than black grass jelly. The production process of
green grass jelly has been conducted manually which slow
down the business development. Initially, squeezing the
Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves is by hand in the water until
some bubble appears will produce green grass jelly. The
emergence of bubbles indicates the extract of green grass
jelly from the leaves come out. Moreover, green grass jelly
solution was divined from the leaf flakes, and the solution
will be thickened by the time.
Much time and energy are required in the manual
production process because the fresh Cyclea Barbata Miers
leaves are quiet hard. Therefore, the merchant of green grass
jelly modifies the method before squeezing by boil the fresh
Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves until it is slightly wilted and
soft. It is easier to get green grass jelly extract from the
boiled Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves than the fresh one.
However, the viscosities of the green grass jelly from the
boiled Cyclea Barbata Miers are lower than the fresh leaves.
Because of the lower viscosity, the merchant cheating on the
consumers by adding some additives to increase the
viscosity of green grass jelly solution.
The objective of this research was to design a semi-
automatic green grass jelly squeezer to accelerate and
simplify the production process of green grass jelly.
Moreover, the squeezer performance and several high-
quality parameters of green grass jelly made by squeezer
were examined. This squeezer was made for the merchant of
green grass jelly. The materials that used for this squeezer
are food grade, so it is safe for food producing. This
squeezer was also easy to clean and does not require
complicated maintenance. Besides, control technology was
applied, an exceptionally light sensor for measuring the
Parts inside container
turbidity of grass jelly liquid, so all of the product produced
from this squeezer has the same standard
Fig. 1 Four kinds of leave that commonly used as raw material for grass
jelly; (a) Cyclea Barbata Miers, (b) Mesona Palustris Bl,
(c) Stephaniahermandifolia, and (d) Premnaserratifolia
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Semi-automatic green grass jelly squeezer was designed
at the workshop of Siswadhi Suparjo field laboratory,
Department of Mechanical and Biosystem Engineering,
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.
A. Materials and Equipment
Materials for the manufacturing of functional parts of
squeezer were stainless steel sheet, stainless steel solid stick,
polyethylene, bolt and nut, AC motor, servo motor, and
transparent container. In addition to building the electronic
control, the materials were microcontroller AT mega 16 with
the module, photodiode, red LED, buzzer, resistor, diode,
adaptor, LM 324, Riley, PCB, rainbow cable, large cable,
fuse and fuse port, and tin solder. All those parts were
combined by using some equipment those were digital multi-
tester, solder, screwdriver, scissors, welding machine, and
Performance of the squeezer was examined by operating
the machine to make green grass jelly from the leaves of
Cyclea Barbata Miers mixed with water as a green grass
jelly that commonly sold by the merchants. Jelly solutions
made using the machine were put into sample cup for further
B. Designing Process
The capacity for designing green grass jelly squeezer is
1.5 liter of solution. The designing process of green grass
jelly squeezer was conducted through several stages, those
were concept design, manufacture and assemble,
performance test, modification, and examination stage.
1) Concept Design, there were two main parts of the
machine: mechanical part and the electrical part. Solidworks
2011 was used to design a mechanical part that contains
functional and structural layout (Fig. 2). To design the
electrical part, the testing board was used to test all
component for controlling the machine mechanism.
Fig. 2 3D Model of Green Grass Jelly Squeezer. (a) Upper squeezer (b)
Bottom squeezer (c) AC motor (d) Servomotor (e) Container (f) Sensor
module (g) Power button and speed controller
2) Manufacture and Assemble were conducted after
concept design was settled based on main design,
mechanism, capacity, power consumption, and materials. In
this stage, the machine was manufactured at the workshop.
The output of this stage is the semi-automatic green grass
3) The Performance Test is a stage to see whether the
performance of the machine was as expected. The
performance parameters, which were examined, are
squeezing velocity and time. This stage is also an evaluation
4) Modification stage conducted if the evaluations result
from the previous stage was not as expected, so the machine
should be modified to achieve a good performance. If the
evaluation result from the previous stage is as expected, this
stage can be skipped.
5) Examination stage was conducted after the machine
run properly as expected, it was examined for producing
green grass jelly. The quality of the jelly produced by the
machine will be compared with the quality of the jelly
produced by a merchant supervised by Research and
Community Services Institution of Bogor Agricultural
University with the same quantity of water and Cyclea
Barbata Miers leaves. Flow diagram of a designing process
of Semi-Automatic Green Grass Jelly Squeezer can be seen
on Fig. 3.
Fig. 3 Flow diagram of the designing process
1) Performance Examination: Performance examination
of the machine was conducted by calculating requires time to
squeeze Cyclea Barbata Miers leave from the machine was
started until the light sensor module stopped it automatically
at specific digital value. Table 1 shows the treatment
combination for the samples. The entire sample for the
examination was made from 500 ml of water and 30 gram of
Cyclea Barbata Miers. Upper squeezer moves up and down
at the velocity of 0.5 cm/s, while the minimum gap between
the squeezers is 5 cm.
2) Quality Examination of Green Grass Jelly: The
measurement of Soluble Solid (SS)  was conducted by
using hand refractometer Atago PR-201. A 2-pipette drop of
the jelly was placed on the refractometer to measure the
soluble solid, which described as ̊Brix.
TREATMENTS COMBINATION FOR THE SAMPLES
Sample Treatment condition
RPM Digital value
1 2,000 520
2 2,000 530
3 2,000 540
4 5,000 520
5 5,000 530
6 5,000 540
7 6,000 520
8 6,000 530
9 6,000 540
Hardness measurement of green grass jelly is conducted
by using Sun Rheometer same as measuring black grass jelly
hardness . Where the treatment condition as mention
below: 1. Maximum load = 2kg
2. R/H Hold = 1,999 g
3. P/T Press = 30 mm/m
4. Velocity of paper = 300mm/minute
5. Velocity of apparatus = 30 mm/minute
A 7-point hedonic scale was applied in this research to
evaluate sensory attributes: color, odor, flavor, texture, and
overall acceptability. Hedonic scale range varies from 1 to 7,
where one representing dislike remarkably and seven like
extremely . Twenty-nine students from Bogor
Agricultural University are involved to assessed green grass
jelly sample. The panelist are untrained people to evaluate
sensory attributes. Every panelist assessed 15 samples in
total where every sensory attribute (5 items) were made from
a combination of speed rotation (5000 RPM) and three
different digital value configuration: 520, 530, and 540. In
this case, speed rotation does not affect sensory attributes
significantly. Then only in the middle range speed (500
RPM) is used to make the sample. 100 ml of the jelly sample
made by the squeezer presented to panelist directly.
Moreover, the rank testing or sorting preference level to the
provided sample was conducted.
Syneresis, which occurred during gel storage, was
examined by storing the green grass jelly, which formed at
room temperature (28 ̊-30 ̊C) for 24 hours, and 48 hours.
Each grass jelly was placed in the sample cup to retain
water, which was release from jelly during storage.
Measurement was conducted by calculating the loss of grass
jelly weight (Wt) during storage divide by the initial weight
Where Wo is initial weight before storage (gram) and Wt
is weight after storage (gram)
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Semi-Automatic Green Grass Jelly Squeezer Design
1) Design of Machine: The term of Semi-Automatic
from the machine means loading and unloading process of
water and Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves to the container was
still conducted manually, however during squeezing process
until it stops was conducted automatically based on the
turbidity of the solution. Semi-automatic green grass jelly
squeezer has several primary components specifically a
transparent container, upper squeezer, bottom squeezer, and
a light sensor module.
Transparent container, which chosen to support the light
sensor module, was holding the Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves
and water during the squeezing process. Cyclea Barbata
Miers leaves, and water which were put in a transparent
container would be crushed by bottom squeezer, which was
rotating with 2000, 5000, or 6000 RPM, and upper squeezer,
which was moving up and down with the velocity of 0.5
Manufacture and ensemble
cm/s. The main functional parts of the squeezer were top and
Fig. 4 (a) Complete structure of semi-automatic green grass jelly squeezer,
(b) Upper squeezer (c) Bottom squeezer
Bottom squeezer was made from serrated-pattern
polyethylene, whi1ch was united with a food-grade stainless
steel sheet and it was connected to AC motor. AC motor was
chosen because bottom squeezer requires high-speed rotation
to squeezes Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves.
Moreover, upper squeezer, which was also made from the
same materials as bottom squeezer was connected to
stainless steel solid stick then it was connected to the servo
motor. Upper squeezer requires not only slow speed but also
the high strength to hold the tension from the leaves during
compacting process. According to the calculation, AC motor
that drives the bottom squeezer requires electrical power
around 319,652 watt, while servomotor that drives the upper
squeezer requires electrical power around 2.1 watt. The
complete structure of Semi-Automatic Green Grass Jelly
Squeezer and its main functional parts were shown on Fig. 4.
2) The Layout of the Electronic Control: The machine
mechanism was controlled by microcontroller ATMega 16
and combined with a light sensor to sense turbidity of
solution during the process. The microcontroller will read
digital value (ADC) from the sensor based on the variation
of turbidity. At first, the machine operates, by using human
eye, after the solution color near to commercial green grass
jelly, the machine stop and 3 ADC were determined: 520,
530, and 540. Those ADC were a standard of programming
the machine to stop.
Components of electronic control were assembled on a
PCB to make it compact. All components were connected to
a microcontroller (AT mega 32). It was programmed based
on the turbidity of green grass jelly solution to run their
every function. The layout of electronic control can be seen
in Fig. 5. When the machine was activated, bottom squeezer
would rotate while upper squeezer moves up and down.
During that process, the movement of upper squeezer was
controlled by a microcontroller using a relay as negative-
positive panel switcher. When the upper squeezer moved
down until Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) the relay switched
negative-positive panel of the servomotor, then the squeezer
would go up until Top Dead Centre (TDC). At that position
the relay re-switched negative-positive panel of servo motor
then the squeezer would go back down, and so on.
Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves and water inside the
transparent container would be crushed by bottom squeezer,
which was rotating with 2000, 5000, and 6000 RPM while
upper squeezer moves up and down at the velocity of 0.5
cm/s and the minimum gap between the squeezers is 5 cm.
During that process, an LED emits the light, and jelly
solution reflected it. The reflectance would be sensed by the
photodiode to express turbidity as an analog value that will
convert into a digital value by a microcontroller. The
squeezer was programmed to stop automatically at a specific
digital value in the amount of 520, 530, and 540.
In the beginning, the turbidity of the solution made by the
squeezer was observed, when the turbidity of the solution
was same as the turbidity of green grass jelly control, the
digital value of it was noted. Then, after a couple of
repetitions, the digital value of 520, 530, and 540 were
provided as the standard of turbidity level. Using the
response from the photodiode, the microcontroller would
deactivate the upper and bottom squeezer by activating on-
off relay and buzzer to make a loud sound as a sign when the
3) Performance Examination: Testing the machine in
actual condition is an essential part to understand the
capability of the machine . Fig. 6 shows the result of
performance examination of semi-automatic green grass
jelly squeezer. Fig. 6.a shows an outlier data on the digital
value of 540. There is a condition where it takes longer
squeezing process among other samples at the same digital
value. The photodiode, which was disturbed by outside light
that comes from the gap of sensor module could be the
caused by this condition.
Fig. 5 The layout of the electronic control
Fig. 6.b shows there are two samples on 6,000 RPM that
take longer squeezing process than on 5,000 RPM. The
robust structure of Cyclea Barbata Miers causes stuck at one
position. In such condition, the squeezer requires longer
squeezing process to turn the position of the leaves.
Moreover, 5,000 RPM and 6,000 RPM were not so different;
hence, in some condition, both speeds take the same length
of squeezing time. Moreover, jelly extract from the leaves
come out in the short time. Fig. 6.c shows Sample 3, which
was processed under 2000 RPM and the digital value of 540
takes the most extended squeezing process compare to other
Samples. Moreover, the fastest squeezing process was
Sample 9, which was processed under 6000 RPM and the
digital value of 540.
Generally, the faster rotations of bottom squeezer, the
shorter squeezing process of green grass jelly solution,
because of the faster rotations of bottom squeezer, the faster
Cyclea Barbata Miers leaves torn apart. Moreover, jelly
extract from the leaves come out in the short time. The result
shows the most efficient production process was at 6000
RPM and the digital value of 540.
B. Quality Examination of Green Grass Jelly
1) Soluble Solid: According to Rahmawansyah ,
Soluble Solid (SS) is a not-water matter consists of glucose,
fat, protein, or ash and other components. Fig. 7 shows all
SS of green grass jelly produced by the squeezer and the
control, which was made by a merchant supervised by
Research and Community Services Institution of Bogor
Agricultural University. The results show that SS of the
grass jelly produced by the squeezer varies from 1.75 to 3.5
(OBrix) and they all were higher than the control in the same
amount of water and Mesonapalustris leaves (500 ml of
water and 30 gram of Mesonapalustris leaves).
Fig. 6 (a) Digital value vs Time, (b) Bottom squeezer speed vs Time, (c)
The required time to make each Sample with the combination of digital
value and RPM
PROPERTIES OF GREEN GRASS JELLY PRODUCED BY SQUEEZER
Combination Texture Aroma Flavor Color Overall Acceptability
C1 4.55 ± 1.53 3.86 ± 1.62 3.69 ± 1.56 4.10 ± 1.74 4.17 ± 1.20
C2 3.66 ± 1.65 3.76 ± 1.30 3.76 ± 1.46 4.52 ± 1.35 3.39 ± 1.33
C3 3.83 ± 1.75 3.90 ± 1.54 3.72 ± 1.49 4.14 ± 1.46 4.03 ± 1.24
*Mean ± SD; ** C1, digital value 520; C2, digital value 530; C3, digital value 540.
The phenomenon shows that the squeezer effectively
produces more green grass jelly extract compare to manual
method, so green grass jelly produced by the squeezer has
higher SS than the control. In addition, high amount of SS
from the sample can decrease water activity (aw) for
microbial growth . Consequently, it contributes to
extending shelf life better than the control. Moreover, when
aw maintain in low level, some sensory attributes  in
grass jelly will improve.
Fig. 7 Soluble Solid (SS) of sample and control
2) Texture Analysis: Hardness shows the required load
to make the gel deform before it torn apart . Deformation
is the change of form, dimension, and position of some
matters from both natural and artificial under space and time
scale. Fig. 8 shows maximum load (Fmax) of the samples and
the control. The result shows green grass jelly produced by
the squeezer has higher Fmax than the control in the same
amount of water and Mesonapalustris leaves.
The phenomenon shows that the squeezer effectively
produces more green grass jelly extract compare to manual
method, so green grass jelly produced by the squeezer is
harder than the control.
Fig. 8 Maximum load to deform the green grass jelly
3) Sensory Evaluation: As a new development product,
the consumer acceptance of the green grass jelly produced
by the squeezer must be examined. Sensory evaluation is one
of an assessment method by using human sense to evaluate
the quality of agricultural product or food. Sensory
evaluation was conducted by using a hedonic scale which
observes individual perception that involved like or dislikes
impression. A 7-point scale was used rather than 9-point
scale because of it more effective 
Table 2 shows that there was no significant difference in
every digital value C1, C2, and C2 to sensory attributes. C1
generally resulted in higher acceptance for texture and
overall acceptability but had the lowest score for flavor. C2
showed higher acceptance for flavor and color, while overall
acceptability and texture gave the lowest level between the
others. In C, it had the highest score for aroma, flavor, and,
According to the score, the sample of green grass jelly
that was produced by the digital value of 520 got the best
consumer acceptance seen by overall acceptability, which
means the consumer prefer not too dense nor too solid green
4) Syneresis Measurement: Syneresis ability is one of
the most important characteristics of starch. It is an ability to
release water from gel during storage. Syneresis of starch
was increasing during storage . The observation of
syneresis was conducted in 24 hours and 48 hours.
The increasing of syneresis during storage caused by the
interaction between amylose and amylopectin chain, which
develop to the junction zone, reflecting the beam of light.
Accumulation and crystallization of amylose occurred at the
beginning time of storing process. On the other hand,
accumulation and crystallization of amylopectin occurred at
the end of storage . According to the observation, the
increasing of syneresis each day can be seen in Fig. 9. The
result shows that no effect of digital value and RPM on
syneresis was observed.
Fig. 9 Result of green grass jelly syneresis
Semi-automatic green grass jelly squeezer works the
fastest in the condition of 6000 RPM and the digital value of
540. The results for total soluble solid and gel strength show
green grass jelly produced by the squeeze has higher soluble
solid and Fmax value than the control. The result of the
sensory evaluation shows the sample of green grass jelly that
was produced by the digital value of 520 got the best
consumer acceptance, which mean the consumer prefer not
too dense nor too solid green grass jelly and no effect of
digital value and RPM on syneresis was observed.
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