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The effect of food-related stimuli on inhibition in high vs. low restrained eaters

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... Thus, studying response inhibition among healthy individuals with restrained eating may shed light on the phenomenon, independently of comorbid psychopathologies and physical complications that are commonly associated with eating disorders. Imbalanced activation of response inhibition was also reported in nonclinical samples of restrained eaters [16][17][18]. For example, in a previous study, we showed that restrained eaters were better at inhibiting a response following exposure to palatable food images compared to non-food images [18]. ...
... Imbalanced activation of response inhibition was also reported in nonclinical samples of restrained eaters [16][17][18]. For example, in a previous study, we showed that restrained eaters were better at inhibiting a response following exposure to palatable food images compared to non-food images [18]. However, when being exposed to neutral non-food stimuli, restrained eaters' response inhibition abilities were poorer compared to that of unrestrained eaters [18]. ...
... For example, in a previous study, we showed that restrained eaters were better at inhibiting a response following exposure to palatable food images compared to non-food images [18]. However, when being exposed to neutral non-food stimuli, restrained eaters' response inhibition abilities were poorer compared to that of unrestrained eaters [18]. This pattern suggests that a strong activation of response inhibition following exposure to food stimuli may support restrained eaters' goal to reduce food consumption. ...
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Restrained eaters display difficulties engaging in self-control in the presence of food. Undergoing cognitive training to form associations between palatable food and response inhibition was found to improve self-control and influence eating behaviors. The present study assessed the impact of two such response inhibition trainings on food consumption, food-related anxiety, and implicit attitudes toward food among female restrained eaters (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire-restrained eating subscale ≥ 2.5). In Experiment 1, 64 restrained eaters completed either one of two training procedures in which they were asked to classify food vs. non-food images: a food-response training, in which stop cues were always associated with non-food images, or a balanced food-response/inhibition training, in which participants inhibited motor actions to food and non-food stimuli equally. The results revealed reduced snack consumption following the food-response/inhibition training compared to the food-response training. The food-response training was associated with increased levels of food-related anxiety. In Experiment 2, the same training procedures were administered to 47 restrained eaters, and implicit attitudes toward palatable foods were assessed. The results revealed an increase in positive implicit attitudes toward palatable foods in the food-response/inhibition group but not in the food-response training group. The results suggest that balancing response inhibition and execution across food and non-food stimuli may reduce overeating while retaining positive attitudes toward food among female restrained eaters.
... A power analysis using G*Power (Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, & Buchner, 2007) revealed that a total of 56 participants are required in order to assess within-between variables interactions (i.e., Food type X Group) with a power > 80% and a-priori alpha set at p = .05 using effect size estimate of η 2 p = 0.13 which was based on a previous study that used a similar task with a sample of adults with restricted eating (Ganor-Moscovitz, Weinbach, Canetti, & Kalanthroff, 2018). Cohen's d and partial eta squared are reported for effect sizes. ...
... That is, only attempting to restrict eating does not necessarily lead to superior inhibition in response to food. Furthermore, several studies that assessed response inhibition in response to food stimuli in healthy individuals who are high or low on a restricted eating scale did not show a difference between the groups in response inhibition following exposure to high-calorie foods (Ganor-Moscovitz et al., 2018;Nederkoorn, Van Eijs, & Jansen, 2004). Thus, it seems that the potential for exerting stronger activation of response inhibition is likely a unique feature in AN-R that can be triggered by specific environmental cues like high-calorie foods. ...
... Those with low inhibitory control ate more high-calorie foods and had a higher body weight than those with high inhibitory control [22]. However, previous studies mainly focused on people with restrictive diets [25] or eating disorders[26], patients who were overweight or obese [27], etc., and rarely involved people with chronic diseases that require long-term strict dietary management, such as diabetes. To the best of our knowledge, only one study has reported the relationship between dietary compliance and inhibitory control among T2DM patients [28]. ...
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Background For patients with T2DM, dietary control is a basic treatment which must be adhered to for a lifetime. However, the dietary compliance situation among patients with T2DM is not optimistic. Inhibitory control, as the key component of self-control,may be a potentially important influencing factor of dietary compliance. However, recent research on this topic is quite limited; therefore, further research is necessary. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between inhibitory control and dietary compliance among patients with T2DM based on subjective and objective measures. Methods A total of 393 patients with T2DM were enrolled consecutively from the endocrinology departments of three tertiary hospitals in China. Participants completed the Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Dietary Behavior Compliance Scale for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales with 21 items (DASS-21), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Among them, 105 subjects completed the stop signal task,and 101 completed the Stroop task. The relationship between inhibitory control and dietary compliance was analyzed. Results Regarding results related to subjective measures, the t score of inhibitory control was negatively correlated with dietary compliance (r=-0.287, p<0.05). Regarding results related to objective measures, SSRT was significantly negatively correlated with carbohydrate and fat compliance behavior (r=-0.239, p<0.05). The conflict effect was significantly negatively correlated with two dimensions: oil and salt compliance behavior (r=-0.214, p<0.05) and carbohydrate and fat compliance behavior (r=-0.291, p<0.05).The conflict score was significantly negatively correlated with dietary compliance (r=-0.216, p<0.05) and carbohydrate and fat compliance behavior (r=-0.309, p<0.05). Conclusions The different aspects of inhibitory control were significantly associated with dietary compliance among patients with T2DM. In the future, we can consider improving the dietary compliance of patients with T2DM based on inhibitory control training.
... Thus, the restraint scale rather measures unsuccessful dieting [68] which is in line with our result of heightened BMI in the RE group. In contrast to this group of cognitive RE, response inhibition to food-cues in successful dieters according to the EDEQ subscale was actually increased [69]. Accordingly, to select an at-risk analogue sample for overeating and obesity, the restraint scale actually identified individuals with less effective response inhibition, which mirrors behavioural results from the SST in overweight and Anodal tDCS in Satiated RE 22 obese samples [70]. ...
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Objectives: Eating and weight disorders are severe and complex clinical conditions which, among other behaviors, include (attempts at) restrained eating, food avoidance, following dietary rules, and overeating. Comparable to women with obesity, restrained eaters (RE) without formal eating disorder diagnosis are worse at inhibiting their motor responses than unrestrained eaters (URE). According to neuroimaging studies, the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) is involved in inhibitory control which, in turn, could be improved by neuromodulation such as anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) across rIFG. Methods: This double-blind sham-controlled cross-over study was conducted after a standardized breakfast. Normal-weight female RE und URE performed a stop-signal task (SST) with food and non-food stimuli during sham or anodal tDCS. Food craving, hunger, and satiety were self-reported before and after tDCS. We employed a mixed between-subjects (group: RE vs. URE) and within-subjects factorial design (tDCS: anodal tDCS vs. sham; stimuli: food vs. control pictures). Results: Breakfast consumption was comparable for RE and URE, as well as craving, hunger, and thirst. Regarding inhibitory control, a significant two-way interaction between group and tDCS ermerged: RE had longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs) during sham tDCS, but they improved to the level of URE by application of anodal tDCS. Discussion: Results replicated an inhibitory control deficit in RE with longer SSRTs compared to URE without stimulation. During anodal tDCS to the rIFG, reduced SSRTs in RE indicated an improvement in inhibitory control. The findings suggest a specificity of rIFG stimulation in at-risk groups with regards to inhibitory control irrespective of craving.
... A power analysis using G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, Buchner, & Lang, 2009) indicated that, following the results obtained in previous studies that used a similar inhibitory task (Ganor-Moscovitz, Weinbach, Canetti, & Kalanthroff, 2018;Weinbach, Lock, & Bohon, 2020), a sample of 19 participants was sufficient to assess the effect of three within-(which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. ...
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The metabolic and cognitive systems interact to create the motivational drive that occasionally leads to disrupted consummatory eating behaviors. In this study, we investigated whether stimulus-specific alterations of the inhibitory function are present following a period of food deprivation. Twenty-six participants with normal weight performed the Stop Signal Task (SST) and the Go/No-go (GNG) task to measure response inhibition to food images containing high or low caloric content after following –or not- a 12-hour fasting period. Response inhibition performance in the SST did not exhibit significant differences when considering neither fasting, stimulus type nor food caloric content. We instead found a higher percentage of commission errors in the No-go trials of the GNG task in the fasting session, and specially with high-caloric food items. In contrast, the accuracy in the Go trials was similar between conditions. A mixed logistic regression model confirmed the remarkable impact of fasting on the performance of response inhibition. Overall, our findings support an interpretation of the motivational drive to eat strongly associated with aspects of the inhibitory function underlying high attentional control, rather than to a proper response inhibition per se.
... One is that food-related stimuli are easier to memorize than neutral stimuli; hence, it may hold a privilege in terms of encoding and retrieval. From the perspective of evolution, as a necessity for survival, food-related stimuli are prioritised in cognitive processing (Ganor-Moscovitz, Weinbach, Canetti, & Kalanthroff, 2018;Zhou et al., 2017). Another interpretation could be that food-related stimuli are more intrusive for restrained eaters; hence, the suppression effect is less effective for food-related words than object words, as used in previous research. ...
Article
Negative mood has been found to be a critical trigger for overeating in restrained eaters. The ability to suppress thinking of palatable food cues is crucial to control hedonic eating; nevertheless, little research has been conducted to explore inhibitory control in cognitive processes among restrained eaters. To address this gap, this study primed restrained eaters with negative (n = 23) or neutral emotions (n = 24) and applied a Think/No-think paradigm to explore their retrieval facilitation/suppression ability for food cues, while recording Electroencephalogram (EEG) data. Results indicated that the recall rate of the No-think condition (retrieval suppressing task) was higher than the Think condition (retrieval task). Negative affect did not influence the recall rate, but it did evoke smaller N2 amplitudes, larger P2 and P3 amplitudes, as well as late positive component (LPC) amplitudes. Among these components, P2 evoked by the No-think and Think conditions was larger than the perceptual control condition. Our findings suggested that in negative moods, restrained eaters need to allocate more attentional resources to suppress food cues. The findings further demonstrated that the influence of negative moods appeared at an early stage of cognitive processing and caused a resource depletion in memory suppression. This research provides a neurophysiological basis for understanding emotional influences on the process of restrained eaters’ inhibition control for external food cues.
... Further, heightened attention bias may not improve associative learning for HP food universally, but whether it improves or decreases inhibitory control for food may be dependent on individual eating restraint. For example, research using Stop-Signal tasks showed that food images improved inhibitory responses in individuals with high levels of dietary restraint, but had detrimental effects on inhibitory control in individuals with low levels of dietary restraint (Ganor-Moscovitz, Weinbach, Canetti, & Kalanthroff, 2018). Therefore, future studies might focus on how long-term Go/No-go training with multiple sessions affects attention bias over time, how changes in attention bias interact with overarching self-regulatory strategies to avoid temptation, and who might benefit from these changes in HP food attention bias. ...
Article
Objective: The current research evaluated whether Go/No-go training for highly palatable (HP) food affected attention bias for HP food (an automatic/implicit outcome) and intention to eat unhealthy food (a controlled/explicit outcome). Method: A sample of Australian adults representative for age, gender and Body Mass Index (BMI) (N = 561, Mage = 46.31 years, SD = 16.75, 52.3% women, MBMI = 27.11, SD = 6.34) completed self-report measures of dietary psychological constructs and food image modified Stroop tasks as measures of pre- and post-test attention bias for HP food. After random assignment of participants to two conditions, a Go/No-go intervention was used to train HP food targeted inhibitory control in the experimental group, or general inhibitory control in the control group. All research tasks were delivered online. Results: The experimental, HP food inhibitory control training group reported intention to eat less unhealthy food than the control group, F(1, 637) = 4.81, R2 = .09, p = .029. Counter to expectations, the experimental group exhibited a heightened attention bias to HP food images after the training, F(1, 637) = 9.48, R2 = .39, p = .002. Conclusion: Go/No-go training for food may improve both top-down and bottom-up inhibitory control, using both automatic and controlled processes. Further, it may not be effective in lowering attention bias for HP food, but may be effective in lowering unhealthy food intake despite raising attention bias for HP food. Further research that tests these effects using varied reaction time tasks is needed to confirm these results and to explore possible alternative explanations.
... 23 Moreover, one study has also revealed that there is no difference in food-related inhibitory control between S-REs and US-REs when the self-control resources are non-depleted, while US-REs show a decrease in food-related inhibitory control after ego depletion. 27 Most recently, Ganor-Moscovitz, Weinbach, Canetti, Kalanthroff 28 found that high REs were better able than low REs to inhibit a response following the presentation of food compared to non-food stimuli. In contrast, low REs were better than high REs at inhibiting a response following non-food compared to food stimuli. ...
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Background: Restraint dieting is a key step in the avoidance of obesity and other eating problems, but why some restraint eaters (REs) succeed and some fail in dieting is unknown. The difference between successful REs (S-REs) and unsuccessful REs (US-REs) is still unknown. This is the first study to compare the fMRI reactivity among US-REs, S-REs and unrestrained eaters (UREs) in a food-related Go/NoGo paradigm. Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural responses corresponding to the success of dieting in REs. Eighteen S-REs, 17 US-REs and 17 UREs were asked to perform a Go/No-Go task after being shown pictures of either high-caloric or low-caloric food. Results: fMRI results revealed stronger activations for high-caloric food in areas associated with executive function and inhibition (i.e., middle frontal gyrus and cerebellum) among S-REs than among US-REs. In contrast, both US-REs and UREs showed stronger activations for low-caloric food in reward areas (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)) than S-REs. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that food temptations may trigger processes of successful inhibition control in S-REs, whereas US-REs may fail in resisting the attraction to high-caloric food, thereby showing a high probability of overeating.
... Stimulus-driven behaviors are triggered by the specific stimuli with which they are associated (Monsell, 2003;Waszak et al., 2003;Koch and Allport, 2006;Reuss et al., 2011;Ganor-Moscovitz et al., 2018;Hochman et al., 2018). This concept has been widely investigated outside the scope of the taskcontrol framework, and it echoes the findings of instrumental conditioning in animal studies: After an association between a stimulus and an action was established, animals were shown to keep responding to the stimulus even when it no longer predicted a reward and demonstrated spontaneous recovery of the stimulus-response (S-R) association even after undergoing extinction (Graham and Gagné, 1940;Guttman, 1953;Skinner, 1953;Rescorla, 1993;Bouton, 2004). ...
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G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
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In this article I propose that cognitive inhibition is a key mechanism in the regulation of emotion and that deficits in inhibition of negative material are related to increased risk for depression. Because negative mood yields activation of mood-congruent cognitions in working memory (WM), the ability to control the contents of WM could be crucial in differentiating people who recover easily from negative affect from those who initiate a vicious cycle of increasingly negative thinking and deepening sad mood. Depressed people and people at risk for depression have trouble preventing negative material from entering and remaining in WM, leading them to rehearse, or to ruminate about, negative content. Inhibition deficits may also interfere with reappraisal and the recall of mood-incongruent material, further hindering recovery from negative affect. This article provides a brief summary of findings that support these propositions and outlines implications for future research on the relation between inhibition and emotion regulation and its role in depression.
Article
In this article we examine alleged conceptual and psychometric deficiencies of the Restraint Scale, an instrument intended to identify chronic dieters. These deficiencies include the confounding of restraint with disinhibition, the inapplicability of the scale to obese samples, problems with the factor structure of the scale, and difficulties in completing the scale. We argue that these alleged deficiencies are in most cases chimerical and that the Restraint Scale remains the most useful tool for examining behavioral and other dieter/nondieter differences. Proposed alternatives to the Restraint Scale are examined and found to be inadequate as replacements, although they may be useful for certain purposes. Closer attention to the intended purpose of such instruments may serve to dispel controversy and confusion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Impulsivity and bulimic symptoms often go together. It is not only the eating behaviour of bulimics that is impulsive; many studies show that the eating disorder frequently is accompanied by non-eating related impulsive behaviours like substance abuse, self-harm or theft. This co-morbidity suggests that there might be a more basic lack of inhibitory control that makes someone vulnerable for both the bulimic symptoms and the other impulsive behaviours. The present study tested whether an analogous group of 34 restrained eaters showed a basic inhibitory control deficit by using a stop-signal task, compared to 29 control women. It was found that the restrained eaters were significantly worse in inhibiting their basic non-food related motor responses than unrestrained eaters. Food exposure during the task did not affect motor performance. A fundamental lack of general response inhibition might play a role in the development of a specific eating disinhibition.
Article
In the present study, it was found that dieters lost control over their food intake and “counterregulated” after merely smelling a “preload,” while dieters without a “preload” were able to maintain control over their food intake. Nondieters, however, even ate marginally less after smelling a “preload” than they did in a no-preload condition. Apparently, actually breaking one's diet and such subsequent thoughts as “I've blown my diet, I might as well continue to eat” is not necessary for counterregulation to occur. The observation that merely smelling a “preload” is sufficient to produce “counterregulation” in dieters but not in nondieters challenges the explanatory power of the widely held cognitive explanation of experimental counterregulation in preloaded dieters. An explanation in terms of conditioning is put forward.
Article
In the present article, a learning model of binge eating is presented. It has been hypothesized that, parallel to drug intake, the craving and excessive food intake of binge eaters is cue controlled. Research in support of the model is reviewed and a series of predictions about clinical and non-clinical issues is derived from the model. Amongst other things, the model predicts that binge eating might be successfully treated with cue exposure and response prevention. Practical issues are discussed and preliminary pilot studies on cue exposure for bingers are reviewed.
Article
Reliability, factor structure, and factor independence from other anxiety measures for the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) was assessed. One hundred and twenty-two anxious college students were administered the ASI, Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire, and the Reactions to Relaxation and Arousal Questionnaire. The results suggest that the ASI is a reliable measure which is factorially independent of other anxiety measures. Further, the ASI was supported as a measure of the variable anxiety sensitivity which has been suggested as an important personality variable in fear behavior.
Article
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are complex Eating Disorders (EDs). Even if are considered two different diagnostic categories, they share clinical relevant characteristics. The evaluation of neurocognitive functions, using standardized neuropsychological assessment, could be a interesting approach to better understand differences and similarities between diagnostic categories and clinical subtypes in EDs thus improving our knowledge of the pathophisiology of EDs spectrum. This study explored cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition in patients with AN considering both Restricter and Binge/Purge subtypes, patients with BN and healthy comparisons subjects (HC). Intra-Extra Dimentional Set shifting Test and Stop Signal Task, selected from CANTAB battery, were administered to analyzed set-shifting and motor inhibition respectively. AN patients showed a deficient motor inhibition compared to HC, while no evidence for impaired motor inhibition was found in BN patients; a significant relationship between commission errors in the Stop Signal Task and attentional impulsiveness was found. Moreover, no difference in set-shifting abilities was found comparing all clinician groups and HC. So our results indicated no cognitive impairment in these two cognitive functions in BN patients, while AN and BN showed different performances in motor inhibition. A similar cognitive profile was found in other obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders. Finally, the paper suggests a new interactive approach for the study of cognitive profile in psychiatric disorders; it might be more useful since it is more closely related to the executive functions complexity.
Article
The present study examined the role of "a breakdown in inhibition" as a mechanism to explain differences in impulsivity between restrictive and bingeing/purging eating disorders (ED). Two types of inhibition (i.e., executive and reactive inhibition) were assessed by means of personality and neuropsychological tests. Forty-eight female in patients with ED completed the Effortful Control Scale, the BISBAS scales, and a set of neuropsychological tests. The results showed that executive inhibition measures were able to differentiate restrictive from bingeing/purging ED subtypes. Patients with ED and bingeing/purging behavior scored significantly lower on the Effortful Control Scale, needed more time to finish the Trail Making Test/STROOP, and showed more reaction time variability on the Go No-Go task. We did not find significant associations between personality and neuropsychological measures of executive/reactive inhibition. Insight in the breakdown of inhibition in bingeing/purging patients can increase our understanding of impulse-control disorders and guide the development of tools to improve effortful control.
Article
Palatable foods in the environment can unintentionally trigger reactions to obtain them, which may interfere with dieting attempts. We tested a strategy to facilitate dieting behavior that makes use of behavioral stop signals that should instantly inhibit chronic dieters' responses toward palatable foods. Participants performed a go/no-go task in which go cues and no-go cues (i.e., the behavioral stop signals) were presented with pictures of palatable foods and control objects. In Study 1, we tested the immediate behavioral effect of presenting stop signals near palatable foods in a reaction time paradigm. In Study 2 we assessed consumption of palatable food that had either consistently been associated with no-go cues, or not. Results show that no-go cues instantly inhibited responses toward palatable foods especially among chronic dieters. Moreover, across a one day period chronic dieters consumed less of a food that had consistently been associated with no-go cues. Stop signals thus appear a promising tool for chronic dieters to control behavior to palatable foods, and we discuss the merits and potential applications of this tool for facilitating dieting behavior.
Article
The stop-signal paradigm is a useful tool for the investigation of response inhibition. In this paradigm, subjects are instructed to respond as fast as possible to a stimulus unless a stop signal is presented after a variable delay. However, programming the stop-signal task is typically considered to be difficult. To overcome this issue, we present software called STOP-IT, for running the stop-signal task, as well as an additional analyzing program called ANALYZE-IT. The main advantage of both programs is that they are a precompiled executable, and for basic use there is no need for additional programming. STOP-IT and ANALYZE-IT are completely based on free software, are distributed under the GNU General Public License, and are available at the personal Web sites of the first two authors or at expsy.ugent.be/tscope/stop.html.
Article
Presents a theory of the inhibition of thought and action to account for people's performance in situations that require them to stop or change their current thoughts and actions. The theory proposes that a control signal, such as an external stop signal or an error during performance, starts a stopping process that races against the processes underlying ongoing thought and action. If the stopping process wins, thought and action are inhibited; if the ongoing process wins, thought and action run on to completion. The theory is formally developed to account for many aspects of performance in situations with explicit stop signals, and it is applied to data obtained from 3 adult observers in a series of RT tasks. The relation between response inhibition and other acts of control in motor performance and in cognition is discussed, and the implications of the theory are considered in terms of current thinking about attentional control and automaticity. (69 ref)
Article
In the stop-signal paradigm, fast responses are harder to inhibit than slow responses, so subjects must balance speed in the go task with successful stopping in the stop task. In theory, subjects achieve this balance by adjusting response thresholds for the go task, making proactive adjustments in response to instructions that indicate that relevant stop signals are likely to occur. The 5 experiments reported here tested this theoretical claim, presenting cues that indicated whether or not stop signals were relevant for the next few trials. Subjects made proactive response-strategy adjustments in each experiment: Diffusion-model fits showed that response threshold increased when participants expected stop signals to occur, slowing go responses and increasing accuracy. Furthermore, the results show that subjects can make proactive response-strategy adjustments on a trial-by-trial basis, suggesting a flexible cognitive system that can proactively adjust itself in changing environments.
Article
Previous research has related impulsivity to overeating and obesity. However, the precise nature of this relation has not been examined yet. One possibility is that impulsivity causes overeating and hence contributes to overweight. To test this possibility we induced impulsivity versus inhibition to see whether this would affect food intake. In the first study participants were cognitively primed with the concepts "impulsivity" or "inhibition". Caloric intake was significantly higher in the Impulsivity Condition compared to the Inhibition Condition. This effect was even stronger for highly restrained participants. In the second study impulsivity was manipulated via behavioural instructions. Restrained and unrestrained nondieters acted as expected: their caloric intake was significantly higher when impulsivity was induced compared to inhibition. Current dieters sharply reduced their caloric intake following the impulsivity induction. These results are in accordance with Lowe's model that, contrary to restraint theory, states that restraint and current dieting are different constructs that affect eating regulation differently. At least for nondieters it can be concluded that heightened impulsivity versus inhibition leads to a higher food intake in the lab.
Article
Response inhibition is a hallmark of executive control. The concept refers to the suppression of actions that are no longer required or that are inappropriate, which supports flexible and goal-directed behavior in ever-changing environments. The stop-signal paradigm is most suitable for the study of response inhibition in a laboratory setting. The paradigm has become increasingly popular in cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience and psychopathology. We review recent findings in the stop-signal literature with the specific aim of demonstrating how each of these different fields contributes to a better understanding of the processes involved in inhibiting a response and monitoring stopping performance, and more generally, discovering how behavior is controlled.
Article
A detailed comparison was made of two methods for assessing the features of eating disorders. An investigator-based interview was compared with a self-report questionnaire based directly on that interview. A number of important discrepancies emerged. Although the two measures performed similarly with respect to the assessment of unambiguous behavioral features such as self-induced vomiting and dieting, the self-report questionnaire generated higher scores than the interview when assessing more complex features such as binge eating and concerns about shape. Both methods underestimated body weight.
Article
This study investigated the effect of pre-exposure to two types of food cues (olfactory and cognitive) on food intake by restrained and unrestrained eaters. Subjects were exposed to either no cue, an olfactory cue, a cognitive cue or a combination of the two types of food cues for ten minutes prior to eating. Restrained eaters ate significantly more than did unrestrained eaters after exposure to the food cues. There was no difference in food intake when there was no pre-exposure to the cues. Although baseline subjective ratings were equivalent for both groups of subjects, after cue pre-exposure, restrained subjects, in keeping with their increased consumption, indicated a significantly greater craving, liking, and desire to eat the cued food (pizza) than did the unrestrained subjects. These findings suggest that restrained eaters are more sensitive and reactive to food cues than are unrestrained eaters. The food cues appeared to generate an appetitive urge to eat in restrained eaters.
Article
Because little is known about the predictors of binge eating (a risk factor for obesity), a set of putative risk factors for binge eating was investigated in a longitudinal study of adolescent girls. Results verified that binge eating predicted obesity onset. Elevated dieting, pressure to be thin, modeling of eating disturbances, appearance overvaluation, body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, emotional eating, body mass, and low self-esteem and social support predicted binge eating onset with 92% accuracy. Classification tree analysis revealed an interaction between appearance overvaluation, body mass, dieting, and depressive symptoms, suggesting qualitatively different pathways to binge eating and identifying subgroups at extreme risk for this outcome. Results support the assertion that these psychosocial and biological factors increase risk for binge eating.
Article
In order to establish norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among young adult women, the questionnaire was administered to a large general population sample of women aged 18-42 yr in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) region of Australia. Normative data were derived for EDE-Q subscales and for the occurrence of specific eating disorder behaviours, for each of five age bands (18-22, 23-27, 28-32, 33-37, 38-42 yr). Mean scores (SDs) for the Restraint, Eating Concern, Weight Concern and Shape Concern subscales for the total sample (n = 5,255) were, respectively, 1.30 (1.40), 0.76 (1.06), 1.79 (1.51) and 2.23 (1.65). The mean global score was 1.52 (1.25). The regular occurrence of objective and subjective overeating episodes was reported by 10.6% and 12.7% of participants, respectively. The regular use of self-induced vomiting, laxative misuse, and use of diuretics, was reported by 1.4%, 1.0%, and 0.3%, of participants, respectively, while 2.2% of participants reported regularly using diet pills. "Extreme dietary restraint" and "excessive exercise" were reported by 3.4% and 4.9% of participants, respectively. Both attitudinal and behavioural features of eating disorder psychopathology tended to decrease with increasing age. These data will inform researchers intending to use the EDE-Q in epidemiological studies.
Article
Unlabelled: Eating disorders are considered to lie on a spectrum of disorders with varying degrees of obsessive-compulsive and impulsive traits. Restrictive anorexia nervosa patients (AN-R) are thought to belong to the obsessive pole of the spectrum, and purging-anorexia (AN-P) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients to the impulsive pole. In this study we have compared impulsive traits in three groups of eating disordered patients (total N=56) and a control group of 83 female students. Information about impulsive traits and lack of inhibitory control was gathered by means of standardized rating scales (Eysenck's Impulsiveness Scale, Barrett's Impulsiveness Scale, and Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale) and a behavioral measure of impulsiveness (stop-go task). On the questionnaires AN-R patients reported to be less impulsive than controls, AN-P and BN patients. In the stop-go task, we did not find significant differences between the different groups. Correlations between self-reported measures of impulsiveness and behavioral measures were not significant. In conclusion: Our results from the self-report measures are at odds with the behavioral measures certainly in the AN-R group. Perhaps the latter patients' distorted self-perception and/or self-description may explain this discrepancy.
Article
This study investigates to what extent an impulsive personality, a varied food environment and their interaction influence food intake. We also investigated whether high-impulsives would exhibit more "eating disordered" thoughts and behaviours. Forty-five low-impulsives and forty-one high-impulsives did a bogus taste test with varied or monotonous food. As expected, high impulsives had a higher food intake compared to low impulsives. Moreover, high-impulsives reported significantly more "eating disordered" thoughts and behaviours than low-impulsives. Neither a main effect of variety nor an interaction between variety and impulsivity were found.
On the validity of the Beck depression inventory
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Richter, P., Werner, J., Heerlein, A. E. S., Kraus, A., & Sauer, H. (1998). On the validity of the Beck depression inventory. Psychopathology, 31, 160-168.
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N. Ganor-Moscovitz et al. Appetite 131 (2018) 53-58
  • Ganor-Moscovitz
Ganor-Moscovitz et al. Appetite 131 (2018) 53-58
On the validity of the Beck depression inventory
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