Article

Counterproductive effects of gamification: An analysis on the example of the gamified task manager Habitica

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Abstract

The concept of gamification has evoked increasing attention in HCI research and practice. Gamification uses game elements in serious, non-game contexts in order to motivate a particular target behavior or attitude change (e.g., sustainable behavior, physical activity, task management). While gamification has been attributed a high potential, a critical question is whether it actually induces the intended effect. The present research explores “counterproductive effects of gamification’’ i.e., cases when a gamification element does not encourage the intended behavior but rather the opposite (e.g., procrastination instead of getting things done). Studying the example of the gamified task manager Habitica, our paper reports insights from two consecutive studies. Study 1, a qualitative interview study based on interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) with one single user revealed seven themes describing distinct counterproductive effects in Habitica, and additional seven themes related to Habitica's reward/punishment system and psychological reactions to counterproductive effects. Study 2 further explored these findings in a quantitative field study with 45 users over a two-week usage period, also studying correlations to user experience, product evaluation, motivation to play Habitica and individual belief in gamification. All participants experienced counterproductive effects to some degree, whereby some effects (e.g., being punished by Habitica in especially productive times, since one does not manage to check off tasks in time) were more prevalent than others (e.g., relabeling tasks as positive habits with no due date to prevent the risk of punishments). The prevalence of counterproductive effects was correlated to the users’ perceived inappropriateness of the reward system, and a crucial predictor for motivation change over time. Relations to psychological mechanisms, general implications for gamification design and future research directions are discussed.

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... Motivating people to engage in activities that are usually effortful and/or boring, such as doing household chores (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019) or Gamification can help people to engage in behaviours that are typically effortful or boring by combining these behaviours with game design elements (known as For gamification to be adopted in public policy, researchers will need to examine more systematically which game design elements and their combinations drive behaviour change. ...
... In a more academic sense, it refers to the use of game design elements in nongaming contexts (Baptista & Oliveira, 2019). These game design elements vary greatly and comprise the use of badges (Hamari, 2017), points (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015), levels (Jones et al., 2014), leader boards (Morschheuser et al., 2018), and avatars (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019), to name but a few. The non-gaming contexts to which the design elements can be applied have a broad range, from learning how to use a statistical software to doing household chores (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). ...
... These game design elements vary greatly and comprise the use of badges (Hamari, 2017), points (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015), levels (Jones et al., 2014), leader boards (Morschheuser et al., 2018), and avatars (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019), to name but a few. The non-gaming contexts to which the design elements can be applied have a broad range, from learning how to use a statistical software to doing household chores (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). Some popular examples of gamification include the Forest app that helps people stay away from their smartphone by planting and growing a virtual tree, or Duolingo, where people can level up as they learn new languages. ...
Article
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Behavioural science has been effectively used by policy makers in various domains, from health to savings. However, interventions that behavioural scientists typically employ to change behaviour have been at the centre of an ethical debate, given that they include elements of paternalism that have implications for people's freedom of choice. In the present article, we argue that this ethical debate could be resolved in the future through implementation and advancement of new technologies. We propose that several technologies which are currently available and are rapidly evolving (i.e., virtual and augmented reality, social robotics, gamification, self-quantification, and behavioural informatics) have a potential to be integrated with various behavioural interventions in a non-paternalistic way. More specifically, people would decide themselves which behaviours they want to change and select the technologies they want to use for this purpose, and the role of policy makers would be to develop transparent behavioural interventions for these technologies. In that sense, behavioural science would move from libertarian paternalism to liberalism, given that people would freely choose how they want to change, and policy makers would create technological interventions that make this change possible.
... In some cases, game implementation would exert insignificant or counterproductive effects on pedagogical practices, i.e., adverse effects opposite to the desired effects. Counterproductive effects of game-related pedagogies would appear when the pedagogies motivate negative behaviors or demotivate positive behaviors (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). Even if game-related pedagogies had the hypothesized power for promising instructional contexts (Kim et al., 2018;Sailer & Homner, 2020), we should not regard game-related pedagogies as the approaches that could solve all educational issues or difficulties (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). ...
... Counterproductive effects of game-related pedagogies would appear when the pedagogies motivate negative behaviors or demotivate positive behaviors (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). Even if game-related pedagogies had the hypothesized power for promising instructional contexts (Kim et al., 2018;Sailer & Homner, 2020), we should not regard game-related pedagogies as the approaches that could solve all educational issues or difficulties (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). To avoid neglecting the potential side effects of ludicization, this study investigated the actual efficiency of ludicization by identifying whether ludicization would exert counterproductive effects on specific dimensions. ...
... Habitica (https:// habit ica. com) is an open-source platform aiming to enhance users' task management (Diefenbach and Müssig, 2019). This platform gamifies users' life by embodying daily tasks, e.g., daily duties, to-dos, and intended positive habits in monsters (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019;de Paula Porto et al., 2019). ...
Article
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This study investigated the actual efficiency of ludicization, ludic metaphorization of educational contexts, by identifying whether it exerted counterproductive effects on learning achievement, intrinsic motivation, and extrinsic motivation. Seventy participants were divided into the ludicization and traditional didactic groups. According to the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), CET-4 posttest average score was not lower for the ludicization group (N = 35, M = 65.956, SD = 1.490) than for the traditional didactic pedagogy group (N = 35, M = 61.858, SD = 1.490). According to the t-test, the average score in intrinsic motivation was insignificantly higher for the ludicization group (N = 35, M = 13.6000, SD = 2.48762) than for the traditional didactic pedagogy group (N = 35, M = 13.4571, SD = 2.24057), while the average score in extrinsic motivation was significantly lower for the group (N = 35, M = 12.2857, SD = 2.58470) than for the traditional didactic group (N = 35, M = 13.5714, SD = 2.66001). Thus, ludicization exerted counterproductive effects on extrinsic motivation. Ludicization produced poorly internalized extrinsic motivation that restrained intrinsic motivation and learning achievement. Despite potentially counterproductive effects, ludicization and game-related pedagogies still have promising effects on pedagogical practices if applied appropriately.
... In a research design on how gamification may motivate musical practice, these amotivational principles may address some potential pitfalls. A recent study on the application Habitica, incidentally the same application used for the study presented in this chapter, suggested that the gamified environment also had pitfalls that can lead to counterproductive effects, potentially leading to amotivation (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). These pitfalls regarded negative user experiences with the reward/punishment system and psychological reactions to counterproductive effects. ...
... The educator has the power to manipulate the gamified environment by deciding what yields rewards and prosperity, thereby manipulating the players' focus and goals. Similar to other findings (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019) on the counterproductive effects of gamification, similar pitfalls were recognized. Some unfair and unreasonably hard punishments, like, for example, death, resulted in some frustration by the participants. ...
... Death is avoidable by buying health potions and recruiting healers for their party, among other things. Preparing the gamer for the dangers and pitfalls of a game could reduce unnecessary frustration in a game, optimizing gamification's effect (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019;Gee, 2007). In this regard, I discovered an administrational setting that could undo losses, giving the players a second chance, which remedied some of the frustration. ...
Book
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This anthology presents research projects that examine the intersection between music, technology and education from a variety of perspectives. The contributors are from a range of educational programs within traditional pre-, primary and lower secondary school education, as well as music performance and technology educational programs. Data for the studies stems from primary and lower secondary school, as well as informal learning environments, in addition to the contributors’ respective education programs. The research projects examine a wide range of topics such as gamification of ukulele and song teaching, composition with iPads in the classroom, live looping as an approach to ensemble conducting, authentic music technology learning spaces, music-making in the “laptop-era”, sound, the notion of net-based presence, and challenges in higher electronic music education. As this anthology is the first publication in the MusPed:Research series, it also contains an introductory chapter about the series and the research network Musikkpedagogikk i utdanning (MiU). This anthology makes a distinct contribution to the research field of music technology in education and questions educational practices in the school and higher educational levels, the goals and content of music education, and our understanding of music and music creation in itself.
... The main aim of gamification is to improve a person's engagement, motivation, and performance when carrying out a certain task (García et al., 2017;Sailer et al., 2017). Hence, gamification typically connects behavior in the real world with some kind of visualization and rewards or punishments in a gamified environment (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). ...
... Gamification is not tied to a particular application domain but can basically relate to any behavior that shall be motivated for some reason (Deterding et al., 2011), be it from an economic or individual perspective (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). Engagement is achieved by making each person a player in a game. ...
Article
Project Portfolio Management (PPM) is becoming a key competence for companies handling numerous projects simultaneously. PPM instructors have been largely unable to transform what is being taught into applicable skills. Gamification has been successfully applied in some educational environments and it has been increasingly applied in Management university courses. The objective of this study is to propose and assess a gamified strategy for teaching Project Portfolio Management to MBA students. The implementation of this gamified experience was carried out in 2018, 2019 and 2020 with 122 students. They were quite satisfied with the gamified experience and recognized that the Portfolio Game Experience contributed to learning different PPM techniques and processes, especially those associated with project prioritization and selection. Moreover, 100% of the respondents would recommend the course to a colleague. By qualitatively analyzing students’ feedback, this study has found out that the Portfolio Game Experience provided the students the practical experience of actively learning what they have seen in theory. Students also highlighted typical game characteristics that contribute to their learning, like the fact that the game is fun, challenging, motivating and interactive. When compared to other courses they have taken so far, students evaluate this experience as superior.
... This supports prior literature pointing out that gamification foster different types of value (e.g., Hamari and Koivisto 2015a;Hsu and Lin 2016). Furthermore, adding to the rare literature on undesired or negative effects of gamification (e.g., Diefenbach and Müssig 2019;Leclercq et al. 2018), the results reveal that some motivational experiences (i.e., social comparison) are negatively related to perceived value. Hence, app providers and designers should be cautious when using affordances for social comparison (e.g., leaderboards) as this experience is associated with lower utilitarian value and therefore reduces user loyalty. ...
... Thus, future research should further examine whether gamification can "ludify" purely work-related environments (Deterding et al. 2011). Finally, the findings contribute to the rare literature on negative or unintended effects of gamification (e.g., Diefenbach and Müssig 2019). The results confirm previous findings (Leclercq et al. 2018;Wolf et al. 2019) that social comparison can also minimize the positive effect of gamification on various outcomes. ...
Conference Paper
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Gamification is an approach to enhance services with affordances for game-like motivational experiences in order to increase user value. Therefore, many service providers hope that gamification will help them to maintain an active user base. However, empirical studies which examine the relationship between gamification and user loyalty are scarce. Hence, this study investigates the impact of motivational user experiences (self-development, expressive freedom, social connectedness, and social comparison) of gamified services on user loyalty mediated by perceived hedonic and utilitarian value. Findings from a field survey in the fitness context reveal that almost all examined motivational experiences are positively related to hedonic as well as utilitarian value and, subsequently, to user loyalty. Importantly, social comparison is negatively associated with utilitarian value. This highlights the need to consider the different motivational experiences of gamified services when implementing gamification affordances to promote user loyalty.
... 82). Likewise, Diefenbach and Müssig (2018) report also counterproductive effects of gamification. Finally, even behavioral changes due to gamification usage have been documented (Hsu & Chen, 2018;Mitchell, Schuster & Drennan, 2017). ...
... If gamification is intended to foster engagement, then "one should adopt a user-centered approach" (Marcucci, Gatta & Le Pira, 2018), which is challenging from an organizational point of view. Insufficiently designed applications risk evoking counterproductive effects (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2018) and would thus do more harm than good. ...
Conference Paper
Gamification is commonly defined as "the use of game design elements in non-game contexts" (Deterding et al., 2011, p. 9). This paper explores conceptually how gamification can contribute to the enhancement of stakeholder engagement in corporate communication-beyond established applications in the field of marketing. By establishing gamified online communities, companies can foster digital stakeholder engagement. To that end, the paper develops a conceptual model in which the relationship between gamified experience and stakeholder engagement is mediated by perceptions of epistemic, social, and personal values. This affects co-creational outcomes such as information acquisition and information sharing, i.e. word-of-mouth. We suggest that the procedural dimension of gamified applications, i.e. to experience an idea, rather than merely receive it as oral and/or visual rhetoric, adds a new dimension to approaches on stakeholder engagement in the field of public relations.
... One of the major concerns with gamified apps is that their gamification might be used in ways that are not intended [5,29,112]. Gamification becoming people's only goal for performing tasks rather than their motivation for doing tasks is among the most cited problems [5,11,29,112]. ...
... One of the major concerns with gamified apps is that their gamification might be used in ways that are not intended [5,29,112]. Gamification becoming people's only goal for performing tasks rather than their motivation for doing tasks is among the most cited problems [5,11,29,112]. In the context of learning environments, for example, students may be tempted to become too fixated on gamification and get distracted from learning [5,6]. ...
Preprint
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More and more learning apps like Duolingo are using some form of gamification (e.g., badges, points, and leaderboards) to enhance user learning. However, they are not always successful. Gamification misuse is a phenomenon that occurs when users become too fixated on gamification and get distracted from learning. This undesirable phenomenon wastes users' precious time and negatively impacts their learning performance. However, there has been little research in the literature to understand gamification misuse and inform future gamification designs. Therefore, this paper aims to fill this knowledge gap by conducting the first extensive qualitative research on gamification misuse in a popular learning app called Duolingo. Duolingo is currently the world's most downloaded learning app used to learn languages. This study consists of two phases: (I) a content analysis of data from Duolingo forums (from the past nine years) and (II) semi-structured interviews with 15 international Duolingo users. Our research contributes to the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Learning at Scale (L@S) research communities in three ways: (1) elaborating the ramifications of gamification misuse on user learning, well-being, and ethics, (2) identifying the most common reasons for gamification misuse (e.g., competitiveness, overindulgence in playfulness, and herding), and (3) providing designers with practical suggestions to prevent (or mitigate) the occurrence of gamification misuse in their future designs of gamified learning apps.
... Although it is acknowledged that some gamified systems can be designed badly, it is rarely questioned that gamification itself could produce undesirable side effects or undermine desired behavior. In this special issue, the gamification community begins exploring critically the possible negative impacts of gamified design, highlighting that game elements may lead to counterproductive effects (Diefenbach and Müssig, 2018), or harm motivation (Attig and Franke, 2018). Diefenbach and Müssig (2018) precisely explore the unintended sideeffects of gamification designs, tackling the "counterproductive effects of gamification," i.e., cases when a gamification element does not encourage the intended behavior but rather the opposite (e.g., procrastination instead of getting things done). ...
... In this special issue, the gamification community begins exploring critically the possible negative impacts of gamified design, highlighting that game elements may lead to counterproductive effects (Diefenbach and Müssig, 2018), or harm motivation (Attig and Franke, 2018). Diefenbach and Müssig (2018) precisely explore the unintended sideeffects of gamification designs, tackling the "counterproductive effects of gamification," i.e., cases when a gamification element does not encourage the intended behavior but rather the opposite (e.g., procrastination instead of getting things done). Through a qualitative study based on interpretative phenomenological analysis, and a quantitative field study with 45 users over a two-week usage period, the authors investigate how the gamified task manager Habitica produces counterproductive effects. ...
Article
Gamification is now a well-established technique in Human-Computer Interaction. However, research on gamification still faces a variety of empirical and theoretical challenges. Firstly, studies of gamified systems typically focus narrowly on understanding individuals. short-term interactions with the system, ignoring more difficult to measure outcomes. Secondly, academic research on gamification has been slow to improve the techniques through which gamified applications are designed. Third, current gamification research lacks a critical lens capable of exploring unintended consequences of designs. The 14 articles published in this special issue face these challenges with great methodological rigor. We summarize them by identifying three main themes: the determination to improve the quality and usefulness of theory in the field of gamification, the improvements in design practice, and the adoption of a critical gaze to uncover side-effects of gamification designs. We conclude by providing an overview of the questions that we feel must be addressed by future work in gamification. Gamification studies would benefit from a wider use of theories to account for the complexity of human behavior, a more thorough exploration of the many opportunities coming from the world of games, and an ethical reflection on the use of game design elements in serious domains.
... This was true in one of Sheldon's (2011) case studies where students took a break because they had reached their goal. The second caveat is that, if students focus on achieving the extrinsic goals rewarded by a leaderboard, rather than the actual task, it will not lead to learning, could distract the student from what is actually important, and can result in lower quality of work (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019;Domínguez et al., 2013;Huang & Hew, 2018;Philpott, 2015;Tan & Hew, 2016;Werbach & Hunter, 2012). Third, the competitive nature of a leaderboard that focuses on points and rank is more likely to be beneficial and appealing to higher performing students who like competition but detrimental to lower performing students (Aldemir et al., 2018;Bai et al., 2020;Buckley et al., 2017;Çakıroglu et al., 2017;Jia et al., 2017;Tan & Hew, 2016;Werbach & Hunter, 2012). ...
... Through the semi-structured interviews, two participants provided comments that suggest they did not perceive the leaderboard as personally important: one participant said that they did not care about it, and another one said that the point system did not represent learning. Even though the comment about the point system not representing learning provides light support for the literature (e.g., Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019;Domínguez et al., 2013;Philpott, 2015;Tan & Hew, 2016) that warns leaderboards do not reflect or could harm learning, the two comments do not provide strong supporting evidence that the decline in identified regulation was due to the participants not caring about the leaderboard. It seems more likely that, rather than the leaderboard directly impacting identified regulation, the leaderboard's impact on external regulation resulted in the participants' FL motivation shifting from the internally learning identified regulation to externally focused external regulation in order to achieve the extrinsic goals of the leaderboard. ...
Article
The study reported in this article investigated the use of leaderboards in an English as a foreign language (EFL) course at a Japanese university. The study used self-determination theory as the theoretical foundation to explore how leaderboards affect student performance (i.e., amount of work completed) and foreign language (FL) motivation. It was conducted over a 14-week period with two intact classes of participants; while both classes (i.e., Class 1 and Class 2) were aware of the point system, a leaderboard was used only in Class 1. A quasi-experimental mixed methods research design was utilised to answer two research questions about student performance and motivation. Data showed that a greater number of the participants in Class 2 completed more homework than the weekly point target required, compared to the participants in Class 1. The results of the study suggest that the participants' focus on the extrinsic rewards used by the leaderboard encouraged performance up to the reward threshold but once the threshold had been achieved, performance ceased. They also suggest that the leaderboard's use of points, rank, and forced social comparison to control behaviour resulted in the participants' internally leaning extrinsic motivation shifting to externally grounded extrinsic motivation, undermining intrinsic FL motivation more than supporting it.
... Thus, an important threat facing many gamification applications is when gamification becomes dysfunctional [7,24,95]. In such cases, gamification is reduced to being a meaningless medium for users to participate in an application rather than a righteous motivation [7,11,24,110]. ...
... Thus, an important threat facing many gamification applications is when gamification becomes dysfunctional [7,24,95]. In such cases, gamification is reduced to being a meaningless medium for users to participate in an application rather than a righteous motivation [7,11,24,110]. Worse still, users might be tempted to explore nefarious activities such as cheating, spamming, or griefing to win or just get more gamification rewards. ...
Preprint
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Community Question Answering Websites (CQAs) like Stack Overflow rely on continuous user contributions to keep their services active. Nevertheless, they often undergo a sharp decline in their user participation during the holiday season, undermining their performance. To address this issue, some CQAs have developed their own special promotional gamification schemes to incentivize users to maintain their contributions throughout the holiday season. These promotional gamification schemes are often time-limited, optional, and run alongside the default gamification schemes of their websites. However, the impact of such promotional gamification schemes on user behavior remains largely unexplored in the existing literature. This paper takes the first steps toward filling this knowledge gap by conducting a large-scale empirical study of a particular promotional gamification scheme called Winter Bash (WB) on the CQA of Stack Overflow. According to our findings, promotional gamification schemes may not be the panacea they are portrayed to be. For example, in the case of WB, we find that the scheme is not effective for improving the collective engagement of all users. Only some particular user types (i.e., experienced and reputable users) are often provoked under WB. Most novice users, who comprise the majority of Stack Overflow website's user base, seem to be indifferent to such a gamification scheme. Our research also shows the importance of studying the quantity and quality of user engagement in unison to better understand the effectiveness of a gamification scheme. Previous gamification studies in the literature have focused predominantly on studying the quantity of user engagement alone. Last but not least, we conclude our paper by presenting some practical considerations for improving the design of future promotional gamification schemes in CQAs and similar platforms.
... when the point system is not properly designed it can harm people's productivity [5]. To address this challenge, we previously developed a principled mathematical theory for designing point systems that incentivizes each task in proportion to how valuable it is for the user in the long-run [10]. ...
Preprint
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Many people procrastinate and struggle to prioritize their most important work. To help their users overcome such problems, gamified productivity tools like Habitica use heuristic point systems that can be counterproductive. We recently proposed a more principled way to compute point values that avoids such problems. Although it was promising in theory, it required large amounts of computation even for very short to-do lists. Here, we present a scalable approximate method that makes our principled approach to to-do list gamification useable in the real world. Our method leverages artificial intelligence to generate a gamified to-do lists, where each task is incentivized by a number of points that communicates how valuable it is in the long-run. What makes our new method more scalable is that it decomposes the problem of computing long-term plans for how the user can best achieve their goals into a hierarchy of smaller planning problems. We assessed the scalability of our method by applying it to to-do lists with increasingly larger numbers of goals, sub-goals, and tasks, and we also increased the number of nested levels of the goal hierarchy. We found that the method can enable web and mobile applications to compute excellent point systems for fairly large to-do lists, with up to 576 tasks spread out over up to 9 different top-level goals. Our method freely available through an API. This makes it easy to use our method in gamified web applications and mobile apps.
... Counterproductive effect of gamification was another challenge that was investigated by researchers. Diefenbach and Müssig (2018) found that gamification may function as a tool that makes students disoriented by focusing on the gameplay and ignoring the knowledge behind this gameplay. ...
Chapter
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Although intercultural communication has long been a vital issue, accelerating globalization and immigration over the past century have increased its importance. Therefore, it is imperative that education and training in intercultural communication are created and continually evaluated for effectiveness. One operative new strategy is the use of digital game-based learning (DGBL) in intercultural communication training. This chapter aims at explaining—from theoretical and practical perspectives—the effectiveness of DGBL to enhance intercultural communication skills. The chapter expounds on the effectiveness of utilizing DGBL as a pedagogical tool in education and training. It then concludes with demonstrating the research results of using HERO I® as an example of the effectiveness of DGBL for cultural competency training. This interconnectedness between theory and practice projects the future of DGBL in shaping intercultural communication competency.
... Empirische Studien zu möglichen positiven Effekten von Gamification zeigen ein gemischtes Bild Hung, 2017;Looyestyn et al., 2017): Eine metaanalytische Studie von Looyestyn et al. (2017) . So zeigten die Ergebnisse einer Längsschnittstudie von (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019;Hanus & Fox, 2015) negative Effekte von gamifizierenden Elementen wie Ranglisten und "Badges" auf die Motivation und Lern-Leistung von Studierenden im Vergleich zu einer Kontroll-Gruppe. ...
Preprint
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Der vorliegende Beitrag fokussiert auf die Möglichkeiten der Gamifizierung in der polizeilichen Hochschullehre. Ausgehend von empirischen Befunden zu Gamifizierung werden Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Lehrkräften und Game Designer*innen dargestellt und mögliche Synergien identifiziert. Unsere Überlegungen synthetisieren wir in ein Gamifizierungsframework, welches als Planungs- und Reflexionsmodell Lehrkräften bei einem möglichen Einsatz gamifizierter Lehre unterstützen kann.
... Several authors have conducted different studies in order to identify and define the set of suitable game elements to be integrated into different gamification contexts [24,25,26]. However, despite the diversity of existing game elements, the vast majority of gamification experiences are based on the so called PBL triad or "pointsification" [27], the application of points, badges, and leaderboards as the main game elements in a gamification experience [11,28]. This approach "takes the thing that is least essential from games and represents it as the core of the experience" [28], ignoring the part that makes games wonderful and attractive, which is, at the same time, the part that allows achieving the commitment, loyalty, enthusiasm, and fun of the participants [1,28]. ...
Article
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Gamification is a potential approach to foster motivation and engagement in different contexts which popularity in recent years has encouraged its application in a diversity of domains, including health, education, business, society, or tourism. However, although all their promising benefits and rapidly developing, the gamification community should face a variety of theoretical, empirical, and technological challenges. Focusing on technological challenges, we can observe a need that claims for suitable gamification software tools that offer system-independence and flexibility, support the gamification design, implementation, and monitoring activities, and experiment with more game elements than only points, badges, and leaderboards. For that reason, this paper deals with the identified technological challenges by introducing a gamification software tool to cover the main lacks found. An analysis of the advances in gamification domain and their recent literature was conducted to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the most popular gamification software tools in order to design and develop a flexible system-independent gamification software solution that goes beyond the implementation of the classic game elements. As a result, we created GoRace, a multi-context and narrative-based gamification suite that supports the entire gamification process, provides flexible and system-independent gamification solutions, and allows the creation of tailored and reusable gamification solutions that go beyond the classic game elements to immerse participants in a fun, engaging, and challenging narrative-based gamification experience.
... Koivisto & Hamari (2019) regarded case method as a teaching method, under authentic situations and through case analysis, discussion, comprehension, and refl ection, to enhance learning eff ectiveness. Diefenbach & Müssig (2019) indicated that case method used cases as the teaching tool, was the bridge between theory and practice, and could discuss complicated and deep meanings and controversial problems through teacher-student interaction to assist learners in developing practical knowledge and eff ectively achieving learning eff ectiveness. Neto & Costa (2021) suggested that having students use and organize knowledge to solve problems allowed students strengthening the learning eff ectiveness through involvement. ...
Article
Corruption does not simply occur in developing countries, but is often heard in developed countries. Several domestic government officials and enterprise executives involving in corruption in past years reveals that the corruption style is different from public employees with public power changing money with power in the past, and the method of operation is updating to challenge the case handling ability of prosecutors. Corruption prevention refers to developing the functions of deterrence and warning through related procedures and systems. Anti-corruption, on the other hand, induces public awareness of anti-corruption through education and promotion to have people realize the badness of corruption and appeal citizens to collaboratively strike corruption and shape the complete anti-corruption network. With experimental design model to precede the quasi-experimental study, total 202 college students in central and southern Taiwan, as the research subjects, are preceded the 16-week (3 hours per week for total 48 hours) anti-corruption education with case method. The research results show that case method would affect learning motivation, case method would affect learning effectiveness, learning motivation presents significantly positive effects on learning effect in learning effectiveness, and learning motivation reveals remarkably positive effects on positive gain in learning effectiveness. According to the results to propose suggestions, it is expected to deliver certain social value and concept to the public and that the civil society, from bottom-up, could play the role for supervision and accountability, stress on the seriousness and destruction of the negative effect of corruption on the nation and society, and further cultivate the social value to affirm integrity but despise corruption so that people genuinely anticipate integrity.
... This has produced a significant increase in calls for research into potential gamification side effects, adverse events and mitigation practices (Koivisto and Hamari, 2019;Hyrynsalmi et al., 2017). For instance, specific aspects such as dependency (Attig and Franke, 2018), frustration caused by complex mechanics (Hamari and Koivisto, 2015), counterproductive effects (Diefenbach and Mussig, 2018) and unintended consequences (Rapp et al., 2018) have not been adequately investigated. It should not be assumed that adding games to serious contexts produces only positive outcomes (Rapp et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose The present study aims to synthesize and conceptualize, through a systematic literature review (SLR), the current state of gamification knowledge in the tourism and hospitality (T&H) sector, providing a roadmap for future research recommendations for service research and practice. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a systematic literature review and adopts a systematic quantitative approach to summarize existing evidence on gamification usage in the T&H sector, focusing on relevant service literature on gamification. The authors analyze 36 papers published between 2011 and 2019. Findings The authors synthesize existing knowledge into five themes describing gamification's role in T&H (Edutainment, Sustainable behavior, Engagement factors, Service provider-generated content and User-generated reviews). Then, a cross-analysis of the five themes reveals the pivotal elements (affordances, behavioral and psychological outcomes, and benefits) generated by gamification mechanics in T&H, simultaneously highlighting potential implications and relevant insights for service literature. The review identifies critical issues affecting gamification research and provides a future research agenda, considering opportunities for T&H and service research. Originality/value The study provides the first SLR investigating gamification in T&H. The findings present potential implications and relevant insights for T&H contributing to the construction of a more holistic understanding of gamification adoption in service research.
... This paper investigates the question of how a sharia scholar experience the inadequacy between the Islamic bank's logic of profitability and a certain customer expectation concerning sharia compliant. To address that issue, this paper applied the methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, et al., 1999), with a single case study (Diefenbach & Müssig , 2019;Iqbal, et al. 2019;Charlick, et al. 2017). Data was collected through a face-to-face, semi-structured interview, then transcribed in full and analyzed using hermeneutic approach. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse doctorale s’inscrit dans une logique de compréhension de la gestion des institutions pratiquant la finance islamique. Elle se focalise sur les banques islamiques et étudie leur performance via le truchement de quelques déterminants. L’idée est de mener une réflexion sur les déterminants durables qui pourraient d’une part, contribuer à mieux expliquer la performance bancaire islamique, et d’autre part, comparer les relations qui existent entre ces déterminants et les différentes mesures de la performance des banques conventionnelles et islamiques. Cette démarche de compréhension de la performance bancaire islamique inclut l’étude de la structure de propriété, la configuration du pouvoir de décision, la résilience face à la crise financière de 2008, ainsi que d’autres mécanismes de gouvernance tels que le conseil de surveillance de la charia (CSC).Les résultats issus des régressions suggèrent quelques déterminants clés de la performance bancaire islamique. Les caractéristiques du conseil de surveillance de la charia, telles que sa taille, le nombre de participation aux réunions, leur qualification académique, tendent à influencer positivement la performance bancaire islamique, tout en modérant la relation entre la structure de propriété et performance (panel A). Ces caractéristiques se sont avérées significativement associées à la performance bancaire islamique pendant la crise financière de 2008, mettant en lumière le rôle des jurisconsultes charia dans la gouvernance des BIs. Eu égard de ces résultats, une analyse qualitative en entretien semi-directif avec un jurisconsulte charia siégeant au sein d’un CSC était nécessaire pour mieux comprendre les influences indirectes et directes que ceux-ci peuvent avoir sur l’activité bancaire islamique et en toile de fonds sur leur performance.
... An example of a public policy using Hedonic Motivation as a means to accept smart meters is stimulating companies to develop cooperative and competitive gamification interfaces for smart meters, which has been researched before [72]. Similar examples of using gamification tools in other technologies are found in the Robinhood financial activities application [73] and the Habitica routine management application [74]. In both cases, the main reason for the consumers to use them is the gamification itself and not the results obtained with the use of applications. ...
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Smart meters are IoT devices that play a central role in smart cities. However, consumers'’ acceptance of these smart meters is crucial for the smart meter'’s implementation and sustainable use of resources. Despite the need to further understand what influences the acceptance of smart meters, only a few studies tackle this issue, none of them in South America. This article seeks to investigate which factors influence the acceptance of smart meters by consumers in Brazil to provide insights into public policies that help in smart meter implementation projects. This work features a survey (N = 144) in the city of Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina, that comprises items derived from research and technology acceptance models, mainly the UTAUT2 model. PLS-SEM method is used to assess the influence relations on acceptance and the moderation of these relations by gender, age, and years of formal education of respondents. Social Influence is estimated as one of the main factors for the acceptance of smart meters in Florianópolis, something not foreseen in previous research on this topic. Another surprising result is the lack of influence from Performance Expectancy. This study presents a detailed acceptance model based on the survey carried out, and specific strategies for public policies are given based on the constructed acceptance model.
... There are previous researches showing various cons of game mechanics (Diefenbach & Müssig, 2019). Therefore, adopting the various mechanics of gamification carelessly without knowing the context and requirement can lead to greater problems and ineffectiveness in running the business, which is a significant concern for organizations implementing gamification. ...
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The current study serves two purposes. First and foremost, this research aims to determine the impact of a game mechanism known as virtual currency on the intention of young female consumers to use it in an e-tailing platform; second, it looks at the function of e-trust and task awareness as an extension to the TAM framework, two antecedents that are thought to influence female virtual currency adoption intentions in e-tailing. The proposed framework was evaluated using data from an online survey of 386 female participants across India. The conceptual framework is empirically validated using the PLS-SEM technique. The current study broadens the scope of game mechanics by emphasizing the importance of e-trust as an independent variable and task awareness as a mediator. Findings imply that the e-tailer's may include virtual currency into their platforms, allowing female consumers to make substantial use of it in their purchasing decisions.
... Additionally, when considering ethical aspects, gamification going (totally) wrong is of importance, e. g., if individuals actually invest more time in satisfying the gamification goal instead of the actual goal they want to fulfill [25]. Again, an entire article could be filled with this topic. ...
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Gamification can help to increase motivation for various activities. As a fundamental concept in HCI, gamification has connections with various fields involving mixed reality, health care, or education. This article presents the expertise of 106 gamification specialists who participated in four workshops called “Gam-R — Gamification Reloaded.” The extraction of current and future trends in gamification is the result of this. Four general topics, four in-depth topics, and seven emerging fields of application for gamification are depicted and enriched with the current state of research to support interested academic scholars and practitioners. Technical and less technical areas, which are the fields of work and research in gamification, are demonstrated. Some areas are already trending, while others are just beginning to show a future trend.
... Counterproductive effect of gamification was another challenge that was investigated by researchers. Diefenbach and Müssig (2018) found that gamification may function as a tool that makes students disoriented by focusing on the gameplay and ignoring the knowledge behind this gameplay. ...
Chapter
The chapter presents the results of a systematic analysis of published works on utilizing gamification in higher education. The analysis sheds light on the positives and challenges of using gamification in education. The author investigated the studies that tackled the use of gamified learning in various educational environments and contexts. Although the literature has focused on the general use of gamification, previous research did not highlight other positives and negatives that may result from the use of gamified learning in the classroom. In addition, there was minimal focus on the role of gameplay elements in promoting and/or hindering the use of gamification in higher education. Results of this systematic analysis showed that the use of gamification in higher education is associated with three main elements: pedagogy, design, and behavior. Benefits and challenges of utilizing gamification in the classroom are discussed in light of those elements.
... Rewards like coins, badges, weapons, tools, and upgrades hit a note in the minds of players associated with Reiss's 16 basic desires [25]. The prevalence of futile effects is related to the user's consideration of the reward system and punishment system as inappropriate [26]. 1980's scholars in human-computer interaction suggested that designers extract and test specific techniques used in games to influence player motivation [27]. ...
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We are often asked not to judge a book by its cover. However, based on cognitive science, humans broadly connect the performance of a product and its aesthetic appeal by assuming that visually joyful products must be good enough. It is an amalgamation of new-age wireframe technologies, human psychology, design language, realistic feedback testing, and user-centered design. This paper studies the impacts of the new age interaction design on the game industry and computing systems. Gamification is projected as a motivation rostrum through UX while challenging cognitive abilities and developing gameplay as visual appeal, human psychology, voluntary motivation, and engaging interface. This paper envelopes the concept of game design with correspondence to aesthetics and UX, which deals with human–computer interaction and human psychology. The paper covers different sectors of computing systems that deal with the hardware and software, look, feel, accessibility and usability. Additionally, suggesting the UX design department, which has not been in the limelight yet, needs to clinch more significance. The aftermath of this paper points towards creating a comprehensible, urbane life that reflects in the products we utilize, gamification, and hardware and software computing systems.
... Our choice of these three elements was inspired by the insights of these studies, as we aimed to further investigate the impact that the PBL triad could have on student experience and performance, to enable more effective uses of such elements in future educational software design. Nevertheless, we must emphasise that not all empirical results from similar research support the use of gamification in education [27,34,47], as it has been found to have negative effects on student motivation in the medium to long term [70], and on those students at the bottom of the class [80]. ...
Conference Paper
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Gamification aims to enhance the educational experience by enabling students to have fun with technology. Although research in the field has previously looked into the effectiveness of gamification, reviews of existing studies show that in the context of education, gamification has been largely applied at the university level, with diverse pedagogical approaches and outcomes. Furthermore, reports often refer to interactions with gamification elements in contexts outside STEM education. To bridge these research gaps, this paper reports on an empirical study involving 199 students from two secondary schools. Students had the opportunity to receive a digital reward (in the form of points, badges, or rankings) for their participation in an online physics lesson. Although no significant differences were found regarding student motivation, results confirm an impact—depending on the gamification element being introduced in the software—on three other important aspects: (i) perceived usability, (ii) student engagement, and (iii) learning performance.
Article
Background: In an oversaturated market of publicly available mobile apps for psychosocial self-care and stress management, health care providers, patients, and consumers interested in mental health-related apps may wonder which, if any, are efficacious. Readily available metrics for consumers include user popularity and media buzz rather than scientific evidence. Objective: This systematic review aimed to (1) examine the breadth of therapeutic contents and features of psychosocial wellness and stress management apps available to self-help seekers for public download and (2) determine which of these apps have original research support. Methods: First, we conducted a systematic review of publicly available apps on the iPhone App Store (Apple Inc) and Android Google Play (Google LLC) platforms using conventional self-help-seeking search terms related to wellness and stress. The results were limited to English-language apps available for free download. In total, 2 reviewers independently evaluated all apps and discussed the findings to reach 100% consensus regarding inclusion. Second, a literature review was conducted on the included apps to identify supporting studies with original data collection. Results: We screened 3287 apps and found 1009 psychosocial wellness and stress management apps. Content varied widely. The most common evidence-based strategy was mindfulness-meditation, followed by positive psychology and goal setting. Most apps were intended to be used as self-help interventions, with only 1.09% (11/1009) involving an electronic therapist and 1.88% (19/1009) designed as a supplement to in-person psychotherapy. Only 4.66% (47/1009) of apps targeted individuals with psychological disorders, and less than 1% of apps (6/1009, 0.59%) targeted individuals with other chronic illnesses. Approximately 2% (21/1009, 2.08%) were supported by original research publications, with a total of 25 efficacy studies and 10 feasibility studies. The Headspace mindfulness app had the most evidence, including 8 efficacy studies. Most other scientifically backed apps were supported by a single feasibility or efficacy study. Conclusions: Only 2.08% (21/1009) of publicly available psychosocial wellness and stress management mobile apps discoverable to self-help seekers have published, peer-reviewed evidence of feasibility and/or efficacy. Clinicians and investigators may use these findings to help patients and families navigate the volume of emerging digital health interventions for stress management and wellness.
Article
An increasing number of cancer patients is treated and recover each year, and consequently there are survivors that require specialized and coordinated follow-up. The physical, social, working, psychological and emotional aspects of these survivors have to be characterized, investigated and treated by multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary teams. Nowadays, oncology community is focused on tracking records of interest in Patient-Reported Outcome (PROs) for patients of different cancer types. In the last years, several articles have proven that PROs are an effective method to improve the management of patient symptoms and, subsequently, clinical care. In this scenario, patient engagement is one of the most relevant aspects for PROs success. In this sense, one of the most promising strategies for increasing engagement is gamification, that is, the introduction of game elements in systems that are not games. Therefore, in this work we introduce a methodology for developing gamification apps for cancer survivors that aims at increasing engagement when collecting PROs data.
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While the last years have seen increased engagement with gaming in relation to extremist attacks, its potential role in facilitating radicalization has received less attention than other factors. This article makes an exploratory contribution to the theoretical foundations of the study of gaming in radicalization research. It is argued that both top-down and bottom up gamification have already impacted extremist discourse and potentially radicalization processes but that research on gamification in other contexts points to a much wider application of gamification to extremist propaganda distribution tools in the future. The potential influence of video games on radicalization processes exceeds the transfer of the popular argument that exposure to violent media leads to desensitization to the context of radicalization and includes the exploitation of pop culture references, increases in self-efficacy regarding violence, and the direct experience of retropian visions through the content of games.
Chapter
Gamification relates to the application of game elements in a non-game context. Recently, the concept receives increasing acknowledgement as a tool for achieving motivational or behavioural goals. The effects of gamification in education, on an individual level, have been the topic of academic research for some time. However, until now, only few academic studies have addressed the implementation of gamification in teams in organizational contexts. Using Q methodology, this study combines quantitative and qualitative data to explore how team members experience gamification in work teams. The results show two main perspectives on gamification in organizational work teams. The first perspective, described as the eager team gamer, is predominantly positive. It reveals an experience of increased enjoyment, collaboration, creativity, and productiveness among team members. The second perspective, labelled as the critical player, is much more demanding. It acknowledges the potential positive influences of gamification in certain contexts, but feels strongly about possible inappropriateness in serious tasks or environments, and is adverse towards competitive elements. The results of this Q study add to our understanding of how and why team members in organizations may variously perceive gamification of team tasks.KeywordsGamificationTeamsQ methodology
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Behavioural science has been effectively used by policy makers in various domains, from health to savings. However, interventions that behavioural scientists typically employ to change behaviour have been at the centre of an ethical debate, given that they include elements of paternalism that have implications for people's freedom of choice. In the present article, we argue that this ethical debate could be resolved in the future through implementation and advancement of new technologies. We propose that several technologies which are currently available and are rapidly evolving (i.e., virtual and augmented reality, social robotics, gamification, self-quantification, and behavioural informatics) have a potential to be integrated with various behavioural interventions in a non-paternalistic way. More specifically, people would decide themselves which behaviours they want to change and select the technologies they want to use for this purpose, and the role of policy makers would be to develop transparent behavioural interventions for these technologies. In that sense, behavioural science would move from libertarian paternalism to liberalism, given that people would freely choose how they want to change, and policy makers would create technological interventions that make this change possible.
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This study aims to examine whether it is possible to match digital society, academia and students interests in higher education by testing to what extent the introduction of gamifcation into active learning setups afects the skills development demanded by the workplace of the digital society of the twenty-frst century, the academic achieve‑ment standards claimed by the academia, and the satisfaction with the learning process required by the students. Our results provide statistically signifcant empirical evidence, concluding that the generation of a co-creative and empowered gameful experience that supports students’ overall value creation yields to satisfactory active learning setups without any loss of academic achievement, and allowing to develop a series of skills especially relevant for twenty-frst century professionals.
Chapter
The objective of this work is to measure the effects that adaptive and counter-adaptive gamified applications have on individuals’ performance. Researchers have sought to explore how individuals’ player type can be used to tailor gamification. However, existing studies do not measure the impact that adaptive gamification has on individuals’ performance since they tend to focus on exploring the relationship between individuals’ player type and their game element preferences. Consequently, a designer may spend valuable resources creating a gamified application and yet, not see any positive effects or even see negative effects on individuals’ performance. In light of this gap, a randomized experiment was conducted in which participants’ performance on (i) an adapted gamified application, (ii) a non-adapted gamified application, (iii) a non-gamified application, and (iv) a counter-adapted gamified application was analyzed. In this work, the game elements in the adapted and counter-adapted gamified applications were selected based on individuals’ Hexad player type dimensions. The results revealed that the performance of individuals who interacted with the adapted gamified application was greater than any other group. In contrast, the performance of individuals who interacted with the counter-adapted gamified application was worse than any other group. This work provides empirical evidence on the effectiveness of adaptive gamification. Moreover, the results highlight the need to consider individuals’ player type when designing gamified applications and the latent detrimental effects of not doing so.
Article
Short video games saw explosive growth and due to their rich content and strong communication features have provided a new marketing platform for corporate commercial activities. However, few studies have examined how to implement a gamification strategy on short-form video platforms. Based on Expectation Violation Theory, this study explored the impacts of three aspects of users' gamification interaction expectation violations on negative use behavior. By collecting and analyzing two waves of data with 320 matched samples, this study revealed that reward expectation violation, achievement expectation violation, and competition expectation violation of users' gamified interactions could predict negative use behaviors. Psychological resistance and emotional exhaustion mediated the effects of gamification expectation violations on users' negative use behaviors. Further, moral licensing negatively moderated the influence of gamification expectation violations on psychological resistance, but the moderation effect of moral licensing between gamification expectation violations and emotional exhaustion was not significant.
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The appearance of gamification dates back about a decade and since this tool has been increasingly used not only in the entertainment sector but also in the industry, army, education, health and others. Studies suggest that this approach may provide added value outcomes, in particular in the users’ motivational and engagement areas, in a wide range of fields such as customer relations, skills learning, physical exercises, health management, etc. On the other hand, the consequences and potential risks related to its use remain insufficiently understood and have started to become the object of research in the last years. This chapter aims at exploring and deepening the understanding of the possible threats resulting from the use of software gamification at both the individual and collective levels. To do so, an integrative literature review was carried out on studies examining the negatives effects and challenges of this tool so as to identify the possible adverse impacts arising from them. Overall, results would show that an inadequate gamification design and implementation and its implications in terms of a flawed rewarding system and ethical issues may entail perils such as demotivating users, engendering mistrust, health issues and tarnishing the gamification credibility as well as that of the management in charge of it.
Article
Researchers have claimed that gamification adds to the workload of users, potentially influencing their perceptions of effort and performance expectancy negatively. Through an experimental study which compared a gamified and a non‐gamified mobile app for crowdsourcing restaurant reviews, we found participants had similar perceptions of effort and performance expectancy, contrary to expectations,. Interestingly, participants perceived reviews in the gamified application to be more accurate. There were also more reviews made in the gamified application.
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The practice of adding game elements to non-gaming educational environments has gained much popularity. Gamification has been shown in some studies to enhance engagement, motivation and learning outcomes in technology-supported learning environments. Although gamification research has matured, there are some shortcomings such as inconsistency in applying gamification theories and frameworks and evaluating multiple game mechanics simultaneously. Moreover, there is little research on applying gamification to Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS). This paper investigates the causal effects of gamification on learning in SQL-Tutor, a mature ITS teaching students how to phrase queries in SQL. Having conducted a study under realistic conditions, we present a quantitative analysis of the performance of 77 undergraduate students enrolled in a database course. There are three main findings of our study: (1) gamification affects student learning by mediating the time-on-task; (2) students’ background knowledge does not influence time-on-task unless students achieve badges; and (3) students’ interest in topic (motivational construct) moderates the relationship between badges and time-on-task, but does not improve learning outcomes directly.
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This study investigated the actual efficiency of ludicization, a game-related pedagogy that integrates game elements with online learning based on ludic metaphorization of educational contexts, by identifying whether it exerts counterproductive effects on learning achievement and intrinsic motivation. This study involved adapted versions of CET-6 (College English Test-6) and Harter's intrinsic motivation scale to assess learning achievement and intrinsic motivation, respectively. ANCOVA revealed that ludicization showed counterproductive effects on posttest scores (N = 36, M = 62.910, SD = .865) compared with the control group (N = 36, M = 63.937, SD = .865). ANOVA suggested that ludicization exerted counterproductive and insignificant effects on intrinsic motivation-related subscales: challenge, curiosity, and independent mastery. The main conclusion was that ludicization would exert insignificant or even counterproductive effects on learning achievement and intrinsic motivation. These findings implied that we should not take positive effects of game-related pedagogies for granted.
Article
Purpose This article aims to compare smart meters' acceptance studies worldwide to consolidate trends and highlight factors that are not a consensus. Design/methodology/approach This work performs a statistical meta-analysis, using the Hunter–Schmidt method and the UTAUT2 model, of the factors of acceptance of smart meters in the world literature. A meta-regression was also conducted to verify the moderation exercised by gender, level of education and timeline context of the articles. Findings The main results point to hedonic motivation, performance expectancy and effort expectancy as the leading influencers for smart meter's acceptance. Meta-regression indicates that the influence is more significant among the male gender and that over the years, the social influence must gain weight in the smart meter's acceptance. Social implications Specific strategies are suggested to improve projects for the implementation of smart meters based on the obtained results. Originality/value The contribution given by this work is relevant, considering it is the first meta-analysis focused on smart meters' acceptance published in the literature
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Although 'user experience' (UX) has become a fashionable term in human-computer interaction over the past 15 years, the practical application of this (multidimensional) concept requires further advances. First, measurement models of UX are essential: they allow the concept to be measured accurately and, thereby, can aid the evaluation of interactive computer systems. Second, structural models of UX are needed: they establish the structural (antecedent-consequent or cause-and-effect) relations between its components and of these components to characteristics of users and computer systems; consequently, they can inform the design of interactive computer systems. As a proposed agenda for research and practice, we discuss various issues that need to be considered in developing and applying both types of model. We anticipate the further fruitful application of the concept of UX in terms of its measurement models and structural models.