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Game-Based Learning in Problem Solving Method: The Effects on Students’ Achievement

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This study compared the effects of game-based learning and textbook on students achievement. A problem solving method was employed in learning processes in the classroom. One hundred and thirteen students of grade eight from three junior high schools in the Province of Yogyakarta, who were selected using convenience sampling, participated in this study. The study employed a quasi experiment with a pretest-posttest control-group design. The data were collected through a pre-test, post-test, and questionnaire. The data were analysed using ANOVA, indicating that the students who were exposed to the game-based learning within problem solving approach significantly outperformed their counterparts who were exposed on the basis of textbook within problem solving. The data from questionnaire revealed that the students preferred game-based learning because they could understand the materials with enjoyable and easily.
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International Journal on Emerging Mathematics Education (IJEME)
Vol. 2, No. 2, September 2018, pp. 157-164
P-ISSN: 2549-4996, E-ISSN: 2548-5806, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/ijeme.v2i2.10564
Received July 15, 2018; Revised August 17, 2018; Accepted August 19, 2018
Game-Based Learning in Problem Solving Method: The Effects
on Students’ Achievement
1Wahyu Setyaningrum, 1Loviga Denny Pratama, 2Mohamad Bilal Ali
1Yogyakarta State University, Jl. Colombo No.1, Karang Malang, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
2Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jl. Iman, Skudai, Johor 81310, Malaysia
e-mail: wahyu_setyaningrum@uny.ac.id
Abstrak
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan efek pembelajaran dengan metode problem-solving
berbasis permainan dan buku terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Seratus tiga belas siswa kelas 8 dari
beberapa sekolah di Yogyakarta dipilih menggunakan metode convenience sampling. Penelitian ini
merupakan penelitian kuasi eksperimen desain pretest-posttest control-group design. Data
diperoleh melalui hasil pre-test, post-test, dan angket. Data penelitian dianalisis dengan Anova dan
hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa siswa yang menggunakan game-based learning mendapatkan hasil
belajar yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan siswa yang hanya menggunakan buku pelajaran saat
metode problem-solving diterapkan di kelas. Selain itu, hasil angket memperlihatkan bahwa siswa
lebih memilih game-based learning sebagai fasilitas mereka dalam belajar, dikarenakan mereka
dapat memahami materi dengan lebih mudah dan menyenangkan.
Kata Kunci: pembelajaran berbasis permainan, pemecahan masalah, penelitian kuasi eksperimen
Abstract
This study compared the effects of game-based learning and textbook on students achievement. A
problem solving method was employed in learning processes in the classroom. One hundred and
thirteen students of grade eight from three junior high schools in the Province of Yogyakarta, who
were selected using convenience sampling, participated in this study. The study employed a quasi
experiment with a pretest-posttest control-group design. The data were collected through a pre-
test, post-test, and questionnaire. The data were analysed using ANOVA, indicating that the
students who were exposed to the game-based learning within problem solving approach
significantly outperformed their counterparts who were exposed on the basis of textbook within
problem solving. The data from questionnaire revealed that the students preferred game-based
learning because they could understand the materials with enjoyable and easily.
Keywords: game-based learning, problem solving, quasi experiment research
How to Cite: Setyaningrum, W., Pratama, L.D., & Ali, M.B. (2018). Game-based learning in problem
solving method: The effects on students achievement. International Journal on Emerging
Mathematics Education, 2(2), 157-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/ijeme.v2i2.10564
INTRODUCTION
The rapid development of technology has an influence on education area. Some of the
new technologies emerged in the recent years have been used in education. One of the
examples is mobile learning which allows students learn everywhere and every time using
mobile devices such as smartphones and netbooks (Dabbagh et al., 2016). There were some
controversial issues from the teachers regarding the use of mobile technologies such as
smartphones and netbooks as the learning instruments in the school. On the other words,
some of the teachers did not agree with the use of smartphone in the classroom, while the
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other looked that there were some potential advantages of it (Mohammad, Fayyoumi, &
AlShathry, 2015; Sulisworo, 2013).
The mobile learning started to be famous gradually due to the increasing of mobile
devices existence and wireless availability. Nowadays, mobile devices provide some
facilities such as music, video, game, and other applications that became tangible asset for
mathematics educators and developers to create the instructional media. Game is one of the
forms of instructional media. The learning process that employed game application in the
classroom is called game-based learning (Jin, Tu, Kim, Heffron, & White, 2018). The
integration of game and learning content aimed to create the learning circumstance that
was interesting without ignoring the materials that must be learned by the students. Since
this learning approach gave the positive effects for the leaning outcome (e.g., Balakrishnan,
Liew, & Pourgholaminejad, 2015; Prahmana, Zulkardi, & hartono, 2012), it would make
sense that the game application could be used as one of the learning facilities. A previous
study revealed that children who were about 11 to 14 years old spent their time by playing
game in the mobile device (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010).
The educational game should be designed with various activities to create the
interesting game experiences (Huang, Hew, & Lo, 2018). Furthermore, the game
characteristics could include the fantasy elements (Lepper & Cordova, 1992), challenging
activities (Rouse, 2005), rules (Alessi & Trollip, 2001), choices (Hannafin & Peck, 1988),
competition and goals (Waddell & Peng, 2014). For learning designers, these characteristics
could be used in different ways because each characteristic served some opportunities to
facilitate the learning activities. This advantage of game could be combined with certain
learning method so that the learning activities can be directed, focus and meaningful.
The use of appropriate method would also determine the effectiveness and efficiency
of the learning (Schrittesser, Gerhartz-Reiter, & Paseka, 2014). Moreover, in mathematics
learning, the learning methods could help students understand the materials easily (Lee, Li,
& Shahrill, 2018) in which the final purpose was to increase the students’ learning
achievement (Ali, Hukamdad, Akhter, & Khan, 2010).
One of the main objectives in mathematics learning is developing students skills
particularly mathematical skills that were used in the daily life (Graumann, 2011; Muller &
Burkhardt, 2007; Niss, Blum, & Galbraith, 2007). The effectiveness of implementation of
mathematics in the daily life not only considers by doing mathematics operation but it also
relates to how students use mathematical concepts in solving daily life problems. Therefore,
giving contextual problems in the classroom would be very meaningful for students. Indeed,
it has been recommended that mathematics should be learned by using a problem-solving
method which is identically means using daily life contexts in the teaching and learning
process (Ohlsson, 2012).
Considering the importance of problem solving in learning mathematics, there was
rarely found the educational game that facilitated this method. Consequently, the students
only used the general traditional instruction that was text-book as the media of the
problem-solving learning (Fan, Zhu, & Miao, 2013). Therefore, this research aimed to
determine the effect of game which developed based on problem-solving learning method
on studentslearning achievement a game.
Many research studies argue that applying interesting learning approach gave
positive effects in learning mathematics (Abdulwahed, Jaworski, & Crawford, 2012). Thus, it
can be hypothesised that the group that used game-based learning got a better result than
the group that used text-book oriented in problem-solving learning. The results of this study
could be used as a reference for the mathematics teachers to design effective lessons in the
classroom.
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Setyaningrum, Pratama, & Ali
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RESEARCH METHOD
Participants
One hundred and thirteen students of grade eight (M = 13.8; SD = 0,4 year) from three
junior high schools in the Province of Yogyakarta participated in this study. Yogyakarta was
selected because most mathematics teachers at secondary school have a positive perception
toward technology integration in the classroom (Setyaningrum, 2016) so this would be
beneficial to support and conduct this study. The participants were selected using
convenience sampling.
The participant schools implement the Indonesian national curriculum, and the
students recently learned the geometry plane as the prior knowledge to teach solid
geometry in this study. The national curriculum of Indonesia requests teachers to use
student-centered learning methods through group discussions rather than teacher-centered
mehods (Kemendikbud, 2013). Along with the national curriculum, the Indonesian
government published a textbook for teachers and students. The participating schools
indicated that the students learn in small groups with varied learning methods in all
subjects and students accustomed to follow instructions developed based on textbooks.
Treatment
To prove the research hypothesis, the study carried out a field experiment with a
pretest-posttest control-group design. In the experiment class, students learn mathematics
using game through a problem-solving method (PS+GBL). Meanwhile, students of the control
group learn mathematics using textbook through a problem-solving method (PS+TB). Each
condition was identical in terms of the subject to be learned (i.e. solid geometry), problem
solving steps, and number of hours mathematics was taught. The field experiment was
conducted for about three months (around three and a half hours per week).
The problem solving procedures were used based on developed by Polya (see Polya,
1987). Students were taught to identify the problem in a general form (stage 1), devising a
plan about how to solve the problem (stage 2), and apply the plan gained in solving problem
(stage 3). Each step was practiced through small group discussion. As problem solving
method can have positive effects on small group activities (Greiff, Holt, & Funke, 2013).
The PS+GBL condition, students played an educational game called “GeoGame
Adventure. This game was a genre of 2D side scroller in which the player could move
to the left or right side to go to the finish line. This game consisted of several levels.
Each level following the procedure developed based on the problem solving method.
The game can be played through laptops or smartphones that they usually bring to
school. Some displays of play room on GeoGame Adventure” can be seen in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Play Room Display on GeoGame Adventure
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While, the PS+TB condition, students followed instructions developed based on
textbooks that they regularly use. Each student read the problem presented in the book.
Each group turn devising a plan, tried to solve it and explain their reasons. When none of
the group members knew how to solve the problem, they asked the teacher for help.
Data Collection
The data of this study were gathered through: tests and survey questionnaire.
The pre- and post- test was conducted for about 100 minutes each.
The pretest was used to assess prior knowledge by giving questions on
prerequisite subject (i.e. Plane Geometry) and some questions were about solid
geometry. The posttest was intended to evaluate students comprehension. There
were 25 questions consisting of numerical and applied problems in geometry.
Numerical was indicated by questions about calculating surface areas and volumns.
Whereas the other questions, applied problem, was indicated by questions about
problems different from during treatment. The problems had more complex, required
more four step to gain the solution. For each test, students received scores ranged
from 0 (no response or incorrect answer) to 4 (full correct answer), and scoring was
carried out by the first author. Kuder Richardson reliability coefficients were 0.79 and
0.81 for the pretest and pretest respectively.
The questionnaire was conducted only for the PS+GBL condition. A 15-minute
paper questionnaire in this phase was used to obtain student’s opinion about game-
based learning. To obtain information about students preferences, one example of the
questions is: “During learning, do you prefer to have textbook provided or game-based
learning provided by only being given problems to solve?”. For these questions, the
teacher informed the students that they must choose their answer from the options
provided and write an argument for their choice.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The effect of game on students learning achievement can be seen from the
learning outcome differences between those who learned mathematics through
game and those who used textbook. The data from post-test were analyzed using
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the students learning achievement
differences between the students of the experiment and control groups. Tabel 1
presents the mean scores and estim ated effect size in both conditions. Regarding
the pretest, there was no significant differences between the experiment and
control groups on prior knowledge (F(1,109) = 2.48, p > 0.05). These results
showed that the initial conditions of both groups for prior knowledge are the same.
At the end of study, the main effect of the tratment was significant (F(1,87) = 4.77,
p < 0.05). These results were due to a larger difference (12.26) between PS+TB and
PS+GBL under the posttest. As can be seen from Tabel 1, the students who studied
with GBL had a higher mean than those who studied by basis of the textbook in
problem-solving class of mathematics.
Table 1. Group means (and standard deviations) for pretest-posttest Test Phase and
corresponding estimated effect sizes in both condition
Group
Pretest
M(SD)
Posttest
M(SD)
Effect Size
PS+TB
74.08 (17.92)
79.61 (21.02)
0.42
PS+GBL
74.16 (16.75)
91.87 (11.63)
1.13
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Moreover, superiority of GBL was also seen from the results of the effects sizes
for the treatment. It is notable that for the treatment, the effect of the PS+GBL had a
higher score than those of the PS+TB. The possible reason for the higher effect size
in this study related to the learning environment students got from learning
through game. The students who learned certain material using game with pleasant
learning climate were much more intensive, and hence more effective than those
who relied on a textbook. The results show that, the students who were exposed to
the game-based learning significantly outperformed their counterparts who were
exposed on the basis of textbook in problem-solving.
It becomes interesting to see information about students’ preferences between
game-based learning with their usual learning (basis of the textbook). The data from
the questionnaire indicated a strong preference for game-based learning (90.26%).
The main argument given (89.42%) for preferring game-based learning was that
‘game-based learning can visualize geometry material which is dominated by images
and animations’. This is the advantage of media-based technologies, including games,
can stimulate reality and help illustrate the things that are abstract (Starcic &
Cankarjeva, 2010). The other arguments found were: (1) Game-based learning helped
the students to know how to solve the context problem accurately (8.11%), and (2)
the students felt challenged and wanted to complete each level within media (2.47%).
The students’ desire to increase their knowledge to the next level indirectly implied
that they were also interested to learn the materials and wanted to know the next
materials. The curious feeling made the students to be more paying attention on doing
everything, and they were more concrentrate and had more enthusiasm, and they
were not easily bored to study and understand something (Gruber, Gelman, &
Ranganath, 2014). It became the possible factors that were emphasized on the game-
based learning for the students to get higher achievement in the test phase.
Through the students’ opinion, it indicated that media technology facilitated them to
learn. By using game-based learning, their learning achievement was higher than using
text-book that they regularly used. This result echoes the previous research (Prahmana,
Zulkardi, & hartono, 2012; Shabalina, Mozelius, Malliarakis, & Tomos, 2015), that
indicated games had some advantages for the learning environment. One of them was the
integration of the entertainment that contained in game. It aimed to create the interesting
learning circumstance without taking apart the materials learned by the students (Barzilai
& Blau, 2014). This study shows that the students not only interested in learning
mathematics through game but also got a good mathematical comprehension.
Nevertheless, 9,74% of the PS+TB group preferred to learn by using basic
textbook. They argued that they were not familiar to learn using smartphones.
Learning through smartphones was a new learning environment for them since they
usually used textbook in teaching and learning process. The students needed time to
adapt with the new condition of learning process (Su, Tseng, Lin, & Chen, 2011). This
implies that the students need to be familiar with the use of smartphones and other
technologies in their learning process. Students should get used to the utilization of
technology in mathematics learning because it is required in both the national
curriculum and international (Permendikbud, 2016; NCTM, 2015).
The questionnaire results showed that students preferred to choose GBL rather
than textbook because the students could easily understand the materials learnt
through game that presented step by step coherently. It indicated that material
arrangement was important. Therefore, the educational game developers have to pay
more attention on it. For example, the program of GeoGame Adventure that was
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designed by implementing the steps of problem solving in which the use of 2D side-
scroller genre that could easily and chronologically go from stage 1 to stage 3 (see
Figure 1). The problem-solving step in this game was, for example in evaluation step
(stage 3), the students answered some problems from the materials that already
learned in stage 2. If the students made “mistakesin solving the problem, they would
lose their character’s life in game. When they did not have any life, it meant that they
could not apply the concept yet. In the other words, the students need to re-examine
the material that was indicated by the character that came back into materials’ content
in stage 2. This step was done since re-examining the materials was the important role
to strengthen their understanding about the concept (Fuson, Kalchman, & Bransford,
2005). Other features utilized the potential technology and the materials’ presentation
(for stage 2) that were dominated by animations and pictures. A combination between
the animations, pictures and colors in the media gave the strong effect toward the
students’ interest on learning (Ainley, 2010), so it increased their interesting to learn
and influenced the quality of their learning outcome (Muelas & Navarro, 2015). In this
study, these features are very important and affect students’ interest and achievement.
CONCLUSION
The research results showed that the implementation of game-based learning by
using problemsolving approach (GeoGame Adventure) gave the better learning
outcome than that from traditional instruction that was oriented on the textbook.
Moreover, the hypothesis in this research that game-based learning could give a
beneficial aspect for problem-solving in mathematics class was confirmed. Through
this research, it provided evidence that the use of smartphones or games could
support and increase the mathematics learning outcome. Therefore, it hoped that the
learning developers and mathematics educators could make and/or develop the
materials by involving the technology in the teaching and learning process or using
educational games so that it would give different a learning environment for students.
However, there are several limitations that should be acknowledged. First, the game
used in this study was developed using a problem-solving approach. Thus, the results may
differ from games with other learning approaches. Another issue that should be addressed
was related to the participants who were already familiar with smartphones. So, the results
may also vary for those who are not familiar with smartphones. The game used in this study
only presented geometry materials. Further study should consider another learning
approach; broaden the participants, and different materials such as algebra or statistics
which have different characteristics from geometry.
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... al., 2018). Although there have been examples of successful DGBL environments designed by educators (e.g., Pesare et al., 2016;Setyaningrum et al., 2018;Sung & Hwang, 2013), there is a need for more research that would focus on the strategies and effective practices of building educational environments using gaming elements. The examples of successful DGBL implementation can help identify principles and strategies that will aid teachers in overcoming pedagogical challenges of combining educational materials and entertainment components to develop effective and engaging DGBL environments. ...
... In another example, students practiced mathematics skills by playing an educational game called GeoGame Adventure (Setyaningrum et al., 2018). This game design was based on four stages of problem-solving procedures introduced by Polya (1988): (1) identifying the problem, (2) devising a course of action to solve the problem, (3) applying the plan to solve the problem, and (4) interpreting the solution and checking to see if all the available information was used to solve the problem. ...
... In DGBL environments, when players are exposed to problems, they are encouraged to explore different ways to resolve them and find the most appropriate solutions. (e.g., Maraffi et al., 2017;Pesare et al., 2016;Setyaningrum et al., 2018). Engaging and motivating educational games are designed in a way that reduce the severity of consequences if students make an error, such as, students" grades do not depend on their performance in the game, and they get a chance to play again and change their gaming behavior to succeed. ...
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Playing games holds an important role in learning and development. While designing and using digital game-based learning (DGML) environments becomes more appealing to educators, there is a disconnect between the goals that educators try to achieve and the design strategies they utilize to achieve their goals. The inclusion of game elements alone is insufficient to improve students’ learning, and it does not solve educational problems that DGBL environments are aimed to solve. The current state of research on the design of DGBL environments calls for an updated review of the best practices in recent years for developing DGBL environments, which prompted this literature review. It draws from successful examples of educators implementing learning games in classes, and it highlights five key principles that facilitate the effectiveness of DGBL: (1) interactivity, (2) immersiveness, (3) adaptive problem solving, (4) feedback, and (5) freedom of exploration. Practical examples are used to illustrate the effective implementation of these principles in DGBL environments and to underscore the significance of each component.
... (1) Integration between education and technology is mandatory because this will increase competence and add new experiences [1]; (2) If games and education are combined, then it will be able to create a new world for oneself and this will be very interesting because it will add experience and increase learning motivation [2]; (3) Games require clear directions and easy to understand in order to achieve a goal [3]; (4) Games can also train concentration and solve problems [4]; (5) Games can also connect all kinds of activities, if we can organize them properly [5]; (6) Games can also increase enthusiasm in achieving a goal and this will increase the courage to take risks [6]; (7) Problem solving is the ability to consider something correctly and appropriately and then make the right decision [7]; (8) Games must have specific goals in achieving a goal [8]; (9) An in-game platform is one of the most important things in order to create an accurate result [9]; (10) Games can train communication well, because there is interaction [10]; (11) Learning media must be able to attract attention so that it will be able to produce a more effective and efficient learning style [11]; (12) Games can also improve visual skills and learning in dealing with a situation [12]; (13) Many people want to be able to express their ideas, feelings and experiences to others [13]; (14) The use of appropriate learning methods will be able to produce the right learning objectives [14]; (15) Technology can provide great benefits to many people, one of which is the world of education, where the learning process requires comfort, increased competence and speed in obtaining information, as well as creating a better future [15]. ...
... (1) Integration between education and technology is mandatory because this will increase competence and add new experiences [1]; (2) If games and education are combined, then it will be able to create a new world for oneself and this will be very interesting because it will add experience and increase learning motivation [2]; (3) Games require clear directions and easy to understand in order to achieve a goal [3]; (4) Games can also train concentration and solve problems [4]; (5) Games can also connect all kinds of activities, if we can organize them properly [5]; (6) Games can also increase enthusiasm in achieving a goal and this will increase the courage to take risks [6]; (7) Problem solving is the ability to consider something correctly and appropriately and then make the right decision [7]; (8) Games must have specific goals in achieving a goal [8]; (9) An in-game platform is one of the most important things in order to create an accurate result [9]; (10) Games can train communication well, because there is interaction [10]; (11) Learning media must be able to attract attention so that it will be able to produce a more effective and efficient learning style [11]; (12) Games can also improve visual skills and learning in dealing with a situation [12]; (13) Many people want to be able to express their ideas, feelings and experiences to others [13]; (14) The use of appropriate learning methods will be able to produce the right learning objectives [14]; (15) Technology can provide great benefits to many people, one of which is the world of education, where the learning process requires comfort, increased competence and speed in obtaining information, as well as creating a better future [15]. ...
... These features could improve self-esteem, curiosity, motivation, engagement, and passion for studying. Besides EdGa, there is another strategy called 'game-based learning' (GBL) with the same purpose benefits; however, it relies sometimes on expensive technology unavailable in all societies (Setyaningrum et al., 2018). ...
... Electronic devices such as computers, cellular telephones, and video games have turned into the most frequently used GBL method in the classroom. Nevertheless, the findings regarding their effectiveness aimed at improving academic performance are inconclusive (Fokides, 2018;Green & Seitz, 2015;Mahmoudi et al., 2015;Ritzhaupt et al., 2011;Setyaningrum et al., 2018). Thus, the biggest concern is not only whether technology is a reliable learning aid, but also if traditional educational materials (e.g., card decks, dices, table games) combined with PA (e.g., jumping, lunges, coordination) may provide benefits in core subjects like math in elementary school students. ...
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This study aimed to determine whether educational games improve mathematics performance in elementary school students. Volunteers were 47 Costa Rican students from a public school, who were assigned to an experimental (EXP: educational games) or a control (CTRL: traditional class) group. Twenty games were created and nine experienced teachers provided expert judge validity assessed by Kendall’s concordance coefficient (W). The EXP group completed 20 sessions (8 weeks) of 10-min games and following every game, students provided feedback. Before and after the treatment, students completed an official sixth-grade mathematics test. Two-way mixed ANOVA (assessments: pre-test, post-test by groups: EXP, CTRL) showed a significant main assessment effect. The W for teachers’ feedback allowed to use the games indoors, and student’s opinion following the games was considered ‘very good’. In conclusion, 20 educational games failed to improve mathematics academic performance in sixth-grade students; however, students enjoyed the games and there was a trend to improve performance compared to a CTRL group.
... Studies show that when learners are aware of the learning objectives and expected results from an activity, it can effectively improve the outcomes as well. Setyaningrum, Pratama, and Ali (2018) show in their study using GeoGame Adventure that students performed better in tests conducted after playing a game when they were aware of the expected learning outcomes. In an informal study by Tarkan et al. (2010), 9 students aged 7 to 11 years from public and private schools in the US had to create a digital game based on real-world cooking scenarios and program a virtual robotic chef. ...
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Globally, educators are striving to find innovative ways of engaging their learners and ensuring that they accomplish the desired learning outcomes. Among the various game-based learning approaches that have come up in recent years, escape games are being widely used in a variety of learning contexts. As an entertainment activity, these games seem to be popular among players of all ages and backgrounds. This chapter introduces escape games and provides a literature review on their possible benefits and limitations. The game mechanics and learning mechanics that enable these games to be a potentially playful activity for teaching and learning will be discussed. This chapter provides educators and researchers with the required information backed by various studies to consider the integration of educational escape games with their current learning methods.
... The competencies of the students who understand the concept is measured based on the competency in writing, reading, and manipulating the symbols in complex number. The students' conceptual understanding described based on the previous studies (Panasuk, 2010(Panasuk, , 2011Pratama & Ali, 2018;Setyawan, 2015) that consist of: 1) defining the concept by using students' own word, 2) giving example and non-example of the concepts, 3) determine the representation of the concepts using symbolic or diagrams, 4) make a mathematical modelling, 5) make a connection with the previous concepts. The indicators of conceptual understanding is related to the way of the concepts delivered during teaching and learning process. ...
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Flipped Learning is one of the alternatives of teaching and learning approach in mathematics classroom. The objective of this study is exploring students’ conceptual understanding about complex number using flipped learning with handout. The subject of the study are the students in 5th semester students of mathematics education department in 2019/2020. The study used qualitative approach to describe the implementation of flipped learning. There are 31,6% of 19 respondents give score very satisfied. This result then observed by using the test with all the students understand with the definition of complex numbers. Besides they can adapt their learning activity using flipped learning with complex analysis handout. As legibility aspect of the handout, there are 52,6% of the respondents gives score satisfied and 26,3% of the respondents are very satisfied. The score indicates that the flipped learning with handout helps students to understand about the complex number concepts.
... Studies show that when learners are aware of the learning objectives and expected results from an activity, it can effectively improve the outcomes as well. Setyaningrum, Pratama, and Ali (2018) show in their study using GeoGame Adventure that students performed better in tests conducted after playing a game when they were aware of the expected learning outcomes. In an informal study by Tarkan et al. (2010), 9 students aged 7 to 11 years from public and private schools in the US had to create a digital game based on real-world cooking scenarios and program a virtual robotic chef. ...
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Social innovation and sustainable development should constitute learning objectives in higher education across disciplines, while encouraging collaboration among future professionals. The theoretical framework of the multidisciplinary theory of social representations applies the training model of scientist-practitioner-advocate to education aimed at social innovation. The contribution considers sustainable development in the light of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This chapter discusses some higher education practices from two different countries and fields of study. In the Czech Republic, innovative ways of involving students in practical work experience consist of participation in existing community projects, creation of publicly presented content or involvement in real-life situations. These practices and examples of activities lead towards enhanced civic engagement and responsibility; and a sustainable approach of students. In Croatia, innovative interactive practices include rural pop-up hubs and action research projects. They have been applied in both public and private higher education institutions to boost students’ engagement and critical thinking.
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Pada bulan Maret 2020 Presiden Indonesia dan berdasar Surat Edaran Kemendikbud Nomor 4 Tahun 2020 memandatkan untuk siswa belajar dari rumah akibat dari pandemi Covid-19. Adapun studi ini bertujuan untuk menguji keefektifan penggunaan media edutainment saat belajar dari rumah mulai diberlakukan akibat dari Covid-19. Data dianalisis menggunakan metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Adapaun data didapatkan menggunakan suatu instrumen tes dan non tes yang dapat diakses secara online. Sebanyak 2 jenis angket yang digunakan pada penelitian ini, yakni angket guru dan angket siswa. Sampel penelitian terdiri dari 232 siswa (M = 15 tahun; SD = 0,5 tahun) serta 32 guru matematika (M = 34 tahun; SD = 0,4 tahun). Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa mayoritas siswa dan guru memiliki persepsi yang positif untuk menggunakan media edutainment (pada fase kuesioner). Selain itu melalui media edutainment pada pembelajaran via daring, pencapaian aspek kognitif siswa (pada fase tes) juga memperoleh hasil yang positif. Sehingga hasil secara keseluruhan menunjukkan bahwa media edutainment efektif dalam menemani siswa belajar dari rumah. Abstract In March 2020, President of Indonesia and based on the Ministry of Education and Culture Circular Letter 4 of 2020 mandated for students to learn from home as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study aims to test the effectiveness of the use of media edutainment while learning from home began to apply as a result of Covid-19. Data is analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The data is obtained using a test and non-test instrument that can be accessed online. A total of 2 types of questionnaires were used in this study, namely the teacher questionnaire and student questionnaire. The research sample consisted of 232 students (M = 15 years; SD = 0.5 years) and 32 mathematics teachers (M = 34 years; SD = 0.4 years). The results of the study show that the majority of students and teachers have a positive perception in using edutainment media (questionnaire phase). In addition, through the media edutainment,, students of achievement (in the test phase) has also gained positive results. So the overall results show that the media edutainment is effective in accompanying students learning from home.
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In recent years, flipped learning has attracted much attention around the world. This instructional approach is appealing because it can free up class time for knowledge application activities with help from the instructor and peers. However, its implementation can be fraught with challenges. Student disengagement in out-of-class activities, for example, is one of the major challenges of flipped learning. The purpose of this study is to examine whether gamification can enhance student engagement in a flipped course. A comparison study was conducted, involving two classes of undergraduate students in an Information Management course. The results indicated that students in the gamification-enhanced flipped learning group (n = 48) were more likely to complete the preclass and post-class activities on time than those in the non-gamified flipped learning group (n = 48). Students in the gamification-enhanced flipped learning group also produced higher quality artifacts than the non-gamified flipped learning group in the pre-class thinking activities. Moreover, students in the gamification-enhanced flipped learning group scored significantly higher in the post-course test than did their non-gamified counterparts.
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Game based learning is a new game play mechanism that the players explore various aspects of game play in a learning context designed by the instructor or the game designer. Nevertheless, general acceptance of game based learning as a new learning paradigm was deferred by a lack of well-controlled, large sample efficacy studies. To address the increasing need of cybersecurity workforce, this paper introduces a game based learning method for high school cybersecurity education. Purdue University Northwest launched GenCyber high school summer camps to about 200 high school students in Chicago metropolitan area. The survey conducted after the summer camp indicated that the game based learning for cybersecurity education was very effective in cybersecurity awareness training. Further analysis of survey data revealed that there is a gender difference in raising students’ interests in cybersecurity and computer science education using game based learning method.
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Abstract: The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of collaborative learning on students' understanding of probability and their attitudes towards mathematics. The participants were 15 Year 10 students selected by convenience sampling at a secondary school in Brunei Darussalam. In total, six intervention lessons with the application of Think-Pair-Share strategy were conducted. Data collection methods included a series of tests (pre-and post-tests and delayed post-test), surveys, students' interviews and lesson observations. The findings revealed improvements in the students' test scores and they were able to retain their knowledge after a period of time. From the triangulated data, it was found that the students demonstrated an increase in their self-efficacy, participation, understanding and enjoyment levels after the intervention. Their enjoyment towards learning probability was derived from being able to communicate with their peers. The students showed more enthusiasm and participation in class as the lessons progressed.
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People take their mobile phones everywhere they go. In Saudi Arabia, the mobile penetration is very high and students use their phones for different reasons in the classroom. The use of mobile devices in classroom triggers an alert of the impact it might have on students’ learning. This study investigates the association between the use of mobile phones during classroom and the learners’ performance and satisfaction. Results showed that students get distracted, and that this diversion of their attention is reflected in their academic success. However, this is not applicable for all. Some students received high scores even though they declared using mobile phones in classroom, which triggers a request for a deeper study.
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The research paradigm invented by Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon in the late 1950s dominated the study of problem solving for more than three decades. But in the early 1990s, problem solving ceased to drive research on complex cognition. As part of this decline, Newell and Simon's most innovative research practices – especially their method for inducing subjects' strategies from verbal protocols-were abandoned. In this essay, I summarize Newell and Simon's theoretical and methodological innovations and explain why their strategy identification method did not become a standard research tool. I argue that the method lacked a systematic way to aggregate data, and that Newell and Simon's search for general problem solving strategies failed. Paradoxically, the theoretical vision that led them to search elsewhere for general principles led researchers away from studies of complex problem solving. Newell and Simon's main enduring contribution is the theory that people solve problems via heuristic search through a problem space. This theory remains the centerpiece of our understanding of how people solve unfamiliar problems, but it is seriously incomplete. In the early 1970s, Newell and Simon suggested that the field should focus on the question where problem spaces and search strategies come from. I propose a breakdown of this overarching question into five specific research questions. Principled answers to those questions would expand the theory of heuristic search into a more complete theory of human problem solving.
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In this part of the volume, we shall give an introduction both to the field of applications and modelling in mathematics education and to the present volume. In section 1, we present the field of applications and modelling to the mathematics educator who is not a specialist in the field. In Section 2, we explain the basic terms, notions and distinctions in applications and modelling. On this basis, we provide, in Section 3, the conceptualisation of the field adopted in this ICMI Study. This conceptualisation is centred on a number of issues which will be the subject of Section 4. In Section 5, we briefly outline the historical development of applications and modelling in mathematics education. Finally, in Section 6, the structure and organisation of the present book will be described and explained.