Article

Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Carpooling Using Blockchain-Assisted Vehicular Fog Computing

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Abstract

Carpooling enables passengers to share a vehicle to reduce traveling time, vehicle carbon emissions and traffic congestion. However, the majority of passengers lean to find local drivers, but querying a remote cloud server leads to an unnecessary communication overhead and an increased response delay. Recently, fog computing is introduced to provide local data processing with low latency, but it also raises new security and privacy concerns because users’ private information (e.g., identity, location) could be disclosed when theses information are shared during carpooling. While they can be encrypted before transmission, it makes user matching a challenging task and malicious users can upload false locations. Moreover, carpooling records should be kept in a distributed manner to guarantee reliable data auditability. To address these problems, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving carpooling scheme using blockchain-assisted vehicular fog computing to support conditional privacy, one-to-many matching, destination matching and data auditability. Specifically, we authenticate users in a conditionally anonymous way. Also, we adopt private proximity test to achieve one-to-many proximity matching and extend it to efficiently establish a secret communication key between a passenger and a driver. We store all location grids into a tree and achieve get-off location matching using a range query technique. A private blockchain is built to store carpooling records. Finally, we analyze the security and privacy properties of the proposed scheme, and evaluate its performance in terms of computational costs and communication overhead. IEEE

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... Although very few works have investigated a decentralized ride-sharing organization scheme using Blockchain [9]- [12], they either do not consider privacy preservation or suffer from a tradeoff between privacy protection and accuracy due to using location/time cloaking technique. For instance, in [9], a ride sharing organization scheme using public Blockchain is proposed. ...
... A few decentralized ride-sharing systems have been proposed in the literature [9]- [12]. In these systems, Blockchain is used to match the offers/requests of drivers/riders. ...
... This work also studies the impact of using Blockchain in real-time ridesharing services through presenting a case study. Li et al. [12] have proposed a ride-sharing system based on private Blockchain created by a network of Road side Units (RSUs). However, this system is expensive because it needs deploying RSUs almost everywhere. ...
... The main tasks of micro-blockchains are to store data and intrusion samples as well as provide intrusion detection strategies if they are available in the micro-blockchain. [15], [17], [18], [23], [54], [62], [72], [74], [78], [83], [94], [98], [106], [111], [130], [137], [138] Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) [21], [56], [60], [63], [72], [75], [81], [91], [92], [97], [99], [106], [139] Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) [16], [52], [56], [79], [114], [140] Proof of Stake (PoS) [59], [73], [111], [141], [142] Proof of Activity (PoA) [61], [93], [96], [143] Proof of Reputation (PoR) [19], [62], [67] KafKa [66], [68] Ripple consensus [21], [104] Attribute based consensus [25] Proof of Online Duration [69] Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DBFT) [14] Redundant Byzantine Fault Tolerance (RBFT) [79] Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) [71] Proof of Knowledge (PoK) [144] Proof of Utility (PoU) ...
... Role of other technology in the network [63] Cloud server was used as part of the blockchain center for creating, verifying and adding the blocks. [21] Used trusted cloud servers as part of their system architecture to enhance network operations [83] Some of the security managers are cloud based [104] Used a cloud application server to store and exchange some non-cryptographic information in the network [59] Used a cloud server to store the encrypted carpooling data Cloud Computing [75] A distributed and large cloud system is used for storing the Personally Identifiable Information (PII) of the vehicles. [157] Proposed a pseudonym based privacy preserving scheme for maintaining location privacy specifically in fog computing based IoV networks [69] Used fog computing to overcome drawbacks of a cloud-based centralized management and to provide local computing capabilities with low latency [158] Proposed a route sharing service framework with privacy-preservation where fog nodes pre-process the data and provide anonymous authentication. ...
... [145] Proposed a fog computing based V2V energy trading architecture in social hotspots. [59] Proposed a carpooling scheme using vehicular fog computing nodes in a blockchain network that supports conditional privacy, destination matching of users, and auditability of data. [81] Fog computing avoids frequent handovers in the network. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Vehicular networks promise features such as traffic management, route scheduling, data exchange, entertainment, and much more. With any large-scale technological integration comes the challenge of providing security. Blockchain technology has been a popular choice of many studies for making the vehicular network more secure. Its characteristics meet some of the essential security requirements such as decentralization, transparency, tamper-proof nature, and public audit. This study catalogues some of the notable efforts in this direction over the last few years. We analyze around 75 blockchain-based security schemes for vehicular networks from an application, security, and blockchain perspective. The application perspective focuses on various applications which use secure blockchain-based vehicular networks such as transportation, parking, data sharing/ trading, and resource sharing. The security perspective focuses on security requirements and attacks. The blockchain perspective focuses on blockchain platforms, blockchain types, and consensus mechanisms used in blockchain implementation. We also compile the popular simulation tools used for simulating blockchain and for simulating vehicular networks. Additionally, to give the readers a broader perspective of the research area, we discuss the role of various state-of-the-art emerging technologies in blockchain-based vehicular networks. Lastly, we summarize the survey by listing out some common challenges and the future research directions in this field.
... Kaur et al. [114] FC-BC ensures data confidentiality. Li et al. [125] Carpooling scheme that guarantees data confidentiality. Qu et al. [126] FL-Block enables decentralized confidentiality protection Patwary et al. [119] D2D authentication model ensures data confidentiality. ...
... Gai et al. [110] BC and group signature to enhance the auditability. Li et al. [125] BC-based carpooling scheme to enhance data auditability. Yaqoob et al. [141] BC technology enables healthcare organizations simple for auditors to verify transactions on BC systems. ...
... Moreover, encryption and distributed storage mean that all parties involved in the supply chain can trust data [127]. Li et al. [125] proposed carpooling scheme that uses a BC-assisted vehicular FC to enhance privacy, security, and auditability. The proposed scheme can enhance authentication, protect the system against location cheating from malicious users, enhance data confidentiality, and support user anonymity. ...
Article
The emergent of Fog computing as an extension of Cloud computing, from the center of the internet architecture to the IoT end user’s devices, aims to enhance the processing power of the resource-constraint IoT devices and deliver them other services since it locates close to these devices. This extension was also suggested to boost the standard of IoT system implementations thus decreasing energy consumption and latency for those applications that need fast responses. However, as stated in recent literature, Fog computing may have some important security and privacy challenges. On the other hand, Blockchain, which was generated and used in crypto-currencies, has been applied in a wider range of applications due to the security, privacy, distributed trust management, and reliability features provided. Among the applications, which have recently been attractive about blockchain is Fog computing. Blockchain in Fog computing may achieve a distributed and trusted, identity management, secure data, reputation, and payment systems. This survey discusses the state-of-the-art impact of the blockchain on the security and privacy of Fog computing. The findings elucidate the vision of blockchain in Fog computing-security and privacy-based enhancement and draw attention to open challenges and future research directions.
... The main tasks of micro-blockchains are to store data and intrusion samples as well as provide intrusion detection strategies if they are available in the micro-blockchain. [15], [17], [18], [23], [54], [62], [72], [74], [78], [83], [94], [98], [106], [111], [130], [137], [138] Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT) [21], [56], [60], [63], [72], [75], [81], [91], [92], [97], [99], [106], [139] Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) [16], [52], [56], [79], [114], [140] Proof of Stake (PoS) [59], [73], [111], [141], [142] Proof of Activity (PoA) [61], [93], [96], [143] Proof of Reputation (PoR) [19], [62], [67] KafKa [66], [68] Ripple consensus [21], [104] Attribute based consensus [25] Proof of Online Duration [69] Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (DBFT) [14] Redundant Byzantine Fault Tolerance (RBFT) [79] Zero Knowledge Proof (ZKP) [71] Proof of Knowledge (PoK) [144] Proof of Utility (PoU) ...
... Role of other technology in the network [63] Cloud server was used as part of the blockchain center for creating, verifying and adding the blocks. [21] Used trusted cloud servers as part of their system architecture to enhance network operations [83] Some of the security managers are cloud based [104] Used a cloud application server to store and exchange some non-cryptographic information in the network [59] Used a cloud server to store the encrypted carpooling data Cloud Computing [75] A distributed and large cloud system is used for storing the Personally Identifiable Information (PII) of the vehicles. [157] Proposed a pseudonym based privacy preserving scheme for maintaining location privacy specifically in fog computing based IoV networks [69] Used fog computing to overcome drawbacks of a cloud-based centralized management and to provide local computing capabilities with low latency [158] Proposed a route sharing service framework with privacy-preservation where fog nodes pre-process the data and provide anonymous authentication. ...
... [145] Proposed a fog computing based V2V energy trading architecture in social hotspots. [59] Proposed a carpooling scheme using vehicular fog computing nodes in a blockchain network that supports conditional privacy, destination matching of users, and auditability of data. [81] Fog computing avoids frequent handovers in the network. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicular networks promise features such as traffic management, route scheduling, data exchange, entertainment, and much more. With any large-scale technological integration comes the challenge of providing security. Blockchain technology has been a popular choice of many studies for making the vehicular network more secure. Its characteristics meet some of the essential security requirements such as decentralization, transparency, tamper-proof nature, and public audit. This study catalogues some of the notable efforts in this direction over the last few years. We analyze around 75 blockchain-based security schemes for vehicular networks from an application, security, and blockchain perspective. The application perspective focuses on various applications which use secure blockchain-based vehicular networks such as transportation, parking, data sharing/ trading, and resource sharing. The security perspective focuses on security requirements and attacks. The blockchain perspective focuses on blockchain platforms, blockchain types, and consensus mechanisms used in blockchain implementation. We also compile the popular simulation tools used for simulating blockchain and for simulating vehicular networks. Additionally, to give the readers a broader perspective of the research area, we discuss the role of various state-of-the-art emerging technologies in blockchain-based vehicular networks. Lastly, we summarize the survey by listing out some common challenges and the future research directions in this field.
... As a result, autonomous vehicles can cause overhead on information processing and cause packet loss. Another method, [35] is a private blockchain technology for IoV. This scheme allows faster processing than public blockchain's because the vehicle's network connection or disconnection is determined by the central administrator. ...
... Figure 5 shows the number of packets transmitted per 100 RSUs. The proposed scheme was compared with the existing scheme, private blockchain [35], and the number of packets received by two vehicles was measured. The existing scheme shows approximately 2.9205% packet loss as compared to the proposed scheme. ...
... However, some applications have a built-in chatting system for the communication between drivers and passengers. Cloud and fog are also used as a source for efective communication within a carpooling network [97]. However, a chain of correspondence and backup plans for carpool must be established to make changes in the day-by-day plan with minor inconvenience if illness or mechanical problems occur. ...
... To address this issue, many researchers have proposed and implement diferent technologies at the edge of the network [12ś16]. For example, in [97] the authors propose an eicient and conidential carpooling scheme using blockchain-assisted vehicle fog computing. Speciically, they use fog nodes to authenticate users in an unconditional anonymous way. ...
Article
Owing to the advancements in communication and computation technologies, the dream of commercialized connected and autonomous cars is becoming a reality. However, among other challenges such as environmental pollution, cost, maintenance, security, and privacy, the ownership of vehicles (especially for Autonomous Vehicles (AV)) is the major obstacle in the realization of this technology at the commercial level. Furthermore, the business model of pay-as-you-go type services further attracts the consumer because there is no need for upfront investment. In this vein, the idea of car-sharing ( aka carpooling) is getting ground due to, at least in part, its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and affordable choice of transportation. Carpooling systems are still in their infancy and face challenges such as scheduling, matching passengers interests, business model, security, privacy, and communication. To date, a plethora of research work has already been done covering different aspects of carpooling services (ranging from applications to communication and technologies); however, there is still a lack of a holistic, comprehensive survey that can be a one-stop-shop for the researchers in this area to, i) find all the relevant information, and ii) identify the future research directions. To fill these research challenges, this paper provides a comprehensive survey on carpooling in autonomous and connected vehicles and covers architecture, components, and solutions, including scheduling, matching, mobility, pricing models of carpooling. We also discuss the current challenges in carpooling and identify future research directions. This survey is aimed to spur further discussion among the research community for the effective realization of carpooling.
... Public [1], [16], [21], [24], [25], [31], [44] Consortium [7], [20], [22], [23], [36], [37], [39], [41], [42] Private [19], [23], [32], [34], [39], [43] ...
... Ethereum [1], [7], [16], [19], [21], [24], [25], [31], [34], [36], [40], [46] Hyperledger Fabric [22], [23], [32], [37], [39], [41], [43] ...
Article
Full-text available
Ride-sharing is a service that becomes basic and important for all communities due to its benefits for individuals like reducing travel cost and time and for societies like reducing gas emissions, congestions, and fuel consumption. Existing ride-sharing services are centralized and thus perform their functions through a central third party. Therefore, they suffer from various problems due to the centralized architecture namely single point of failure, lack of transparency, privacy violation, and many attacks such as distributed denial of service, etc. These problems urged the research community to shift to decentralization. Blockchain has revolutionized decentralization, which pushed the researchers to exploit it in ride-sharing and also other various fields. But what beyond implementing blockchain in ride-sharing? So, this paper answers the questions of where we are now in blockchain-based ride-sharing services and what is the next steps in them. It provides summary for previously proposed works in ride-sharing, specifically, blockchain-based. Followed by intensive analysis, comparison, and classification of these works. Finally, this paper provides guidance for future research with the promising and important directions in blockchain-based ride-sharing services.
... After a driver is assigned to a rider, they need a secure communication channel to negotiate a specific pick-up location. FICA [146] established a secret key between a rider and a driver to enable secure communication. pRide [144] used somewhat homomorphic encryption cryptosystem and deep learning algorithms to achieve efficient and private matching. ...
Article
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Vehicular networks allow billions of vehicular users to be connected to report and exchange real-time data for offering various services, such as navigation, ride-hailing, smart parking, traffic monitoring, and vehicular digital forensics. Fifth generation (5G) is a new radio access technology with greater coverage, accessibility, and higher network density. 5G-supported Vehicular Networks (5GVNs) have attracted plenty of attention from both academia and industry. Geared with new features, they are expected to revolutionize the mobility ecosystem to empower a portfolio of new services. Meanwhile, the development of such communication capabilities, along with the development of sensory devices and the enhancement of local computing powers, have lead to an inevitable reality of massive data (e.g., identity, location, and trajectory) collection from vehicular users. Unfortunately, 5GVN are still confronted with a variety of privacy threats. Such threats are targeted at users’ data, identity, location, and trajectory. If not properly handled, such threats will cause unimaginable consequences to users. In this survey, we first review the state-of-the-art of survey papers. Next, we introduce the architecture, features, and services of 5GVN, followed by the privacy objectives of 5GVN and privacy threats to 5GVN. Further, we present existing privacy-preserving solutions and analyze them in-depth. Finally, we define some future research directions to draw more attention and down-toearth efforts into this new architecture and its privacy issues.
... Authors in [15] enabled conditional privacy in BC based carpooling scheme by using Private Proximity test with location tags. However, the proposed scheme used cloud server for data storage which can act as single point of failure while handling enormous amount of requests from vehicular nodes. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Data sharing is a fascinating in-vehicle service which provide multiple benefits to the vehicle users in the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs). One of the interesting in-vehicle services is advertisement sharing in VANETs which enable advertisers to market their products and services in the areas of the users interest. With the help of Blockchain (BC) technology, the vehicle users can also participate in the ads dissemination process to gain monetary incentives. However, the existing BC based VANET schemes suffer from privacy, security and efficiency issues. Zero Knowledge Proof of Knowledge (ZKPoK) and certificate-less cryptography are used in the existing schemes to enable fair incentive provision and privacy preservation. These schemes incur high computational cost on the resource constrained vehicles. Moreover, the lack of conditional anonymity in the existing schemes makes the system vulnerable to internal attacker scenario. Furthermore, VANETs require secure and efficient reputation verification mechanism to prevent replay attacks and reduce the storage cost. Additionally, the reliance on a centralized entity for the certificate revocation makes the system wide open to the single point of failure vulnerability. To overcome these issues, a BC based secure, efficient and conditional anonymity enabled scheme is proposed. Elliptic Curve Digital Signature based pseudonym update mechanism is employed to enable conditional anonymity and trace malicious vehicles. InterPlanetary File System is used to efficiently store the vehicles' reputation information and reduce the storage overhead. Moreover, the Shamir Secret Sharing algorithm is used to enable distributed revocation. Security analysis is performed to show that the proposed scheme is secure against multiple known attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme.
... However, the system is unable to solve the privacy concerns and resource management problem of EVs. The authors in [226] propose a blockchain assisted vehicular fog computing and privacy preservation carpooling system for EVs. The system includes conditional privacy, one-to-many proximity matching, destination matching and data auditing. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
With the advent of the smart grid (SG), the concept of energy management flourished rapidly and it gained the attention of researchers. Forecasting plays an important role in energy management. In this work, a recurrent neural network, long short term memory (LSTM), is used for electricity price and demand forecasting using big data. This model uses multiple variables as input and forecasts the future values of electricity demand and price. Its hyperparameters are tuned using the Jaya optimization algorithm to improve the forecasting ability. It is named as Jaya LSTM (JLSTM). Moreover, the concept of local energy generation using renewable energy sources is also getting popular. In this work, to implement a hybrid peer to peer energy trading market, a blockchain based system is proposed. It is fully decentralized and allows the market members to interact with each other and trade energy without involving a third party. In addition, in vehicle to grid and vehicle to vehicle energy trading environments, local aggregators perform the role of energy brokers and are responsible for validating the energy trading requests. A solution to find accurate distance with required expenses and time to reach the charging destination is also proposed, which effectively guides electric vehicles (EVs) to reach the relevant charging station and encourages energy trading. Moreover, a fair payment mechanism using a smart contract to avoid financial irregularities is proposed. Apart from this, a blockchain based trust management method for agents in a multi-agent system is proposed. In this system, three objectives are achieved: trust, cooperation and privacy. The trust of agents depends on the credibility of trust evaluators, which is verified using the proposed methods of trust distortion, consistency and reliability. To enhance the cooperation between agents, a tit-3-for-tat repeated game strategy is developed. The strategy is more forgiving than the existing tit-for-tat strategy. It encourages cheating agents to re-establish their trust by cooperating for three consecutive rounds of play. Also, a proof-of-cooperation consensus protocol is proposed to improve agents’ cooperation while creating and validating blocks. The privacy of agents is preserved in this work using the publicly verifiable secret sharing mechanism. Additionally, a blockchain based edge and cloud system is proposed to resolve the resource management problem of EVs in a vehicular energy network. Firstly, a min-max optimization problem is formulated to construct the proposed entropy based fairness metric for resource allocation. This metric is used to determine whether users have received a fair share of the system’s resources or not. Secondly, a new deep reinforcement learning based content caching and computation offloading approach is designed for resource management of EVs. Lastly, a proof-of-bargaining consensus mechanism is designed for block’s validation and selection of miners using the concept of iterative negotiation. Besides, a survey of electricity load and price forecasting models is presented. The focus of this survey is on the optimization methods, which are used to tune the hyperparameters of the forecasting models. Moreover, this work provides a systematic literature review of scalability issues of the blockchain by scrutinizing across multiple domains and discusses their solutions. Finally, future research directions for both topics are discussed in detail. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed energy management solutions, simulation are performed. The simulation results show that the energy is efficiently managed while ensuring secure trading between energy prosumers and fair resource allocation.
... The maintenance cost of a public chain is high because all nodes are involved in the validation process while maintenance cost is medium in a private chain as fewer validators are required in the validation process. The benefit of using a private chain is to guarantee an extra layer of security as all transactions between EVs and CSs are kept private [43]. This means that energy trading activities are only possible within the private chain network. ...
Article
In this paper a secure energy system is proposed that consists of private and public blockchains for vehicles in sustainable cities and society. The former protects vehicle owners from spatial and temporal information based attacks while the latter provides efficient energy trading in sustainable cities and society. In the proposed system, the dynamic demand based pricing policy for the vehicle owners is proposed using types of vehicles, time of demand and geographical locations. The vehicles’ social welfare and utility are maximized using an optimal scheduling method along with the proposed pricing policy. Also, the vehicle owners’ privacy is protected by applying differential privacy in the proposed consensus energy management algorithm. The numerical analyses show that 89.23% reduction in energy price is achieved as compared to 83.46%, 73.86% and 53.07% for multi-parameter pricing scheme (MPPS), fixed pricing scheme and time-of-use pricing scheme (ToU), respectively. Applying the proposed scheme, the owners can achieve about 81.46% reduction in their operating cost as compared to 80.48%, 69.75% and 68.29% for MPPS, fixed pricing scheme and ToU, respectively. Moreover, the proposed system is 60.32% secure as compared to 39.67% for MPPS system. Furthermore, using less information loss against considerable background knowledge of an attacker, higher privacy protection of vehicles is attained.
... Sherif et al. proposed a scheme [30] that computes the similarity of riders' trips on ciphertexts to match riders. The FICA scheme [31] ensures data privacy and reliability using edge computation and blockchain techniques. PrivatePool [14] constructs a distributed and privacy-enhanced ride-sharing system with PSI [32] protocol and SHE [33] technique. ...
Article
Full-text available
Online ride-hailing (ORH) services allow people to enjoy on-demand transportation services through their mobile devices in a short responding time. Despite the great convenience, users need to submit their location information to the ORH service provider, which may incur unexpected privacy problems. In this paper, we mainly study the privacy and utility of the ride-sharing system, which enables multiple riders to share one driver. To solve the privacy problem and reduce the ride-sharing detouring waste, we propose a privacy-preserving ride-sharing system named pShare. To hide users’ precise locations from the service provider, we apply a zone-based travel time estimation approach to privately compute over sensitive data while cloaking each rider’s location in a zone area. To compute the matching results along with the least-detouring route, the service provider first computes the shortest path for each eligible rider combination, then compares the additional traveling time (ATT) of all combinations, and finally selects the combination with minimum ATT. We designed a secure comparing protocol by utilizing the garbled circuit, which enables the ORH server to execute the protocol with a crypto server without privacy leakage. Moreover, we apply the data packing technique, by which multiple data can be packed as one to reduce the communication and computation overhead. Through the theoretical analysis and evaluation results, we prove that pShare is a practical ride-sharing scheme that can find out the sharing riders with minimum ATT in acceptable accuracy while protecting users’ privacy.
... Yet, it has recently attracted various emerging domains such as smart cities [15][16][17], smart grids [18][19][20], Internet of Things (IoT) [21,22], Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) [23][24][25], robotics [26,27], machine learning [28,29], and health systems [30][31][32]. IoV platforms have also started to adopt blockchain for various services which include data management [33,34], resource trading [35,36], resource sharing [37,38], vehicle management [39,40], ride sharing [41,42], traffic control [43,44], and forensics applications [45,46]. In this paper, we highlight the use of blockchain in IoV and VANETs for authentication by surveying a number of recent blockchain-based authentication schemes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has emerged as an advancement over the traditional Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) towards achieving a more efficient intelligent transportation system that is capable of providing various intelligent services and supporting different applications for the drivers and passengers on roads. In order for the IoV and VANETs environments to be able to offer such beneficial road services, huge amounts of data are generated and exchanged among the different communicated entities in these vehicular networks wirelessly via open channels, which could attract the adversaries and threaten the network with several possible types of security attacks. In this survey, we target the authentication part of the security system while highlighting the efficiency of blockchains in the IoV and VANETs environments. First, a detailed background on IoV and blockchain is provided, followed by a wide range of security requirements, challenges, and possible attacks in vehicular networks. Then, a more focused review is provided on the recent blockchain-based authentication schemes in IoV and VANETs with a detailed comparative study in terms of techniques used, network models, evaluation tools, and attacks counteracted. Lastly, some future challenges for IoV security are discussed that are necessary to be addressed in the upcoming research.
... The concept is introduced in the frame of sharing economy with the aim of reducing the travel time, the need for parking spaces, and the associated travel expenses by decreasing the number of transiting vehicles in the urban system (Hernández et al., 2018). From an individual point of view, the environmental awareness and less travel costs are the most important advantages, while the organizational effort and time and the reduced comfort and flexibility are the disadvantages (Li et al., 2019). The next step includes the pairwise comparisons for each node of the structure thus combining them and obtaining the scores by using the calculation procedures given in the methodology section for the grey AHP. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study proposes a multi-criteria decision-making approach using the grey theory to analyze mode choices. An extended analytic hierarchy process (AHP) model, which combines the advantages of the classic AHP and the grey theory for the accurate estimation of the commuting mode weight coefficients, is applied to a real transportation problem involving evaluators. The presented approach is applied for a real-life case study in Budapest. Based on the results, for all distances, public transport is ranked first followed by the car mode; however, for short-and mid-distance commuters, home office and bike might be suitable options, too. The results of this method are compared with the fuzzy AHP method. Having the same ranking in case of the two analyses means that the proposed method provides correct results under uncertainty in a group decision-making process. Thus, the outcomes highlight the applicability of the proposed method to the evaluation of mode choice.
... In the process of carpooling, fog computing raises new privacy issues while providing low-latency local data processing, in which users' personal information (such as identity and location) may be compromised. Therefore, Li et al. [14] proposed an efficient and privacypreserving carpooling scheme that uses blockchain-assisted vehicle fog computing to support conditional privacy, one-to-many matching, destination matching, and data auditability. The method uses a private proximity test to realize one-to-many proximity matching and extends it to effectively establish the secret communication key between passenger and driver. ...
Article
Full-text available
To alleviate the traffic congestion caused by the sharp increase in the number of private cars and save commuting costs, taxi carpooling service has become the choice of many people. Current research on taxi carpooling services has focused on shortening the detour distances. While with the development of intelligent cities, efficiently match passengers and vehicles and planning routes become urgent. And the privacy between passengers in the taxi carpooling service also needs to be considered. In this paper, we propose a time-optimal and privacy-preserving carpool route planning system via deep reinforcement learning. This system uses the traffic information around the carpooling vehicle to optimize passengers’ travel time, not only to efficiently match passengers and vehicles but also to generate detailed route planning for carpooling vehicles. We conducted experiments on an Internet of Vehicles simulator CARLA, and the results demonstrate that our method is better than other advanced methods and has better performance in complex environments.
... A new BC model named 'CoRide' for ride-sharing platform was presented in [54]. [55] proposed to incorporate BC with the carpooling system. In the proposed carpooling system, users could share vehicles with proper privacy and security. ...
Preprint
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While the convergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques with improved information technology systems ensured enormous benefits to the Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) systems, it also introduced an increased amount of security and privacy threats. To ensure the security of IoVs data, privacy preservation methodologies have gained significant attention in the literature. However, these strategies also need specific adjustments and modifications to cope with the advances in IoVs design. In the interim, Federated Learning (FL) has been proven as an emerging idea to protect IoVs data privacy and security. On the other hand, Blockchain technology is showing prominent possibilities with secured, dispersed, and auditable data recording and sharing schemes. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey on the application and implementation of Blockchain-Enabled Federated Learning frameworks for IoVs. Besides, probable issues, challenges, solutions, and future research directions for BC-Enabled FL frameworks for IoVs are also presented. This survey can further be used as the basis for developing modern BC-Enabled FL solutions to resolve different data privacy issues and scenarios of IoVs.
... Authentication is considered the first line of defense against malicious vehicles and messages [5][6][7]. It is the basis for the security of all other applications of the Internet of Vehicles in the open traffic environment. ...
Article
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With the rapid development of the mobile internet and intelligent technology of in-vehicle equipment, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), centered on intelligent connected cars, has gradually entered people’s lives. However, these technologies also bring serious privacy risks and security issues in terms of data transmission and storage. In this article, we propose a blockchain-based authentication system to provide vehicle safety management. The privacy and security attributes of various vehicle authentication transactions are based on high-level cryptographic primitives, realizing temporary and formal authentication methods. At the same time, a fair blockchain consensus mechanism Auction of block generation Rights (AoR) is proposed. To demonstrate the feasibility and scalability of the proposed scheme, security and performance analyses are presented. The relevant experimental results show that the scheme can provide superior decentralized management for IoV.
... The DPoS (Delegated Proof of Stake) is used here for storing the block and verifying it for traceability if needed. On the other hand, fog computing is used in [61], to match drivers with the passengers locally which can lessen the computational overhead. Authors here used a private proximity test with location information for generating a unique secret key which is used between passenger and driver. ...
Preprint
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Internet of Vehicles (IoVs) consist of smart vehicles, Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) as well as roadside units (RSUs) that communicate wirelessly to provide enhanced transportation services such as improved traffic efficiency and reduced traffic congestion and accidents. IoVs, however, suffer from issues of security, privacy and trust. Blockchain technology has been emerged as a decentralized approach for enhanced security without depending on trusted third parties to run services. Blockchain offers the benefits of trustworthiness, immutability, and mitigates the problem of single point of failure and other attacks. In this work, we present the state-of-the-art of Blockchain-enabled IoVs (BIoV) with a particular focus on their applications such as crowdsourcing-based applications, energy trading, traffic congestion reduction, collision and accident avoidance and infotainment and content cashing. We also present in-depth applications federated learning (FL) applications for BIoVs. The key challenges resulted from the integration of Blockchain with IoV is investigated in several domains such as edge computing, ML, and FL. Lastly, a number of open issues and challenges as well as future opportunities in the area of AI-enabled BIoV, hardware-assisted security for BIoV and quantum computing attacks on BIoV.
... The BC associates a pseudonym to each user and thus seems to be a potentially interesting solution to improve privacy. This is why many authors have tried to develop this idea by proposing mechanisms for generating pseudonyms that 1) should only be used in a given geographical area at a given time [28] 2) should only be used during a communication session [49]. Some authors have also sought to improve the pseudonym generation process to provide a higher level of scaling (BC nodes selection) [58]. ...
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Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) will play a key role in the advent of the automated and connected vehicle. However, C-ITS will have to be secured to prevent attacks from malicious entities and to provide the critical services required by connected vehicles (road safety). To guarantee this security, a solution that is widely considered today is the Blockchain technology. Indeed, this flexible technology, based on a decentralized architecture, could enable the implementation of innovative security services in vehicular networks. That is why, in this paper, we try to evaluate the potential impact of the definition of Blockchain-based solutions in C-ITS. To this end, we first propose an analysis of the C-ITS requirements and the Blockchain features. Then, we identify the potential areas of use of the Blockchain technology in C-ITS and we study the benefits/drawbacks of Blockchain for these applications. Finally, we present some challenges that will have to be considered in future Blockchain-based services designed for C-ITS.
... Vehicles and other automotive products are packed with sensors, computer systems, network entities, and other electromechanical devices. Examples of such systems are found in References [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40]. This may constitute a security breach with respect to the data collection by these systems. ...
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Today’s cars can share data with other cars, automakers, and service providers. Shared data can help improve the driving experience, the performance of the car, and the traffic situations. Among all data-collection techniques, blockchain technology offers an immutable and secure solution to support data collection in the automotive industry. Despite its advantages, collecting auto data with blockchain still faces several challenges. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a review of published articles that have addressed the challenges of adopting blockchain for data collection in the automotive industry. This paper allowed us to answer the predefined research question: “What are the challenges of using blockchain for data collection in the automotive industry as presented in the published literature?” The review included articles published from 2017 to January 2022, and from the screened records, 13 articles were analyzed in full-text form. The founded challenges were categorized into seven categories: connectivity, privacy, security attacks, scalability, performance, costs, and monetizing. This review will help researchers, car manufacturers, and third-party suppliers to assess the applicability of the blockchain for data collection.
... Benjamin et al. proposed a distributed storage-based vehicle networking system based on Ethereum to achieve secure communication between vehicles [9]. In the literature [10][11][12], to provide reliable reference and credible data for law enforcement agencies involved in information exchange or traffic accident evidence collection, a distributed data storage is constructed using blockchain technology. According to the literature [13][14][15][16], blockchain distributed storage can enhance the reliability of data, and users in the blockchain system use pseudonyms, which cuts off the connection between user names and their real identities and prevents malicious nodes from obtaining users' real identity. ...
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In this paper, we design a blockchain-based incentive mechanism for the problem of low-level participation of primary users caused by location privacy leakage during spectrum data sharing in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). First, we propose a K -anonymous location protection scheme for multiuser cooperation, which can protect the location privacy of primary users by generalizing their location information through the construction of anonymous areas. Then, we design an incentive mechanism, which performs reporting and adjudication strategy through the transaction stored in blockchain. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme can effectively prevent the privacy leakage of primary users’ location and encourage them to actively participate in spectrum sharing in IoV.
... According to statistics, in recent years the amount of automobiles per person has increased around the world, resulting in delayed vehicle traffic because of the limited capacity of the roads. To steer clear of them, the key purpose should be to encourage efficient usage of car capacity, i.e., people who own vehicles should be advised to make use of them as part of mass transit [8][9]. One of the most extensively used and effective modes of public transportation is the mass transit system. ...
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... The proposed app GreenRide that incentivizes its users via token rewards in Jordan demonstrated how the environmental and economic benefits of decentralization and scalability can be achieved. Li, Zhu, and Lin (2018b) proposed an efficient and privacy-preserving carpooling scheme using blockchainassisted vehicular fog computing to support conditional privacy, one-to-many matching, destination matching, and data auditability. ...
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... Renu and Banik [25] implement the minimum matching algorithm to match the ride-sharing request through the smart contract. Li et al. [26] use the blockchain to assist in fog calculation to store carpool records. Zhang et al. [27] proposed a smart contract-based secure billing protocol to negotiate pick-up location, route, and price in advance. ...
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Ride-sharing services, such as ride-hailing and carpooling, have become attractive travel patterns for worldwide users. Due to the high dynamic topology, heterogeneous wireless communication mode, and centralization, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is much more vulnerable to security issues such as privacy theft, single point of failure, data island, and unauthorized access, resulting in great security risks, while ride-sharing services provide convenience. Blockchain technology used to solve the security problems of the IoV has become a current research hotspot, including authentication and privacy protection. Nevertheless, the existing algorithms still face challenges such as large amount of computation, low throughput, low scalability, consensus, and node security. Achieving an efficient, lightweight, and scalable secure blockchain–based IoV system still needs to be solved urgently. In this paper, we propose an effective consensus algorithm called Modified Proof of Reputation (MPoR). Firstly, by using the average network access time of the whole network nodes as the filtering threshold, the number of consensus nodes can be controlled adaptively. Then, a new multiweight reputation algorithm is proposed to quantify the reputation value of nodes, so as to detect and eliminate malicious nodes in the consensus node pool. Theoretical analysis and extensive simulation experiments reflect that under the IoV scenario, MPoR can adaptively select the number of consensus nodes, to effectively improve the consensus efficiency. When malicious nodes are less than 1/3 of the total nodes in the network, MPoR can effectively resist latent attack and collusive attack and has strong robustness.
... Nonetheless, the paper does not investigate feasibility of the proposal. [31] proposes blockchain-enabled vehicular edge computing for carpooling services whereby one or many passengers share the same car to travel in same direction. A driver or a malicious user may report its locations falsely in that system. ...
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Technical evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) shifts its power, storage, and computational capabilities away from centralized cloud platforms to a decentralized IoT edge. Traditional security policies may not be effective against modification attacks, eavesdropping, distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) because of large attack surface area in IoT where devices cannot have their own ID and cannot keep their privacy and resiliency to the cyber-attacks. Blockchain can support secure, transparent, immutable data and computation-intensive applications such as services for factory automation, assisted living and automotive driving, transportation monitoring and vehicular networks. In addition, for facilitating blockchain applications at low-power mobile IoT systems, mobile edge computing (MEC) can be a convenient alternative for solving consensus protocols for mobile IoT users (offloading to MEC providers). In this chapter, we investigate blockchain-enabled IoT Platforms and solutions for vehicle sensing and transportation monitoring from various aspects. After providing a more general background, we consider vehicular networks and blockchain applications. In a typical vehicular network, large number of vehicles need ultra-reliable, low-latency communications and secure, transparent, immutable data sharing to avoid multiple-vehicle collisions. Therefore, we consider blockchain applications in vehicular networks for more scalable, transparent, and secure Internet of Vehicles (IoV). With 5G of mobile broadband systems, blockchain needs to deal with scalability problems due to a very large number of users in IoV. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be applied with blockchain in connected vehicles in this manner. Implementing AI techniques can provide more scalable, transparent, and secure blockchain applications in vehicular networks. AI techniques also help blockchain achieve privacy and personalization for the users in IoV at the same time. In the sequel, we consider more lightweight protocols for more scalable blockchains. Moreover, we consider the solutions of game-theoretic models to jointly maximize the profit of the MEC service provider and the individual utilities of the miners. Then, we can consider resource-provision problems under different pricing schemes offered by MEC service providers. Finally, we conclude the chapter.
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E-commerce supply chains and their members face risks from cyber-attacks. Consumers who purchase goods online also risk having their private information stolen. Thus, businesses are investing to improve cyber-security at a non-trivial cost. In this paper, we conduct a Stackelberg game theoretical analysis. In the basic model, we first derive the equilibrium pricing and cyber-security level decisions in the e-commerce supply chain. Based on real-world practices, we then explore whether or not governments should impose cyber-security penalty schemes. Our findings show that when the government is characterized by having sufficiently high emphasis on consumer surplus, implementing the penalty scheme is beneficial to social welfare. Then, we extend the analysis to examine how adopting systems security enhancing technologies (such as blockchain) will affect the government's choice of imposing penalty. We uncover that when it is beneficial to have government's penalty scheme, the technology benefit-to-cost ratio is a critical factor which governs whether the optimal penalty will be lower or higher with the adoption of systems security enhancing technologies. To generate more insights, we conduct further analyses for various extended modeling cases (e.g., with alliance, competition, and the defense-level dependent penalty scheme) and find that our main results remain robust. One important insight we have uncovered in this study is that imposing government penalty schemes on cybersecurity issues may do more harm than good; while once it is beneficial to implement, the government should charge the heaviest possible fine. This finding may explain why in the real-world, governments basically always adopt a polarized strategy, i.e., either do not impose penalty or impose a super heavy penalty, on cyber-security issues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The wealth of user data acts as a fuel for network intelligence toward the sixth generation wireless networks (6G). Due to data heterogeneity and dynamics, decentralized data management (DM) is desirable for achieving transparent data operations across network domains, and blockchain can be a promising solution. However, the increasing data volume and stringent data privacy-preservation requirements in 6G bring significantly technical challenge to balance transparency, efficiency, and privacy requirements in decentralized blockchain-based DM. In this paper, we propose blockchain solutions to address the challenge. First, we explore the consensus protocols and scalability mechanisms in blockchains and discuss the roles of DM stakeholders in blockchain architectures. Second, we investigate the authentication and authorization requirements for DM stakeholders. Third, we categorize DM privacy requirements and study blockchain-based mechanisms for collaborative data processing. Subsequently, we present research issues and potential solutions for blockchain-based DM toward 6G from these three perspectives. Finally, we conclude this paper and discuss future research directions.
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Image classification is a classic problem in areas pertaining to Computer Vision, Image Processing, and Machine Learning. This paper aims to compare the various Deep Learning Architectures to improve the accuracy of Image Classification to select the best Deep Learning Architecture by implementing and testing various Deep Learning Architectures in combination with Dense Neural Networks. This comparative study helps to improve the accuracy of image separation in both training and testing databases. For targeted training and testing, 3000 training images and 1000 test images were used. The result of the Deep Learning-based classification of images using the platform as Google Colab showed how accurate classification was done by comparing various deep learning architectures.
Chapter
With the development of smart transportation, ride-hailing applications have become an essential part of people’s lives. These ride-hailing apps provide convenience of contacting taxi for passengers. However, most present ride-hailing or ride-sharing systems rely on a trusted third party. It makes them be attacked vulnerably. A decentralized block-chain-based ride-hailing mode with attribute encryption is proposed in this paper. Attribute-based encryption is applied to ensure the drivers who meet the passenger’s requirements can obtain the passenger’s order in this mode. After the transaction has completed, the transaction information is saved on the blockchain. This mode supports the investigation of historical records via the blockchain technology. Besides, a new payment protocol is used in this mode. The new payment protocol is based on trip distance. It applies smart contract and zero-knowledge set membership proof. The reputation of drivers based on drivers’ past behavior is designed. The driver’s reputation will be updated after the transaction is completed. Passengers can choose a driver with high reputation. Each phase of this mode is simulated in our test net of Ethereum. The results prove that this ride-hailing mode is efficient.KeywordsBlockchainCiphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE)Zero-knowledge proofSmart contractRide-hailing service
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Blockchain technology has taken on a leading position in today’s industrial applications by providing salient features and showing significant performance since its beginning. Blockchain began its journey from the concept of cryptocurrency and is now part of a range of core applications to achieve resilience and automation between various tasks. However, with the integration of Blockchain technology into different industrial applications, many application designs, security, and privacy challenges present themselves, posing serious threats to users and their data. Although several approaches have been proposed to address the specific application, security and privacy challenges of targeted applications with limited security enhancement solutions, there is still a need for a comprehensive research study on the application design, security and privacy challenges, and requirements of Blockchain-based industrial applications, along with possible security threats and countermeasures. This study presents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art survey of Blockchain-based Industry 4.0 applications, focusing on potential application design, security and privacy requirements, as well as corresponding attacks on Blockchain systems with potential countermeasures. We also analyse and provide the classification of security and privacy techniques used in these applications to enhance the advancement of security features. Furthermore, we highlight some open issues of integrating Blockchain technology into industrial applications that help design secure Blockchain-based applications as future directions.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) aims to enable a scenario where smart objects, inserted into information networks, supply smart services for human beings. The introduction of edge computing in IoT can reduce the decision-making latency, save bandwidth resources, and expand the cloud services to be allocated at the network’s edge. However, edge-based IoT systems currently face challenges in their decentralized trust management. Trust management is essential to obtain reliable mining and data fusion, improved user privacy and data security, and provisioning of services with context-awareness. In this survey, we first examine the edge-based IoT architectures currently reported in the literature. Then, a complete review of trust requirements in edge-based IoT systems is produced. Also, we discuss about blockchain as a solution to solve several trust problems in IoT and analyze in detail the correlation between blockchain and edge computing. Finally, we provide a detailed analysis of performance aspects of trusted edge-based IoT systems and recommend promising research directions.
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The concept of smart cities is increasingly gaining prominence in modern metropolises due to the emergence and spread of embedded and connected smart devices, systems, and technologies in everyday lives, which have created an opportunity to connect every ‘thing’ to the Internet. In the upcoming era of the Internet of Things, the Internet of Vehicles (IOV) will play a crucial role in constructing a smart city. In fact, the IOV has a potential to solve various traffic problems effectively. It is critical for enhancing road utilization, reducing energy consumption and pollution, and improving road safety. Nevertheless, the primary issue regarding the IoV, and in particular to Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), is establishing secure and instant payments and communications. To respond to this challenge, this work proposes a Blockchain-based solution for establishing secure payment and communication in order to study the use of Blockchain as middle-ware between different participants of intelligent transportation systems. The proposed framework employs Ethereum to develop a solution aimed at facilitating Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications and payments. Moreover, this work qualitatively test the performance and resilience of the proposed systems against common security attacks. Computational tests showed that the proposed solution solved the main challenges of Vehicle-to-X (V2X) communications such as security and centralization.
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In blockchain-based mobile crowdsensing, reporting of real-time data is stored on a public blockchain in which the address of every user/node is public. Now, the problem lies in the fact that if their addresses get shown to adversaries, all their transactions history is also going to be revealed. Therefore, crowdsensing demands a little privacy preservation strategy in which the identity of a user is unable to be revealed to an adversary or we can say that crowd sensors while reporting the real-time data must provide some level of anonymity to crowdsensing users/nodes [1]. The current crowdsensing architecture is not secure because of its centralized nature and the reason is a single point of failure also numerous kinds of attacks are possible by adversaries such as linkage attacks, Sybil attacks, and DDOS attacks to get the identity or any other valuable information about the nodes. The location of crowd sensors is also a threat that could lead to adversarial attacks. Consequently, some blockchain-based models must be proposed to attain privacy on the blockchain ledger. The solution can either be made up crowdsensing environment on a private blockchain or smart contracts may be the answer to this problem by which we can make the users secure from several attacks conducted by adversaries on the blockchain.
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Le concept de villes intelligentes gagne de plus en plus en importance dans les métropoles modernes en raison de l’émergence et de la diffusion d’appareils, de systèmes et de technologies intelligents embarqués et connectés dans la vie quotidienne, qui ont créé l’opportunité de connecter chaque “chose" à Internet. Dans l'ère à venir de l'Internet des objets, l'Internet des véhicules (IoV) jouera un rôle crucial dans la construction d'une ville intelligente. En fait, l'IoV a le potentiel de résoudre efficacement divers problèmes de trafic. Il est essentiel pour améliorer l'utilisation des routes, réduire la consommation d'énergie et la pollution et améliorer la sécurité routière. Néanmoins, le principal problème concernant l'IoV, et en particulier le Véhicule-à-Véhicule (V2V) et le Véhicule-à-infrastructure (V2I), est l'établissement de paiements et de communications sécurisés et instantanés. Pour répondre à ce défi, ce travail propose une solution basée sur la Blockchain pour mettre en place un paiement et une communication sécurisés afin d'étudier l'utilisation de la Blockchain comme middleware entre différents acteurs des systèmes de transport intelligents.Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les propriétés les plus importantes de la solution développée, à savoir la consommation de la mémoire et de l’énergie, l’immutabilité, la confidentialité, la cohérence, l’intégrité, le temps d’exécution et le coût. L’objet de cette évaluation est de vérifier la capacité de la plateforme basée sur la Blockchain à assurer une communication efficace et un paiement sécurisé avec l’IoV. Selon les résultats, cette plateforme peut contribuer à résoudre les défis les plus critiques de la communication véhicule-à-tout (V2X) en améliorant la sécurité et l’évolutivité.
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Blockchain-based systems, coined by distributed ledger technologies (DLTs), have rapidly received tremendous interest from academia, industries, and governments. Recent literature has revealed many research and developments on applying DLTs to the Internet of things (IoT), cloud-edge computing. In this survey, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the newly appeared concepts, theories, platforms, and DLTs-facilitated applications of vehicular networks and mobile edge computing (MEC). We also review the selections of the available DLTs related platforms and tools. Future research directions and issues are discussed, including security, privacy, scalability issues, and multiple applications in various domains.
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The smart logistics market is expected to grow worth USD +3314 Million and at a Compound Annual Growth Rate of +82%. Smart logistics ensure intelligence infrastructure, logistics automation, real-time analysis of supply chain data synchronization of the logistics process, cost transparency, unbroken shipment tracking all the way down to the transportation route, etc. In the smart logistics domain, a significant advancement and growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) sensors are evident. But on the other hand, connectivity of IoT systems including Tactile Internet without proper safeguards creates vulnerabilities that can still be deliberately or inadvertently cause disruption. In view of this, primarily we notice two key issues. Firstly, the logistics domain can be compromised from a variety of natural or man-made activities which eventually affects the overall network security. Secondly, there are thousands of entities in the supply chain network that use extensive machine-learning algorithms in many scenarios and they require high power computational resources. From these two challenges, we note that the first concern can be addressed by adding Blockchain in IoT logistics networks. The second issue can be addressed using 6G. This will support 1-μs latency communications, support seamless computing at the edges of networks and autonomously predict the best optimal location for edge computing. Motivated from this, we have highlighted motivational examples to show the necessities to integrate 6G and Blockchain in smart logistic networks. Secondly, we have proposed a 6G and Blockchain-enabled smart logistic high-level framework. We have presented the key intrinsic issues of this framework mainly from the security and resource management context. In this paper, recent state-of-the-arts advances in Blockchain Enabled Next-Generation Smart Logistic Network are analyzed. We have also examined why 6G and not 5G would be compatible with the smart network. We have introduced five different use cases of blockchain technology in smart logistics. Later, this paper discusses some important concerns that blockchain in smart logistics might face. We have also provided potential solutions to tackle these concerns.
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) is changing every technology we are used to deal with. Autonomy has long been a sought-after goal in vehicles, and now more than ever we are very close to that goal. Big auto manufacturers as well are investing billions of dollars to produce Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). This new technology has the potential to provide more safety for passengers, less crowded roads, congestion alleviation, optimized traffic, fuel-saving, less pollution as well as enhanced travel experience among other benefits. But this new paradigm shift comes with newly introduced privacy issues and security concerns. Vehicles before were dumb mechanical devices, now they are becoming smart, computerized, and connected. They collect huge troves of information, which needs to be protected from breaches. In this work, we investigate security challenges and privacy concerns in AVs. We examine different attacks launched in a layer-based approach. We conceptualize the architecture of AVs in a four-layered model. Then, we survey security and privacy attacks and some of the most promising countermeasures to tackle them. Our goal is to shed light on the open research challenges in the area of AVs as well as offer directions for future research.
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Vehicular clouds are considered as an attractive approach because vehicles collaborate using their resources to create value-added services such as safety and entertainment applications. To do this, numerous studies have proposed schemes to construct vehicular clouds among vehicles. However, since vehicles freely move, member vehicles within a vehicular cloud leave the cloud before the end of the cloud service and then the vehicular cloud could be destructed. Thus, a cloud member replacement process is required to substitute the leaving member vehicles with new member vehicles to reconstruct the vehicular cloud. Up to now, the research on cloud member replacement has had little interest and is still in its early stage. Therefore, we propose two partial Cloud Member Replacement(CMR) schemes for reconstructing a vehicular cloud: reactive and proactive. The partial reactive CMR scheme replaces a new member vehicle to reconstruct the vehicular cloud whenever a cloud member leaves and the vehicular cloud is destructed. On the other hand, the partial proactive CMR scheme recognizes all of the leaving member vehicles and replaces them with new member vehicles in advance before the destruction of the vehicular cloud. We first describe the partial reactive and proactive cloud member replacement schemes and next analyze their properties, respectively. Simulation results show that the partial reactive and proactive cloud member replacement schemes achieve better performance than the existing scheme, and they have a tradeoff between them on performance.
Chapter
Blockchain is quickly becoming one the most useful data security standard for cloud computing. This is due to the fact that blockchain systems possess immutability, transparency, traceability and distributed computing capabilities, which makes them highly usable in cloud environments. Cloud deployments essentially consist of distributed virtual machines (VMs), thereby assisting in blockchain implementation. Blockchains can be coupled with data privacy models like t-closeness, m-privacy, l-diversity, etc. for enhancing their security performance. But due to a wide variety of algorithmic models available for both blockchains and privacy preservation, it is difficult for researchers and security experts to select the most optimum models and their combinations for efficient system security. Thus, this text initially reviews a wide variety of blockchain implementations, and discusses their advantages, limitations, and future prospects. This is accompanied with a detailed discussion about data privacy models, and their characteristics. Following these discussions, this text compares these models in terms of performance metrics including computational delay, security level, application, and scalability. This comparison will assist researchers and cloud security experts to identify the best models and their combinations suited for their deployments. It is observed that blockchain and privacy preservation models when combined with machine learning techniques like Genetic optimization, neural networks, fuzzy rules, etc. outperform their counterparts. Furthermore, this text also recommends various proven fusion combinations, which can be used in order to improve cloud security without compromising on quality of service (QoS) parameters.KeywordsBlockchainCloud computingPrivacy preservationDeep learningBlockchain modelsFuzzySecurityAttacksQoSModelsCloud deployment
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To achieve the goal of carbon neutrality, many countries have established regional carbon emission trading markets and tried to build a low-carbon economic system. At present, the implementation of carbon emission trading and low-carbon economic systems faces many challenges such as manipulation, corruption, opacity, lack of trust, and lack of data tracking means. The application of blockchain technology can perfectly solve the above problems. However, the data recorded on a blockchain are often multi-type and heterogeneous, and users at different levels such as regulators, enterprises, and consumers have different requirements for data types and granularity. This requires a quick and trustworthy method for monitoring the carbon footprint of enterprises and products. In this paper, the carbon footprint traceability of enterprises and products is taken as an application scenario, and the distributed traceability concept of “traceability off the chain and verification on the chain” is adopted. By reconstructing the pointer of the file structure of the distributed storage, an interactive traceability structure supporting type filtering is constructed, which enables fast retrieval and locating of carbon emission data in the mixed data on the chain. The experimental results show that using the interactive traceability structure that supports type filtering for traceability not only releases the computing power of full nodes but also greatly improves the traceability efficiency of the long-span transaction chain. The proposed carbon footprint traceability system can rapidly trace and track data on an enterprise’s and a product’s carbon footprint, as well as meet the needs of users at all levels for traceability. It also offers more advantages when handling large amounts of data requests.
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The use of Blockchain technology has recently become widespread. It has emerged as an essential tool in various academic and industrial fields, such as healthcare, transportation, finance, cybersecurity, and supply chain management. It is regarded as a decentralized, trustworthy, secure, transparent, and immutable solution that innovates data sharing and management. This survey aims to provide a systematic review of Blockchain application to intelligent transportation systems in general and the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) in particular. The survey is divided into four main parts. First, the Blockchain technology including its opportunities, relative taxonomies, and applications is introduced; basic cryptography is also discussed. Next, the evolution of Blockchain is presented, starting from the primary phase of pre-Bitcoin (fundamentally characterized by classic cryptography systems), followed by the Blockchain 1.0 phase, (characterized by Bitcoin implementation and common consensus protocols), and finally, the Blockchain 2.0 phase (characterized by the implementation of smart contracts, Ethereum, and Hyperledger). We compared and identified the strengths and limitations of each of these implementations. Then, the state of the art of Blockchain-based IoV solutions (BIoV) is explored by referring to a large and trusted source database from the Scopus data bank. For a well-structured and clear discussion, the reviewed literature is classified according to the research direction and implemented IoV layer. Useful tables, statistics, and analysis are also presented. Finally, the open problems and future directions in BIoV research are summarized.
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We present “Ouroboros”, the first blockchain protocol based on proof of stake with rigorous security guarantees. We establish security properties for the protocol comparable to those achieved by the bitcoin blockchain protocol. As the protocol provides a “proof of stake” blockchain discipline, it offers qualitative efficiency advantages over blockchains based on proof of physical resources (e.g., proof of work). We also present a novel reward mechanism for incentivizing Proof of Stake protocols and we prove that, given this mechanism, honest behavior is an approximate Nash equilibrium, thus neutralizing attacks such as selfish mining.
Conference Paper
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Smart contracts are programs that execute autonomously on blockchains. Their key envisioned uses (e.g. financial instruments) require them to consume data from outside the blockchain (e.g. stock quotes). Trustworthy data feeds that support a broad range of data requests will thus be critical to smart contract ecosystems. We present an authenticated data feed system called Town Crier (TC). TC acts as a bridge between smart contracts and existing web sites, which are already commonly trusted for non-blockchain applications. It combines a blockchain front end with a trusted hardware back end to scrape HTTPS-enabled websites and serve source-authenticated data to relying smart contracts. TC also supports confidentiality. It enables private data requests with encrypted parameters. Additionally, in a generalization that executes smart-contract logic within TC, the system permits secure use of user credentials to scrape access-controlled online data sources. We describe TC's design principles and architecture and report on an implementation that uses Intel's recently introduced Software Guard Extensions (SGX) to furnish data to the Ethereum smart contract system. We formally model TC and define and prove its basic security properties in the Universal Composibility (UC) framework. Our results include definitions and techniques of general interest relating to resource consumption (Ethereum's "gas" fee system) and TCB minimization. We also report on experiments with three example applications. We plan to launch TC soon as an online public service.
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Ride sharing can reduce the number of vehicles in the streets by increasing the occupancy of vehicles, which can facilitate traffic and reduce crashes and the number of needed parking slots. Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) can make ride sharing convenient, popular, and also necessary because of the elimination of the driver effort and the expected high cost of the vehicles. However, the organization of ride sharing requires the users to disclose sensitive detailed information not only on the pick-up/drop-off locations but also on the trip time and route. In this paper, we propose a scheme to organize ride sharing and address the unique privacy issues. Our scheme uses a similarity measurement technique over encrypted data to preserve the privacy of trip data. The ride sharing region is divided into cells and each cell is represented by one bit in a binary vector. Each user should represent trip data as binary vectors and submit the encryptions of the vectors to a server. The server can measure the similarity of the users' trip data and find users who can share rides without knowing the data. Our analysis has demonstrated that the proposed scheme can organize ride sharing without disclosing private information. We have implemented our scheme using Visual C on a real map and the measurements have confirmed that our scheme is effective when ride sharing becomes popular and the server needs to organize a large number of rides in short time.
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Privacy has been the key road block to cloud computing as clouds may not be fully trusted. This paper concerns the problem of privacy preserving range query processing on clouds. Prior schemes are weak in privacy protection as they cannot achieve index indistinguishability, and therefore allow the cloud to statistically estimate the values of data and queries using domain knowledge and history query results. In this paper, we propose the first range query processing scheme that achieves index indistinguishability under the indistinguishability against chosen keyword attack (INDCKA). Our key idea is to organize indexing elements in a complete binary tree called PBtree, which satisfies structure indistinguishability (i.e., two sets of data items have the same PBtree structure if and only if the two sets have the same number of data items) and node indistinguishability (i.e., the values of PBtree nodes are completely random and have no statistical meaning). We prove that our scheme is secure under the widely adopted IND-CKA security model. We propose two algorithms, namely PBtree traversal width minimization and PBtree traversal depth minimization, to improve query processing efficiency. We prove that the worse case complexity of our query processing algorithm using PBtree is O(|R| log n), where n is the total number of data items and R is the set of data items in the query result. We implemented and evaluated our scheme on a real world data set with 5 million items. For example, for a query whose results contain ten data items, it takes only 0.17 milliseconds.
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We address the carpooling problem as a graph-theoretic problem. If the set of drivers is known in advance, then for any car capacity, the problem is equivalent to the assignment problem in bipartite graphs. Otherwise, when we do not know in advance who will drive their vehicle and who will be a passenger, the problem is NP-hard. We devise and implement quick heuristics for both cases, based on graph algorithms, as well as parallel algorithms based on geometric/algebraic approach. We compare between the algorithms on random graphs, as well as on real, very large, data.
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A location proximity test service allows mobile users to determine whether they are in close proximity to each other, and has found numerous applications in mobile social networks. Unfortunately, existing solutions usually reveal much of users' private location information during a proximity test. They are also vulnerable to location cheating where an attacker reports false locations to gain an advantage. Moreover, the initial trust establishment among unfamiliar users in large scale mobile social networks has been a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme that enables a user to perform (1) a location based handshake that establishes secure communications among strangers, who do not have a pre-shared secret, and (2) a privacy-preserving proximity test without revealing the user's actual location to the server or other users not within the proximity. The proposed scheme is based on a novel concept, i.e., spatial-temporal location tags, and we put forward a location tag construction method using environmental signals that provides an unforgeable location proof. We use Bloom filters to efficiently represent users' location tags and vicinity regions. We exploit fuzzy extractor, a lightweight cryptographic primitive, to extract shared secrets between matching location tags. We conduct extensive analysis, simulation, and real experiments to demonstrate the feasibility, security, and efficiency of our scheme.
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Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have recently received significant attention in improving traffic safety and efficiency. However, communication trust and user privacy still present practical concerns to the deployment of VANETs, as many existing authentication protocols for VANETs either suffer from the heavy workload of downloading the latest revocation list from a remote authority or cannot allow drivers on the road to decide the trustworthiness of a message when the authentication on messages is anonymous. In this paper, to cope with these challenging concerns, we propose a new authentication protocol for VANETs in a decentralized group model by using a new group signature scheme. With the assistance of the new group signature scheme, the proposed authentication protocol is featured with threshold authentication, efficient revocation, unforgeability, anonymity, and traceability. In addition, the assisting group signature scheme may also be of independent interest, as it is characterized by efficient traceability and message linkability at the same time. Extensive analyses indicate that our proposed threshold anonymous authentication protocol is secure, and the verification of messages among vehicles can be accelerated by using batch message processing techniques.
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Carpooling taxicab services hold the promise of providing additional transportation supply, especially in the extreme weather or rush hour when regular taxicab services are insufficient. Although many recommendation systems about regular taxicab services have been proposed recently, little research, if any, has been done to assist passengers to find a successful taxicab ride with carpooling. In this paper, we present the first systematic work to design a unified recommendation system for both the regular and carpooling services, called CallCab, based on a data-driven approach. In response to a passenger's real-time request, CallCab aims to recommend either: 1) a vacant taxicab for a regular service with no detour or 2) an occupied taxicab heading to the similar direction for a carpooling service with the minimum detour, yet without assuming any knowledge of destinations of passengers already in taxicabs. To analyze these unknown destinations of occupied taxicabs, CallCab generates and refines taxicab trip distributions based on GPS data sets and context information collected in the existing taxicab infrastructure. To improve CallCab's efficiency to process such a big data set, we augment the efficient MapReduce model with a Measure phase tailored for our CallCab. Finally, we design a reciprocal price mechanism to facilitate the taxicab carpooling implementation in the real world. We evaluate CallCab with a real-world data set of 14000 taxicabs, and results show that compared with the ground truth, CallCab reduces 60% of the total mileage to deliver all passengers and 41% of passenger's waiting time. Our price mechanism reduces 23% of passengers' fares and increases 28% of drivers' profits simultaneously.
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In smart grid, control center collects and aggregates users' electricity data via the smart meters. The aggregated data is also of great use for markets. To efficiently and securely distribute these data to markets, the existing schemes use Attribute-based Encryption (ABE) technique to achieve privacy preservation of sensitive data and fine-grained access control. However, the efficient attribute revocation problem has not been studied well. In this paper, leveraging the Third Party Auditor and Ciphertext-Policy ABE techniques, we propose a Multi-Authority Access Control with Efficient Attribute Revocation (MAAC-AR) scheme in smart grid. Security analysis demonstrates that MAAC-AR can achieve fine-grained access control, collusion resistance, privacy preservation and secure attribute revocation. Performance evaluation shows that MAAC-AR is more efficient compared with the existing schemes in terms of functionality as well as computation, communication and storage overhead.
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Bitcoin is the first e-cash system to see widespread adoption. While Bitcoin offers the potential for new types of financial interaction, it has significant limitations regarding privacy. Specifically, because the Bitcoin transaction log is completely public, users' privacy is protected only through the use of pseudonyms. In this paper we propose Zerocoin, a cryptographic extension to Bitcoin that augments the protocol to allow for fully anonymous currency transactions. Our system uses standard cryptographic assumptions and does not introduce new trusted parties or otherwise change the security model of Bitcoin. We detail Zerocoin's cryptographic construction, its integration into Bitcoin, and examine its performance both in terms of computation and impact on the Bitcoin protocol.
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Crowdsourcing provides un precedented new opportunities for people to share their knowledge and observations with the rest of the world. And because of their relatively high cost and low scale, more conventional, centralized means of data collection are being displaced by crowdsourced alternatives. To this point, attempts to pollute user contributed data have been rare, but this seems unlikely to remain true for long. Thus, security re searchers and practitioners alike must strive to develop better techniques and tools to help verify the authenticity of the data on which we increasingly rely.
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Ride-sharing has often been cited as a successful method to reduce congestion and green house gas emissions. This paper examines the patterns of ride-sharing, in Dublin, and estimates the environmental benefits of ride-sharing both in terms of reductions in emissions and the vehicle kilometres travelled. Data from the 2006 Census of Ireland is used to examine the travel patterns of those that ride-share. The COPERT4 model is used in this paper to estimate the CO2 emissions saved by ride-sharing.
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A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
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Location is rapidly becoming the next “killer application ” as location-enabled mobile handheld devices proliferate. One class of applications that has yet-to-emerge are those in which users have an incentive to lie about their location. These applications cannot rely solely on the users ’ devices to discover and transmit location information because users have an incentive to cheat. Instead, such applications require their users to prove their locations. Unfortunately, today’s mobile users lack a mechanism to prove their current or past locations. Consequently, these applications have yet to take off despite their potential. This paper presents location proofs – a simple mechanism that enables the emergence of mobile applications that require “proof” of a user’s location. A location proof is a piece of data that certifies a receiver to a geographical location. Location proofs are handed out by the wireless infrastructure (e.g., a Wi-Fi access point or a cell tower) to mobile devices. The relatively short range of the wireless radios ensures that these devices are in physical proximity to the wireless transmitter. As a result, these devices are capable of proving their current or past locations to mobile applications. In this paper, we start by describing a mechanism to implement location proofs. We then present a set of six future applications that require location proofs to enable their core functionality. 1.
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Automation of the way we pay for goods and services is already underway, as can be seen by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to consumers. The ultimate structure of the new electronic payments system may have a substantial impact on personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of payments. Ideally a new payments system should address both of these seemingly conflicting sets of concerns.
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Many networking applications require fast state lookups in a concurrent state machine, which tracks the state of a large number of flows simultaneously. We consider the question of how to compactly represent such concurrent state machines. To achieve compactness, we consider data structures for Ap- proximate Concurrent State Machines (ACSMs) that can return false positives, false negatives, or a "don't know" re- sponse. We describe three techniques based on Bloom filters and hashing, and evaluate them using both theoretical anal- ysis and simulation. Our analysis leads us to an extremely efficient hashing-based scheme with several parameters that can be chosen to trade off space, computation, and the im- pact of errors. Our hashing approach also yields a simple alternative structure with the same functionality as a count- ing Bloom filter that uses much less space. We show how ACSMs can be used for video congestion control. Using an ACSM, a router can implement sophis- ticated Active Queue Management (AQM) techniques for video traffic (without the need for standards changes to mark packets or change video formats), with a factor of four reduction in memory compared to full-state schemes and with very little error. We also show that ACSMs show promise for real-time detection of P2P traffic.
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