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Social media and the word of mouth publicity

  • Thninketh Labs, Chennai, India


Publicity has been an important component of marketing efforts for a long time. Traditionally many companies relied on word of mouth publicity. With the arrival and proliferation of digital media and the new generation of millennial, the equation is changing. The speed of doing business has increased and customer is impatient to wait. Advertisement and Sales promotion are still relevant but the media has changed. A satisfied customer is the best ambassador for a company or Product even in the digital era and will perhaps be the same in the days to come. Traditionally, that even a few years ago, a satisfied customer was your best bet for further promotion by word of mouth and is still happening. But the word of mouth has changed to messages and images through the mobiles and the digital media. The point to be noticed is that the word of mouth is still the best, but in the present era of instant gratification, the word of mouth is accelerated through the mobile and other digital media devices. The social media is the new generation 'word of mouth'. Keywords-Impact of social media in the digital world, word of mouth is accelerated in an age of instant gratification the relative roles are complimentary.
International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science
ISSN (Online): 2455-9024
Dr. K. R. Subramanian, Social media and the word of mouth publicity,” International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and
Science, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 95-100, 2018.
Social Media and the Word of Mouth Publicity
Dr. K. R. Subramanian
Professor of Management & Senior, Consultant Operations,
Email address:
Abstract Publicity has been an important component of marketing
efforts for a long time. Traditionally many companies relied on word
of mouth publicity. With the arrival and proliferation of digital media
and the new generation of millennial, the equation is changing. The
speed of doing business has increased and customer is impatient to
wait. Advertisement and Sales promotion are still relevant but the
media has changed. A satisfied customer is the best ambassador for a
company or Product even in the digital era and will perhaps be the
same in the days to come. Traditionally, that even a few years ago, a
satisfied customer was your best bet for further promotion by word of
mouth and is still happening. But the word of mouth has changed to
messages and images through the mobiles and the digital media. The
point to be noticed is that the word of mouth is still the best, but in
the present era of instant gratification, the word of mouth is
accelerated through the mobile and other digital media devices. The
social media is the new generation ‘word of mouth’.
Keywords Impact of social media in the digital world, word of
mouth is accelerated in an age of instant gratification the relative
roles are complimentary.
Social media is influencing every aspect of our daily lives.
Advertisement and Sales Promotion have a great role to play
in Product and Company acceptance. The advent of
technology and the rise of social media have changed the way
that consumers receive marketing messages and perceive
advertisements. The entire process involved in buying a
product has been transformed, and traditional advertising is
beginning to lose its effect and importance. Paid media -
television and radio commercials, print advertisements,
hoardings - still influence the consumer to some extent, but
not as much as they used to. Word-of-mouth marketing is the
oldest form of advertising, the most simple and often the most
effective. Earlier there were billboards, radio commercials or
newspaper ads, people shared their opinions of products and
services through conversation. Today, with the online
communities that form on social networking sites, word-of-
mouth marketing has become word of the messages and more
No longer does consumer promotion of a product have
to be limited to one-on-one conversation. Social media
sites, blogs, and online testimonials are platforms in which
people can speak their mind and reach thousands of people
at once. Digital word-of-mouth is social media marketing.
Companies have to understand the power that consumers
possess on social media networks and the influence they
can have over each other concerning the purchases and
opinions of goods and services. Consumers are much more
likely to trust the advice and opinions of their peers over
advertisements coming directly from the company through
various media. People talk about products they like because
they believe they are of good quality, and they feel a
compelling need to share their opinion with others. Before
making a purchase, especially if it is a new product or
something expensive, consumers like to do a certain
amount of research beforehand. This generally consists of
seeking the opinions of others and checking out what
people have to say online. Both of these forms of product
research are examples of word-of-mouth marketing; people
talking to other people about a business and the goods or
services that they sell.
Fig. 1. Word of mouth publicity.
Companies spend millions of dollars each year on
traditional advertisements, which still serve a purpose and
influence consumers. But digital word-of-mouth marketing
is becoming increasingly more relevant for the businesses
and their advertising teams. It is very effective, it's
authentic, and it can help bring customers to your doors in
numbers. In the information and digital age the word of
mouth has become the click of the mouse.
Although concepts like „brand‟ and „marketing‟ have only
recently been introduced into our way of thinking and
International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science
ISSN (Online): 2455-9024
Dr. K. R. Subramanian, Social media and the word of mouth publicity,” International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and
Science, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 95-100, 2018.
language, people have been discussing products and brands
with others for many centuries and they still do. Word-of-
mouth occurs everywhere people get together: at the local pub,
at home, in the sports club and increasingly online and on
social media. And there are many reasons why people like to
talk about their experiences with products and brands. These
experiences, brand experiences and individual customer
experiences, as well as overall opinions regarding perceived
levels of overall customer experience, customer service,
satisfaction, etc. are shared and often have a very personal and
subjective nature. But they increasingly happen in a very
public space: the social Web. In the social media age word-
of-mouth can travel fast, very fast. The scale, speed and real-
time nature of the social Web and the increased possibilities
for people to share and express themselves play a crucial role
in this. With this in view the following specific Objectives
have been identified for this research paper:
1. A review of marketing environment and role of social
2. Word of mouth and the social web connection.
3. How marketers make use of this connection
4. How the digital media has accelerated this process.
5. Suggestions and recommendations for future marketers.
The nature of the topic will suggest a suitable methodology
i.e. published literature in the print and web media. The author
on making a detailed search was able to find a good number of
papers ad publications and an increasing interest in the area.
So, a detailed literature survey was made. The required data
was analyzed to arrive at the conclusions
Various suggestions have been made along with the
Conclusion for further detailed analysis and study by
researchers who may find interest in this exciting area which
holds a lot of promise for future.
With so many ads crowding social media, word of mouth
is a prime factor in 20-50% of purchasing decisions. Social
media influencers are major players in the marketing world as
they have a long list of loyal followers who trust their
judgments about products and companies. There is a social
media influencer for everything; from beauty, to health &
fitness, even technology. The users subscribing to the content
in social media are actively investing their time and interest to
follow these influencers and their opinions. It‟s almost like
receiving advice from a trusted friend: you would rather listen
to them than a one off advertisement. Social media influencers
become a face to your brand or product, a recognizable person
with lots of influence. That face is friendly and offers his or
her followers advice when purchasing products, and this is
more real time than ordinary product advertisements. While
influencers in social media campaigns are growing in number
and cost, social media influencers are sought after more and
more by companies. With a target audience only a tweet away,
social media influencers are the new, creative way to spread
the word.
Word-of-mouth marketing is a connected effort that also
includes offline marketing. This is natural, given the fact that
people increasingly use various channels as well and they
share, information and even influence buying behavior.
Marketers find out every day that combining word-of-mouth
publicity and peer-to-peer programs and activities such as
customer reviews, social media related WOM activities,
referral marketing etc. leverage the global impact of their
marketing campaigns. The same goes for having an integrated
and holistic view on the customer centricity in corporate
marketing and interactions with customers and prospects.
People are definitely influenced by family members,
friends and other members that they know and trust. In this
social media age they even rely upon the advice of complete
strangers through their tweets in the media. This also applies
to any pre-purchase advice and brand information which is
obtained through such interactions. WOM is an offline matter;
though it is clear from the rising success and the increasing
attention from marketers has a lot to do with the emergence of
the digital media, and in particular social media. They are the
carriers of people‟s voices, brand and product messages and
opinions through viral marketing efforts. To get “carried”, all
you need are the right stories to be planted in the messages of
social media. Word-of-mouth marketing does not only involve
products, brands and companies, it involves experiences and
interactions, including with companies: experiences with
businesses and products which are talked about in chats.
Whether they are „justified‟ or not: there is very little you can
do to stop or get around this. Every individual contact with a
company, and therefore with every employee of that company,
influences brand perception and customer experience and thus
plays an important role in WOM marketing.
Fig. 2. Trust and influence [Ref: Razor fish platforms].
Word-of-mouth leads to new customers, shorter sales
cycles, improved branding and much more customer
information on marketing of products and services. Implanting
a client-oriented business story across all messages and tweets
is the key to such marketing efforts. With the emergence of
social media, which gives the stories and opinions of people a
faster and larger reach, WOM has become a more complex
and involved medium for marketers. Communication appears
to be much more personalized and more uncontrollable than
ever before because of the unpredictable nature of customer
reactions. But at the same time the dynamic changes in
International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science
ISSN (Online): 2455-9024
Dr. K. R. Subramanian, Social media and the word of mouth publicity,” International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and
Science, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 95-100, 2018.
communication between people to people (businesses are
composed of people) have opened many avenues for
marketers who tactically exploit new media to efficiently use
WOM with never before seen and exponentially effective
results. One of the components of a word -of-mouth marketing
plan is often identifying people with an influential voice and
opinion on a specific topic, including for example web users.
It is also important to know who is positive about your brand
and could be a potential brand advocate. Through analysis of
what happens on social media you can also see which users
your target marketing aim to capture through your campaign
and also who has the most influential voice. Through „Social
Media Listening‟ you can identify existing supporters of your
brand whose opinion people seem to trust. You can reach
these people as a brand promotion activity via social media. In
other words, although WOM happens everywhere, there is a
clear link between social media and word-of-mouth publicity.
People discuss products, brands and services with one
another through social media. A more fundamental question
will be why people do this. As an answer to this question will
quickly indicate that there are people who „participate in
WOM‟ far more than others and that you can even categorize
them as active for promotional messages. There are many
reasons but the main ones are certainly psychological. Social
acceptance and recognition - People like to feel like they
‘belong’ to a particular group and accepted for their voice.
They like to contribute in a media tweet and another step
further they crave for recognition and appreciation. One of the
most important psychological motivations why people share
their product and brand experiences with one another involves
making a positive contribution to the social circle(s) to which
they belong. This is an important reason for marketers who
want to make maximum use of WOM. People are not only
anxious of social acceptance, often they also want to
differentiate themselves within the “groups” they belong to for
their opinions. They do this by discussing their unique
experiences about the products that they have purchased and
the performance there of.
How word-of-mouth and social media are connected and
how the attention WOM has received from marketers, has now
been realized even more by the success of social network
platforms as explained in the earlier paragraphs. With the
emergence of the digital network economy, the focus on the
client and the explosion of the ways in which we can satisfy
our psychological WOM motivations (recognition, social
acceptance, sharing, distinguishing oneself, radiating
authority, doing something good for someone else, etc. ) also
play a role and has been exploited more.
1. WOM is customized to the digital network society.
Word-of-mouth marketing is an extremely powerful
marketing instrument. It has an exponential effect that is
strengthened by the online communication channels which can
be customized and the consequences of the network economy.
WOM leads to possibilities that are linked to the scale of the
networks. The rise of online media and communication means
has markedly increased the speed in which messages are
shared in social networks. At the same time the cost is often
found to be much lower than that of other forms of marketing
and the ROI better.
Fig. 3. Social influence and word of mouth publicity.
2. WOM presents a powerful answer to modern marketing
The explosion of media and the changing pattern of
consumption thereof have made the marketing-communication
reality a lot more challenging. Consumers are exposed daily,
to an abundance of advertising messages while the impact of
conventional communication is simultaneously reducing. The
fragmentation of the communication is also one of the most
important feeling grounds for WOM and therefore generates a
significant response from real customers.
3. WOM is an answer in the customer centric marketing.
Word-of-mouth occurs between people who personally
decide what they want to share in the media, important to viral
marketing, and who believe in acquiring information, opinions
etc. in their buying process. The impact of a recommendation
from a reliable and reputed person, like a friend, is much
International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science
ISSN (Online): 2455-9024
Dr. K. R. Subramanian, Social media and the word of mouth publicity,” International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and
Science, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 95-100, 2018.
stronger than advertising message of a biased promotional
campaign from a company. The message in WOM is well
defined and customized for the particular consumer and his
interest. After all, we talk to others about the product that we
are interested in at the moment, otherwise we would be asking
for advice. People generally talk about things that interest
them, that they are passionate about etc. So, to generate a
WOM-campaign, you will have to ensure that the message is
interesting and relevant to the audience.
4. WOM appears more reliable.
The advice from friends is much more reliable in the
consumers‟ perception than that of a seller or marketer who
may be making a hard pitch for his product. Since people
participate and personally create the media, amongst others via
blogs, you get a fresh group of opinion leaders. It is important
that identifying these opinion leaders is a challenging task for
the marketer. Working with opinion leaders is for that matter
not only a prerogative of online WOM, it is an imperative. It
has been implemented successfully in many sectors in the last
few years.
5. WOM can be managed.
Word-of-mouth marketing is not easy to control as it is not
an exact science. Most of it escapes your control possibilities
because of its interpersonal and limited controllable nature, in
contrast to communication that can still be implanted in
conventional advertisement and mass media. The fact that
WOM is difficult to control does not mean that you cannot
6. WOM speeds the purchase process.
In his book „The secrets of word of mouth marketing‟,
George Silverman gave a new light on marketing. His
statement is that all forms of marketing, advertising and
communication should actually be considered possibilities for
generating WOM. Silverman doesn‟t imply that other, classic
ways to see marketing are senseless. He simply suggests
looking at everything from the WOM-point of view, which
provides some interesting insights if you do this exercise. One
of them is that WOM considerably accelerates the decision
process in the area of purchases, amongst others through the
trust that consumers have in the person that they are talking to.
Silverman states that the acceleration in the purchase process
is a direct route to more sales and that this is exactly where
WOM gets its strength.
7. Word-of-mouth shortens the buying process (speeds up the
decision process)
People like to tell stories and that has its anthropological,
cultural, sociological and historical reasons. As you know, the
spoken language was in use earlier in history than the
„writing‟. Ancient cultures were obliged to pass on their
religious practices, their history and so on to their offspring by
telling stories. In some cultures that tradition of passing on
stories orally is still present, although they are now more often
written down too. That is the reason for WOM to be effective.
We are storytellers by tradition because only a good story is
worth telling and passing on. The conclusion for marketers
who want to use the power of word of mouth marketing is
simple: they should be good storytellers too. WOM is
definitely not just a matter of communication, networking and
so on, it is still primarily a question of a good and, in the case
of marketing authentic, relevant and honest story that the
„audience‟ really wants to pass on. Regardless of the medium
and the format, what once used to be oral and written
storytelling is now multimedia and digital.
The Word-of-Mouth Marketing Association (WOMMA)
released the "State of Word-of-Mouth Marketing" survey in
January 2014, and it gives insight into what marketers think of
word-of-mouth marketing is. 64% of their survey respondents
mostly or completely agree that word-of-mouth marketing is
more effective than traditional marketing. Half indicated that
they've incorporated word-of-mouth marketing into their
traditional marketing campaigns. 70% of respondents are
planning to increase their online WOMM spend, and 29% will
increase their offline word-of-mouth marketing spend. 82%
use word-of-mouth marketing to increase their brand
awareness and 43% expect word-of-mouth marketing to
improve their direct sales.
It is easy to appreciate the buzz around word-of-mouth
marketing, but the most challenging aspect is creating a word-
of-mouth marketing strategy that works for your business and
your customers. Keep the statistics handy as you identify,
inspire, and incentivize key customers and influencers who
can unlock important listeners and prospects through word-of-
Demand for word-of-mouth marketing is on the increase.
With the emergence of new digital and computer savvy
consumer, traditional marketing can no longer influence the
consumer purchase decisions. This creates a gap between the
new role of the consumer and the existing marketing
strategies. In an increasingly competitive marketplace and
abundance of choice, customers no longer trust the messages
they are sent by traditional marketing channels. As a result,
word-of-mouth marketing gained importance. Based on
recommendations between two or more consumers related to a
product or service, word- of-mouth is regarded as the most
credible source of information and the most powerful tool to
influence consumer purchase decision. Today, more and more
companies have begun to include word-of-mouth in their
marketing mix. For the majority, word-of - mouth is known
but not yet fully understood
Social media is full of buzz and is influencing consumer
behavior in many ways. Every marketing company is making
full efforts to contact prospective customers and influence
them through advertisements and word of mouth campaigns.
However, with the advent of social media, customer contact
has become a different cup of tea. The customers are always
connected and not only have they expressed their choice, but
they also influence the choice of their friends and family
members. Social marketing efforts have paved the way for net
working and mobile marketing and communication. Mobile
International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science
ISSN (Online): 2455-9024
Dr. K. R. Subramanian, Social media and the word of mouth publicity,” International Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and
Science, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp. 95-100, 2018.
phones and other appliances influence the social media and the
connected societal members.
Web has paved way for more and more social contact and
the „always connected‟ young members of the society through
their digital messages are influencing public opinion and
product reviews on the internet and social networks. It is
rightly said that „word of mouth has been replaced by typed
word messages flashing at great speeds to friends and family
circles. These messages have the potential to form opinions
and this network of social friends and contacts are exploited
by marketers.
Marketing Communications used to rely on Advertisement
and print media. As the speed of communication has
accelerated new media plans are in place for marketing
products and services through faster modes. That is how
digital media has accelerated communication between
consumers, opinion makers and new potential buyers.
Advertisement through conventional media is also costly and
many times ineffective in the „always on‟ society. In fact
conventional advertisements in the TV or news paper channels
have reduced and have limited use in Product promotion and
publicity. The digital media on the other hand offers the
benefit of reach to large customer segments and opinion
With the advent and proliferation of digital media,
conventional media has gone out of business. Word of mouth
publicity is always true and that is how publicity takes place
through opinion leaders. The way of finding and making use
of this opinion leaders have changed. Social media is
impacting all facets of society and Product promotion and
publicity is no exception.
Marketers have to fully realize the emerging trends and
modify their campaigns to suit the new ways of doing
business. Conventional methods of publicity and promotion
through TV and the print media will have to be reviewed in
the light of digital progress in the markets and consumer
segments. Successful companies are aware of this new reality
and they are already responding to consumer behavior. No
company can ignore the reality of changes in the marketing
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... Word-of-mouth is a kind of social media marketing used to influence potential customers to be concerned and purchase. The research said that the customer trusts other consumers about the products or services rather than the company (Subramanian, 2018). The major player of social media word-of-mouth is the loyal users who always trust the company (Subramanian, 2018). ...
... The research said that the customer trusts other consumers about the products or services rather than the company (Subramanian, 2018). The major player of social media word-of-mouth is the loyal users who always trust the company (Subramanian, 2018). Word-of-mouth can speed up the customer's purchase process. ...
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This study aims to examine the impact of Social Customer Relationships Management in the Malaysia Event Industry and the result of Customer Engagement from social media experience. A total of 23 journal papers were thoroughly reviewed. This paper presents an insight into the importance of Customer Relationship Management in the Malaysian event industry and the transition of Traditional Customer Relationship Management to Social Customer Relationship management. Besides, it also focuses on implementing 5 Experiential Dimensions by Schmitt in social media activities to increase customer engagement. Finally, it discusses the level of customer engagement in social media activities and the outcomes.
... To begin, because observation of society is an important determinant of behavioral intention, cruise lines should increase their publicity to encourage increased observation. Subramanian (2018) claimed that traditional advertisement and sales promotion still work, but word-of-mouth, particularly through social media, is more critical. An active presence on social media and traditional media will expose more people to images of people embarking on cruises and participating in cruising activities. ...
... Singapore's government has introduced SingapoRediscover Vouchers (Teh and Lim, 2020), which provide credit for citizens to spend in the tourism industry by the end of 2021, but it excludes the cruise industry. With a substantial number of people still not redeeming their SingapoRediscover Vouchers by November 2021 (Subramanian, 2018), the Singapore government should consider including the cruise industry to incentivise spending, thereby assisting the cruise industry's recovery. ...
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Travel restrictions have harmed the cruise industry as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this study, which is attributed to permanent changes in the regulatory and social landscape, is to identify and examine the factors influencing post-COVID-19 cruise travel intention. To explain cruise travel intention, we developed a theoretical model incorporating health protection motivation, social learning and travel constraint theories. An online survey was conducted with 400 valid responses collected from Singapore. The theoretical model was estimated using structural equation modeling and the survey data. The findings indicate that (1) observing societal behavior, (2) observing the COVID-19 situation, (3) threat appraisal, and (4) coping appraisal all have a direct influence on travel constraint negotiation. Furthermore, travel constraint negotiation and societal observation have a direct impact on intention. An intriguing finding is that observing the COVID-19 situation has no effect on threat assessment, which can be attributed to pandemic fatigue. The findings allow for a set of recommendations to cruise companies and policymakers for post-COVID-19 cruise industry management.
... Word-of-mouth marketing implies that one business is being suggested in the most credible environment imaginable. According to (Kanapathipillai, 2021;Subramanian, 2018;Hajli et al., 2017), trust fostered by social media significantly impacts purchase intent. As a result, trust plays a vital role in eCommerce by directly affecting purchase intent and indirectly impacting perceived value. ...
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a vital role in the Malaysian economy. The success of SMEs is critical for Malaysia's total economic progression, both nationally and globally. Conducting business online is one of the opportunities social media has provided entrepreneurs. SMEs often lack the means to conduct in-house marketing operations or hire a skilled marketing consultant. Social media is a massive dialogue that everyone can join. With social media, businesses have the added advantage of following statements and replying instantly. While there is much literature on social media marketing methods, there is not much information on how businesses might utilize social media to enhance profits. There is little academic research into the elements that drive social media use and its impact on SMEs in Malaysia. This research aims to develop an understanding of improving the use of social media as a marketing tool in SMEs and address its relationship to brand awareness, consumers' engagement, word-of-mouth, conversion rate, and effectiveness. For this quantitative study, data was collected using questionnaires conveyed to SMEs engaged in online marketing activities. The survey yielded 177 valid responses. The findings of this study indicate that word-of-mouth and engagement were insignificant. However, brand awareness and conversion rates were significant. This result is significant for SMEs in emerging markets as it allows them to establish their marketing presence and enhance brand equity. Article visualizations: </p
... Tidak hanya itu, word-ofmouth juga menjadi salah satu semi-controlled PR tools. Hal ini dikarenakan selain dapat membawa pelanggan baru dan memperkuat branding, pesan komunikasi pada word-of-mouth juga dapat menjadi lebih kompleks dan tidak dapat dikontrol karena reaksi publik yang tidak dapat diprediksi (Subramanian, 2018). ...
Citra perusahaan yang baik di mata publik menjadi salah satu faktor yang harus diperhatikan di tengah persaingan bisnis saat ini. Bagi perusahaan fintech lending yang bergerak pada layanan keuangan dan beroperasional secara online, trust dan citra positif dari pengguna atau calon pengguna menjadi hal yang penting. Membangun trust dan citra positif merupakan fungsi dari public relations dalam sebuah perusahaan. Melalui penelitian ini akan dilihat bagaimana praktisi public relations Investree menjalankan aktivitas PR dalam rangka mengelola citra perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan paradigma interpretif dan pendekatan kualitatif, dengan wawancara sebagai metode utama dalam pengumpulan data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa posisi PR di Investree sudah dijalankan secara strategis dengan aktivitas PR yang paling dominan dilakukan adalah media relations, customer relations, dan content and brand management. Akan tetapi, aktivitas lainnya seperti community relations, government relations, corporate social responsibility dan lain sebagainya juga dilakukan oleh tim lainnya dalam departemen Marketing & Communications. Selanjutnya, semua tools PR juga telah dimanfaatkan oleh tim PR Investree, mulai dari controlled PR, uncontrolled PR, dan juga semi-controlled PR, termasuk salah satunya adalah media sosial dalam mengelola citra positif di mata publik. Kata Kunci: Citra, Public Relations, Fintech Lending, Media Relations, PR Tools
... Nesse contexto, uma estratégia crescente é o marketing de influência que é considerado o processo de descobrir, engajar e se relacionar com indivíduos que criam uma relação entre consumidores e marca. Os influenciadores digitais têm assumido esse processo e são responsáveis pela promoção de produtos e serviços e representam uma das principais formas de investimento em marketing das empresas devido aos seus milhares de seguidores leais acreditarem em seus julgamentos a respeito das marcas, produtos e comportamento (Glucksman, 2017;Subramanian, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
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Empresas de diferentes portes e segmentos tem utilizado os influenciadores digitais para divulgar seus produtos e se aproximar do público de forma segmentada. Esta estratégia, chamada de marketing de influência, deve movimentar mais de U$ 2 bilhões até o final de 2020. Porém, mesmo com este crescimento, os estudos sobre os influenciadores digitais e a sua relação com as tipologias e o engajamento ainda são escassos. Para preencher essa lacuna, e contribuir com profissionais e pesquisadores interessados pelo tema, utilizamos uma abordagem bibliométrica para identificar a evolução das publicações científicas sobre o tema entre os anos de 2016 e 2020 para construir uma agenda de pesquisa. A expectativa é contribuir com o avanço dos estudos que reúnem a discussão de tipologia de postagem e engajamento em diferentes plataformas de mídias sociais.
Corporate executives are searching for new ways to make consumers aware of a product or service as the market is highly competitive. They adopt different methods to achieve this goal. Consumers make decisions using a variety of methods, including word of mouth. Therefore, this study was done to investigate the effect of WOM communication (word of mouth) on the outcome of a brand or the brand image effect on the decisions of consumers to purchase a television. The study focuses on television brands mainly. A sample of 552 was collected from Karaikal, Puducherry State, using the questionnaire method. The data thus generated was analysed with the help of PLS-SEM. The findings reveal that offline WOM, online WOM, E-WOM quality, and information consumption all have a significant impact on the brand image, whereas the brand image has a direct influence on the consumer purchase decision of television. The impact of prior purchase satisfaction and expertise of the sender was found to be not significant.
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The aim of the current study is to understand the motivations that lead to social media engagement and customers sharing intention on social media. A theoretical model is developed including six independent variables, which are community culture, altruism, fear of missing out, entertainment, informativeness, and social media engagement and likelihood to share as dependent variables. A quantitative methodology is used, where an online survey with close-ended questions is distributed and then the data was analyzed. The results of the data analysis found that four of the independent variables have a positive influence on customers’ likelihood to share, and social media engagement has the highest value. However, entertainment and informativeness had no impact on the likelihood to share viral content. eral motivations and the likelihood to share. Furthermore, it outlines key elements to create viral content and guides, marketers, to effective communication with online consumers.
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Publicity has been regarded as one of the influential marketing strategies especially for Generation Z. However, the study on the effect of publicity on purchase intention remain scare and understudied. This study set outs to examine the indirect effect of publicity towards purchase intention of fast food product, through trust and reputation. The data were collected via self-administered survey questionnaire consisting 170 Generation Z in Malaysia. Results of this study revealed that publicity positively affect trust and purchase intention. Additionally, the mediating effect of trust and reputation in the publicity-purchase intention link were also established. The study also found, trust and reputation to be positively related to purchase intention. This study is among the pioneers to investigates the role of publicity towards purchase intention of the fast food products for the Malaysian context. Also, this study develops new relationships such as the mediating effect of reputation between publicity and purchase intention. The findings from this study are expected to benefit the fast food marketers and the researchers that specialized in consumer behaviour study
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This study aims to find out which factors, between the word of mouth (WoM) or marketing promotion programs (MPP), drive motivation (push and pull); to explore the influence of travel motivation toward satisfaction, and to investigate the satisfaction effect of medical tourists with loyalty. This study used a survey method by distributing questionnaires to medical tourists from Indonesia (N = 152) who have visited hospitals in Malaysia for medical care at least once. Data analysis was carried out using several statistical procedures. Firstly, a multivariate test was conducted to find out whether there is a statistically significant difference in the push and pull motives based on the influencers. Second, multiple linear regression is performed to find out the influence of push and pull variables on satisfaction. Finally, a simple linear regression is calculated to find out the influence of satisfaction on loyalty. The findings show that there is a statistically significant difference in the push and pull motives based on the influencers (WoM or MPP). The effect size of both push and pull is almost equal. The relationship between push or pull and satisfaction is also statistically significant as 41.3% of the variance in the satisfaction is explained by the push and 51.8% by pull factors. Finally, satisfaction is a significant predictor for loyalty while 90.2% of the variance in loyalty is explained by satisfaction.
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Social media has made as the depicting plan in the most recent decade and keeps adjusting correspondence and connection between people, frameworks, government and business. Bosses and supporters are grapping with the basic effect of the quickly pushing social media on viral customer conveyed substance, and its effect on surrounding consumer affirmations and the steadily changing scenes for the creation business cases to proactively connect with associates. The effect of social media on marketing from brand building, exchanges and raising to customization and customer obligation. The ascent of the Internet and Social media specifically into the more extensive cultural setting, which happened simultaneously with the progression ihn and well known reception of data innovation.
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This manuscript attempts to bridge the gap between the deficiency in empirical research on covert marketing and anecdotal evidence presented in the mainstream press. The Persuasion Knowledge Model (PKM) and Set/Reset Theory guide the investigation into the effects of covert marketing on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. The authors introduce product trial (positive or neutral), relationship with the source (family member, friend, or stranger) and marketing strategy (overt, covert, word-of-mouth) as independent variables that may influence attitudes and purchase intentions. Results suggest consumers will accept covert marketing given they tried the product and really liked it, however, when product trial is a neutral experience, attitudes and behavioral intentions become significantly lower.
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This review addresses three contemporary questions on the topic of word of mouth (WOM): (1) Are WOM and online WOM the same phenomenon? (2) What kind of target is more likely to engage in brands recommendations? (3) Can 'organic' and 'fertilised' WOM have the same value/impact? Furthermore, the present work gives academics a framework for analysing the popular phenomenon WOM, and provides marketers with some best practice suggestions. Finally, the reader can find some suggestions for further research on this topic.
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Companies are increasingly relying on alternative promotional activities, such as word-of-mouth communication (WOM), to reach their target markets. From a consumer protection perspective this may be troubling, as consumers may not always be aware of what is commercially motivated WOM and what is not. Based on a synthesis of the literature, this article develops the first practitioner-friendly model, which explains WOM's effectiveness as an information source for consumers and why it is a powerful tool for nonprofit organizations and government agencies. Then nine recommendations are developed to help nonprofit organizations and government agencies use WOM more effectively as a proconsumer tool. This is the first article to conceptualize proconsumer WOM rather than naturally occurring WOM or commercial WOM and to specifically focus on WOM to protect and educate consumers. The study paves the way to an untapped research area; that of proconsumer WOM by nonprofit organizations and government agencies.
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Word of mouth marketing — the intentional influencing of consumer-to-consumer communications — is an increasingly important technique. The authors overview and synthesize extant word of mouth theory and present a study of a marketing campaign in which mobile phones were seeded with prominent bloggers. Eighty-three blogs were followed for six months. Findings reveal the complex cultural conditions through which marketing “hype” is transformed by consumers into the “honey” of relevant, shared communications. Four word of mouth communication strategies are identified — evaluation, embracing, endorsement and explanation. Each is influenced by communicator narrative, communications forum, communal norms and the nature of the marketing promotion. An intrinsic tension between commercial and communal interests plays a prominent, normative role in message formation and reception. This “hype-to-honey” theory shows that communal word of mouth does not simply increase or amplify marketing messages. Rather, marketing messages and meanings are systematically altered in the process of embedding them. The theory has implications for how marketers should plan, target and benefit from word of mouth and how scholars should understand word of mouth in a networked world.
Brands and word of mouth (WOM) are cornerstones of the marketing field, and yet their relationship has received relatively little attention. This study aims to enhance understanding of brand characteristics as antecedents of WOM by executing a comprehensive empirical analysis. For this purpose, the authors constructed a unique data set on online and offline WOM and characteristics for more than 600 of the most talked-about U.S. brands. To guide this empirical analysis, they present a theoretical framework arguing that consumers spread WOM on brands as a result of social, emotional, and functional drivers. Using these drivers, the authors identify a set of 13 brand characteristics that stimulate WOM, including three (level of differentiation, excitement, and complexity) that have not been studied to date as WOM antecedents. The authors find that whereas the social and functional drivers are the most important for online WOM, the emotional driver is the most important for offline WOM. These results provide an insightful perspective on WOM and have meaningful managerial implications for brand management and investment in WOM campaigns.
Assessing its impact as well as its volume will help companies take better advantage of buzz.
There is growing evidence that consumers are influenced by Internet-based opinion forums before making a variety of purchase decisions. Firms whose products are being discussed in such forums are, therefore, tempted to manipulate consumer perceptions by posting costly anonymous messages that praise their products. This paper oers a theoretical analysis of the impact of such behavior on firm profits and consumer surplus. The most striking result of my analysis is that strategic manipulation can either decrease or increase the information value of online forums to consumers relative to the case where no manipulation takes place. Specifically, if firm revenues are suciently convex functions of consumer perceptions of their quality, there exist equilibria where the presence of honest consumer opinions induces firms to reveal their own, more precise, knowledge of product qualities by manipulating the forums at relative intensities that are proportional to their actual qualities. Furthermore, if a suciently large number of consumers post honest opinions online, the model predicts that forum manipulation reduces the profits of all competing firms, as its cost outweighs its benefits. Nevertheless, competing firms are locked into an "arms race" and forced to spend resources on such profit-reducing activities to prevent each other from unilaterally distorting consumer perceptions. The social overhead of online manipulation can be reduced by inducing firms to manipulate less. This can be accomplished by developing technologies that increase the unit cost of manipulation and by encouraging higher contribution of online opinions by honest consumers.