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Lust auf ein Musikinstrument? Was Kinder und Jugendliche motiviert, ein Musikinstrument zu lernen und zu spielen

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Abstract

Österreich ist als „Land der Musik“ bekannt und hat viele exzellente Musikerinnen und Musiker hervorgebracht, die seit ihrer Kindheit nahezu täglich an ihren Fähigkeiten am Instrument arbeiten und diese verbessern. Es wird in diesem Buch der Frage nachgegangen, warum Kinder und Jugendliche diese Motivation besitzen und welche Faktoren dafür verantwortlich sind, dass sich diese Motivation entwickelt, aufrechterhalten bleibt bzw. zurückgeht. Als Bedingungsfaktoren werden hierbei die Erziehung der Eltern, der Instrumentalunterricht sowie die Einstellungen und Haltungen der Peergroup herangezogen. Die theoretische Grundlage dieser quantitativen Studie, für die 856 Musikschülerinnen und Musikschüler befragt wurden, bildet die Selbstbestimmungstheorie nach E. Deci und R. Ryan. Ein aktuelles Buch für alle, die sich mit der Motivation in der Instrumentalmusik und deren Bedingungen und Wirkungen befassen möchten.
Chapter
Für das zuverlässige Erreichen hoher musikalischer Leistungen (musikalische Expertise) spielen die Frühzeitigkeit des Beginns und die Dauer der Übung eine entscheidende Rolle. Die Ergebnisse unserer Analysen zeigen, dass die Teilnehmenden des Bundeswettbewerbs im Durchschnitt wöchentlich etwas über sieben Stunden üben. Zum Zeitpunkt ihrer Teilnahme erhielten sie rund acht Jahre Unterricht auf dem Wettbewerbsinstrument. Begonnen haben sie in einem Alter von etwas über sieben Jahren. Auf den Wettbewerb vorbereitet wurde die Hälfte der Befragten durch Lehrpersonen an VdM-Musikschulen. Der Anteil an Befragten, die von Hochschullehrenden vorbereitet wurden, erweist sich als geringer als in anderen Studien. In Bezug auf die wöchentliche Übezeit zeigen sich Instrumenten- und altersspezifische Unterschiede, Unterschiede nach Wertungskategorien sowie Unterschiede zwischen Teilnehmenden mit erstmaliger und mehrfacher Wettbewerbsteilnahme. Zudem besteht ein schwacher positiver Zusammenhang zwischen der gewöhnlichen Übezeit und der Bereitschaft der Eltern, Geld und Zeit für den Musikunterricht zu investieren. Eine Hilfs- oder Kontrollfunktion zum Üben haben die Eltern nur bei einem Teil der Befragten, ein Zusammenhang mit der Übezeit besteht jedoch nicht. In Bezug auf die musikalische Begabung zeigt sich ein schwacher positiver Zusammenhang zwischen der selbsteingeschätzten musikalischen Begabung und der Übezeit. Diejenigen mit einer höheren Einschätzung ihrer musikalischen Begabung üben länger und diejenigen, die viel üben, schätzen die Anforderungen des Wettbewerbs etwas geringer ein. Allerdings zeigen sich die Befragten hinsichtlich der Einschätzung ihrer musikalischen Begabung eher bescheiden. Sie verorten sich zwar im Bereich überdurchschnittlicher Begabungen, es wählten allerdings nur knapp ein Viertel der Befragten die höchsten zwei Skalenpunkte. Den höchsten Durchschnittswert in der selbst eingeschätzten musikalischen Begabung weisen die Teilnehmenden der Solowertung Pop auf.
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We tested the educational utility of “teaching in students' preferred ways” as a new autonomy-supportive way of teaching to enhance students' autonomy and conceptual learning. A pilot test first differentiated preferred versus nonpreferred ways of teaching. In the main study, a hired teacher who was blind to the purpose of the study taught 63 college-age participants in small groups the same 48-minute lesson in one of these two different ways, and we assessed participants' perceived autonomy support, autonomy-need satisfaction, engagement (self-report and rater scored), and conceptual learning (self-report and rater scored). Multilevel analyses showed that participants randomly assigned to receive a preferred way of teaching perceived the teacher as more autonomy supportive and showed significantly greater autonomy-need satisfaction, engagement, and conceptual learning. Mediation analyses using multilevel modeling for clustered data showed that this way of teaching enhanced conceptual learning because it first increased students' autonomy. We conclude that “teaching in students' preferred ways” represents a way of teaching that increases students' autonomy, engagement, and conceptual learning.
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This study investigates the question how the quality of students' learning motivation changes within a period of 3 years. Of special interest is which conditions of the learning environment are responsible for the stability or respectively the change of learning motivation. Deci and Ryan's (2002) self-determination theory (SDT) provides the theoretical foundation of this paper. It allows a differentiated analysis of the qualities of learning motivation (intrinsic motivation and four types of extrinsic motivation) and also suggests that motivational processes are highly influenced by basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and social relatedness. On three different dates between 2003 and 2005, 104 students participated in a questionnaire. Overall, the longitudinal results show that the qualities of learning motivation remain relatively stable. In contrast, particularly the perceived support of autonomy and competence show a significant decline. The evaluation of social relatedness at university, between students and lecturers as well as between groups of students, remains stable on a high level during those three years. The social relatedness significantly correlates with learning motivation in all of the three assessments. The results are discussed in relation to situational and cultural conditions.
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, we examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher (n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3-5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student-teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted.
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This article describes how scaffolded instruction during whole-class mathematics lessons can provide the knowledge, skills, and supportive context for developing students' self-regulatory processes. In examining classroom interactions through discourse analysis, these qualitative methods reflect a theoretical change from viewing self-regulation as an individual process to that of a social process. This article illustrates how studying instructional scaffolding through the analyses of instructional discourse helps further the understanding of how self-regulated learning develops and is realized in mathematics classrooms. Qualitative methods, such as discourse analyses, and their underlying theoretical frameworks have great potential to help "unlock" theories of learning, motivation, and self-regulation through exploring the reciprocity of teaching and learning in classrooms.
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This article provides a conceptual overview of a self-determination theory approach to motivation in music education. Research on motivation in music learning is active and has influenced the field considerably, but it remains theoretically patchy, with a vast array of theoretical perspectives that are relatively disconnected. Reflecting motivation research more generally, music education still lacks a parsimonious, unified theoretical approach to motivation. Self-determination theory offers a way to address this issue, because it is a broad theory of motivation that examines the nature and sources of motivational quality. This article describes two key components of self-determination theory. First, the tendency towards personal growth and a more unified sense of self is supported through the fulfilment of the basic psychological needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Second, behaviour is more enjoyable and contributes more to personal wellbeing when motivation is internalized and more closely aligned with the self. These two features of self-determination theory are related, such that motivation is internalized to the extent that basic psychological needs are fulfilled. These processes are supported by recent self-determination theory research in music education. Previous research on motivation from other theoretical perspectives also lends support to the self-determination theory approach. The approach therefore provides a means of theoretically unifying previous research. An integrated model is presented as the basis for future research on motivation for music learning in the context of psychological wellbeing more broadly.
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This article reports on a 10-year longitudinal study of children’s musical identity, their instrumental practice, and subsequent achievement and motivation for playing music. Before commencing learning on their instrument, participants (N = 157) responded to questions relating to how long they thought they would continue playing their instrument. Once learning commenced, practice was measured using the parents’ estimates each year for the first 3 years of learning, and performance was measured using a standardized test. Ten years later, the participants were asked how long they had sustained music learning along with other questions related to their musical development. Those who expressed both a personal long-term view of playing an instrument before they began instruction, and who sustained high amounts of practice in the first 3 years, demonstrated higher achievement and a longer length of time spent in music learning compared to those with a short-term view and low levels of practice. Results suggest that while practice and self-regulation strategies are important, learners who possess a sense of where their future learning might take them and whose personal identity includes a long-term perspective of themselves as a musicians are better positioned to succeed and sustain with their instrumental learning.
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Motivational profiles and work adjustment: toward an intra-individual approach of motivation This research aims to identify individuals’ motivational profiles in a private organization and investigate whether these workers differ on some work outcomes, such as perceived stress, performance and organizational commitment. A cluster analysis showed three motivational profiles which were linked in different ways to the organizational variables studied. The most self-determined motivational profile was characterized by high levels of autonomous motivation, moderate levels of controlled motivation and low-levels of amotivation. This profile was generally associated with more positive consequences than the other two profiles. Overall, these findings are in accordance with the tenets of self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 1985). They suggest that cluster analysis is useful for studying and understanding workers’ motivation.
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This study attempts to test a model in which the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students’ school persistence intentions are mediated by intrinsic, identified, introjected, and external regulations. Six hundred and fifty students from a high school were surveyed. Contrary to expectations, results from ESEM analyses indicated that the four types of regulations do not mediate the relation between implicit theories of intelligence and students’ intentions to persist in school. Rather, results show two direct effects, where an incremental theory of intelligence is associated with greater school persistence intentions, as well as being motivated in an intrinsic manner. In addition, results reveal that academic achievement is related to persistence intentions. No gender differences were observed. This research highlights the importance of promoting students’ incremental intelligence beliefs and intrinsic motivation in order to foster school persistence intentions. Theoretical and practical implications for parents and teachers are discussed.
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While research has examined factors associated with parent involvement, little work has focused on why parents are involved in their children’s schooling. This study thus assessed mothers’ motivation for involvement (measured on a continuum of autonomy), their level of involvement, and their affect when involved in relation to children’s motivation and academic performance. Participants were 178 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students and their mothers. More autonomous motivation (identified, intrinsic) for involvement positively related to mothers’ levels of involvement and positive affect when involved. Identified motivation, as well as parental level of involvement, related to children’s academic perceived competence, self-worth, and reading grades. Results supported mediational models in which identified motivation was associated with higher academic perceived competence through cognitive involvement and reading grades through increased cognitive and personal involvement. For self-worth, there was an indirect path from identified motivation through personal involvement as well as a significant direct path. Results stress the importance of considering why parents are involved, especially when developing interventions to increase parent involvement.
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This article addresses individuals' decisions to continue or cease playing a musical instrument from a basic psychological needs perspective. Participants began learning music 10 years prior to the study and were the subject of previous longitudinal research. They completed a survey investigating the three psychological needs of competence, relatedness, and autonomy in the contexts of when they were most engaged in playing their instrument during high school, and in the time leading up to when they ceased playing. Decisions to cease music instruction or playing an instrument were associated with diminished feelings of competence, relatedness, and autonomy, compared to when they were most engaged. Open-ended responses to a question about why they ceased playing supported this finding and showed that participants refer to reasons directly related to feelings of psychological needs being thwarted. This article therefore proposes that motivations to cease or continue playing a musical instrument demonstrate a natural propensity to more vital, healthy forms of behaviour. The study offers preliminary evidence for a framework that may help to unify previous research in music and supports motivational research in other areas.
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This study provides the first longitudinally designed, classroom-based empirical test of self-determination theory's motivation mediation model. Measures of perceived autonomy support, motivation (autonomy need satisfaction), engagement, and achievement were collected from 500 (257 females, 243 males) 8th-grade students in Korea in a 3-wave longitudinal research design. Multilevel structural equation modeling tested the model in which early-semester perceived autonomy support increased mid-semester autonomy need satisfaction, which, in turn, increased end-of-the-semester engagement, which then predicted course achievement. We further tested for possible reciprocal pathways and for the stability of all effects throughout the model. Results revealed a complex, dynamic model that unfolds within naturally occurring classroom processes, one that validated the hypothesized model but also extended and qualified it in important ways. All hypothesized effects were supported, but they were not stable over the course of the semester, largely because of the emergence of several reciprocal effects. Overall, this longitudinal test revealed a more dynamic model than suggested by previous cross-sectional investigations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In diesem Übersichtsbeitrag werden Ergebnisse der neueren Interessenforschung auf der Basis eines theoretischen Modells vorgestellt, das einerseits die relationale Struktur unterschiedlicher Interessenskonstrukte verdeutlicht und andererseits die untersuchten Variablen und Beziehungen in einen systematischen Zusammenhang einordnet. Berichtet wird aus fünf Forschungsfeldern, in denen der Einfluss von individuellen und situationalen Interessen auf die kognitiven Ergebnisse des Lernens (Art der Wissensstruktur) oder der Zusammenhang von Interesse und bewerteter Leistung (Zensuren) empirisch untersucht wurde. Außerdem wird auf die Forschungsergebnisse hingewiesen, die die beobachteten Lerneffekte erklären können.
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Music education researchers have sought to clarify two fundamental issues. The first concerns ‘the extent to which musical progress is sequenced and orderly, and why some children’s progress appears to be effortless in contrast to others who struggle’ (McPherson, 2005, p. 5). The second concerns how successful learners are able to acquire the resilience needed to ‘bounce back’ despite stresses and distractions which impact on motivation and a desire to continue learning (West & Rostvall, 2003; Costa-Giomi, Flowers, & Sasaki, 2005). This article aims to contribute to research on these issues in the context of instrumental music lessons, by presenting a dynamic model linking skills acquisition (from the perspective of scaffolding theory) and self-determination theory. We argue that musical development is a transactional, dynamic process in which the scaffolding of the music student’s skills and self-determination are deeply intertwined. Within this conception, teacher-student interactions are conceptualized at the micro- and macro-level time scales, and are viewed as mutually connected. We conclude by discussing the ways in which this model can guide future research.
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The central focus of this paper is to address the magnitudes of and changes in four central components of teacher goal orientation (learning, performance approach, performance avoidance and work avoidance goal orientation) among prospective teachers. The findings reported here were gathered with a sample of 130 teacher trainees who responded to questionnaires at five measuring points over the course of the two years pre-service training which comprise the second phase of teacher education (“Referendariat”). Differential magnitudes and changes in teacher trainees’ goal orientations were analyzed using a hierarchical linear modeling approach. Cluster analyses were able to identify three typical growth trajectory patterns in goal orientation which were differentially associated with achievement levels at the end of the second phase of teacher education, stress experiences, attitudes concerning help seeking, as well as dropout tendencies.
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For many people, the appeal of music lies in its connection to human emotions. A significant body of research has explored the emotions that are experienced through either the formal structure of music or through its symbolic messages. Yet in the instrumental music education field, this emotional connection is rarely examined. In this article, it is argued that identifying more about “liking music,” especially in young learners, has a role to play in explaining the music-learning experience and how participation in learning can be sustained. Based on findings from the qualitative elements of a larger study that explored student engagement with learning, this article proposes the concept of “affinity” as the affective and subjective connection to music that motivates individuals’ continuing involvement with music.
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As a part of a larger international mapping exercise to examine students’ motivation to study music as compared to other school subjects, this article draws upon data from a sample of 3037 students in the USA to observe perceptions of values, competence and interest in music study (in school versus outside of school) among music learners and non-music learners. Students were grouped into three grade levels: (a) 6, (b) 7—9, and (c) 10—12. Music learners in the USA had significantly higher motivational profiles for music and some other school subjects as compared to non-music learners. Music interest inside of school was ranked significantly lower than for any other subject, while music interest outside of school was ranked second highest for any subject in grades 6 and 7—9, and highest of all subjects in grades 10—12. This article addresses cultural and contextual issues in the USA to consider how music advocates might better demonstrate the importance and usefulness of music study as an academic course. Practical recommendations include encouraging a broader emphasis beyond performance and competition, and promoting opportunities for autonomous music learning within the school setting.
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This study draws on an expectancy-value theoretical framework to examine the motivation (competence beliefs, values and task difficulty) of 24,143 students (11,909 females and 10,066 males, aged 9 to 21 years) from eight countries (Brazil n = 1848; China n = 3049; Finland n = 1654; Hong Kong n = 6179; Israel n = 2257; Korea n = 2671; Mexico n = 3613; USA n = 3072). Music was studied in comparison to five other school subjects (art, mother tongue, physical education, mathematics, science) across three school grade levels that included the key transition from elementary to secondary school. Results indicated that music as a school subject was valued less and received lower task difficulty ratings than other school subjects with the exception of art. Students reported higher competence beliefs for physical education and mother tongue compared to music and lower competence beliefs for mathematics and art. There was an overall decline in students’ competence beliefs and values across the school grade levels for all countries except Brazil. Females reported higher competence beliefs and values and lower task difficulty ratings for music, art and mother tongue than males. Males reported higher competence beliefs and lower task difficulty ratings for physical education and mathematics. There were no gender differences for values in mathematics. Music learners reported higher competence beliefs and values and lower task difficulty across school subjects than non-music learners. Secondary analyses were used to further explore differences within each of the eight countries. Findings suggest that once students have experienced learning to play an instrument or voice, they become more motivated towards other school subjects. Implications of the findings suggest that advocacy aimed at increasing the values that students attach to music as a school subject may encourage more students to become music learners across a wide range of countries.
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The aim of this study is to explore the role of motivation in the relations between self-efficacy and procrastination. One hundred seventy-one-fifth-grade students completed questionnaires that assessed the type of motivation the students have for homework, the level to which they procrastinate on doing homework, and their self-efficacy regarding homework. The results indicated that autonomous motivation both mediates and moderates the relations between self-efficacy and procrastination. These results highlight the importance of students’ type of motivation for homework, suggesting procrastination cannot be reduced simply by addressing students’ self-efficacy; but, they must be supported to adopt a more autonomous type of motivation.
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The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9–17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years, a slow stabilization until 15 years old, followed by an increase after that point. Second, non self-determined extrinsic motivation showed a decrease up to 12 years old and a slow stabilization after that point. Finally, amotivation was relatively low and stable from age 9 to 17 years. Of importance is that the present results also revealed that teacher autonomy support mediated the age-school motivation relationships. The present results underscore the importance of a better understanding of the mechanisms through which lower intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation in older students take place, eventually leading to appropriate interventions and optimal motivation in students of all ages.
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The topic of how students become self-regulated as learners has attracted researchers for decades. Initial attempts to measure self-regulated learning (SRL) using questionnaires and interviews were successful in demonstrating significant predictions of students’ academic outcomes. The present article describes the second wave of research, which has involved the development of online measures of self-regulatory processes and motivational feelings or beliefs regarding learning in authentic contexts. These innovative methods include computer traces, think-aloud protocols, diaries of studying, direct observation, and microanalyses. Although still in the formative stage of development, these online measures are providing valuable new information regarding the causal impact of SRL processes as well as raising new questions for future study.
Article
One of the persistent challenges confronting societies is how to reduce inequalities in the educational and occupational attainment of students from different socio-economic, ethnic and race group backgrounds. This book represents a major advance in examining such educational problems. From an analysis of international investigations of family and school influences, a context theory of students' school outcomes is developed. This work brings together wonderful summaries of research and ads new insights from the author's own investigations. One of its substantial attributes is that it integrates qualitative and quantitative research orientations and methodologies, which is a major step forward in educational and social science research. A set of family and school measures is included that might be used by researchers and students as they examine the context theory, and by educators involved in school reform programs. This book will have a great appeal not only for students and researchers in educational fields but also for scholars in many other social science disciplines.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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The authors enquire into the question which conditions of familial socialization are related systematically to the individual educational career of students and their motivation to learn. The study is based on the assumption that both students' motivation to learn and their academic aspirations are essentially influenced by the school-related and general pedagogical practices of their parents. In a longitudinal study carried out among ninth-graders in both East and West Germany and their parents the following aspects were considered in addition to adolescents' motivation to learn and their academic aspirations: school-related activities by parents, authoritative and authoritarian pedagogical practices, family climate, and different indicators of social class. The results support the assumption that a positive influence is exerted on the motivation to learn if an autonomy-promoting and supportive pedagogical behavior prevails. Path analysis further more point to the fact that the relation between such an authoritative style of education and the motivation to learn is partially mediated by the parents' school-related committment. Students' academic aspirations, on the other hand, are closely linked with their parents' child-related academic aspirations and hardly with the latters' pedagogical practices. Furthermore, the results indicate that the influence of parents' socio-economic status is mediated by the quality of parent-child-interaction and by parents' expectations regarding their children's educational career.
Article
Recent studies and theories on the conditions and effects of self-directed learning increasingly mention "intrinsic motivation". Taking three influential pedagogical-psychological research approaches as an example, the author shows how heterogeneous the theoretical reconstruction of this concept is in both empirical pedagogics and pedagogical psychology, which research questions are being posed, and to which kinds of phenomena the respective conceptual variants are applicable. In more detail: we are dealing with (1) the action-theoretical approach of modern cognitive motivation-psychology, (2) the approach of the so-called "target theories", and (3) the perspectives of the pedagogically oriented person-object-theory of interest. A critical-comparative analysis reveals that there are considerable differences between the different theoretical reconstructions.This also applies to their adequacy in describing and/or explaining intentional (self-directed) learning. Problems of application arise above all with those conceptions argueing on the basis of "expectations times value models". The author pleads for a differentiation of the manyfold meanings of the concept of intrinsic motivation and for the development of specific partial theories for different problems. In this, both scientific and pedagogical-practical target criteria are to be taken into account.
Article
The sharp rise in academic dishonesty is prompting increased concern in educational institutions. Based on the Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), we posited that frustration of the three basic psychological needs for autonomy (endorsing one's actions at the highest level of reflection), competence (feeling capable in one's pursuits), and relatedness (feelings of belonging and connection with others) underpins the likelihood of academic deception. We tested this hypothesis in two studies. Study 1 (n = 121) utilized an experimental design in which need fulfillment was manipulated by providing different instructions about accomplishing a task to a sample of undergraduate students. Results showed that participants in the need-frustration condition were more likely to cheat, whereas those in the need-satisfaction condition were least likely to cheat. Those in the neutral condition scored in between the other two groups. In Study 2, we investigated whether autonomous motivation mediated the effect of need fulfillment on academic dishonesty in a sample of junior high school students (n = 115). A mediation analysis showed that perceived need fulfillment in learning activities was positively associated with autonomous motivation, which, in turn, was inversely related to self-reported academic dishonesty. Implications for promoting needs-supportive educational strategies are discussed.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Die vorliegende Studie diente der Entwicklung, psychometrischen Überprüfung und Validierung einer sprachlich vereinfachten Kurzversion der Skalen zur motivationalen Regulation beim Lernen von Schülerinnen und Schülern im Sinne der Selbstbestimmungstheorie der Motivation nach Deci und Ryan (1985) . Sowohl aus Gründen der Zeitökonomie als auch für jüngere Schülerinnen und Schüler und Jugendliche mit geringer Lesekompetenz ist die Verwendung von kurzen und besonders einfach formulierten Fragebögen vorteilhaft bzw. angebracht. Die psychometrischen Eigenschaften und die Validität des Fragebogens wurden mit einer Stichprobe von N = 2 854 Schülerinnen und Schülern der 4. Bis 8. Schulstufe in den Fächern Mathematik und Deutsch überprüft. Die psychometrischen Kennwerte der Skalen zur Motivationalen Regulation beim Lernen (SMR-L) sind durchwegs gut. Anhand konfirmatorischer Faktorenanalysen konnte gezeigt werden, dass die postulierte Struktur gut begründet ist, und die Skalen invariant hinsichtlich Schulfach, Geschlecht und Schulstufe sind. Die Korrelationen der SMR-L mit Noten, wahrgenommener Autonomieunterstützung, fachspezifischem Selbstkonzept, Emotionen im Unterricht sowie mit Anstrengungsbereitschaft und Ausdauer sind theoriekonform.
Article
This study assessed three dimensions of parent style, autonomy support, involvement, and provision of structure in 64 mothers and 50 fathers of elementary-school children in Grades 3-6, using a structured interview. Construct validity data for the interview ratings suggested that the three parent dimensions were reliable, relatively independent, and correlated with other parent measures in hypothesized ways. Aspects of children's self-regulation and competence were measured through children's self-reports, teacher ratings, and objective indices. Parental autonomy support was positively related to children's self-reports of autonomous self-regulation, teacher-rated competence and adjustment, and school grades and achievement. Maternal involvement was related to achievement, teacher-rated competence, and some aspects of behavioral adjustment, but no significant relations were obtained for father involvement. The structure dimension was primarily related to children's control understanding. Results are discussed in terms of the motivational impact of the parent on school competence and adjustment and in terms of transactional models of influence.
Article
On the basis of core assumptions of the theory of self-determination, the author analyzes the interplay of influences by family and school on the development of the motivation to learn. It is expected that the students report a higher intrinsic motivation, or rather a lower extrinsic learning motivation, the more they perceive that both parents' dealing with school-related issues and teachers' classroom behaviour, as being supportive to autonomy, and emotional relations, as well as stimulating and structuring. Furthermore, in contrast to the "hypothesis to fit", the least favorable motivational level is expected not with those students who report differences in everyday forms of participation between the parental home and the school, but rather with those students who see their psychological needs as being frustrated in both contexts. The results gained on the basis of data collected from 169 sixth- and seventh-graders basically support the theoretical assumptions, however, they also suggest a stronger differentiation between factors contributing to either a satisfaction or a frustration of fundamental psychological needs.
Article
Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
Chapter
Inhalt: 8.1 Begriffsklärung 8.1.1 Motivation 8.1.2 Emotion 8.2 Theoretische Konzeptionen 8.2.1 Theoretische Zugänge in der Tradition kognitiv-handlungstheoretischer Motivationsforschung 8.2.2 Theorien auf der Basis einer dynamischen Persönlichkeitskonzeption 8.2.3 Emotionstheoretische Ansätze 8.3 Motivation und Emotion als Bedingung für Lernen und Leistung 8.3.1 Einfluss motivationaler Persönlichkeitsmerkmale 8.3.2 Der Einfluss von Emotionen 8.4 Entwicklung von Motivation und Emotion 8.4.1 Ontogenetische Befunde 8.4.2 Allgemeine Entwicklungstrends im Verlauf der Schulzeit 8.5 Förderungsmaßnahmen und Trainingskonzepte 8.5.1 Trainingskonzepte auf der Basis der kognitiv-handlungstheoretischen Motivationsforschung 8.5.2 Förderung der Lernmotivation auf der Basis der Selbstbestimmungs- und Interessentheorie
Article
This study examined influences of: parental support of music, previous musical experience, self-concept in music, teachers and peers, academic and social integration in music classes, and value of music on college nonmusic majors' intentions to continue music participation. An author-developed Choir Participation Survey was administered to 130 choir members at a large public university in the United States. The proposed path analytical model fitted data well and explained 42% (p < .01) of variance in musical intentions. The analysis showed that students whose parents were involved in music and supportive of their children's musical participation developed better self-concepts in music, consequently felt more comfortable in choir academically and socially, valued music more, and as a result developed higher motivation to participate in various musical activities in the future. The strongest direct predictor of musical intentions was value of music (β = .65, p < .01).
Article
This study examined relationships among selected aspects of parental involvement as they relate to the cognitive, affective, and performance outcomes of instrumental music students. Independent variables were music aptitude, parental involvement, grade level, and gender. Dependent variables were cognitive musical outcomes, performance outcomes, and affective outcomes. Subjects were instrumental music students (N = 406) from five intact band programs located in rural New York and Pennsylvania. Wind and percussion volunteers from Grades 4 through 12 participated. Data were examined using descriptive analysis, correlational analysis, and analysis of variance. Major findings included: (1) Parental involvement was related to overall performance, affective, and cognitive musical outcomes. (2) For cognitive musical outcomes, parental involvement was only related at the elementary level. (3) For musical performance outcomes, parental involvement was only related at the elementary level. (4) For affective outcomes, the strength of the parental involvement relationship increased with student age. (5) Items concerning concert attendance, providing materials, participating in parent groups, and tape-recording student performances were related to all outcome areas.