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Effect of 528 Hz Music on the Endocrine System and Autonomic Nervous System

Health, 2018, 10, 1159-1170
ISSN Online: 1949-5005
ISSN Print: 1949-4998
10.4236/health.2018.109088 Sep. 6, 2018 1159 Health
Effect of 528 Hz Music on the Endocrine System
and Autonomic Nervous System
Kaho Akimoto1, Ailing Hu2, Takuji Yamaguchi2, Hiroyuki Kobayashi1,2
1Department of Hospital Administration, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
2Center for Advanced Kampo Medicine and Clinical Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan
This study examined the stress-
reducing effect on the endocrine system and
the autonomic
nervous system of music with a frequency of 528 Hz, which
has recently attracted attention as a “healing” type of music.
Nine healthy
participants (one man and eight women, aged 26 -
37 years) listened to 528
Hz and standard 440 Hz music on separate days. We measured salivary bio-
markers of stress (cortisol, chromogranin A, and oxytocin
) before and after
exposure to music, and continuously recorded the activity of the autonomic
nervous system. The Profile of Mood State, 2nd edition, was also administered
as a subjective indicator of stress. In the 528 Hz condition, mean levels of cor-
tisol significantly decreased, chromogranin A tended to decrease, and oxyto-
cin significantly increased after music exposure. However, no signifi
change was observed in any salivary biomarkers in the 440 Hz condition. The
ratio of low frequency to high frequency autonomic nervous system activity
significantly decreased after exposure to both types of music, and the coeffi-
cient of variation of R-R intervals also significantly decreased, but only after
exposure to 528 Hz music. Tension-
anxiety and Total Mood Disturbance
scores were significantly reduced after exposure to 528 Hz music, while there
was no significant difference following 440 Hz musi
c. These results suggest
that the influence of music on the autonomic nervous system and endocrine
system varies depending on the frequency of the music, and furthermore, that
528 Hz music has an especially strong stress-
reducing effect, even following
only five minutes of exposure.
Music, Stress, Salivary Assay, Autonomic Nervous System
1. Introduction
It is well known that listening to music reduces stress. Research has investigated
How to cite this paper:
Akimoto, K.,
.L., Yamaguchi, T. and Kobayashi, H.
8) Effect of 528 Hz Music on the En-
docrine System and Autonomic Nervous
, 1159-1170.
August 10, 2018
September 3, 2018
September 6, 2018
Copyright © 201
8 by authors and
Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative
Attribution International
License (CC BY
Open Access
K. Akimoto et al.
10.4236/health.2018.109088 1160 Health
many aspects of this phenomenon, and it is recognized that several constituent
elements of music are involved in this stress reduction effect. Previous studies
that have examined emotional arousal in response to listening to music have
suggested that music arouses different emotions depending on its characteristics,
such as melody, rhythm, and dynamism [1].
However, few studies have investigated how differences in the frequency of
music affect the human body. In a study in which rats were exposed to musical
stimuli of different frequencies, the rats’ blood pressure decreased depending on
the frequency; notably, this change was observed to a greater extent for music in
the frequency range of 16 kHz compared to 4 kHz frequency [2]. This result
suggests that music including high-frequency sound stimulates dopamine syn-
thesis and suppresses sympathetic nervous system activity [2]. Furthermore,
others report that listening to high-frequency music increases the activity of the
parasympathetic nervous system and reduces stress, in comparison to listening
to low-frequency music [3]. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the
stress reduction effect of music with a frequency of 528 Hz by measuring its in-
fluence on the endocrine system and autonomic nervous system.
Music of the aforementioned frequency (528 Hz) has lately attracted attention
as “healing” music. Usually, the reference tone of tuning is 440 Hz, and this is
the international standard frequency (we refer to this as 440
Hz music
). In this
musical scale, there is no 528 Hz note. However, setting the reference tone to 444
Hz means that 528 Hz is included in the musical scale. We refer to music that is
tuned and composed in this way as
528 Hz music
. In general, this specific type of
music using a scale including 528 Hz is called
solfeggio frequency
music. Vari-
ous effects have been ascribed to the solfeggio frequency, but none of these have
any scientific basis. Accordingly, we examined the effect of such music com-
pared to 440 Hz music.
In this study, we measured salivary biomarkers of stress (cortisol, chromogra-
nin A, and oxytocin), which can be collected noninvasively, as indices of stress
relief. It is known that listening to music affects the endocrine system and auto-
nomic nervous system.
In the endocrine system, cortisol and chromogranin A have been used as in-
dicators of stress. In a previous study, conducted in patients who had just un-
dergone the stressful experience of learning in detail about the procedures in-
volved in surgery that they would undergo the next day, salivary cortisol was
significantly reduced among a group who listened to music for one hour, com-
pared to a group who did not [4]. Additionally, in another study, which admi-
nistered the Trier Social Stress Test (in which stress is caused to participants and
their salivary cortisol levels thereby raised), the increase of salivary cortisol in a
group who took the test while listening to relaxing music was significantly sup-
pressed compared to that of a control group [5].
Chromogranin A is present in the submaxillary duct and is released into saliva
by autonomic nerve stimulation [6]. It has also been reported that, when psy-
chological stress is experienced, chromogranin A rises ahead of cortisol and de-
K. Akimoto et al.
10.4236/health.2018.109088 1161 Health
creases early after stress is relieved [7]. Furthermore, others have examined the
effect on both cortisol and chromogranin A of listening to music [8] [9]. Specif-
ically, they report that salivary cortisol and chromogranin A decrease signifi-
cantly before and after listening to music [8]. In contrast, other researchers ob-
serve that, although salivary chromogranin A decreases significantly, there is no
significant difference in cortisol levels [9].
In addition to the above indicators, we also focused on oxytocin. The effect of
listening to music on oxytocin has recently attracted attention, with a previous
study indicating that salivary oxytocin increases when participants listen to
slow-tempo music compared to fast-tempo music [10].
As an additional objective index, we measured the activity of the autonomic
nervous system. Finally, we also administered the Japanese short version of the
Profile of Mood State, 2nd edition (POMS 2) to participants as a subjective index
of stress. Both of these measures have also been used in many previous studies
[11] [12]. We consider these measures to support the data provided by the
above-mentioned salivary biomarkers of stress marker.
The 528 Hz music that we used in this study was soothing piano music. Some
researchers report that, depending on the mental state of the listener, music pre-
ferences vary [13]. However, they also find that piano music is appreciated re-
gardless of the listener’s circumstances. Thus, we examined the stress-mitigating
effect of 528 Hz music from various perspectives. This study offers a new piece
of evidence for use in music therapy.
2. Methods
2.1. Participants
Participants were nine healthy adults, one man and eight women, aged 26 - 37
years (mean age: 31.1;
= 1.35). We recruited participants as volunteers re-
gardless their previous musical education. Everyone participated with full un-
derstanding of the study and gave their informed consent. They were asked to
abstain from caffeine and smoking for one hour before starting the experiment.
They did not apprise of which music they were listening to. This study was ap-
proved by the Ethics Committee of Shiba Palace Clinic, Tokyo, Japan (Protocol #
2.2. Procedure
Figure 1 shows an outline of the experimental procedure. The study was carried
out in a conference room, where the room temperature was 25.0˚C - 25.5˚C and
humidity was 67% - 76%. In consideration of circadian variation in cortisol and
chromogranin A [14] [15], we started the experiment at 2 PM for each condi-
tion. Participants listened to the music from a seated position beside a speaker.
The music was soothing piano music, and the only difference between the two
musical conditions was in frequency, which was either 528 Hz or 440 Hz. Each
participant took part in each of the conditions on separate days.
K. Akimoto et al.
10.4236/health.2018.109088 1162 Health
Figure 1. The experimental procedure. Participants wore a Bio Information
Tracer (M-BIT) device and their electrocardiogram was recorded continuously
from the acclimation phase until 45 minutes after music exposure. Participants
listened to music for five minutes. Salivary samples were collected at five time
points: immediately before music exposure, immediately after music exposure, 15
minutes later, 30 minutes later, and 45 minutes later. The Profile of Mood State,
2nd edition (POMS 2) was administered before and after music exposure.
2.3. Measures
2.3.1. Salivary Assay
We collected salivary samples at five time points (immediately before listening to
music, immediately after listening to music, 15 minutes later, 30 minutes later,
and 45 minutes later) using the Saliva Collection Aid (Salimetrics LLC, USA).
We measured cortisol, chromogranin A, and oxytocin as salivary biomarkers of
stress. These were measured using the Salivary Cortisol Enzyme-Linked Immu-
nosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit (Salimetrics LLC, USA), Human Chromogranin A
ELISA Kit (Yanaihara Institute Inc., Japan), and Oxytocin ELISA Kit (Arbor
Assays, USA), respectively.
2.3.2. Autonomic Nervous System
We recorded an electrocardiogram using the Bio Information Tracer (M-BIT)
(Institute of Man and Science Inc., Japan). Participants wore this small wearable
sensor (49 × 39 × 8 mm, 14 g) on the left side of the chest during an acclimation
phase, and data were recorded continuously until 45 minutes after music expo-
sure. The BIT analysis center analyzed these data in terms of low frequency (LF),
high frequency (HF), and the coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVRR),
and we received the averaged values of these measures over the five minutes
preceding each saliva collection time point.
2.3.3. Questionnaire on Mood States
Self-reported mood states were collected using the Japanese short version of the
POMS 2 scale before listening to music and 45 minutes after doing so. The
POMS 2 is a questionnaire developed in the United States as a questionnaire
method to evaluate mood. It is possible to quickly evaluate not only the state of
emotion that lasts for a relatively long time but also the state of temporary feel-
ings and emotions that change depending on the situation that subject is in. It is
K. Akimoto et al.
10.4236/health.2018.109088 1163 Health
used in a variety of fields such as clinical, workplace, and school. For example, it
has been applied to the course of treatment of mental disorders, mental changes
of people with physical disorders, screening in the workplace, and exercise or
relaxation effect.
The POMS 2 evaluates seven mood scales of anger-hostility (AH), confu-
sion-bewilderment (CB), depression-dejection (DD), fatigue-inertia (FI), ten-
sion-anxiety (TA), vigor-activity (VA), friendliness (F) at the same time. TMD is
a general indicator such as mood disorders, psychological distress, and subjec-
tive well-being. The TMD score is calculated by the sum of the elementary scores
of AH, CB, DD, FI, TA, and VA. (Since VA is weighted of negative, it is sub-
tracted from the sum of the other five). Therefore, the score is a comprehensive
evaluation of expression of negative mood.
The POMS 2 consists of 35 items questions and a respondent answer each of
question with the evaluation scale of POMS 2 (0 = not at all, 1 = slightly, 2 =
modestly, 3 = considerably, 4 = very). Although this evaluation scale is constant,
since the number of items differs depending on the scale, the degree indicated by
each scale score is not constant. In short, even though the absolute value of the
score is the same, the meaning of the score differs between scales. Since it is im-
possible to properly compare the scales at this score, the score is converted to a
standardized score, that is, a T score. The T score is a normalized standard of
assessment (average value is 50 and the standard deviation is 10) so that the
same value has equivalent meaning. The measurer interprets the score by con-
verting the graded evaluation scale into the T score.
Regarding the TMD score and negative mood state (AH, CB, DD, FI, and
TA), the higher the T score, the stronger the emotion concerning negative emo-
tion or mood disorder. Regarding the positive emotional state (VA, F), the high-
er the T score, the more positive emotion means [16].
2.4. Data Analysis
We used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to detect any differences between time
points in each condition in this study. The threshold for statistical significance
was set at
< 0.05.
3. Results
3.1. Salivary Assay
3.1.1. Cortisol
In consideration of the response time lag of cortisol [17] [18], we took the mean
level of salivary cortisol measured immediately after music exposure as
representing the level immediately before music exposure, and so on; therefore,
data were only available until 30 minutes after music exposure, rather than 45
(Figure 2). After exposure to 528 Hz music, mean levels of salivary cortisol de-
creased with the passage of time and were significantly reduced 30 minutes later
(0.43 ± 0.04 → 0.25 ± 0.02,
< 0.011). In contrast, after listening to 440 Hz mu-
K. Akimoto et al.
10.4236/health.2018.109088 1164 Health
sic, mean levels of cortisol slightly decreased after 30 minutes, but there was no
significant difference between the time points.
3.1.2. Chromogranin A
There was no significant difference in chromogranin A levels following exposure
to either 528 Hz music or 440 Hz music (Figure 3). However, in the 528 Hz mu-
sic condition, mean levels of chromogranin A showed a tendency to fall until 30
minutes after music exposure. In contrast, in the 440 Hz music condition, mean
levels of chromogranin A showed a tendency to increase until 30 minutes later.
3.1.3. Oxytocin
Figure 4 illustrates the effects of music on oxytocin. Mean levels of oxytocin in-
creased significantly immediately after listening to 528 Hz music (37.57 ± 1.53 →
73.58 ± 5.04,
< 0.038). After listening to 440 Hz music, mean levels of oxytocin
also increased, but the difference was not significant.
3.2. Autonomic Nervous System
An electrocardiogram could not be recorded correctly for one of the partici-
pants, so we analyzed the data from eight participants for this measure (Figure
5). In both conditions, the ratio of LF to HF decreased significantly immediately
after listening to music (528 Hz music: 77.89 ± 0.0025 → 62.34 ± 0.0032,
0.012, 440 Hz music: 72.52 ± 0.0028 → 54.72 ± 0.0037,
< 0.012), whereas CVRR
decreased significantly only immediately after listening to 528 Hz music (6.67 ±
0.00040 → 5.36 ± 0.00043
< 0.025).
3.3. POMS 2
After exposure to 528 Hz music, all negative mood scores decreased. In particu-
lar, tension-anxiety (48.44 ± 2.28 → 43.67 ± 2.45,
< 0.0091) and Total Mood
Disturbance (45.56 ± 1.99 → 42.00 ± 2.00,
< 0.0487) decreased significantly.
Additionally, all positive mood scores tended to increase. In contrast, after ex-
posure to 440 Hz music, almost all scores showed a similar tendency to change
in the same direction as observed in the 528 Hz music condition, but there was
no significant difference for any score. Furthermore, anger-hostility scores (in-
dicating negative mood) slightly increased, and friendliness scores (indicating
positive mood) decreased (Table 1).
4. Discussion
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 528 Hz music on the en-
docrine system and the autonomic nervous system using objective and subjective
measures. Based on salivary biomarkers, electrocardiogram, and a mood state
questionnaire, we found that stress levels were reduced following five minutes’
exposure to 528 Hz music, whereas this was not the case for 440 Hz music.
We found that mean levels of cortisol decreased and mean levels of oxytocin
increased after listening to 528 Hz music. In general, cortisol increases via the
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Table 1. Effects of music on mood as assessed by subscales of the Profile of Mood State,
Second Edition.
Measures 528 Hz of Music 440 Hz of Music
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Anger-Hostility 43.6 (1.75) 41.6 (1.53) 42.6 (2.00) 42.6 (2.40)
Confusion-Bewilderment 50.6 (3.10) 47.9 (2.43) 49.1 (2.63) 45.9 (2.77)
Depression-Dejection 47.2 (2.03) 44.4 (1.45) 46.4 (2.34) 45.9 (2.37)
Fatigue-Inertia 46.2 (3.04) 44.0 (2.56) 42.9 (2.42) 41.0 (3.06)
Tension-Anxiety 48.4 (2.28) 43.7 (2.45)** 44.3 (2.94) 42.4 (2.92)
Vigor-Activity 56.3 (2.11) 57.8 (4.11) 55.6 (3.53) 55.7 (4.48)
Friendliness 60.3 (3.40) 61.6 (4.22) 57.2 (4.22) 56.1 (5.20)
Total Mood Disturbance 45.6 (1.99) 42.0 (2.00)* 43.6 (1.99) 41.9 (2.48)
< 0.05; **
< 0.01 in pre-exposure vs post-exposure comparison using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Figure 2. Effects of music on mean levels of salivary cortisol. Error bars represent
standard errors. Time points are as indicated in Figure 1 (Mean ± SE) *
< 0.05.
Figure 3. Effects of music on mean levels of salivary chromogranin A. Error bars
represent standard errors. Time points are as indicated in Figure 1 (Mean ± SE).
K. Akimoto et al.
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Figure 4. Effects of music on salivary oxytocin. Error bars represent standard
errors. Time points are as indicated in Figure 1 (Mean ± SE) *
< 0.05.
Figure 5. Effects of music on the autonomic nervous system, as measured by the ratio of
low frequency to high frequency (LF/HF) and coefficient of variation of R-R intervals
(CVRR). Time points are as indicated in Figure 1 (Mean ± SE) *
< 0.05.
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stress. Oxytocin is
produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It is
well known that production of oxytocin increases in the process of breastfeeding.
In addition, some studies suggest that production of oxytocin increases in re-
sponse to pleasant sensations or positive social interactions [19] [20]. When an
individual hears music, responses to these stimuli are eventually transferred to
the amygdaloid body via the medial geniculate body of the thalamus. Sensory
information that causes emotions, such as music, is processed in the amygdaloid
body circuit. Subsequently, signals are output to the hypothalamus, causing an
oxytocin response [21] [22]. Furthermore, it is reported that oxytocin controls
activation of the HPA axis [19]. Taking this information together with the
present findings, we infer that mean levels of oxytocin increased in our study
because the 528 Hz music was transmitted to the amygdaloid body as a pleasing
sensation. Additionally, the decrease in mean level of cortisol occurred as a re-
sult of the action of oxytocin. This suggests that participants felt comfortable lis-
tening to 528 Hz music and this stimulus reduced their stress level.
Mean levels of oxytocin also increased after listening to 440 Hz music, but no
significant difference was identified. In addition, mean levels of cortisol slightly
decreased in this condition after 45 minutes, but this difference also failed to
reach significance. In other words, we could not confirm that a stress mitigation
effect occurred in the 440 Hz music condition.
K. Akimoto et al.
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Mean levels of chromogranin A showed a tendency to decrease after listening
to 528 Hz music. Chromogranin A is released along with catecholamine via the
sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis in response stress. Chromogranin A is found
in the duct of the submandibular gland. It is released into the saliva as a result of
stimulation of the autonomic nervous system [7] [15] [23].
Concerning the autonomic nervous system, in both musical conditions, a sig-
nificant decrease in LF/HF was observed immediately after listening to music. LF
is considered to reflect the autonomic activity of both the sympathetic and the
parasympathetic nervous systems, whereas HF reflects parasympathetic activity,
and LF/HF reflects sympathetic activity [24] [25]. Additionally, CVRR signifi-
cantly decreased immediately after listening to 528 Hz music. This measure
represents the coefficient of variance of the R-R interval (RRI) and is calculated
by dividing the standard deviation of the RRI by the mean of RRI. CVRR mainly
reflects regulation of parasympathetic nervous system activity [26]. In other words,
a low value of this measure indicates concentration and a heightened sense of
tension [27]. Taken together, the results of the Chromogranin A, LF/HF, and
CVRR analyses suggest that when the participants listened to 528 Hz music, they
concentrated on listening to the music while also relaxing.
Interestingly, after listening to 440 Hz music, mean levels of chromogranin A
showed a tendency to increase, while LF/HF significantly decreased in both con-
ditions. At the same time, the cortisol, oxytocin, and POMS 2 measures did not
show stress reduction. This might suggest that people were relaxed by listening
to music but did not feel comfortable with 440 Hz music.
The results of the POMS 2 showed that after listening to 528 Hz music, ten-
sion-anxiety and Total Mood Disturbance scores decreased significantly. After
listening to 440 Hz music, almost all scores showed a tendency to change in a
similar way as in the condition with 528 Hz music; however, not only was there
no significant difference in any of the scores, but anger-hostility slightly in-
creased and friendliness decreased. On the basis of these results, it can be con-
cluded that participants also felt subjectively relaxed after listening to 528 Hz
Overall, we found that participants experienced objective and subjective stress
reduction after listening to 528 Hz music, while this effect could not be con-
firmed for 440 Hz music. In this study, participants listened to music only for
five minutes in each condition. In most previous studies, participants have lis-
tened to music for 10 minutes or longer. Therefore, it might be the case that lis-
tening to 440 Hz music for longer would evoke the stress-reducing effect, espe-
cially as indexed by chromogranin A and the POMS 2, as in previous studies.
However, the point remains that even if the exposure to music lasts only five
minutes, listening to 528 Hz music reduces stress to the endocrine system and
the autonomic nervous system. Although the sample size of this study was li-
mited, these are interesting data and could provide support for a new approach
in music therapy.
K. Akimoto et al.
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5. Conclusion
We found that music of different frequencies had different effects on the endo-
crine system, especially oxytocin and cortisol. Our findings suggest that 528 Hz
music reduces stress even if participants listen to the music for only a short time.
We thank the participants for volunteering and the Institute of Man and Science
Inc. for analyzing the electrocardiogram data.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this pa-
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... Therefore, in the present study, we examined the stress reduction effect of music with a frequency of 528 Hz by measuring its influence on the endocrine system and autonomic nervous system" (Akimoto & Kobayashi, 2018) The findings determine that "frequency (528 Hz) has lately attracted attention as "healing" music. Usually, the reference tone of tuning is 440 Hz, and this is the international standard frequency (we refer to this as 440 Hz music)." ...
... It is important to acknowledge "setting the reference tone to 444 Hz means that 528 Hz is included in the musical scale." (Akimoto & Kobayashi, 2018) When the reference tone is tuned and composed to 444 Hz to include 528 Hz solfeggio frequency music is created. The study examined the effects of solfeggio sound on levels or cortisol and oxytocin to measure healing and stress relief. ...
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Finalized Thesis statement: Sound healing is effective in healing physical, generational and emotional trauma in our DNA using vibrations and frequencies. Finalized Purpose statement: This research paper intends to educate individuals on how they can use music therapy, electromagnetic sound frequencies and Solfeggio Sound science to heal mind, body and spirit. We will research Sound healing using solfeggio frequencies and how it can be an effective tool in heal generational trauma and DNA. Abstract: This research assignment examines the role of music and solfege tones as sound healing modalities on a variety of mental, emotional and physical ailments. The information was compiled from 3 websites, 1 book and 3 academic journals/Research thesis as well as 1 documentary all focused on sound healing. Information on the significance of archetypal sounds/symbols/shapes on our subconscious is very limited although evidence of their use can be traced back centuries into time. The findings determined that scientific studies have proven that "atoms vibrate against each other to form a molecule and those atoms and molecules have signature vibrational waves that can be measured in Hertz. Archetypal sounds, such as solfeggio frequencies are measured in Hertz and have been correlated with our modern sound scale, "shape-note singing", gregorian chants, instruments and physiological response patterns. The role of sound and music in mind-body mechanisms, consciousness, communication, and emotion are explored through a wide range of notable mathematic, scientific, and evidence-based theories. This research identifies the frequency of shapes and numbers and note that early Solfege notation was written as shapes, called solfege singing or shape-note singing. There are many different mediums used to access solfeggio frequency healing through sound vibrations. Sound studies monitor subconscious responses to sound by monitoring their influence on heart rate, as well as monitoring the emotional & mental state on participants prior to and after administering sound therapy. The results determined that music and sound is useful for enhancing therapies to transform the brain and relieve mental, emotional, and physical suffering.
... It is important to take into account evidence that recorded music with a frequency of 528hz has had an effect on the endocrine and autonomic nervous system and it was observed that music showed a marked reduction in both cortisol levels and disturbed moods. [75] Low frequency sound stimulation during fibromyalgia treatment was found to have significant reduction in pain while sitting and standing, and there was improvement in sleep, and increase in range of motion. [76] These are but a few instances that portray the effect of music from the perspectives of mind body medicine. ...
Pregnancy and childbirth are regarded as unique experiences bestowed upon women. Pregnancy is a vulnerable stage that is virtually synonymous with constant changes and upheaval in the state of mind and body occurring over the gestation period. The variegated emotions that a first-time mother experiences is superimposed with anxiety, excitement, and happiness as well as accompanying fears of labor and childbirth. Each trimester brings along with it a wide gamut of changes in the mothers’ physical, biological & psychological states along with the ability to cope with the weight of the newborn child. Not only does the mother possess her own body and mind to take care of, but she also has to receive the constant advice and recommendations from family and well-wishers on topics related to pregnancy, childbirth and post-partum experiences. This acquires special relevance in the Indian cultural context where conservative practices are still very much in vogue, despite various advancements in science and improved literacy rate. This review will provide available literature on stress and the endocrine markers during pregnancy. With a focus on the use of music, evidence on the effects of music and uses of music therapy, the review would aim to provide insights into the future implications of its potency in pregnancy
... Listening to music has been shown to reduce social stress and temper aggression in others [7]. The use of music that consisted of frequencies identified as Solfeggio sounds may have been stress reducing [8]. There was no instrument used to measure the physiological changes in mood associated with stress reduction amongst the Zoom classroom participants. ...
The COVID-19 pandemic forced students and educators to shift from the traditional physical classrooms (face to face) to online platforms such as the Zoom to host live synchronous sessions. Although this video teleconferencing software facilitated communication between students and faculty around the world, technically the blank, silenced log-in screens removed the “connectedness” of the classroom. A medical educator plays music during the pre-class Zoom synchronous session as an approach to encourage a positive learning environment in a preclinical science course.
... A second caveat concerns the absolute salivary oxytocin concentrations observed in our study (mean = 112 pg/ml across all 200 measurements; see Table 1). Although these concentrations are consistent with those reported by previous studies that have used the same Arbor Assays oxytocin ELISA (e.g., Akimoto et al., 2018;Erickson et al., 2020;Leeds et al., 2020), they are considerable higher than most results in the literature. For example, the absolute oxytocin concentrations in saliva measured using another popular oxytocin ELISA (originally produced by Assay Designs Inc., now Enzo Life Sciences Inc.) are more typically in the 5-20 pg/ml range (e.g., Blagrove et al., 2012;Feldman et al., 2010;Grewen et al., 2010;Holt-Lunstad et al., 2011). ...
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Humans have sung together for thousands of years. Today, regular participation in group singing is associated with benefits across psychological and biological dimensions of human health. Here we examine the hypothesis that a portion of these benefits stem from changes in endocrine activity associated with affiliation and social bonding. Working with a young adult choir (n = 71), we measured changes salivary concentrations of oxytocin, cortisol, and testosterone from before and after four experimental conditions crossing two factors: vocal production mode (singing vs. speaking) and social context (together vs. alone). Salivary oxytocin and cortisol decreased from before to after the experimental manipulations. For oxytocin the magnitude of this decrease was significantly smaller after singing compared to speaking, resulting in concentrations that were significantly elevated after singing together compared to speaking together, after controlling for baseline differences. In contrast, the magnitude of the salivary cortisol decreases was the same across experimental manipulations, and although large, could not be separated from diurnal cycling. No significant effects were found in a low-powered exploratory evaluation of testosterone (tested only in males). At a psychological level, we found that singing stimulates greater positive shifts in self-perceived affect compared to speaking—particularly when performed together—and that singing together enhances feelings of social connection more than speaking together. Finally, measurements of heart rate made for a subset of participants provide preliminary evidence regarding physical exertion levels across conditions. These results are discussed in the context of a growing multidisciplinary literature on the endocrinological correlates of musical behavior. We conclude that singing together can have biological and psychological effects associated with affiliation and social bonding, and that these effects extend beyond comparable but non-musical group activities. However, we also note that these effects appear heavily influenced by broader contextual factors that shape social dynamics, such as stress levels, the intimacy of interactions, and the status of existing relationships.
... In contrast to the relative lack of conclusive findings in the field of pain management, musical characteristics such as sound intensity, tempo, timbre, and arousal level have been shown to affect ANS activity in a plethora of studies (62)(63)(64)(65)(66)(67)(68). However, only recently, audio frequencies, which constitute another inherent feature of music, have been brought into focus of scientific investigations (69)(70)(71)(72). From a technical perspective, the term frequency describes the number of oscillations per time unit, i.e., for audio frequency, it is the number of vibrations per second that determines the pitch of a sound and is measured in Hertz (Hz). ...
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Background: Pain can severely compromise a person's overall health and well-being. Music-listening interventions have been shown to alleviate perceived pain and to modulate the body's stress-sensitive systems. Despite the growing evidence of pain- and stress-reducing effects of music-listening interventions from experimental and clinical research, current findings on music-induced analgesia are inconclusive regarding the role of specific treatment characteristics and the biopsychological mechanisms underlying these effects. Objective: The overall aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial is to test and compare the differential effects of frequency-modulated and unmodulated music (both researcher-selected) on experimentally induced perception of acute pain and to test the efficacy of the interventions in reducing biological and subjective stress levels. Moreover, these two interventions will be compared to a third condition, in which participants listen to self-selected unmodulated music. Methods and Analysis: A total of 90 healthy participants will be randomly allocated to one of the three music-listening intervention groups. Each intervention encompasses 10 sessions of music listening in our laboratory. Frequency-modulation will involve stepwise filtering of frequencies in the audible range of 50–4,000 Hz. Acute pain will be induced via the cold pressor test. Primary (i.e., pain tolerance, perceived pain intensity) and secondary (i.e., heart rate variability, electrodermal activity, hair cortisol, subjective stress) outcomes will be measured at baseline, post, and follow-up. In addition, intermittent measurements as well as a follow-up assessment and a range of tertiary measures (e.g., music-induced emotions) are included. Discussion: This is the first study to systematically test and compare the effects of music frequencies along with the control over music selection, both of which qualify as central treatment characteristics of music-listening interventions. Results will be highly informative for the design of subsequent large-scale clinical trials and provide valuable conclusions for the implementation of music-listening interventions for the reduction of perceived pain. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinical Trials Database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine: Identifier NCT02991014.
Music therapy (MT) helps with various diseases through music, where the musical instrument is an essential element, defined as the tool of communication between the patient and the music therapist. Despite the first music therapists began to appear in the twentieth century, there is still a lack of proper instruments and solutions more focused on therapy, and it is usually chosen to make changes to pre-existent instruments. Through research methods, such as bibliographic investigation, interviews and product analysis, the field of MT was investigated, as well as how it can be related to design, involving concepts like emotional design, relaxation and meditation, in order to develop an instrument that can be used in MT sessions, by both therapist and patient. A swinging wood idiophone was developed with a single note, through a Design research based on practice, called innovation inspired by materials adjusting its initial shape and ergonomics according to the desired sound which aims to prolong and oscillate the sound. This paper presents the investigation and process since the definition of shape and the inherent concepts of the proposed product, to the finishes and a brief discussion.
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Relaxation and excitation are components of the effects of music listening. The tempo of music is often considered a critical factor when determining these effects: listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music elicits relaxation and excitation, respectively. However, the chemical bases that underlie these relaxation and excitation effects remain unclear. Since parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activities are facilitated by oxytocin and glucocorticoid, respectively, we hypothesized that listening to relaxing slow-tempo and exciting fast-tempo music is accompanied by increases in the oxytocin and cortisol levels, respectively. We evaluated the change in the salivary oxytocin and cortisol levels of participants listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music sequences. We measured the heart rate (HR) and calculated the heart rate variability (HRV) to evaluate the strength of autonomic nerve activity. After listening to a music sequence, the participants rated their arousal and valence levels. We found that both the salivary oxytocin concentration and the high frequency component of the HRV (HF) increased and the HR decreased when a slow-tempo music sequence was presented. The salivary cortisol level decreased and the low frequency of the HRV (LF) to HF ratio (LF/HF) increased when a fast-tempo music sequence was presented. The ratio of the change in the oxytocin level was correlated with the change in HF, LF/HF and HR, whereas that in the cortisol level did not show any correlation with indices of autonomic nerve activity. There was no correlation between the change in oxytocin level and self-reported emotions, while the change in cortisol level correlated with the arousal level. These findings suggest that listening to slow-tempo and fast-tempo music is accompanied by an increase in the oxytocin level and a decrease in the cortisol level, respectively, and imply that such music listening-related changes in oxytocin and cortisol are involved in physiological relaxation and emotional excitation, respectively.
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Sounds can induce autonomic responses in listeners. However, the modulatory effect of specific frequency components of music is not fully understood. Here, we examined the role of the frequency component of music on autonomic responses. Specifically, we presented music that had been amplified in the high- or low-frequency domains. Twelve healthy women listened to white noise, a stress-inducing noise, and then one of three versions of a piece of music: original, low-, or high-frequency amplified. To measure autonomic response, we calculated the high-frequency normalized unit (HFnu), low-frequency normalized unit, and the LF/HF ratio from the heart rate using electrocardiography. We defined the stress recovery ratio as the value obtained after participants listened to music following scratching noise, normalized by the value obtained after participants listened to white noise after the stress noise, in terms of the HFnu, low-frequency normalized unit, LF/HF ratio, and heart rate. Results indicated that high-frequency amplified music had the highest HFnu of the three versions. The stress recovery ratio of HFnu under the high-frequency amplified stimulus was significantly larger than that under the low-frequency stimulus. Our results suggest that the high-frequency component of music plays a greater role in stress relief than low-frequency components.
The function of the cardiac branch of the vagus was expressed by the coefficient of variation (CV) of R-R intervals in ECGs. Since R-R interval variation is abolished by blocking the vagus with atropine sulfate, CV is considered to be a parameter of the function of the parasympathetic nervous system. The examinees were 100 healthy individuals of both sexes whose ages ranged from the teens to the sixties. Regarding CV, there were no significant differences among the examinees from the teens to the thirties (p < 0.01); but from the forties to the sixties, CVs significantly decreased compared with the preceding ones (p < 0.01). No significant differences regarding sex were visible among the examinees (p < 0.01), nor were differences in regard to age or sex observed in the mean R-R intervals (p < 0.01). After the administration of atropine sulfate, no significant difference was seen either in CV or the mean R-R interval between examinees in their twenties and sixties (p < 0.01). In patients with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and Shy-Drager syndrome, CVs were significantly reduced compared with age-matched healthy individuals. The autonomic function test by means of R-R interval variation in ECGs can be made without any load on the patients, and the reproducibility of the results is good. Therefore, it has the prospect of wide clinical application.
During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects. If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10–20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. These effects last from 1 to several weeks after the last injection. After repeated oxytocin treatment weight gain may be promoted and the healing rate of wounds increased. Most behavioral and physiological effects induced by oxytocin can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists. In contrast, the antistress effects can not, suggesting that unidentified oxytocin receptors may exist. The prolonged latency in the tail-flick test can be temporarily reversed by administration of naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioid activity has been increased by the oxytocin injections. In contrast, the long-term lowering of blood pressure and of cortisol levels as well as the sedative effects of oxytocin have been found to be related to an increased activity of central α2-adrenoceptors. Positive social interactions have been related to health-promoting effects. Oxytocin released in response to social stimuli may be part of a neuroendocrine substrate which underlies the benefits of positive social experiences. Such processes may in addition explain the health-promoting effects of certain alternative therapies. Because of the special properties of oxytocin, including the fact that it can become conditioned to psychological state or imagery, oxytocin may also mediate the benefits attributed to therapies such as hypnosis or meditation. © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
The effect of different frequencies of music on brain function was investigated through measurement of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Previous studies indicated that exposure to Mozart's music (K. 205) leads to increased calcium/calmodulin-dependent dopamine synthesis in the brain, and that the subsequent increase in dopamine reduces blood pressure via D(2) receptors. The present study demonstrated that the blood pressure-reducing response was dependent on the frequency, and was markedly greater at 4 k-16 kHz compared with lower frequencies. These findings suggest that music containing high-frequency sounds stimulates dopamine synthesis, and might thereby regulate and/or affect various brain functions.