ArticleLiterature Review

Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102)

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Abstract

Epidemiology studies (case-control, cohort, time trend and case studies) published since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2011 categorization of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phones and other wireless devices as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) are reviewed and summarized. Glioma is an important human cancer found to be associated with RFR in 9 case-control studies conducted in Sweden and France, as well as in some other countries. Increasing glioma incidence trends have been reported in the UK and other countries. Non-malignant endpoints linked include acoustic neuroma (vestibular Schwannoma) and meningioma. Because they allow more detailed consideration of exposure, case-control studies can be superior to cohort studies or other methods in evaluating potential risks for brain cancer. When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1). Opportunistic epidemiological studies are proposed that can be carried out through cross-sectional analyses of high, medium, and low mobile phone users with respect to hearing, vision, memory, reaction time, and other indicators that can easily be assessed through standardized computer-based tests. As exposure data are not uniformly available, billing records should be used whenever available to corroborate reported exposures.

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... These seem to have had little or no impact on those proposing limits on RF radiation and on the deployment of this technology. On the contrary, ambient RF radiation exposure has increased and is a potential health risk based on the current knowledge of the biological effects of RF radiation (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8). There seems to be an 'unholy' alliance between the telecom industry and certain scientists, organizations (even WHO), and some politicians, thus reducing the potential for precautionary actions (9,10). ...
... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of WHO in 2011 classified RF radiation in the frequency range of 30 kHz-300 GHz as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B (11,12). Since then, the evidence of the adverse effects of RF radiation has strengthened based on human epidemiological (7,8,13) and animal studies (14-16). These results add scientific evidence to a previous evaluation (17). ...
... However, as Dr Pall demonstrated, a large number of peer-reviewed studies have been published over a period of >20 years contradicting the ICNIRP evaluations. Independent peer-reviewed scientific articles (1,7,8) have demonstrated the harmful effects even far below the current public safety limits based on ICNIRP 1998 reference levels 10 W/m 2 for 2-300 GHz and 2-10 W/m 2 for 400 to 2,000 MHz (18). ...
... Since the IARC categorization, analyses of the large international Interphone study, a series of studies by the Hardell group in Sweden, and the French CERENAT case-control studies, signal increased risks of brain tumors, particularly with ipsilateral use (8). The largest case-control studies on cell phone exposure and glioma and acoustic neuroma demonstrated significantly elevated risks that tended to increase with increasing latency, increasing cumulative duration of use, ipsilateral phone use, and earlier age at first exposure (8). ...
... Since the IARC categorization, analyses of the large international Interphone study, a series of studies by the Hardell group in Sweden, and the French CERENAT case-control studies, signal increased risks of brain tumors, particularly with ipsilateral use (8). The largest case-control studies on cell phone exposure and glioma and acoustic neuroma demonstrated significantly elevated risks that tended to increase with increasing latency, increasing cumulative duration of use, ipsilateral phone use, and earlier age at first exposure (8). ...
... In another multi-country study it was found that young people can recall phone use moderately well, with recall depending on the amount of phone use and participants' characteristics (22). With less rigorous querying of exposure, prospective cohort studies are unfortunately vulnerable to exposure misclassification and imprecision in identifying risk from rare events, to the point that negative results from such studies are misleading (8,23). ...
Article
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Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation 1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.
... Their guidelines for exposure are based solely on the thermal (heating) paradigm and were first published in ICNIRP 1998 (6), updated in ICNIRP 2009 (7) and have now been newly published in ICNIRP 2020 (8), with no change of concept, only relying on thermal effects from RF radiation on humans. The large amount of peer-reviewed science on non-thermal effects has been ignored in all ICNIRP evaluations (9,10). Additionally, ICNIRP has successfully maintained their obsolete guidelines worldwide. ...
... Since the IARC evaluation in 2011 (1,2), the evidence on human cancer risks from RF radiation has been strengthened based on human cancer epidemiology reports (9)(10)(11), animal carcinogenicity studies (12)(13)(14) and experimental findings on oxidative mechanisms (15) and genotoxicity (16). Therefore, the IARC Category should be upgraded from Group 2B to Group 1, a human carcinogen (17). ...
... Health risks are discussed in Appendix B of the ICNIRP 2020 guidelines (8). Again, only thermal effects are considered, whereas literature on non-thermal health consequences is disregarded (9,10,50). In spite of public consultations on the draft, the final published version on health effects is virtually identical to the draft version, and comments seem to have been neglected (19). ...
Article
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The fifth generation, 5G, of radiofrequency (RF) radiation is about to be implemented globally without investigating the risks to human health and the environment. This has created debate among concerned individuals in numerous countries. In an appeal to the European Union (EU) in September 2017, currently endorsed by >390 scientists and medical doctors, a moratorium on 5G deployment was requested until proper scientific evaluation of potential negative consequences has been conducted. This request has not been acknowledged by the EU. The evaluation of RF radiation health risks from 5G technology is ignored in a report by a government expert group in Switzerland and a recent publication from The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Conflicts of interest and ties to the industry seem to have contributed to the biased reports. The lack of proper unbiased risk evaluation of the 5G technology places populations at risk. Furthermore, there seems to be a cartel of individuals monopolizing evaluation committees, thus reinforcing the no-risk paradigm. We believe that this activity should qualify as scientific misconduct. © This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) License.
... During the past 15 years, epidemiological studies have found an increasing association between mobile or cordless phone use and brain tumors in humans (86)(87)(88)(89)(90)(91)(92)(93)(94)(95)(96)(97)(98). Moreover, during the past 20 years, statistical studies have found associations between exposure to MT base station antennas and devices, and reported symptoms of un-wellness referred to as 'microwave syndrome' or 'electro-hypersensitivity' (EHS). ...
... Under the increasing weight of scientific evidence, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has for a long time now classified both ELF and RF EMFs as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B) (117)(118)(119). Based on additional scientific evidence after the 2011 IARC classification for RF EMFs, several studies have suggested that RF/WC EMFs should be re-evaluated and classified as probably carcinogenic (group 2A) or carcinogenic (group 1) to humans (92,97,126,127). As already emphasized, in the vast majority of studies characterized as 'RF', the ELF/ULF components were present. ...
... It is documented that both such types of human-made EMF-exposure can induce OS (3,34,(36)(37)(38)(39)43,45,109), DNA damage 84,85) and infertility (56)(57)(58)(59)(60)(61)(62)(63)(64)(65)(66)(67)(68)(69)(70)(71). It is also documented that the same types of EMF-exposure are linked with increased cancer risk both in humans and experimental animals (72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83)(86)(87)(88)(89)(90)(91)(92)(93)(94)(95)(96)(97)(98)(110)(111)(112)(113)(114). ...
Article
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Exposure of animals/biological samples to human‑made electromagnetic fields (EMFs), especially in the extremely low frequency (ELF) band, and the microwave/radio frequency (RF) band which is always combined with ELF, may lead to DNA damage. DNA damage is connected with cell death, infertility and other pathologies, including cancer. ELF exposure from high‑voltage power lines and complex RF exposure from wireless communication antennas/devices are linked to increased cancer risk. Almost all human‑made RF EMFs include ELF components in the form of modulation, pulsing and random variability. Thus, in addition to polarization and coherence, the existence of ELFs is a common feature of almost all human‑made EMFs. The present study reviews the DNA damage and related effects induced by human‑made EMFs. The ion forced‑oscillation mechanism for irregular gating of voltage‑gated ion channels on cell membranes by polarized/coherent EMFs is extensively described. Dysfunction of ion channels disrupts intracellular ionic concentrations, which determine the cell's electrochemical balance and homeostasis. The present study shows how this can result in DNA damage through reactive oxygen species/free radical overproduction. Thus, a complete picture is provided of how human‑made EMF exposure may indeed lead to DNA damage and related pathologies, including cancer. Moreover, it is suggested that the non‑thermal biological effects attributed to RF EMFs are actually due to their ELF components.
... Both RF and ELF EMFs have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B) under the weight of the accumulating scientific evidence (IARC 2002(IARC , 2013Baan et al. 2011). Based on additional scientific evidence after the 2011 IARC classification for RF EMFs, several studies have suggested that RF (including MT) EMFs should be re-evaluated and classified as probably carcinogenic (group 2A) or carcinogenic (group 1) to humans (Hardell et al. 2013;Carlberg and Hardell 2017;Hardell 2017Hardell , 2019Miller et al. 2018;Panagopoulos 2019b;Hardell and Carlberg 2020;Hardell and Nyberg 2020). Moreover it is shown that the majority of studies performed with simulated/invariable microwave EMFs emitted by generators (following IARC's guidelines) grossly underestimate the biological activity of real-life highly variable exposures by commercially available devices (Panagopoulos et al. 2015a;Panagopoulos 2017Panagopoulos , 2019aPanagopoulos , 2019bKostoff et al. 2020). ...
... This involves an even higher carrier frequency (up to 100 GHz) in order to be able to transmit higher amounts of data per second, and a much denser network of base antennas of possibly increased power in order to compensate the energy scattering loss due to the higher carrier frequency (Sauter 2011;Singh et al. 2017;Hardell and Carlberg 2020;Hardell and Nyberg 2020;Kostoff et al. 2020). A part of the scientific community has expressed strong objections to 5G installation with concerns of highly increased health risk (McClelland and Jaboin 2018;Miller et al. 2018Miller et al. , 2019Pall 2018;Panagopoulos 2019aPanagopoulos , 2019bHardell and Carlberg 2020;Hardell and Nyberg 2020;Kostoff et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
I recently reported induction of chromatid-type aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes after a single 15 min exposure to Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Mobile Telephony (MT) electromagnetic field (EMF) from a mobile phone. Lymphocytes from six healthy subjects were stimulated for mitosis, and exposed during the G2/M phase at 1 cm distance from the handset during an active phone call in “talk” mode (Panagopoulos 2019a). The same type of cells from the same subjects treated with a high caffeine dose (~290 times above the permissible single dose for an adult human) exhibited the same type of aberrations in a little smaller but comparable degree. The combination of this caffeine dose and the 15 min MT EMF exposure increased dramatically the number of aberrations in all subjects. The combined effect increased almost linearly with increasing duration of exposure to the MT EMF. Thus, MT EMF exposure ~136 times below the official limit (ICNIRP 2020) exerts a genotoxic action even greater than that of a caffeine dose ~290 times above the corresponding limit. Therefore, with a reasonable approximation, the limit for MT EMFs should be lowered by at least 40000 times (136x290) for short-term exposures, and 4000000 times for long-term exposures.
... 12 When we examine the biological effects of RF-EMR presented in the scientific literature (the ORSAA database is the largest categorised database of peer-reviewed studies on RF-EMR), 13 applying the Bradford Hill criteria, we find compelling evidence suggesting a causal link with many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. [14][15][16][17][18] Moreover, published research shows that Australia has relatively high RF-EMR exposure levels. 19 Therefore, given the scientific evidence of biological/ health effects of RF-EMR 3,4 and given the region' s concerning health statistics in chronic diseases, it is concerning that no medical input has been made in the health risks assessment process on the part of government health departments. ...
... While acknowledging that sufficient data do not exist to draw conclusions, it cannot be ruled out that RF exposure at the Toowong site, including the millimetre wave exposure, contributed to the development of those breast cancers given that there is evidence linking RF-EMR exposure to cancer. [14][15]40 Other disease statistics were not investigated at the Toowong site. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses the need to raise a medical discussion on the health risks of wireless technology, particularly about new 5G that is lacking in the Australia - New Zealand region at present. It presents some evidence for the concerns raised in the global scientific community.
... 12 When we examine the biological effects of RF-EMR presented in the scientific literature (the ORSAA database is the largest categorised database of peer-reviewed studies on RF-EMR), 13 applying the Bradford Hill criteria, we find compelling evidence suggesting a causal link with many chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. [14][15][16][17][18] Moreover, published research shows that Australia has relatively high RF-EMR exposure levels. 19 Therefore, given the scientific evidence of biological/ health effects of RF-EMR 3,4 and given the region' s concerning health statistics in chronic diseases, it is concerning that no medical input has been made in the health risks assessment process on the part of government health departments. ...
... While acknowledging that sufficient data do not exist to draw conclusions, it cannot be ruled out that RF exposure at the Toowong site, including the millimetre wave exposure, contributed to the development of those breast cancers given that there is evidence linking RF-EMR exposure to cancer. [14][15]40 Other disease statistics were not investigated at the Toowong site. ...
Article
This article addresses the currently lacking medical discussion on the safety of the new fifth generation wireless (5G) and the need to start one with input from medical scientists and clinicians given the scientific evidence of biological/health effects some of which is highlighted.
... In contrast, in 2011, an expert working group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorized RFR emitted by cell phones and other WTDs as a Group 2B ('possible') human carcinogen (IARC, 2013). Since the IARC categorization, analyses of the large international Interphone study, a series of studies by the Hardell group in Sweden, and the French CERENAT case-control studies, signal increased risks of brain tumors, particularly with ipsilateral use (Miller et al, 2018). The largest case control studies on cell phone exposure and glioma and acoustic neuroma demonstrated significantly elevated risks that tended to increase with increasing latency, increasing cumulative duration of use, ipsilateral phone use, and earlier age at first exposure (Miller et al, 2018). ...
... Since the IARC categorization, analyses of the large international Interphone study, a series of studies by the Hardell group in Sweden, and the French CERENAT case-control studies, signal increased risks of brain tumors, particularly with ipsilateral use (Miller et al, 2018). The largest case control studies on cell phone exposure and glioma and acoustic neuroma demonstrated significantly elevated risks that tended to increase with increasing latency, increasing cumulative duration of use, ipsilateral phone use, and earlier age at first exposure (Miller et al, 2018). This is a reversal of the study's prior position that cancer was unlikely to be caused by cellular phones or their base stations and that reviews had found no convincing evidence for other health effects. ...
Preprint
Cell phones are defined as devices emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW). These waves transmit signals from the cell phones to the base stations and antennas. The number of cell phone users in the world has gone up to 6 billion because it has become the most effective communication tools all over the world and the technological advancement is expected to continue as such, the amount of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure will continue to increase steadily. The rapid worldwide increase in cell phone users has raised health concerns about potential risks associated with exposure to electromagnetic fields emanating from it. The possible effects of RF exposure on genetic material of cells are considered very important since damage to the DNA of somatic cells can be linked to cancer development or cell death whereas damage to germ cells can lead to genetic damage in the next and subsequent generations. This review paper looks at genetic disorders, the evolution of cell phones and its related technological advancements, the roles of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phones in genetic damages and the possible mechanisms. A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans, some of which had shown causative relationship between exposure to mobile phones and harmful biological effects in humans. Deletions, inversion and dicentric chromosomes alone are reliable indicators of mobile phone RFR of fetal chromosomes. Several studies reported that RF-EMF exposure from cell phones caused DNA strand breaks, chromatin conformation and condensation, increased damage through disturbances in spindle function. The formation of micronuclei and reactive oxygen species are some of the mechanisms reported with which genetic damage is instigated following exposure to RF-EMF from cell phones. Abstract Cell phones are defined as devices emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW).
... Subsequent findings from the CERENAT casecontrol study in France indicate an increased risk of developing brain tumors when phones are used ipsilaterally (Coureau et al. 2014;Miller et al. 2018Miller et al. , 2019. A thorough examination of the data revealed that people exposed to radiofrequency radiation at a young age, primarily using the phone ipsilaterally and for an extended period, were at a high risk of developing gliomas and acoustic neuromas (Hardell and Carlberg 2015;Hardell et al. 2013;Miller et al. 2018Miller et al. , 2019. ...
... Subsequent findings from the CERENAT casecontrol study in France indicate an increased risk of developing brain tumors when phones are used ipsilaterally (Coureau et al. 2014;Miller et al. 2018Miller et al. , 2019. A thorough examination of the data revealed that people exposed to radiofrequency radiation at a young age, primarily using the phone ipsilaterally and for an extended period, were at a high risk of developing gliomas and acoustic neuromas (Hardell and Carlberg 2015;Hardell et al. 2013;Miller et al. 2018Miller et al. , 2019. Further research indicates that the incidence of neuroepithelial brain cancer has increased in children, adolescents, and young adults (Gittleman et al. 2015;Ostrom et al. 2016), glioblastomamultiforme has increased across all ages (Philips et al. 2018), and several brain tumors (Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, 2017); pituitary tumors (Ostrom et al. 2018), meningioma (Miller et al. 2019), nerve sheath tumor or schwannoma (Miller et al. 2019), vestibular schwannoma (Miller et al. 2019) have also been increased. ...
Article
Although the evidence is inconclusive, epidemiological studies strongly suggest that increased exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) increases the risk of brain tumors, parotid gland tumors, and seminoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified mobile phone radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). Humans being are inadvertently being exposed to EMR as its prevalence increases, mainly through mobile phones. Radiation exposure is unavoidable in the current context, with mobile phones being an inevitable necessity. Prudent usage of medicinal plants with a long history of mention in traditional and folklore medicine and, more importantly, are safe, inexpensive, and easily acceptable for long-term human use would be an appealing and viable option for mitigating the deleterious effects of EMR. Plants with free radical scavenging, anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties are beneficial in maintaining salubrious health. Green tea polyphenols, Ginkgo biloba, lotus seedpod procyanidins, garlic extract, Loranthus longiflorus, Curcuma amada, and Rosmarinus officinalis have all been shown to confer neuroprotective effects in validated experimental models of study. The purpose of this review is to compile for the first time the protective effects of these plants against mobile phone-induced neuronal damage, as well as to highlight the various mechanisms of action that are elicited to invoke the beneficial effects.
... This frequency range includes 5G. Since then, the evidence has strengthened based on human epidemiological and laboratory-based studies [for discussion see (5,6) and animal studies (7)(8)(9)]. RF radiation may now be classified as a human carcinogen, Group 1 (10). ...
... Not only cancer risks, but also other health-related effects, such as fertility, cognitive and neurobehavioral effects, oxidative stress and electrohypersensitivity (EHS) have been associated with RF exposure [for a more detailed discussion please see (5,6,14,27)]. It is thus remarkable that the ICNIRP non-thermal paradigm still is used for evaluation of health risks from RF radiation. ...
... Additional recent evidence strengthens the limited evidence available at the time of these classifications. We focus on RF-EMR which now warrants an upgrade to a class 1 carcinogen [5,6]. IARC reevaluation is urgent based on new evidence including that from the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) showing 'clear evidence' of RF-EMR carcinogenesis [7] as well as the large increases in human exposure [8]. ...
... Both these conditions are autosomal dominant. The defective genetic locus has been localized to chromosome 17 in NF I and chromosome 22 in NF II (8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Acoustic neuromas are also called vestibular schwannoma, acoustic neurinoma, vestibular neuroma, and acoustic neurofibroma. These are tumors that evolve from Schwann cell sheath and can be either intracranial or extra-axial. They usually occur adjacent to the cochlear or vestibular nerve. Anatomically, acoustic neuromas tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle. About 20% of internal carotid artery (ICA) tumors are meningiomas and may occur elsewhere in the brain. Bilateral acoustic neuromas also tend to be exclusively in individuals with type 2 neurofibromatosis. Objective: The aim was to asses the role of MRI in evaluation of cerebellopontine angle acoustic schwannomas, the role of the cyber knife treatment in eliminating the tumor with a maximum protection of healthy tissue. Methods: MRI, GE 1.5 Tesla unit and standard protocol: Pre-contrast MRI images of the temporal bones and posterior fossa were obtained using Ax 3D Fiesta T2W Hi-resolution; Ax 3D T1 Fat-Suppressed, Thin-slice (2mm) Coronal T2W, Sag 3D FiestaT2W Hi-resolution images. Post-contrast images were obtained using Ax 3D T1 Fat-Suppressed Cor 3D T1 Fat-suppressed sequences. FLAIR sequence axial). Case report: A woman 62 years of age, reported sudden tinnitus, dizziness, hearing loss in her left ear. After one years she began to experience vertigo, headache. Results: MRI of brain temporal bone with contrast show acoustic schwannoma measuring 20x9 mm on the left cerebellopontine angle extending into and enlarging the left IAC, solid enhancing component is seen the acoustic meatus and peripheral contrast cystic component in the left cerebellopontine angle, after cyber knife treatment MRI result was the solid component of the mass, filling the left internal acoustic canal shows marked post-contrast enhancement and is measured 10x5x4mm, cystic component of it filling the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is enlarged to 25x19x12mm), it extends down till the left lateral aspect of medullary cistern, abutting the CN-XII at its entrance to left hypoglossal canal. After 5 month control show, a 15mm long and 5mm thick neoplastic soft-tissue in the left internal acoustic canal, with post-contrast enhancement, measured up to 12mm at the level of porus acusticus but cystic component of the mass in left cerebellopontine angle cistern is no longer visible in this MRI exam. Conclusion: The sensitivity of MRI for correctly diagnosing acoustic schwannoma was 100 % and specificity was 92.86 % with a positive predictive value of 94.12 % and accuracy of 96.67 %. MRI is considered as an excellent noninvasive investigation for pontocerebral angle Schwannoma's.
... Notwithstanding calls to change these classifications (e.g. Ref. [4]), this suggests evidence to establish carcinogenicity is currently either limited or inadequate [5,6]. It is beyond the scope of a letter to discuss the totality of evidence not supporting an association (e.g. ...
Article
We thank Bandara and Carpenter for their thoughtful letter and comments on our article. We agree that the ongoing scientific debate about causal factors in cancer aetiology in relation to some of the items included in our measure [1], including non-ionising radiation/radiofrequency, is contested [2]. However, our scale was not created within a vacuum of prior scientific knowledge or due diligence. The complexities and uncertainties of identifying what constitutes a causal risk factor are discussed in the development paper of this scale, which also highlights the methodology used to arrive at these items [3].
... Bilateral disease accounts for less than 5% of cases and is a hallmark of a hereditary disease related to neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Patients typically present between the ages of 20-40; however, those associated with NF2 often manifest earlier [6,7]. The documented incidence of VS is rising, but there is a general consensus that this is a reflection of increased reporting. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign schwann cell-derived tumour arising from thevestibulocochlear nerve. Although benign, it represents a threat to various intracranial structures due to mass effect and has a small risk of malignant transformation. It therefore represents an important healthcare burden. We aimed to review the literature regarding pathogenesis, risk factors and diagnosis of VS. The current management and future potential management strategies are also discussed. Method: A narrative review of all relevant papers known to the authors was conducted. Results: The majority of VS remain clinically stable and do not require interventional procedures. Nevertheless, various surgical techniques exist for removing VS, the most common being translabyrinthine and retrosigmoid approaches. Due to surgical risks such as hearing loss, facial nerve dysfunction, post-operative headache and cerebrospinal fluid leaks, a "watch and rescan" approach is adopted for most patients. Radiotherapy is a useful alternative and has been shown to have a similar response for growth restriction. Due to the heterogeneous nature of VS, there is a lack of consensus regarding management for tumours that are not small enough to be managed conservatively, or large enough to be managed surgically. Emerging biological therapies (Bevacizumab, Everolimus and Lapatinib) and anti-inflammatories such as aspirin provide a promising future for VS treatment, but more long-term evidence is required. Conclusion: The knowledge base regarding VS continues to improve. With improvements in understanding related to pathogenesis, we believe future work should move toward pharmacological intervention, with a focus on biological therapy to help improve patient outcomes.
... Mobile technology for the digital India has grown and flourished nationally and internationally. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has identified that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and other wireless devices constitute a possible human carcinogen "2B" (Miller et al., 2018;IARC, 2011). Effect of mobile phone radiation exposure depends on its frequency and duration of use. ...
Article
With the rapid advances in technology, extensive use of mobile phones has increased the risk of health problems. This study was performed to find out the effect of mobile phone frequency on male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into two groups (n = 6 in each group). Group one was considered as control and group two (experimental group) was exposed to microwave radiation (2100 MHz) for 4 hours/day (5 days/week) for 3 months. Exposure of microwave radiation frequency showed significant alterations in cholinesterase activity, muscular strength, learning ability and anxiety. MWR exposure was also associated with significant alteration in the oxidative defense system and hippocampus degeneration. Histopathological observations clearly depicted the neural degeneration. Thus, it can be concluded that MWR significantly affects the central nervous system and may lead to many severe illnesses. This study may reveal a platform to understand its toxic effect and can further be used for amendment in current guidelines of mobile radiation.
... In 2011, based on the available conflicting scientific evidence, the IARC classified RF in the carcinogenic group 2B, that is, among possible carcinogens [104]. However, for some authors, the evidence is strong enough to support a change in the IARC classification and classify RF as a probable carcinogen (group 2A) [96] or even carcinogen (group 1) [86,105]. ...
Article
Adult primary tumors of the central nervous system are rare, but the incidence is increased in some European countries. Several environmental exposures have been investigated as potential risk factors, but for most, scientific evidence is still lacking. Here we review studies of environmental factors potentially involved in the carcinogenesis of brain tumors: the potential association between primary central nervous system tumors and ionizing radiation, some toxic agents (N-nitroso compounds, pesticides), air pollution, and radiofrequency electromagnetic waves. Brain-ionizing irradiation, especially during childhood, constitutes a well-established risk factor for brain tumors. Exposure to environmental toxins has been poorly explored and data give inconsistent clues about N-nitroso compounds or pesticides as risk factors of brain tumors even for prenatal exposure. For out-door pollution and risk of brain tumour, results of large prospective studies are contradictory. The effect of mobile phones on the risk of developing brain tumors has not been established for glioma and meningioma in adults, but the link with acoustic neurinoma is becoming robust. The effect of mobile phones has still not been explored in children.
... The adequacy of RFR regulatory limits was challenged in 2011 when an expert panel a Group 1 known human carcinogen [39]. Hardell and Carlberg came to the same conclusion [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency radiation (RFR), used for wireless communications and “smart” building technologies, including the “Internet of Things,” is increasing rapidly. As both RFR exposures and scientific evidence of harmful effects increase apace, it is timely to heed calls to include low RFR levels as a performance indicator for the health, safety and well-being of occupants and the environment. Adverse biochemical and biological effects at commonly experienced RFR levels indicate that exposure guidelines for the U.S., Canada and other countries, are inadequate to protect public health and the environment. Some industry liability insurance providers do not offer coverage against adverse health effects from radiation emitted by wireless technologies, and insurance authorities deem potential liability as “high.” Internationally, governments have enacted laws, and medical and public health authorities have issued recommendations, to reduce and limit exposure to RFR. There is urgent need to implement strategies for no- or low-RFR emitting technologies, and shielding, in building design and retrofitting. These strategies include installing wired (not wireless) Internet networks, corded rather than cordless phones, and cable or wired connections in building systems (e.g., mechanical, lighting, security). Building science can profit from decades of work to institute performance parameters, operationalizing prudent guidelines and best practices. The goal is to achieve RFR exposures that are ALARA, “As Low As Reasonably Achievable.” We also challenge the business case of wireless systems, because wired or cabled connections are faster, more reliable and secure, emit substantially less RFR, and consume less energy in a sector with rapidly escalating green-house gas emissions.
... Scientists presume that 5G will cause health issues like abnormal cell division and cell destruction. According to the study [56], RF radiation is carcinogenic [57] and induces tumors [60], cancer [58,59], disrupts gene expressions [61], motor skills, memory and attention [62], interacts with sweat glands [63,64] etc. NYU WIRELESS [65] propose the first temperature-based utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based systems to measure the thermal change. However, the investigation of Guraliuc et. ...
Preprint
The fifth generation (5G) mobile network will enable the Internet of Things (IoT) to take a large leap into the age of future computing. As a result of extended connectivity, high speed, reduced latency services being provided by 5G, IoT has experienced and will continue to undergo a remarkable transition in every field of daily life. Furthermore, fog computing will revolutionize the IoT platforms by decentralizing the operations by the cloud and ensuring sustainability with big data, mobility and reduced processing lag. 5G is ubiquitous, reliable, scalable and economic in nature. The features will not only globalize IoT in a broader spectrum, but also make common people interact smartly and efficiently with the environment in real time. In this study, a combined survey is presented on different IoT applications coupled with cloud platforms. Moreover, the capabilities of IoT in the influence of 5G are explored as well as how the IoT platform and services will adopt through 5G are envisaged. Additionally, some open issues triggered by 5G have been introduced to harness the maximum benefit out of this network. Finally, a platform is proposed to implement in the telepresence project based on the investigation and findings.
... Scientists presume that 5G will cause health issues like abnormal cell division and cell destruction. According to the study [58], RF radiation is carcinogenic [59] and induces tumors [62], cancer [60,61], disrupts gene expressions [63], motor skills, memory and attention [64], interacts with sweat glands [65,66] etc. NYU WIRELESS [67] propose the first temperature-based utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based systems to measure the thermal change. However, the investigation of Guraliuc et al. and Koyama et al. [68,69] perceives an appropriate human body model for dosimetric analysis in 60 GHz band and confirms no significant statistical change in the Human corneal epithelial and human lens epithelial cells in prolonged exposure to RF radiation. ...
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The parking plays a fundamental role in urban transport policy development, as an important factor impacting driver’s behavior and a major source of traffic problems. In this paper, we present some novel parking pricing schemes to solve the parking spots scarcity and enhance the traffic condition in urban areas. We capture the traveler behavior in term of joint route and parking selection using a simple congestion game. Each traveler aims to minimize his/her expected travel cost by choosing an optimal strategy (route and parking spot). We show how an efficient pricing can incentivize the travelers to optimally choose their route-parking while reducing the traffic congestion.
... Some segments of the population may be more vulnerable to potentially adverse effects stemming from work exposure or individual susceptibility. Relevant epidemiological and experimental studies have attempted to evaluate EMF exposure and its effects on cancer risk [1], the nervous system [2], hematology [3], metabolism and the endocrine system [4] and the human population at large or specific groups that may incur greater risk due to more direct exposure. ...
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Studies are based on the exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats (250 male and 250 female rats) to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at different frequencies in standing and travelling wave chambers. Values of specific absortion rate (SAR) for all of these experiments were obtained from commercially available FDTD-based simulation software based on numerical phantom animals. An experimental radiation system was developed with a standing-wave cavity which keeps electromagnetic parameters constant while facilitating stress-free exposure of animals to non-thermal radiation. This makes it possible to directly measure the power absorbed by the animal and determine whole-body mean SAR according to weight. All studies using this setup were performed with global system for mobile communication (GSM) radiation at 900 MHz. The simple picrotoxin model made allow to identify morphological signs of neurotoxicity in rat brain tissue. Experiments involving travelling waves were done in a commercial Gigahertz Transverse ElectroMagnetic (GTEM) chamber connected to one or two vector signal generators (to carry single or multiple EMF exposure frequencies). In the diathermy model, rat thyroid and thymus exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation showed visible morphological and immune effects. Cellular stress in the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum or both seems to be more associated with the type of signal than with additive effects of combined frequencies. Finally, some hypothesis related with the future models about the ElectroMagnetic (EM) pollution are established. In an urban environmental that combines the electromagnetic and chemical pollution of environmental particles, cortical excitability, inflammatory response, and cell injury can be modified.
... Mobile phone transmitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been listed as a potential carcinogen to humans by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) [4]. Previous literature already have been established the harmful effects of EMR on the body. ...
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The study aimed to discover a link between the liver and brain's functional status due to frequency dependent-radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR). 40 Wistar rats were randomly classified as control (sham-exposed) and EMR exposed groups. Animals were exposed to 900, 1800, and 2100 MHz with thespecific absorption rate (SAR) 0.434 (W/Kg), 0.433 (W/Kg), and 0.453 (W/Kg) respectively. Animal exposure was limited at 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 1 month with a restricted power density (900 MHz- 11.638µW/m², 1800- 11.438 µW/m² and 2100 MHz frequency- 8.237 µW/m²). Exposure at various frequencies showed a frequency-dependent change in the body weight and hematologic parameters (RBCs, WBCs, platelets, hemoglobin, and hematocrit) as compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.01)(P ≤ 0.001). A significant elevation in serum transaminases and bilirubin, urea, uric acid, and creatinine was noted, whereas albumin significantly decreased after EMR exposure (P ≤ 0.01)(P ≤ 0.001). The blood glucose, lipid peroxidation, triglycerides, and cholesterol were elevated while adenosine triphosphatases, acetylcholinesterase, and tissue antioxidants such as glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione Peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenases were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Histopathological observations of the liver showed centrilobular mononuclear cell infiltration and swelling in sinusoidal spaces, while in the brain degenerated pyramidal and Purkinje neurons were seen. Furthermore, Substantial evidence was found that the brain is more susceptible to oxidative mutilation compare to the liver of exposed animals. In conclusion, RF-EMR exposure showed oxidative damage to the liver, increasing the incidence of brain damage in a frequency-dependent manner. • Highlights • EMR exposure showed frequency-dependent toxicity. • Alterations in blood profile and modifications in the serological markers. • Increasing lipid peroxidation indicating membrane damage. • Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity affecting cholinergic neurotransmission. • EMR exposure resulted in the loss of cellular energy and production of excess amounts of ROS thereby altering several antioxidant enzymes. • Histopathological evidence of severe degenerative changes in the liver and brain.
... Regarding salivary gland tumors, both conclusions have been reached: no association 4,7 , and association (mild but significant) 8 . Miller et al. 9 proposed that the International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC) should change the classification of RF EMF from MP and other wireless devices from its current IARC Group 2B (possibly carcinogenic) to Group 1 (carcinogenic), whereas organizations such as the Food and Drugs Administration from the USA 10 or the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority 11 have come to the exact opposite conclusion. ...
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Whether the use of mobile phones (MP) represents a health hazard is still under debate. As part of the attempts to resolve this uncertainty, there has been an extensive characterization of the electromagnetic fields MP emit and receive. While the radiofrequencies (RF) have been studied exhaustively, the static magnetic fields (SMF) have received much less attention, regardless of the fact there is a wealth of evidence demonstrating their biological effects. We performed 2D maps of the SMF at several distances from the screen of 5 MP (models between 2013 and 2018) using a tri-axis magnetometer. We built a mathematical model to fit our measurements, extrapolated them down to the phones’ screen, and calculated the SMF on the skin of a 3D head model, showing that exposure is in the µT to mT range. Our literature survey prompts the need of further research not only on the biological effects of SMF and their gradients, but also on their combination with extremely low frequency (ELF) and RF fields. The study of combined fields (SMF, ELF, and RF) as similar as possible to the ones that occur in reality should provide a more sensible assessment of potential risks.
... La maggior parte dei lavori di revisione della letteratura i cui autori esprimono invece un giudizio sulla relazione esistente tra esposizione a radiofrequenze da cellulari e rischi per la salute, riportano valutazioni positive. In particolare, sui tumori del cervello e sul neurinoma dell'acustico (46,47), sulla salute riproduttiva (48, 49) e sul tumore della mammella (50), anche se in questo ultimo caso il meccanismo causale sarebbe legato all'emissione di luce blu da parte dei dispositivi mobili più che ad un effetto delle radiofrequenze. Inoltre, i meccanismi del possibile danno all'organismo includono la produzione di specie chimiche all'ossigeno molto reattive, alterazione dell'espressione genica e danno del DNA, sia con processi genetici che epigenetici (51), e una certa riduzione dell'efficienza del sistema immunitario, soprattutto per esposizioni prolungate (52). ...
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In 2013, IARC classified the radiofrequency emitted by mobile phones exposure as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). After this classification, several studies were carried out to confirm and to robust or to reject IARC conclusions. Aim of this work was to draw a synthesis of principal scientific evidencies published till September 2019. The analysis of published results could not indicate clear risk profiles, nor surely confirm or reject the hypothesis that exposures to radiofrequency from mobile phones can threat human health. Despite the prevalence of negative studies, some methodological and temporal limitations prevent to draw firm conclusions about the potential health risks for humans, especially for heavy exposed subjects or particular categories such as children or adolescents. Thus, further studies are needed, as well as some methodological improvements, to fully respond to the question about health threats of radiofrequency emitted by mobile phones.
... Böylece 5G'nin oluşturacağı yüksek güç yoğunluğu ile standartlar da uyumlu hale getirilmiştir. Ancak, ICNIRP standart değerlerini belirlerken bu alanların sadece termal etkileri ile almakta ve termal olmayan etkileri ise göz ardı etmektedir (19)(20)(21). ...
... As to mobile phone pulsations, ELF EMF studies demonstrated that exposure to Sinusoidal-50Hz magnetic field from prenatal life until natural death significantly enhances the carcinogenic effects of well-known human carcinogens [36,37]. Consequently, in addition to the results obtained from epidemiological studies, those two new independent laboratory findings and many independent earlier studies conducted in animals-including a US Air Force study in 1992 [38] and others showing RFR-related DNA genetic damage and oxidative stress induction at low radiation intensity level [39][40][41]-all led several scientists to consider that the evidence is sufficiently robust to re-classify RFR and ELF EMF as probably carcinogenic to humans, group 2A, or even as carcinogenic, group 1 [42][43][44]. ...
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Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to serious confounding biases and erroneous medical interpretations. This is particularly the case for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and more particularly for the so-called “provocation tests”, which do not investigate the causal origin of EHS but rather the EHS-associated particular environmental intolerance state with hypersensitivity to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, because those tests depend on multiple EMF-associated physical and biological parameters and have been conducted in patients without having first defined EHS objectively and/or endpoints adequately, they cannot presently be considered to be valid pathogenesis research methodologies. Consequently, the negative results obtained by these tests do not preclude a role of EMF exposure as a symptomatic trigger in EHS patients. Moreover, there is no proof that EHS symptoms or EHS itself are caused by psychosomatic or nocebo effects. This international consensus report pleads for the acknowledgement of EHS as a distinct neuropathological disorder and for its inclusion in the WHO International Classification of Diseases.
... Dünya Sağlık Örgütü'nün Uluslararası Kanser Araştırma Ajansı (IARC) 2011'de 30 kHz-300 GHz frekans aralığındaki RF radyasyonunu 'olası' insan kanserojeni Grup 2B olarak sınıflandırmıştır (16). Bu gelişmenin ardından RF radyasyonunun olumsuz etkilerine kanıt oluşturabilecek çalışmalar epidemiyolojik insan ve hayvan çalışmalarına dayandırılarak güçlendirilmiştir (17,18,19,20,21). ...
... Updated security limits for RF-EMFs (including 5G) were recently published by the ICNIRP on March 11, 2020(ICNIRP, 2020. However, the results of many experimental studies showing various non-thermal biological/health effects of RFR (Belpomme, Hardell, Belyaev, Burgio, & Carpenter, 2018;Miller, Morgan, Udasin, & Davis, 2018), as in previous guidelines (ICNIRP, 1998(ICNIRP, , 2009, have not been taken into account. Even in the guidelines published by the ICNIRP in 2020, it is seen in Table 3 that the limit values for RFs for the general public are quite similar to those in 1998. ...
Chapter
An epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that leads an epithelial cell to change by gaining a mesenchymal phenotype. During organogenesis, embryogenesis and metastasis of tumor cells, cells differentiate into epithelial or mesenchymal states via EMT and MET processes. Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) and the signaling pathway is the most important EMT stimulator. TGFβ plays a prominent role as a tumor suppressor and a metastatic agent in cancer progression. From embryonic development to homeostasis, TGFβ and its downstream regulators in the signaling pathway are crucial that deficiencies and mutations in the gene or on the pathway cause developmental defects, immunological diseases, and poor prognosis in cancer patients.
... (33) These recently reported experimental studies provide sufficient evidence for a re-evaluation of IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans. (34) Neuroma (or schwannoma) of the eighth cranial nerve can occur as a rare tumor or as part of Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), an autosomal dominant disease that predisposes to develop of cranial and spinal tumors including schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas with full penetrance. (35) A causative germline mutation in the Neurofibromin-2 (NF2) gene can be identified in 70 to 90% of the affected patients; the presence of large deletions, mutations in promoter or intronic regions, and somatic mosaicism often hinders the identification of the exact mutation. ...
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Background: Over the process of establishing the causal relation-ship, medical and legal methodologies may be at variance over the definitional standards and terminologies applied, which can hinder the activities of expert witnesses. Objectives: The article's authors have set out to assess whether, and under what conditions, a causal relationship can be established between acoustic neuroma and exposure to non-ionizing radiation from mobile communication devices. Methods: The study design is a Systematic Review. The authors have drawn upon a 2020 Turin Court of Appeals ruling which found such a causal relationship in a somewhat peculiar case: rare tumor and exposure to non-ionizing radiation of unusually long and regular dura-tion. The case presents several peculiarities, herein analyzed in light of a) scientific evidence relative to the etiopathogenesis of the neuroma; b) available medico-legal literature defining causality evaluation criteria, and lastly c) court filings in regard to the probability standards applied to prove causal relationship. Results: A direct tie cannot be proven, not even in cases of sub-stantially intense and lengthy exposure, if the medico-legal standards applied are not consistent enough to prove that nexus is more likely than not. Discussion: Several elements suggest a causal relationship is unlikely: a) a dearth of evidence on humans; b) rats exposed to such radiation have developed cardiac tumors, not in their ears; c) exposure has caused no tumors in mice; d) the length of exposure is incompat-ible with tumor size and type. That fourth point only concerns the case herein explored, whereas the first three have a general scope of validity. The main limitation of the present study design is the heterogeneity among the included studies. Retrospective and prospective studies have been included, which may be a source of bias.
... according to people's perception (Boehmert et al. 2019), physiological responses (Houston et al. 2018), biological effects in lab animals such as effects on thyroid gland (Asl et al. 2019), to possible carcinogenicity (IARC 2013), and oxidative stress (Gautam et al. 2019). It is obvious from review of different studies that, the effects from exposure to antennas are less certain compared to direct body exposure from handheld phones, and there is no definitive conclusion about the effects (Feychting 2011;Verschaeve 2014;Gurbuz et al. 2018;Miller et al. 2018;Asl et al. 2019). ...
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The wide-spread exposure to constantly evolving wireless technologies believed to pose a serious health threat. Human beings are persistently exposed to RF radiation from mobile phones and their base stations. The current study aimed at classifying and characterizing the exposure to RF radiation from the mobile phone base stations. Spatial distribution measurements were carried out in Khartoum city during two time periods, first in 2012 (pilot survey) and again during Sept. 2019–Jan. 2020, to cover a total of 282 antennas operating with GSM900, GSM1800, and UMTS2100. The tested antennas belong to three mobile communication companies namely Sudani, Zain, and MTN companies, that randomly coded into company A, company B, and company C for security purposes. Measurements were performed using frequency-selective RF analyzer at fixed distances from the antennas/towers. Data were subjected to advanced repeated measures ANOVA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and spatial interpolation with ArcGIS. The averages of GSM900, GSM1800, and UMTS measurements were 0.01933 W/m2, 0.0067 W/m2, and 0.0046 W/m2. The high levels of power densities for each single antenna were recorded at 90 m, 110 m, 130 m, and at 150 m distances, for the majority (70%) of the measured antennas and the peak/highest values reported mainly at 110 m distance. Conversely, the discriminant loadings as part of LDA, suggested that, much of variance among measurements is attributed to measurements at 150 m, 170 m, and 190 m distances, while visual illustration of group centroids implied that, the RF signals of the different companies were measured separately which support accuracy of frequency-selective measurements. The LDA has confirmed the ANOVA results that, the overall difference between the three companies was statistically significant for UMTS, and GSM900 measurements but not significant for GSM1800 measurements. Kriging interpolation using ArcGIS provided a strong evidence of great spatial distribution of exposure across the study area, with market places and typical urban residential quarters showing highest levels of RF. Few extreme values exceeding ICNIRP limits are reported but excluded from the calculations because of an issue of normality of data that is considered a prerequisite for parametric data analysis. Existence of extreme levels of RF indicates a need for further investigation and some antennas of Company B are mounted on towers belongs to Company C, implying multi exposure. Unexpected pattern of RF levels continued to increase up to 190 m distance and possibly beyond 190 m is reported for UMTS measurements of Company C.
... By now there is concordance between tumours in human epidemiology (Belpomme et al., 2018;Miller et al., 2018) and animal studies (Falcioni et al., 2018;National Toxicology Program, 2018a, 2018b, that is glioma and Schwann cell tumours. These results are supported by mechanistic studies such as oxidative stress (Yakymenko et al., 2016) and DNA damage from RF radiation (Smith-Roe et al., 2020). ...
Article
In urban environment there is a constant increase of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. With the placement of mobile phone base station antennas radiofrequency hotspots emerge. This study investigates an area at Skeppsbron street in Stockholm, Sweden with an aggregation of base station antennas placed at low level close to pedestrians' heads. Detailed spatial distribution measurements were performed with 1) a radiofrequency broadband analyzer and 2) a portable exposimeter. The results display a greatly uneven distribution of the radiofrequency field with hotspots. The highest spatial average across all quadrat cells was 12.1 V m⁻¹ (388 mW m⁻²), whereas the maximum recorded reading from the entire area was 31.6 V m⁻¹ (2648 mW m⁻²). Exposimeter measurements show that the majority of exposure is due to mobile phone downlink bands. Most dominant are 2600 and 2100 MHz bands used by 4G and 3G mobile phone services, respectively. The average radiofrequency radiation values from the earlier studies show that the level of ambient RF radiation exposure in Stockholm is increasing. This study concluded that mobile phone base station antennas at Skeppsbron, Stockholm are examples of poor radiofrequency infrastructure design which brings upon highly elevated exposure levels to popular seaside promenade and a busy traffic street.
... Only the following decades of collective efforts of researchers around the world made it possible to establish the approximate degree of danger of the background MFs ( [10], pp. 332-333) and [11][12][13][14][15][16]. It has now been reliably established that MFs orders of magnitude smaller than the geoMF are capable of causing biological effects (e.g., [17][18][19][20][21]). ...
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This review contains information on the development of magnetic biology, one of the multidisciplinary areas of biophysics. The main historical facts are presented and the general observed properties of magnetobiological phenomena are listed. The unavoidable presence of nonspecific magnetobiological effects in the everyday life of a person and society is shown. Particular attention is paid to the formation of theoretical concepts in magnetobiology and the state of the art in this area of research. Some details are provided on the molecular mechanisms of the nonspecific action of a magnetic field on organisms. The prospects of magnetobiology for the near and distant future are discussed.
Article
Emerging studies have provided evidence on the carcinogenicity of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from cell phones. This study aims to test the genetic susceptibility on the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer. Population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut between 2010 and 2011 including 440 thyroid cancer cases and 465 population-based controls with genotyping information for 823 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 176 DNA genes. We used multivariate unconditional logistic regression models to estimate the genotype-environment interaction between each SNP and cell phone use and to estimate the association with cell phone use in populations according to SNP variants. Ten SNPs had P < 0.01 for interaction in all thyroid cancers. In the common homozygote groups, no association with cell phone use was observed. In the variant group (heterozygotes and rare homozygotes), cell phone use was associated with an increased risk for rs11070256 (odds ratio (OR): 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-4.30), rs1695147 (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.30-4.90), rs6732673 (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.01-2.49), rs396746 (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.13-5.65), rs12204529 (OR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.33-5.17), and rs3800537 (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.30-5.36) with thyroid cancers. In small tumors, increased risk was observed for 5 SNPs (rs1063639, rs1695147, rs11070256, rs12204529 and rs3800537), In large tumors, increased risk was observed for 3 SNPs (rs11070256, rs1695147, and rs396746). Our result suggests that genetic susceptibilities modify the associations between cell phone use and risk of thyroid cancer. The findings provide more evidence for RFR carcinogenic group classification.
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Infected nonunion is still a challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The goal of treatment is to eliminate infection and achieve bone union. Surgery is the only effective method currently. However, it is invasive and the results are still unsatisfactory. Therefore, seeking a noninvasive and effective method to resolve infected nonunion is necessary. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been used for the treatment of nonunion for more than 40 years. PEMF could promote bone formation at tissue, cell and subcellular levels. Furthermore, our study showed that PEMF had bactericidal effect. The hypothesis we proposed herein is that PEMF may be an adjuvant treatment for infected nonunion by controlling infection and inducing bone formation.
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Worldwide, the number of mobile phone users has increased from 5.57 billion in 2011 to 6.8 billion in 2019. However, short- and long-term impact of the electromagnetic radiation emitting from mobile phones on tissue homeostasis with particular to brain proteome composition needs further investigation. In this study, we attempted a global proteome profiling study of rat hippocampus exposed to mobile phone radiation for 20 weeks (for 3 h/day for 5 days/week) to identify deregulated proteins and western blot analysis for validation. As a result, we identified 358 hippocampus proteins, of which 16 showed deregulation (log2 (exposed/sham) ≥ ±1.0, p-value <.05). Majority of these deregulated proteins grouped into three clusters sharing similar molecular pathways. A set of four proteins (Succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase: Aldh5a1, Na⁺ K⁺ transporting ATPase: Atp1b2, plasma membrane calcium transporting ATPase: PMCA and protein S100B) presenting each functional pathway were selected for validation. Western blot analysis of these proteins, in an independent sample set, corroborated the mass spectrometry findings. Aldh5a1 involve in cellular energy metabolism, both Atp1b2 and PMCA responsible for membrane transport and protein S100B have a neuroprotective role. In conclusion, we present a deregulated hippocampus proteome upon mobile phone radiation exposure, which might influence the healthy functioning of the brain.
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millimeter (mmWave) frequencies are covering from 30GHz to 300GHz in the electromagnetic spectrum and their uses in various applications like next-generation wireless communication systems (massive 5G telecommunications network), medical devices, airport security and automatic collision avoidance systems are growing vastly in the near future. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of mmWave radiation (non-ionization radiation) on biological systems and biophysical mechanisms. This paper focus on thorough review of nascent literature about current understandings of biological effects and epidemiological studies due to mmWave radiation in human beings. It presents latest guidelines with quantitative electromagnetic field thresholds by considering the realistic exposure scenarios of “general public” and “occupational” who undergo through wireless communication sources in their daily life. It also gives necessary safety measures to be taken while using the emerging mmWave technologies for future generation wireless communication networks.
Article
Objectives To investigate whether a possible association of mobile phone use with hearing impairment was conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Content This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out based on the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) methodology using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, OVID, and Cochrane. The Robins-I tool was used for quality assessment and risk of bias. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles. Pooled effect size was calculated and meta-analysis was performed to compute an overall effect size. Summary Overall, five relevant studies (two cross-sectional and three cohort studies) with 92,978 participants were included in the analysis. The studies were stratified by design, there was no significant association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment in cross-sectional studies (OR=0.94, 95% CI=0.57–1.31) and cohort studies (OR=1.09, 95% CI=0.93–1.25). In addition, the effect estimates did not differ significantly between cross-sectional and cohort studies (Q=0.50, p=0.48). Overall, the pooled odds ratio (OR) of hearing impairment was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.94–1.20), which indicates no significant association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment. Outlook Our findings indicate no association between mobile phone use and hearing impairment. However, these findings must be interpreted with caution.
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The aim of this study was to examine the potential effects of long-term evolution (LTE) radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on cell proliferation using SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. The growth rate and proliferation of SH-SY5Y cells were significantly decreased upon exposure to 1760 MHz RF-EMF at 4 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) for 4 hr/day for 4 days. Cell cycle analysis indicated that the cell cycle was delayed in the G0/G1 phase after RF-EMF exposure. However, DNA damage or apoptosis was not involved in the reduced cellular proliferation following RF-EMF exposure because the expression levels of histone H2A.X at Ser139 (γH2AX) were not markedly altered and the apoptotic pathway was not activated. However, SH-SY5Y cells exposed to RF-EMF exhibited a significant elevation in Akt and mTOR phosphorylation levels. In addition, the total amount of p53 and phosphorylated-p53 was significantly increased. Data suggested that Akt/mTOR-mediated cellular senescence led to p53 activation via stimulation of the mTOR pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. The transcriptional activation of p53 led to a rise in expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21 and p27. Further, subsequent inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4 produced a fall in phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pRb at Ser807/811), which decreased cell proliferation. Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to RF-EMF might induce Akt/mTOR-mediated cellular senescence, which may delay the cell cycle without triggering DNA damage in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
Chapter
The fifth generation (5G) mobile network will enable the Internet of Things (IoT) to take a large leap into the age of future computing. As a result of extended connectivity, high speed, and reduced latency services being provided by 5G, IoT has experienced and will continue to undergo a remarkable transition in every field of daily life. Furthermore, fog computing will revolutionize the IoT platforms by decentralizing the operations through the cloud and ensuring sustainability with big data, mobility, and reduced processing lag. 5G is ubiquitous, reliable, scalable, and economic in nature. The features will not only globalize IoT in a broader spectrum, but also make common people interact smartly and efficiently with the environment in real time. In this study, a combined survey is presented on different IoT applications coupled with cloud platforms. Moreover, the capabilities of IoT in the influence of 5G are explored as well as how the IoT platform and services will adopt through 5G are envisaged. Additionally, some open issues triggered by 5G have been introduced to harness the maximum benefit out of this network. Finally, a platform is proposed to implement in the telepresence project based on the investigation and findings.
Technical Report
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Il comune in cui uno dei due autori risiede ha emanato una ordinanza di divieto di installazione di impianti con tecnologia 5G, così come altri 500 comuni italiani. Questo libro nasce con l’obiettivo di cercare la risposta ad una semplice domanda: perché? Il materiale di partenza è il testo dell’ordinanza comunale, di cui vengono analizzati criticamente i vari “visto che”, “ricordato che”, “preso atto che”, cioè tutte le parti che di solito si saltano a pie’ pari. Il metodo seguito è a ventaglio: da ogni singolo punto gli autori allargano lo sguardo ai riferimenti bibliografici citati, addentrandosi nella normativa di riferimento, nei documenti e lavori scientifici e nelle sentenze. Le affermazioni generiche dell’ordinanza non recanti alcun riferimento, sono analizzate in base alle evidenze scientifiche pubblicate su riviste autorevoli o provenienti da fonti istituzionali. L’analisi si allarga naturalmente al problema degli effetti dei campi elettromagnetici sulla salute, soffermandosi sui documenti ufficiali emanati da enti sovranazionali direttamente interessati all’argomento: Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità, Organizzazione Internazionale per la protezione dalle radiazioni non ionizzanti (ICNIRP), Agenzia Internazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro (IARC) e Commissione Europea. Al di là di ciò che è riportato nell’ordinanza, viene considerato anche quanto pubblicato in proposito da enti italiani (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ARPA e Politecnico di Milano) e verificato come si muovono altre realtà locali italiane ed altri paesi Europei e non. Non viene tralasciato quanto scritto nei siti che si oppongono genericamente alle “onde elettromagnetiche” o specificamente al 5G, materiale che viene qui sottoposto a controllo ed analisi critica basata sulle evidenze scientifiche. Una parte importante occupa la verifica di cosa si intenda per principio di precauzione e di come esso venga applicato nel caso specifico italiano. La conclusione degli autori è che il limite di esposizione fissato da ICNIRP per l’intensità dei segnali 5G e adottato in quasi tutto il mondo si basa sulle evidenze scientifiche accreditate e aggiornate al settembre 2019, applicando il principio di precauzione in maniera precisa e molto conservativa. Il limite fissato dal legislatore italiano (10 volte inferiore per il campo elettrico e 100 volte per la densità di potenza), costituisce già un ulteriore e forse eccessivo livello di precauzione. I comuni italiani che si oppongono alla installazione del 5G aggiungono un terzo livello di precauzione. Un comportamento che, oltre a non trovare giustificazione scientifica o logica, vari TAR regionali e il Consiglio di Stato hanno a più riprese ritenuto illegittimo. Edizione 2.0 - Agosto 2020: Nel tentativo di mettere un freno alle ordinanze stop-5G e permettere il dispiego della rete senza ulteriori ritardi, il Governo ha recentemente emanato il DL “Semplificazioni”, che chiarisce, o tenta di farlo, che la responsabilità di fissare i limiti per le emissioni elettromagnetiche spetta solo allo Stato. I Comuni possono al più definire aree “sensibili”, che vogliono lasciare libere da antenne, ma non possono più vietarle in modo generalizzato in tutto il territorio comunale. A seguito di ciò la principale associazione promotrice della campagna di ordinanze comunali, l’Alleanza italiana Stop 5G (AIS5G), ha inviato qualche giorno fa a tutti i Comuni italiani una lettera di “chiamata alle armi”, nella quale si invitano i sindaci ad aderire ad ulteriori forme di lotta. In questa nuova edizione, in un'appendice dedicata, passeremo in rassegna e verificheremo tutti i punti menzionati nella lettera con particolare attenzione per le nuove ricerche scientifiche.
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The advent of wireless technologies has revolutionized the way we communicate. The steady upsurge in the use of mobile phone all over the world in the last two decades, while triggered economic growth, has caused substantial damage to the environment, both directly and indirectly. The electromagnetic radiation generated from mobile phones, radio-based stations, and phone towers, high-voltage power lines have been reported which leads to the variety of health scares such as the risk of cancer in human beings and adverse effects in animals, birds, etc. Though the usage of such radiation emitting from mobile phones has risen steeply, there is a lack of proper knowledge about the associated risks. The review provides the latest research evidence based both on in vitro studies, in vivo studies, and possible gaps in our knowledge. Moreover, the present review also summarizes available literature in this subject, reports and studies which will help to form guidelines for its exposure limits to the public. Abbreviations: Continuous Wave: CW; Code Division Multiple Access: CDMA; Global System for Mobile Communications: GSM; Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell: PBMC; Radiofrequency: RF; Radiofrequency radiation: RFR; Universal Mobile Telecommunications System: UMTS; Wideband Code Division Multiple Access: WCDMA; Specific Absorption Rate: SAR; National Toxicology Program: NTP; amplitude-modulated or amplitude-modulation: AM; Electromagnetic frequencies: EMF; confidence interval: CI; Gigahertz: GHz; odds ratio: OR; incidence ratio: IR; reactive oxygen species: ROS; specific absorption rate: SAR; International Agency of Research on Cancer: IARC; single-strand breaks: SSB; double-strand breaks: DSB (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene): DMBA; Hour: h; international commission on non-ionizing radiation protection: ICNIRP; extremely low frequency: ELFl; microtesla: mT; Gigahertz: GHz; hertz: Hz; decibel: dB; kilometer: Km; Watt per square meter: W/m2; Hour: h; positron emission tomography: PET.
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Living in today’s world requires extensive communication with the world around us, which the mobile phone is one of this equipment along with other devices such as computers, radios, telephone towers, and power lines. It is supposed that prolonged exposure to radiation may cause biological damage to living organisms. However, the results from different laboratory studies are contradictory and there is still insufficient information about the biological risks to human health. In this article, we reviewed some of the potential biological effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) exposure.
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Purpose Environment and lifestyle factors is being attributed towards increased instances of male infertility. Rapid technological advancement, results in emission of electromagnetic radiations of different frequency which impacts human both biologically as well as genetically. Devices like cell phone, power line and monitors emit electromagnetic radiation and are a major source of the exposure. Numerous studies describe the detrimental consequence of radiation on physiological parameters of male reproductive system including sperm parameters (morphology, motility, and viability), metabolism and genomic instability. While the thermal and non-thermal interaction of nonionizing radiations with biological tissues can’t be ruled out, most studies emphasize the generation of reactive oxygen species. Oxidative stress alters redox equilibrium and disrupts morphology and normal functioning of sperms along with declination of total anti-oxidant capacity. Conclusion In this paper, we describe a detailed literature review with the intent of analyzing the impact of electromagnetic radiation and understand the consequence on male reproductive system. The underlying mechanism suggesting ROS generation and pathway of action has also been discussed. Additionally, the safety measures while using electronic gadgets and mobile phones has also been presented.
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Introduction: Several studies explored the effects of exposure to radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) EMF emitted from mobile phones on meningioma among adults. However, the results could not reach an agreement. This meta-analysis was conducted to confirm the relationship between adult meningioma risk and the use of a wireless phone. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase up to August 2018. The random- or fixed-effects model was used to combine the results depending on the heterogeneity of the analysis. The publication bias was evaluated using Egger’s regression asymmetry test. The subgroup analysis was performed by time since the first use of wireless phone and laterality (ipsilateral/contralateral). Results: Eight studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled results suggested that the ever use of wireless phone led to a borderline decreased adult meningioma risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83–0.99] with no heterogeneity (I ² = 5.3%; p = 0.391). A decreased risk of meningioma was seen in short-term (OR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.77–0.94) users. Neither decreased nor increased risk of meningioma was observed in mid-term (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.75–1.16) and long-term (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.93–1.19) users. Neither ipsilateral (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.90–1.22) nor contralateral (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.62–1.18) wireless phone use was associated with the risk of meningioma. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested a relationship between decreased meningioma risk and wireless phone use. However, the findings need further validation.
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Acoustic neuroma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the eighth cranial nerve arising from Schwann cells. Although commonly used, the term “acoustic neuroma” is inaccurate because this neoplasm does not derive from the acoustic branch of the VIII cranial nerve (but rather from the vestibular branch) and is not a neuroma.
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Objective To investigate detailed trends in malignant brain tumour incidence over a recent time period. Methods UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) data covering 81,135 ICD10 C71 brain tumours diagnosed in England (1995–2015) were used to calculate incidence rates (ASR) per 100k person–years, age–standardised to the European Standard Population (ESP–2013). Results We report a sustained and highly statistically significant ASR rise in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) across all ages. The ASR for GBM more than doubled from 2.4 to 5.0, with annual case numbers rising from 983 to 2531. Overall, this rise is mostly hidden in the overall data by a reduced incidence of lower-grade tumours. Conclusions The rise is of importance for clinical resources and brain tumour aetiology. The rise cannot be fully accounted for by promotion of lower–grade tumours, random chance or improvement in diagnostic techniques as it affects specific areas of the brain and only one type of brain tumour. Despite the large variation in case numbers by age, the percentage rise is similar across the age groups, which suggests widespread environmental or lifestyle factors may be responsible. This article reports incidence data trends and does not provide additional evidence for the role of any particular risk factor.
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Objective Many studies have previously investigated the potential association between mobile phone use and the risk of glioma. However, results from these individual studies are inconclusive and controversial. The objective of our study was to investigate the potential association between mobile phone use and subsequent glioma risk using meta-analysis. Methods We performed a systematic search of the Science Citation Index Embase and PubMed databases for studies reporting relevant data on mobile phone use and glioma in 1980–2016. The data were extracted and measured in terms of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random effects model. Subgroup analyses were also carried out. This meta-analysis eventually included 11 studies comprising a total 6028 cases and 11488 controls. Results There was a significant positive association between long-term mobile phone use (minimum, 10 years) and glioma (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.08–1.91). And there was a significant positive association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and the risk of glioma (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92). Long-term mobile phone use was associated with 2.22 times greater odds of low-grade glioma occurrence (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69–2.92). Mobile phone use of any duration was not associated with the odds of high-grade glioma (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.72–0.92). Contralateral mobile phone use was not associated with glioma regardless of the duration of use. Similarly, this association was not observed when the analysis was limited to high-grade glioma. Conclusions Our results suggest that long-term mobile phone use may be associated with an increased risk of glioma. There was also an association between mobile phone use and low-grade glioma in the regular use or long-term use subgroups. However, current evidence is of poor quality and limited quantity. It is therefore necessary to conduct large sample, high quality research or better characterization of any potential association between long-term ipsilateral mobile phone use and glioma risk.
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Although cell phones have used worldwide, but some adverse and toxic effects were reported for this communication technology apparatus. To analyze in vivo effects of exposure to radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on protein expression in rat testicular proteome, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF for 0, 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days. Protein content of rat testes were separated by high-resolution 2 dimensional electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradient (pI 4-7, 7 cm) and 12% acrylamide and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Two protein spots were found differentially overexpressed (P<0.05) in intensity and volume with induction factors 1.7 times greater after RF-EMF exposure. After 4 hours of daily exposure for 30 consecutive days, ATP synthase beta subunit (ASBS) and hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 precursor (HYOU1) were found to be significantly up-regulated. These proteins affect signaling pathways in rat testes and spermatogenesis and play a critical role in protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that exposure to RF-EMF produces increases in testicular proteins in adults that are related to carcinogenic risk and reproductive damage. In light of the widespread practice of men carrying phones in their pockets near their gonads, where exposures can exceed as-tested guidelines further study of these effects should be a high priority.
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Results of epidemiological studies on the association between use of mobile phone and brain cancer are ambiguous, as well as the results of 5 meta-analysis studies published to date. Since the last meta-analysis (2009), new case-control studies have been published, which theoretically could affect the conclusions on this relationship. Therefore, we decided to perform a new meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review of multiple electronic data bases for relevant publications. The inclusion criteria were: original papers, case-control studies, published till the end of March 2014, measures of association (point estimates as odds ratio and confidence interval of the effect measured), data on individual exposure. Twenty four studies (26 846 cases, 50 013 controls) were included into the meta-analysis. A significantly higher risk of an intracranial tumor (all types) was noted for the period of mobile phone use over 10 years (odds ratio (OR) = 1.324, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.028–1.704), and for the ipsilateral location (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 1.022–1.526). The results support the hypothesis that long-term use of mobile phone increases risk of intracranial tumors, especially in the case of ipsilateral exposure. Further studies are needed to confirm this relationship. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(1):27–43
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Background: Mobile phone use has been increasing rapidly in the past decades and, in parallel, so has the annual incidence of certain types of brain cancers. However, it remains unclear whether this correlation is coincidental or whether use of mobile phones may cause the development, promotion or progression of specific cancers. The 1985-2014 incidence of selected brain cancer subtypes in England were analyzed and compared to counterfactual 'synthetic control' timeseries. Methods: Annual 1985-2014 incidence of malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, and malignant neoplasms of the temporal and parietal lobes in England were modelled based on population-level covariates using Bayesian structural time series models assuming 5,10 and 15year minimal latency periods. Post-latency counterfactual 'synthetic England' timeseries were nowcast based on covariate trends. The impact of mobile phone use was inferred from differences between measured and modelled time series. Results: There is no evidence of an increase in malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, or malignant neoplasms of the parietal lobe not predicted in the 'synthetic England' time series. Malignant neoplasms of the temporal lobe however, have increased faster than expected. A latency period of 10years reflected the earliest latency period when this was measurable and related to mobile phone penetration rates, and indicated an additional increase of 35% (95% Credible Interval 9%:59%) during 2005-2014; corresponding to an additional 188 (95%CI 48-324) cases annually. Conclusions: A causal factor, of which mobile phone use (and possibly other wireless equipment) is in agreement with the hypothesized temporal association, is related to an increased risk of developing malignant neoplasms in the temporal lobe.
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Background: Mobile phone use in Australia has increased rapidly since its introduction in 1987 with whole population usage being 94% by 2014. We explored the popularly hypothesised association between brain cancer incidence and mobile phone use. Study methods: Using national cancer registration data, we examined age and gender specific incidence rates of 19,858 male and 14,222 females diagnosed with brain cancer in Australia between 1982 and 2012, and mobile phone usage data from 1987 to 2012. We modelled expected age specific rates (20-39, 40-59, 60-69, 70-84 years), based on published reports of relative risks (RR) of 1.5 in ever-users of mobile phones, and RR of 2.5 in a proportion of 'heavy users' (19% of all users), assuming a 10-year lag period between use and incidence. Summary answers: Age adjusted brain cancer incidence rates (20-84 years, per 100,000) have risen slightly in males (p<0.05) but were stable over 30 years in females (p>0.05) and are higher in males 8.7 (CI=8.1-9.3) than in females, 5.8 (CI=5.3-6.3). Assuming a causal RR of 1.5 and 10-year lag period, the expected incidence rate in males in 2012 would be 11.7 (11-12.4) and in females 7.7 (CI=7.2-8.3), both p<0.01; 1434 cases observed in 2012, vs. 1867 expected. Significant increases in brain cancer incidence were observed (in keeping with modelled rates) only in those aged ≥70 years (both sexes), but the increase in incidence in this age group began from 1982, before the introduction of mobile phones. Modelled expected incidence rates were higher in all age groups in comparison to what was observed. Assuming a causal RR of 2.5 among 'heavy users' gave 2038 expected cases in all age groups. Limitations: This is an ecological trends analysis, with no data on individual mobile phone use and outcome. What this study adds: The observed stability of brain cancer incidence in Australia between 1982 and 2012 in all age groups except in those over 70 years compared to increasing modelled expected estimates, suggests that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in the older age group are unlikely to be related to mobile phone use. Rather, we hypothesize that the observed increases in brain cancer incidence in Australia are related to the advent of improved diagnostic procedures when computed tomography and related imaging technologies were introduced in the early 1980s.
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Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis. Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (
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As children develop, they differ from adults in a number of important ways, including anatomy, metabolism, immune system, and the extent of myelination of the nervous system. As a consequence, equivalent exposures to radiation from mobile phones result in different doses to specific tissues in children compared with adults. Higher doses are likely to have more severe implications in the young. A young child’s skull is not only smaller and thinner than an adult’s, but also has dielectric characteristics closer to those of soft tissues, probably due to a higher water content. The young skull better matches the electromagnetic characteristics of the skin and brain. As a result, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations confirm field penetration and higher specific absorption rate (SAR) in deeper structures in the young brain. If the peak spatial SAR (psSAR) is modeled in the entire head, as current testing standards recommend, the results for adults and children are equivalent. Our anatomically based evaluations rely on FDTD simulations of different tissues within the brain and confirm that the psSAR in a child’s brain is higher than in an adult’s brain.
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A pooled analysis of two case-control studies on meningioma with patients diagnosed during 1997‑2003 and 2007-2009 was conducted. Both genders were included, aged 20-80 and 18-75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Population-based controls, matched according to age and gender, were enrolled. Exposure was assessed by questionnaire. In the entire study, cases with all brain tumor types were included. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional logistic regression analysis on meningioma, with adjustments for gender, age, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). In total, 1,625 meningioma cases and 3,530 controls were analyzed. Overall no association with use of mobile or cordless phones was found. In the fourth quartile of use (>1,436 h) somewhat increased risk was found for mobile phones yielding an odds ratio (OR)=1.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.9‑1.6 and cordless phones OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.2. Higher risk was calculated in the highest decile (>3,358 h), OR=1.5, 95% CI=0.99-2.1 and OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.4-2.8, respectively. In addition, the longest latency time gave somewhat increased risk for both phone types although the result was not statistically significant. There was no association for ipsilateral use or anatomical tumor location. The present study showed a somewhat increased risk among heavy users of mobile and cordless phones. Since meningioma is generally a slow-growing tumor, longer latency period is necessary for definitive conclusions.
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We made a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours with patients diagnosed during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. They were aged 20-80 years and 18-75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Only cases with histopathological verification of the tumour were included. Population-based controls, matched on age and gender, were used. Exposures were assessed by questionnaire. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, year of diagnosis, and socio-economic index. In total, 1498 (89%) cases and 3530 (87%) controls participated. Mobile phone use increased the risk of glioma, OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 overall, increasing to OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.7-5.2 in the >25 year latency group. Use of cordless phones increased the risk to OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.1-1.7, with highest risk in the >15-20 years latency group yielding OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.5. The OR increased statistically significant both per 100h of cumulative use, and per year of latency for mobile and cordless phone use. Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.2 and OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.1, respectively. The highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.
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The aim of this paper is to investigate p53 gene expression in the central and peripheral zones of glioblastoma multiforme using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in patients who use cell phones ≥3 hours a day and determine its relationship to clinicopathological findings and overall survival. Sixty-three patients (38 males and 25 females), diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), underwent tumor resection between 2008 and 2011. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 88 years, with a mean age of 55. The levels of expression of p53 in the central and peripheral zone of the GBM were quantified by RT-PCR. Data on p53 gene expression from the central and peripheral zone, the related malignancy and the clinicopatholagical findings (age, gender, tumor location and size), as well as overall survival, were analyzed. Forty-one out of 63 patients (65%) with the highest level of cell phone use (≥3 hours/day) had higher mutant type p53 expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.034). Results from the present study on the use of mobile phones for ≥3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time. The risk was not higher for ipsilateral exposure. We found that the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma was increased in 65% of patients using cell phones ≥3 hours a day.
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BACKGROUND Time trends in cancer incidence rates (IR) are important to measure the changing burden of cancer on a population over time. The overall IR of cancer in the United States is declining. Although central nervous system tumors (CNST) are rare, they contribute disproportionately to mortality and morbidity. In this analysis, the authors examined trends in the incidence of the most common cancers and CNST between 2000 and 2010.METHODS The current analysis used data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Age-adjusted IR per 100,000 population with 95% confidence intervals and the annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for selected common cancers and CNST overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, selected histologies, and malignancy status.RESULTSIn adults, there were significant decreases in colon (2000-2010: APC, −3.1), breast (2000-2010: APC, −0.8), lung (2000-2010: APC, −1.1), and prostate (2000-2010: APC, −2.4) cancer as well as malignant CNST (2008-2010: APC, −3.1), but a significant increase was noted in nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 2.7). In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6).CONCLUSIONS Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing. Cancer 2015;121:102-112. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.
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Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from these devices could potentially affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving, and there are unexplained declines in semen quality reported in several countries. Given the ubiquity of mobile phone use, the potential role of this environmental exposure needs to be clarified. A systematic review was therefore conducted, followed by meta-analysis using random effects models, to determine whether exposure to RF-EMR emitted from mobile phones affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinic and research centres. The sperm quality outcome measures were motility, viability and concentration, which are the parameters most frequently used in clinical settings to assess fertility. We used ten studies in the meta-analysis, including 1492 samples. Exposure to mobile phones was associated with reduced sperm motility (mean difference − 8.1% (95% CI − 13.1, − 3.2)) and viability (mean difference − 9.1% (95% CI − 18.4, 0.2)), but the effects on concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies. We conclude that pooled results from in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Further study is required to determine the full clinical implications for both sub-fertile men and the general population.
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Background. There are reports that intense prolonged occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation may increase risks for cancer. We previously have reported a sentinel cluster,of 7 workers with high exposures and short latent periods, and individual patients with brain cancer high occupational exposures and short latent periods. We present a sentinel case series (n=47, 40M, 7F) of cancer patients, referred to our medical unit with occupational exposures to non-ionizing radiation of all types. Objectives. Our aims were to report the findings on tumour types,age of first diagnosis, and latency, to describe their exposures and to examine the hypothesis that latencies for all tumour types (solid tissue, hematolymphatic, testicular) were coherently related to high occupational exposures starting at young ages. Methods. We divided the patients into groups by latency. We categorized each patient’s exposures in regard to types of radiation, far or near field exposure and direct body contact. For some we had data on frequencies, for others we provided assessments. We also present the patient data categorized by age of diagnosis.We used a case-case type comparison to examine latencies for tumour types [solid, hematolymphatic (HL), testicular]. Results. 15 patients developed cancer with latent periods of less than 5 years and 12 patients with latent periods between 5 and 10 years. The remaining 20 patients had longer latent periods between first occupational exposure to EMF and diagnosis of cancer. 6 patients (12.7%) had multiple tumours. 12 patients (25.5%) reported cancer cases in co-workers. In the <5 years latency group there were 8 hematolymphatic cancers, 3 testicular cancers and 6 solid tumours [head & neck (including brain) and GI tract]. In all latency groups there were patients who were exposed to intense levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF), to several types of EMF, or to EMF in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) or other exposures, and patients who had direct body contact with the equipment, were in direct focus of high radiation, or worked in small, electronically dense environments. Case classification by age showed shorter latencies with younger ages, but this association is complicated by the fact that shorter latencies co-vary with younger ages especially for testicular tumours. But patients with testicular and hematolymphatic tumours had shorter latencies than those with solid tumours. Conclusion. Man of the patients were young and had extremely short latent periods, especially for HL and testicular cancers. The fact that latent periods for testes were very short, HL longer and solid still longer suggests a coherent and biologically plausible pattern of latency in relation to the onset of exposure to EMF and other agents. The findings strengthen the hypothesis that these exposures may possibly be the major cause of many of these tumours. The findings state the case for (1) better modelling of exposure sources and penetration into the body and (2) preventive and protective measures based on control of exposure at source, barriers, and personal protection. Eur. J. Oncol., 16(1),21-54,2011 Keywords: non ionizing radiation (NIR), electromagnetic fields (EMF), occupational exposures, cancer, short latencies
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Background: Wireless phones, i.e., mobile phones and cordless phones, emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) when used. An increased risk of brain tumors is a major concern. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the carcinogenic effect to humans from RF-EMF in May 2011. It was concluded that RF-EMF is a group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. Bradford Hill gave a presidential address at the British Royal Society of Medicine in 1965 on the association or causation that provides a helpful framework for evaluation of the brain tumor risk from RF-EMF. Methods: All nine issues on causation according to Hill were evaluated. Regarding wireless phones, only studies with long-term use were included. In addition, laboratory studies and data on the incidence of brain tumors were considered. Results: The criteria on strength, consistency, specificity, temporality, and biologic gradient for evidence of increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma were fulfilled. Additional evidence came from plausibility and analogy based on laboratory studies. Regarding coherence, several studies show increasing incidence of brain tumors, especially in the most exposed area. Support for the experiment came from antioxidants that can alleviate the generation of reactive oxygen species involved in biologic effects, although a direct mechanism for brain tumor carcinogenesis has not been shown. In addition, the finding of no increased risk for brain tumors in subjects using the mobile phone only in a car with an external antenna is supportive evidence. Hill did not consider all the needed nine viewpoints to be essential requirements. Conclusion: Based on the Hill criteria, glioma and acoustic neuroma should be considered to be caused by RF-EMF emissions from wireless phones and regarded as carcinogenic to humans, classifying it as group 1 according to the IARC classification. Current guidelines for exposure need to be urgently revised.
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Breast cancer occurring in women under the age of 40 is uncommon in the absence of family history or genetic predisposition, and prompts the exploration of other possible exposures or environmental risks. We report a case series of four young women-ages from 21 to 39-with multifocal invasive breast cancer that raises the concern of a possible association with nonionizing radiation of electromagnetic field exposures from cellular phones. All patients regularly carried their smartphones directly against their breasts in their brassieres for up to 10 hours a day, for several years, and developed tumors in areas of their breasts immediately underlying the phones. All patients had no family history of breast cancer, tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2, and had no other known breast cancer risks. Their breast imaging is reviewed, showing clustering of multiple tumor foci in the breast directly under the area of phone contact. Pathology of all four cases shows striking similarity; all tumors are hormone-positive, low-intermediate grade, having an extensive intraductal component, and all tumors have near identical morphology. These cases raise awareness to the lack of safety data of prolonged direct contact with cellular phones.
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Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04‑3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.
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Vestibular schwannomas (VSs) grow in the region where the energy from mobile phone use is absorbed. We examined the associations of VSs with mobile phone use. This study included 119 patients who had undergone surgical tumor removal. We used two approaches in this investigation. First, a case–control study for the association of mobile phone use and incidence of VSs was conducted. Both cases and controls were investigated with questions based on INTERPHONE guidelines. Amount of mobile phone use according to duration, daily amount, and cumulative hours were compared between two groups. We also conducted a case–case study. The location and volume of the tumors were investigated by MRI. Associations between the estimated amount of mobile phone use and tumor volume and between the laterality of phone use and tumor location were analyzed. In a case–control study, the odds ratio (OR) of tumor incidence according to mobile phone use was 0.956. In the case–case study, tumor volume and estimated cumulative hours showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.144, p = 0.002), and regular mobile phone users showed tumors of a markedly larger volume than those of non-regular users (p < 0.001). When the analysis was limited to regular users who had serviceable hearing, laterality showed a strong correlation with tumor side (OR = 4.5). We found that tumors may coincide with the more frequently used ear of mobile phones and tumor volume that showed strong correlation with amount of mobile phone use, thus there is a possibility that mobile phone use may affect tumor growth. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13277-013-1081-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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We previously conducted a case-control study of acoustic neuroma. Subjects of both genders aged 20-80 years, diagnosed during 1997-2003 in parts of Sweden, were included, and the results were published. We have since made a further study for the time period 2007-2009 including both men and women aged 18-75 years selected from throughout the country. These new results for acoustic neuroma have not been published to date. Similar methods were used for both study periods. In each, one population-based control, matched on gender and age (within five years), was identified from the Swedish Population Registry. Exposures were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire supplemented by a phone interview. Since the number of acoustic neuroma cases in the new study was low we now present pooled results from both study periods based on 316 participating cases and 3,530 controls. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index (SEI). Use of mobile phones of the analogue type gave odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, increasing with >20 years latency (time since first exposure) to OR = 7.7, 95% CI = 2.8-21. Digital 2G mobile phone use gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, increasing with latency >15 years to an OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.8-4.2. The results for cordless phone use were OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1, and, for latency of >20 years, OR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.7-26. Digital type wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones and cordless phones) gave OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.0 increasing to OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 2.0-32 with latency >20 years. For total wireless phone use, the highest risk was calculated for the longest latency time >20 years: OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.2-9.0. Several of the calculations in the long latency category were based on low numbers of exposed cases. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral for both mobile and cordless phones. OR increased per 100 h cumulative use and per year of latency for mobile phones and cordless phones, though the increase was not statistically significant for cordless phones. The percentage tumour volume increased per year of latency and per 100 h of cumulative use, statistically significant for analogue phones. This study confirmed previous results demonstrating an association between mobile and cordless phone use and acoustic neuroma.
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To study the association between use of wireless phones and meningioma. We performed a case--control study on brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18--75 years and diagnosed during 2007--2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age was used to each case. Here we report on meningioma cases including all available controls. Exposures were assessed by a questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed. In total 709 meningioma cases and 1,368 control subjects answered the questionnaire. Mobile phone use in total produced odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.4 and cordless phone use gave OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.8-1.5. The risk increased statistically significant per 100 h of cumulative use and highest OR was found in the fourth quartile (>2,376 hours) of cumulative use for all studied phone types. There was no statistically significant increased risk for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, for meningioma in the temporal lobe or per year of latency. Tumour volume was not related to latency or cumulative use in hours of wireless phones. No conclusive evidence of an association between use of mobile and cordless phones and meningioma was found. An indication of increased risk was seen in the group with highest cumulative use but was not supported by statistically significant increasing risk with latency. Results for even longer latency periods of wireless phone use than in this study are desirable.
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The existence of biological effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation on living tissue is well established, including also effects which are non-thermal, that is not caused by plain uniform warming. Still the exact mechanisms of interaction between the RF radiation and the living tissue are mostly unknown. In this work a thermodynamic perspective relevant to some aspects of those yet unknown mechanisms is presented. This perspective reveals that living tissue under RF radiation should not be assumed to be in thermal equilibrium since it is governed by two temperatures: the ambient temperature of its surroundings and a vastly higher temperature TR which is assigned by certain criteria to the RF radiation. The criteria presented here to determine the radiation temperature TR are not unique and other approaches may lead to different temperature values, however TR as presented here has an interesting physical significance. The possible relevance of this approach to the interaction mechanisms is presented; specifically some molecules in the living tissue may acquire much more energy than the one associated with the ambient temperature and biological effects may occur.
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Background: We analysed the survival of patients after glioma diagnosis in relation to the use of wireless phones. Methods: All cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2003 with a malignant brain tumour (n = 1,251) in our case-control studies were included and followed from the date of diagnosis to the date of death or until May 30, 2012. Results: For glioma, the use of wireless phones (mobile and cordless phones) gave a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 0.9-1.2), with > 10-year latency HR = 1.2 (95% CI = 1.002-1.5, p trend = 0.02). For astrocytoma grade I-II (low-grade), the results were, HR = 0.5 (95% CI = 0.3-0.9) and for astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma), HR = 1.1 (95% CI = 0.95-1.4), with > 10 year latency HR = 1.3 (95% CI = 1.03-1.7). In the highest tertile (> 426 h) of cumulative use, HR = 1.2 (95% CI = 0.95-1.5) was found for glioblastoma. The results were similar for mobile and cordless phones. Conclusions: Decreased survival of glioma cases with long-term and high cumulative use of wireless phones was found. A survival disadvantage for astrocytoma grade IV, but a survival benefit for astrocytoma grade I-II was observed which could be due to exposure-related tumour symptoms leading to earlier diagnosis and surgery in that patient group.
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This population-based case-control study in Taiwan considered incident cases aged 15years or less and admitted in 2003 to 2007 for all neoplasm (ICD-9-CM: 140-239) (n=2606), including 939 leukemia and 394 brain neoplasm cases. Controls were randomly selected, with a case/control ratio of 1:30 and matched on year of birth, from all non-neoplasm children insured in the same year when the index case was admitted. Annual summarized power (ASP, watt-year) was calculated for each of the 71,185 mobile phone base stations (MPBS) in service between 1998 and 2007. Then, the annual power density (APD, watt-year/km(2)) of each township (n=367) was computed as a ratio of the total ASP of all MPBS in a township to the area of that particular township. Exposure of each study subject to radio frequency (RF) was indicated by the averaged APD within 5years prior to the neoplasm diagnosis (cases) or July 1st of the year when the index case was admitted (controls) in the township where the subject lived. Unconditional logistic regression model with generalized estimation equation was employed to calculate the covariate-adjusted odds ratio [AOR] of childhood neoplasm in relation to RF exposure. A higher than median averaged APD (approximately 168WYs/km(2)) was significantly associated with an increased AOR for all neoplasms (1.13; 1.01 to 1.28), but not for leukemia (1.23; 0.99 to 1.52) or brain neoplasm (1.14, 0.83 to 1.55). This study noted a significantly increased risk of all neoplasms in children with higher-than-median RF exposure to MPBS. The slightly elevated risk was seen for leukemia and brain neoplasm, but was not statistically significant. These results may occur due to several methodological limitations.
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A cancer cluster which occurred among young workers in an antenna ranges facility is reported. Five out of about 30 workers were diagnosed with cancer. The calculated odds ratio (OR) was 8.3 with confidence interval (CI 95%) of 2.3 to 19. Since this is a single cluster no definite conclusions can be drawn from it by itself, however together with other similar cases reported elsewhere it tends to indicate a severe cancer risk for groups of young people exposed repetitively and over years to non-ionizing radio-frequency radiation at levels limited only by the ICNIRP thermal limits.
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To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Nationwide cohort study. Denmark. All Danes aged ≥ 30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. 358,403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10,729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use--that is, ≥ 13 years of subscription--the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥ 10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour--that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association.
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An increase in the incidence of CNS tumors has been observed in many countries in the last decades. The reality of this trend has been much debated, as it has happened during a period when computer-assisted tomography and MRI have dramatically improved the detection of these tumors. The Gironde CNS Tumor Registry provides here the first data on CNS tumor incidence and trends in France for all histological types, including benign and malignant tumors, for the period 2000-2007. Incidence rates were calculated globally and for each histological subtype. For trends, a piecewise log-linear model was used. The overall annual incidence rate was found to be 17.6/100 000. Of this rate, 7.9/100 000 were neuroepithelial tumors and 6.0/100 000 were meningiomas. An overall increase in CNS tumor incidence was observed from 2000 to 2007, with an annual percent change (APC) of +2.33%, which was explained mainly by an increase in the incidence of meningiomas over the 8-year period (APC = +5.4%), and also more recently by an increase in neuroepithelial tumors (APC = +7.45% from 2003). The overall increase was more pronounced in women and in the elderly, with an APC peaking at +24.65% in subjects 85 and over. The increase in the incidence rates we observed may have several explanations: not only improvements in registration, diagnosis, and clinical practice, but also changes in potential risk factors.
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It has been hypothesized that children and adolescents might be more vulnerable to possible health effects from mobile phone exposure than adults. We investigated whether mobile phone use is associated with brain tumor risk among children and adolescents. CEFALO is a multicenter case-control study conducted in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Switzerland that includes all children and adolescents aged 7-19 years who were diagnosed with a brain tumor between 2004 and 2008. We conducted interviews, in person, with 352 case patients (participation rate: 83%) and 646 control subjects (participation rate: 71%) and their parents. Control subjects were randomly selected from population registries and matched by age, sex, and geographical region. We asked about mobile phone use and included mobile phone operator records when available. Odds ratios (ORs) for brain tumor risk and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Regular users of mobile phones were not statistically significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with brain tumors compared with nonusers (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.02). Children who started to use mobile phones at least 5 years ago were not at increased risk compared with those who had never regularly used mobile phones (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.70 to 2.28). In a subset of study participants for whom operator recorded data were available, brain tumor risk was related to the time elapsed since the mobile phone subscription was started but not to amount of use. No increased risk of brain tumors was observed for brain areas receiving the highest amount of exposure. The absence of an exposure-response relationship either in terms of the amount of mobile phone use or by localization of the brain tumor argues against a causal association.
Article
Background: In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM - and CDMA - modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users. Objectives: The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors. Methods: Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day. Results: A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant. Conclusions: The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats. These tumors are of the same histotype of those observed in some epidemiological studies on cell phone users. These experimental studies provide sufficient evidence to call for the re-evaluation of IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans.
Article
Background and aim: We reexamine whether radio frequency radiation (RFR) in the occupational and military settings is a human carcinogen. Methods: We extended an analysis of an already-reported case series of patients with cancer previously exposed to whole-body prolonged RFR, mainly from communication equipment and radar. We focused on hematolymphatic (HL) cancers. We used analysis by percentage frequency (PF) of a cancer type, which is the proportion of a specific cancer type relative to the total number of cancer cases. We also examined and analyzed the published data on three other cohort studies from similar military settings from different countries. Results: The PF of HL cancers in the case series was very high, at 40% with only 23% expected for the series age and gender profile, confidence interval CI95%: 26-56%, p<0.01, 19 out of 47 patients had HL cancers. We also found high PF for multiple primaries. As for the three other cohort studies: In the Polish