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El ciberespacio y las relaciones internacionales en la era digital

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En la última década a nivel internacional la diplomacia se ha adaptado al nuevo contexto tecnológico en el que se enmarcan muchas de las relaciones entre los diferentes actores políticos, sociales y económicos. Los canales online han fortalecido su presencia dentro de las estrategias de comunicación institucional en aras de promover una mejor proyección de su imagen pública y de su reputación digital. De este modo, son muchos los países que han adoptado diferentes medidas para potenciar su diplomacia digital.En el caso de España, las redes sociales se han establecido como uno de los ejes de la ciberdiplomacia con el propósito de atender a los españoles en el extranjero, acercar a los ciudadanos la actividad diplomática y aumentar el conocimiento que en el exterior se tiene del país y de su cultura.El modo en que se configura la presencia española en los medios sociales a través de los perfiles de sus representaciones en el exterior centra la atención de este estudio, que tiene como objetivo conocer la estructura de la diplomacia digital española en redes sociales, así como el uso que se hace de las mismas por parte de los distintos actores digitales._______________________In the last decade, internationally speaking, the diplomacy has adapted itself to the new technological context in which many of the relations among the different political, social and economical agents are framed. Online channels have strengthened their presence into the strategies of institutional communication in order to promote a better projection of their public image and digital reputation. So, many are the countries which have adopted different measures in order to potentiate their digital diplomacy.In Spain, social networks have established themselves as one of the axes of the cyberdiplomacy with the aim of assisting Spanish people abroad, of approaching the diplomatical activity to the citizens and of increasing the knowledge of the country and its culture outside its frontiers.The way in which the Spanish presence is configured in the social medias through the profilesof its representations abroad is the target of this study, which aims at knowing the structure of the Spanish digital diplomacy and also the use of these ones which is done by different digital agents.
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Resumen El estudio se inscribe en el análisis de la comunicación política internacional en la era del internet 2.0, y enfatiza en la relación que se establece entre el Presidente Trump y México, a fin de mantener clara la distancia que también se establece entre aquél y diversos sectores de su país e incluso de su base de votantes. La exposición comienza con una presentación de las relaciones entre los Estados Unidos de América con otros países, en especial México, y el giro que dan las formas con la llegada del nuevo Presidente y el uso de la plataforma Twitter. Este medio y sus aplicaciones por parte de distintos jefes de Estado son analizados en la siguiente sección del documento. El apartado sobre diplomacia digital revisa la literatura general que se ha publicado sobre las condiciones en que la incorporación de los recursos horizontales de comunicación han sido usados para complementar las prácticas diplomáticas. Un siguiente grupo de fuentes es analizado en las formas como repercuten en las relaciones internacionales. Finalmente, se aborda el registro de las particularidades del uso que Donald Trump hace de Twitter, especialmente para empujar la agenda en sus relaciones con México, e imponer condiciones de negociación. Abstract The study deals with the analysis of international political communication in the era of Internet 2.0, and emphasizes the relationships established between President Trump and Mexico, in order to maintain clear the distance also existing with various national sectors and even his base of voters. The exposition begins with the presentation of the relations between the United States of America and other countries, especially Mexico, and the shift of the forms at the arrival of the new President and his use of the Twitter platform. This medium and its applications by different heads of state are analyzed in the following section of the document. Literature on Digital diplomacy is presented regarding the conditions in which the incorporation of horizontal communication resources have been used to complement diplomatic practices. A following group of sources is analyzed in the ways they have an impact on international relations. Finally, the record of the particularities of Donald Trump's use of Twitter is addressed, especially in order to push his agenda in his relations with Mexico, aiming to impose negotiation conditions.
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