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Expanding minds: Growth mindsets of self-regulation and the influences on effort and perseverance

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Abstract

Given that countless studies have documented the wide-ranging benefits of self-regulation, determining if and how self-regulation can be improved is an important scientific and societal priority. Existing theories suggest that the deterioration of self-regulation is partially shaped by perceptions of effort. Therefore, one promising way to sustain self-regulation may be to cultivate a growth mindset, which has been shown to affect behavior in part by altering effort attributions. Although growth mindsets-the belief that a given trait can be improved through practice-have been studied extensively, particularly in the domain of intelligence, little research has examined the effects of promoting a growth mindset specifically about self-regulation. Here five studies test how promoting a growth mindset of self-regulation impacts actual self-regulation in daily life and the laboratory. In Study 1, relative to an active control that received relationship training, an intensive self-regulation training program emphasizing a growth mindset led participants to persevere longer on impossible anagrams, which was partially mediated by altering attributions of mental fatigue. Relatively, the self-regulation training also led participants to notice more opportunities for self-control in daily life and more successfully resist everyday temptations. The subsequent four studies isolated and abbreviated the growth mindset manipulation, demonstrated improved persistence and decreased effort avoidance, and attempted to further examine the critical mediators. Collectively, results indicate that a growth mindset of self-regulation can change attributions and allocation of effort in meaningful ways that may affect the willingness to attempt challenging tasks and the perseverance required to complete them. Extensive research indicates that self-regulation-the ability to direct one's attention, thoughts, moods, and behavior in line with one's personal goals-is among the most critical skills in life. High levels of self-regulation predict better academic achievement, greater professional success and income, stronger interpersonal relationships, more fulfillment, and better health (. Given that self-regulation underlies such a diversity of highly valued outcomes, it would be of great value to identify successful interventions that can allow individuals to effectively develop and exert such control. An emerging consensus is forming that one powerful determinant of self-regulation is how an individual experiences and interprets effort

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... These two mindsets represent the extremes of a continuum and can be measured via self-report and for different attributes (e.g., intelligence, personality). People's mindsets are relatively stable across time and situations (Robins & Pals 2002), but they can also be briefly induced using short manipulations (Nussbaum & Dweck 2008) or lastingly changed by means of 1-hour to multi-week training programs (Blackwell et al. 2007, Mrazek et al. 2018. ...
... Mindset theory proposes that fixed and growth mindsets are each associated with a unique constellation of motivations, attributions, and behavioral patterns that primarily arise in response to difficulties (for a meta-analysis, see Burnette et al. 2013, Dweck 2012, Molden & Dweck 2006, whereby persistence in the face of difficulties is mainly studied in relation to people's mindsets about intelligence and within the achievement domain. Considerable empirical evidence suggests that people with a growth mindset display greater persistence than people with a fixed mindset (for reviews, see Burnette 2010, Mrazek et al. 2018, Renaud-Dubé et al. 2015, Robins & Pals 2002. This has been found in experimental studies in the laboratory (e.g., using unsolvable tasks; Mrazek et al. 2018) as well as in everyday life by tracing people's goal striving longitudinally throughout challenging life transitions (e.g., Blackwell et al. 2007). ...
... Considerable empirical evidence suggests that people with a growth mindset display greater persistence than people with a fixed mindset (for reviews, see Burnette 2010, Mrazek et al. 2018, Renaud-Dubé et al. 2015, Robins & Pals 2002. This has been found in experimental studies in the laboratory (e.g., using unsolvable tasks; Mrazek et al. 2018) as well as in everyday life by tracing people's goal striving longitudinally throughout challenging life transitions (e.g., Blackwell et al. 2007). ...
Article
Persistence in and timely disengagement from personal goals are core components of successful self-regulation and therefore relevant to well-being and performance. In the history of motivation psychology, there has been a clear emphasis on persistence. Only recently have researchers become interested in goal disengagement, as mirrored by the amount of pertinent research. In this review, we present an overview of the most influential motivational theories on persistence and disengagement that address situational and personal determinants, cognitive and affective mechanisms, and consequences for well-being, health, and performance. Some of these theories use a general approach, whereas others focus on individual differences. The theories presented incorporate classical expectancy-value constructs as well as contemporary volitional concepts of self-regulation. Many of the theoretical approaches have spread to applied fields (e.g., education, work, health). Despite numerous important insights into persistence and disengagement, we also identify several unresolved research questions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Theoretically, the implicit theory can describe two such beliefs (Blackwell et al., 2007); 1) Incremental Theory is the belief that human intelligence and abilities can be developed when the person concentrates and exerts enough effort called a growth mindset, and 2) Entity Theory, is the belief of a person with the thought of human intelligence or abilities have different peculiarities and can be used to learn things, however; it cannot change much from what was initially called a fixed mindset. Nevertheless, the present research can conclude that the growth mindset has a positive effect on the development of students' abilities; that is, the students with the growth mindset belief not only have a high academic achievement (Damrongpanit, 2020;Degol et al., 2018;McClendon et al., 2017), but also several desirable traits tend to emerge, including self-monitor (Bittner & Heidemeier, 2013), high effort and improvement (Rhew et al., 2017), challenge work (Cho et al., 2018), grit (Huang et al., 2018), self-discipline (McClendon et al., 2017), extend skill and knowledge (Mrazek et al., 2018), leadership and proactive personality (Caniëls et al., 2018) voluntary (Han et al., 2018) and social skill (Gummesson & Remedios, 2018) more than those who have the belief as to the fixed mindset (Mrazek et al., 2018;Seaton, 2018). In accordance with some mentioned findings, it is noted that many of the variables associated with the mindset are clearly linked to the global citizenship and learning management practices for developing 21 st -century students. ...
... Theoretically, the implicit theory can describe two such beliefs (Blackwell et al., 2007); 1) Incremental Theory is the belief that human intelligence and abilities can be developed when the person concentrates and exerts enough effort called a growth mindset, and 2) Entity Theory, is the belief of a person with the thought of human intelligence or abilities have different peculiarities and can be used to learn things, however; it cannot change much from what was initially called a fixed mindset. Nevertheless, the present research can conclude that the growth mindset has a positive effect on the development of students' abilities; that is, the students with the growth mindset belief not only have a high academic achievement (Damrongpanit, 2020;Degol et al., 2018;McClendon et al., 2017), but also several desirable traits tend to emerge, including self-monitor (Bittner & Heidemeier, 2013), high effort and improvement (Rhew et al., 2017), challenge work (Cho et al., 2018), grit (Huang et al., 2018), self-discipline (McClendon et al., 2017), extend skill and knowledge (Mrazek et al., 2018), leadership and proactive personality (Caniëls et al., 2018) voluntary (Han et al., 2018) and social skill (Gummesson & Remedios, 2018) more than those who have the belief as to the fixed mindset (Mrazek et al., 2018;Seaton, 2018). In accordance with some mentioned findings, it is noted that many of the variables associated with the mindset are clearly linked to the global citizenship and learning management practices for developing 21 st -century students. ...
... McClendon et al. (2017) revealed that the growth mindset affects grit and deliberate practice in online learning. Mrazek et al. (2018) mentioned that the students with the growth mindset were more likely to persist in mathematics tasks and self-regulation than the fixed mindset students. ...
Article
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This research intended to examine the effect of mindset, democratic parenting, democratic teaching, and school environment on global citizenship among 2,226 ninth-grade students and 80 social studies teachers from 80 classrooms in public schools. The research instruments included a student questionnaire to measure global citizenship, democratic parenting, fixed and growth mindset, and a teacher questionnaire to measure democratic teaching and school environment and to analyze the data based on multilevel structural equation modeling. The significant findings revealed that democratic parenting and school environment positively affected global citizenship, whereas democratic teaching had a negative effect on global citizenship. In addition, the outstanding students with a growth mindset tend to lead to a positive effect and act as a mediating role through global citizenship than those with outstanding fixed mindset clearly. All factors in the model collaboratively explained the variance of global citizenship accounted for 62.8% and 47.5% at student and classroom levels, respectively. Finally, the discussions and suggestions section suggested the recommendations according to the findings of the research.
... Growth mindsets result in actions that increase physical health by fostering hope and expectancy, impacting beliefs that improve health actions (Crum & Langer, 2017;Crum & Zuckerman, 2017;. Since individuals with a growth mindset value progress, the actions and effort toward wellbeing can create momentum toward continued personal development, enhancing wellbeing (Mrazek et al., 2018). ...
... Growth orientation builds by setting goals with progress enhancing confidence, reinforcing a growth mindset (Travers et al., 2014). Growth triggers self-control choices that require effort and facilitate a willingness to make growth-oriented choices (Mrazek et al., 2018). When individuals shift between mindsets, there is a greater demand on their resources, leading to impaired self-control; in contrast, consistency results in progress (Hamilton et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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What helps a client embrace change? Growth mindset and positive mental health aid psychotherapeutic change. Positive mental health facets aiding change include wellbeing, emotional regulation, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness, self-control, self-awareness, and spirituality. The literature review examined the formulation, principles, critique, and function of growth mindset construct within contexts of success, talent, neuroscience, trauma, impairment, and each positive mental health facet. The review indicated growth mindset impacts change. The objective involved testing for evidence of associated relationship between growth mindset and positive mental constructs using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Utilization occurred of eight self-rating measures, one each for wellbeing, emotional regulation, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness, self-control, self-awareness, and spirituality. Growth mindset measures received individual comparison with nine positive mental health measures. The null hypothesis was r ≤ .03. There were nine alternative hypotheses, one per positive mental health measure. The sample size was 148, obtained by internet survey distribution. The result was failure to reject the null hypotheses for all nine alternative hypotheses allowing for the following conclusions: no evidence of associated relationships; growth mindset and positive mental health constructs are meaningful and useful; belief alone does not lead to change effort. Recommended research includes qualitative case studies, quasi-experiment comparisons, development of enhanced measurements, or longitudinal observation. Keywords: growth mindset, fixed mindset, positive mental health, psychotherapeutic change, change beliefs
... The well self-regulated learner recognizes limits on cognitive capacity and the necessity to be strategic in the deployment of these resources (Schraw & Dennison, 1994;Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011). This knowledge generally is revealed with increased effort, time management, and focused attention (Mrazek et al., 2018;Pintrich & De Groot, 1990;Zimmerman & Kitsantas, 2014). This becomes key in an environment that seems to encourage cyberloafing (Durak, 2020). ...
... Ultimately, the importance of clarifying the relationships between smartphone usage, SRL, and learning is in the service of identifying strategies to improve learning outcomes. Addressing self-regulatory skills is a natural conduit for improving academic performance (Mrazek et al., 2018). Given the relationships between smartphone usage, SRL, and achievement, modifications to how the smartphone is used are also appropriate (Dalvi-Esfahani et al., 2020). ...
Article
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This two-part observational and intervention study addressed the role of the smartphone in self-regulated learning (SRL) and student success as measured by achievement. Smartphone usage among students has been identified as contributing to lower academic achievement in a variety of settings. What is unclear is how smartphone usage contributes to lower outcomes. This study surveyed participants’ self-regulated learning skills and smartphone usage at the beginning and end of the term for first semester undergraduates. A regression analysis demonstrated that when controlling for prior achievement, general SRL measures had a positive impact on first semester achievement. Smartphone related SRL did not have a direct impact on achievement. The second part of the study evaluated the efficacy of a brief intervention to ameliorate factors contributing to lower achievement. Students were presented with either SRL strategies, awareness and attention strategies or career planning guidance (control). A regression analysis of the brief intervention resulted in modest gains in SRL but did not influence achievement.
... Researchers have recently proposed that a growth mindset needs to be embraced to develop perseverance of effort in striving for long-term goals (Toney, 2019). Recent studies have provided empirical evidence for a robust and significant association between a growth mindset and perseverance of effort in learning contexts (e.g., Mrazek et al., 2018). With the association between a growth mindset and perseverance of effort well established, a key question that remains unanswered is how individuals' mindset enables them to persevere during goal pursuit. ...
... Earlier empirical studies have supported the notion that a growth mindset in students is significantly associated with their perseverance in school work (Cavanagh et al., 2018;Puente-Díaz & Cavazos-Arroyo, 2017). The reason for the link between mindset and perseverance is thought to be that a growth mindset inspires individuals to appraise effortful self-control as a useful process for developing their ability to persevere (Mrazek et al., 2018), and to interpret effort-making as an effective approach to improving ability and intelligence and increasing experience (Zeng, Hou, & Peng, 2016). ...
Article
Recent studies have consistently lent support for the significant association between growth mindset and perseverance of effort; however, only a handful of studies focused on examining the potential mediators in this association. The current study examined the mediating role of life satisfaction and perceived distress in the relationship between growth mindset and perseverance of effort. A total of 377 undergraduate students responded to an online survey package. Structural equation modeling results showed that growth mindset, life satisfaction, perceived distress were significantly associated with perseverance of effort. Moreover, a serial mediation was found among the variables: students with a growth mindset tended to report higher general life satisfaction, which further decreased perceived distress level, and subsequently weakened perseverance of effort. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
... These results showed that effort did not directly predict decreases in anagram persistence from Time 1 In follow-up analyses, we additionally tested whether participants' initial lay theories of self-control at the beginning of the study predicted their perceived effort. Consistent with previous research (see Job et al., 2010; see also Mrazek et al., 2018), lay theories of mental exertion and resisting temptation did not predict participants perceptions of effort while performing the assigned selfcontrol task, |Bs| < 0.18, ts(148) < 1.67, ps > 0.10, ßs < 0.13. We further tested whether the observed associations of high effort with shifting lay theories and anagram persistence were moderated by participants' initial lay theories of self-control. ...
... It is only when people's efforts are not perceived to be producing sufficient progress-i.e., when this effort does not seem to be entirely worthwhile-that fatigue is proposed to arise. Indeed, there might be cases when experiences of effort actually lead to less limited theories if perceived effort is positively correlated with perceptions of worth; under these conditions, it is possible that individuals might actually infer that effort is energizing and that their capacity for regulation is expanding or limitless (see Mrazek et al., 2018). Thus, it will be important in future research to develop effective means of separately assessing effort versus fatigue. ...
Article
Though recent motivational accounts of self-control highlight the importance of experiences of effort and fatigue for continued goal pursuit in the moment, less research has investigated potential longer-term effects of these experiences. In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that experiencing self-control as effortful and exhausting would lead to a general belief that the capacity for self-control is limited (Job, Dweck, & Walton, 2010). When participants reflected on a high- versus a low-effort self-control experience (Study 1), engaged in a high- versus low-effort self-control task (Study 2) or experienced a two-week period of self-control practice as more versus less effortful (Study 3), they were more likely to endorse lay theories that self-control is limited. In turn, these limited lay theories led to impairments in self-control performance under high regulatory demand (Study 3). We discuss implications for understanding what limits self-control and the development of lay theories related to self-control.
... Lay theories about emotions predict how people cope with negative emotions (Karnaze & Levine, 2018). Lay theories about self-control predict people's willingness to exert and sustain mental effort (Job et al., 2010;Mrazek et al., 2018). ...
... Past research has used fairly explicit procedures to induce different lay theories, mostly by giving individuals persuasive information supporting different lay theories (e.g., Dweck et al., 1995;A. J. Mrazek et al., 2018). We followed a similar approach here by subtly embedding the theory induction in the instructions for the experimental task. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions: a "controllable" condition, an "uncontrollable" condition, and a "neutral" condition. Next, participants performed the same reading task as in Study 3. We pre ...
Article
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People often fail to keep their mind from wandering. Here, we examine how the tendency to mind wander is affected by people’s beliefs, or lay theories. Building on research on lay theories and self-regulation, we test whether differences in people’s beliefs about the extent to which mind wandering is controllable affect thought control strategies and mind-wandering rates in daily life and the laboratory. We develop a new scale to assess control-related beliefs about mind wandering. Scores on the scale predict mind wandering (Study 1) and intrusive thoughts (Study 2) in everyday life, thought control strategies and dysfunctional responses to unwanted thoughts (Study 2), and mind wandering during reading in the laboratory (Studies 3–6). Moreover, experimentally induced lay theories affect mind-wandering rates during reading (Studies 4 and 5). Finally, the effectiveness of strategies people can use to reduce their mind wandering depends on their lay theories (Studies 2 and 6).
... According to Brundin et al. (2008) employees' perception of how an organisation values them could be vital in influencing their mindset behaviour towards work. Mrazek et al. (2018) stated that paying more attention to employee mindset behaviour could lead to solving the pressing matters related to employee performance. Positive mindset behaviour of an employee towards work is paramount for an increase in the performance of an organisation (Brundin et al. 2008). ...
... Contrary to this, management need to consider employees'mindset behaviour as key to increase in performance of organisations (Offorbike et al. 2018). Mrazek et al. (2018) stated that paying more attention to employee mindset behaviour could lead to solving the pressing matters related to employee performance. These various studies conducted affirm the importance of considering employee's mindset behaviour on project performance, which necessitates the conduct of this study. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of the study is to analyse the relationship between an employee’s mindset behaviour and project performance. Quantitative method was used, and a census and convenience sampling techniques were adopted to distribute and collect data at a response rate of 74.60% from employees in the construction industry in the Kumasi Metropolis. Responses were assessed based on the significance level of the employee’s mindset behaviour on project performance using descriptive analysis, and the reliability of the scale was checked using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. Six mindset elements, namely; employee commitment, employee involvement, job satisfaction, employee lateness, employee theft, and employee absenteeism were selected to ascertain their significance level on Project Performance. The study affirmed that the positive effect of employees’ job satisfaction, involvement and commitment to work leads to project performance. The study, therefore, contributed to knowledge by assessing the linkages between employees’ mindset and project performance, and also to the existing body of knowledge to aid and guide researchers in the adoption of appropriate theoretical framework in conducting research on the relationship between employee’s mindset behaviour and project performance. To recommend, further research should be done to develop a framework for managing the mindset behaviours of employees. Keywords: behaviour, employee, mindset, organisation, project performance
... In social psychology, according to the construal level theory (CLT), inducing an abstract versus a concrete mindset modulates subjectively estimated psychological distance across various dimensions, such as estimated temporal, spatial, or social distances [4]. In educational psychology, 'mindsets' were conceptualized as the beliefs one holds regarding one's personal abilities, which can hamper or foster performance [5,6]. ...
Article
We all have our varying mental emphases, inclinations, and biases. These individual dispositions are dynamic in that they can change over time and context. We propose that these changing states of mind (SoMs) are holistic in that they exert all-encompassing and coordinated effects simultaneously on our perception, attention, thought, affect, and behavior. Given the breadth of their reach, understanding how SoMs operate is essential. We provide evidence and a framework for the concept of SoM, and we propose a unifying principle for the underlying cortical mechanism whereby SoM is determined by the balance between top-down (TD) and bottom-up (BU) processing. This novel global account gives rise to unique hypotheses and opens new horizons for understanding the human mind.
... The abovementioned explanations regarding the rationale of the study are in line with the results of recent studies revealed that language anxiety Complimentary Contributor Copy was significantly related to language-related task performance (e.g., Teimouri, Goetze, & Plonsky, 2019). These explanations are also in accordance with the results of recent studies demonstrated that individuals with high levels of growth mindset tend to consider difficult tasks as a way to increase their task performance (e.g., Mrazek, Ihm, Molden, Mrazek, Zedelius, & Schooler, 2018), which, in turn, may lead them to experience lower levels of anxiety because having a high incremental mindset could play a buffering role for anxiety during the learning process (e.g., Schroder et al., 2017;Yeager & Dweck, 2012). On the other hand, there is evidence that having a low incremental mindset (or fixed mindset) may lead students to achieve better academic performance (Mendoza-Denton, Kahn, & Chan, 2008;Sisk et al., 2018) because individuals with a fixed mindset may experience lower levels of anxiety and self-doubt than individuals with a high incremental mindset due to their fixed mindsets which highlight that ability and intelligence are fixed at birth and do not change much through effort (Blackwell et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
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This experimental study examined whether the language mindset of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) pre-service teachers significantly relates to their task-oriented state-anxiety, changes in epigenetic activity, and task performance on a translation task. A total of 52 EFL pre-service teachers were randomly assigned to either experimental groups (i.e., high incremental mindset-experimental group/low incremental mindset-experimental group) or control groups (i.e., high incremental mindset-control group/low incremental mindset-control group). The results revealed that pre-service teachers’ state-anxiety, microRNA activity (i.e., miR-34c, miR-22, and miR-204), and task performance were significantly, selectively related to each other in terms of language mindset, regardless of the effects of the demographic variables (e.g., gender). The results also showed that the interactions between state-anxiety, miR-22 activity, and task performance were only considerable for the pre-service teachers in the low incremental mindset-experimental group. The results suggest that teacher educators and policymakers should be aware of the fact that the English as a foreign language learning environment, which boosts pre-service teachers’ task-oriented state-anxiety, may have significant consequences in terms of stimulating changes in epigenetic activity, which, in turn, may significantly affect their task performance.
... While working with gifted children, teachers often notice that their pupils have underdeveloped abilities to manage their personal resources, regulate their mental states and find the balance among external impacts, mental states and various forms of activity [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. This situation is especially relevant for gifted adolescents who are characterized by high emotionality, inability to plan their activities and comply with a certain work and rest schedule. ...
Article
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This article presents the results of studying and improving the self-regulation of gifted adolescents. The authors have developed a special program of psychological and pedagogical support for adolescents with literary talents in order to improve their self-regulation. This program was tested at the “Sirius” Educational center for gifted children created by the “Talent and Success” Educational Foundation in Sochi. The authors used V.I. Morosanova’s concept of self-regulation for testing and forming the above-mentioned program. The study results demonstrate an increase in the self-regulation of gifted adolescents, whose main components are as follows: the ability to plan, model, evaluate and adjust mental states and actions to achieve certain goals.
... In using a cognitive reappraisal strategy, a student may be encouraged to think differently about difficulty, for instance, considering it a challenge that they can and will surpass rather than as evidence of their lack of ability (cf. Mrazek et al., 2018). Another possibility, presented by Tzohar-Rozen & Kramarski (2017), is to explicitly train students in affective selfregulation. ...
Article
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Many previous studies have highlighted the influence of learners' affective states on learning with tutoring systems. However, the associations between learning and learners' meta-affective capability are still unclear. The goal of this paper is to analyse meta-affective capability and its influence on learning outcomes as well as the dynamics of affect over time. An exploratory study (n=54) was conducted in which students at the secondary level were asked to interact with an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics. Two criteria, awareness and self-regulation, were employed to define meta-affective capability, and students self-reported their affect during their interactions with the tutoring system. Pre-post learning outcomes were also measured. A post-hoc comparison of learning gains was made between more meta-affectively capable and less meta-affectively capable students. The results provide some empirical evidence to support the hypothesis that having meta-affective capability is positively associated with learning. Students not demonstrating meta-affective capability seemed to transition frequently from boredom to frustration (p=.0284) and from concentration to neutral (p=0.0017). However, only a small percentage of the sample were classified as having meta-affective capability, indicating that it is important to scaffold students who are not meta-affectively capable.
... Conversely, for motivation science, our results highlight the importance of cognitive interpretations of learners' experience. Substantial work in motivation science has studied the factors modulating mental effort and its effect on learning Eccles & Wigfield, 2002;Flake et al., 2015;Inzlicht et al., 2018;Westbrook & Braver, 2015) as well as how students and other learners might be induced to exert more effort (Autin & Croizet, 2012;Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2016;Job et al., 2010;Job, Friese, & Bernecker, 2015;Mrazek et al., 2018;Smith & Oyserman, 2015). However, our results suggest that it is ultimately the cognitive interpretation of that effort that is the most important influence on behavior (see also Koriat, Nussinson et al., 2014;Susser et al., 2016;Unkelbach, 2006); this effect reliably emerged every time we tested for it, whereas a direct effect of effort on study strategy choice appeared less robustly. ...
Article
How do learners make decisions about how, what, and when to study, and why are their decisions sometimes ineffective for learning? In three studies, learners experienced a pair of contrasting study strategies (Study 1: interleaved vs. blocked schedule; Studies 2 & 3: retrieval practice vs. restudy) and rated their perceptions of each strategy before choosing one for future use. In all three studies, mediation analysis revealed that participants who perceived a strategy as more effortful rated it as less effective for learning and, in turn, were less likely to choose it for future study. Further, choosing the more effortful strategy was associated with better long-term retention (Study 3), contrary to participants' judgments. A final fourth study suggested that these relationships were not driven by the mere act of providing ratings. Our results thus support a misinterpreted-effort hypothesis in which the mental effort associated with many normatively effective learning strategies (desirable difficulties; Bjork & Bjork, 1992) leads learners to misinterpret them as ineffective for learning and consequently not to employ them in self- regulated learning.
... Growth mindset did increase after intervention, but the change was not significant. Other research connects growth mindset with both motivation and self-regulation of learning (Cavanagh et al., 2018;Friese & Hofmann, 2016;Mrazek et al., 2018). Friese and Hofmann (2016) analyzed the differences between mindfulness scores and the ability of participants to self-regulate desires and temptations. ...
Article
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With the rigor of occupational therapy programs increasing to meet the demands of the diverse healthcare system, students are reporting stress and anxiety at an increasing rate. This mixed methods study assessed the outcomes of occupational therapy students who participated in a comprehensive mindfulness program that included interventions on grit, gratitude practice, and growth mindset. Twenty-four occupational therapy students participated in the 10-week mindful-based intervention program prior to a Level I fieldwork experience. Data was collected pre- and post-intervention using the 12-item Grit Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6), the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), journal entries, and a satisfaction survey at the completion of the program. Student outcomes included statistically significant changes in grit and gratitude. While growth mindset was not statistically significant, there were meaningful changes in reported self-regulation, both in the classroom and clinical experience. Infusing mindful-based curriculum into occupational therapy education can have a positive effect on both the occupational therapy student and subsequent clinical experiences, ultimately carrying over to therapeutic client interactions. Educators within academia and in clinical settings can utilize similar interventions to ensure students are holistically prepared to meet the demands of the current healthcare system.
... Later, it helps the students to relieve anxiety in mathematical learning. In addition, Mrazek et al. [53] Puente-Díaz and Cavazos-Arroyo [5] and McClendon [47] found out that the students with a growth mindset have not only the concise grit and self-regulation, but they also have a tendency to show good academic performance as lifelong learning, and have lower fatigue than fix mindset students, while Burgoyne et al. [54] Ng [55] and Rhew et al. [6] showed that the growth mindset correlated with grit affects locus of control and motivation of students. ...
Article
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The objectives included examining the mediation role of growth mindset as the causal model of the factors affecting mathematics learning outcomes of 514 ninth grade students who were measured by the national standardized scores rubric. Two models with a relationship structure of two different variables were compared: (model A) the model without a growth mindset; and the growth mindset as the mediating variable as (model B). The research tools comprised of 1) Questionnaires on factors of Growth Mindset, Achievement Motivation, Attitude towards Mathematics, Mathematical Self-Efficacy, Background Knowledge, and Mathematical Achievement with a five-point Likert scale pattern, and 2) Mathematics Aptitude test. The obtained data was analyzed by Path and Mediation analysis with Mplus 7.4 program. It was concluded that the model with a Growth Mindset as a mediating variable between factors and mathematics grades was most consistent with empirical data. The background knowledge had the highest indirect and total effect, while mathematical aptitude had the most direct effect on mathematics learning outcomes. Additionally, the growth mindset was statistically significant and had a positive direct effect on mathematics learning outcomes. All factors in the model were jointly able to explain the variance in mathematics learning outcomes by 82.90%. It also revealed that growth mindset played a role as a partial mediation in achievement motivation, mathematics background knowledge and particularly in mathematics aptitude. Therefore, the growth mindset did not only influence Mathematics learning outcomes but it also had the positive relationship linking to each key factors that helped promote students to have better performance.
... Yeager in Dweck, 2019). Zaradi koristi, ki jih prinaša razvojna miselnost, veliko raziskav naslavlja spreminjanje fiksne miselnosti v razvojno (Bettinger et al., 2018; Good, Aronson in Inzlicht, 2003;Haimovitz in Dweck, 2016;Mrazek et al., 2018;Sisk et al., 2018). Lahko se zdi naravno, da bodo otroci staršev z razvojno miselnostjo tudi sami sprejemali razvojno miselnost. ...
Article
Does the mindset about fixed intelligence have an effect on inadequate reading self-concept? Recognition that students’ beliefs or perceptions about intelligence and ability affect their cognitive functioning and learning is amongst the top twenty psychological principles for teaching and learning of young people (APA, 2015). Research into these beliefs, which are named fixed versus growth mindset, suggests that a fixed mindset represents an important barrier to successful learning. In our paper, we use the PISA 2018 data to investigate the occurrence of a fixed mindset amongst Slovenian 15-year-olds, and, as a focus of the paper, the context that the mindset forms for the relationship between actual ability and self-concept. We address the question of whether there is a difference in reading self-concepts for students with similar reading literacy but different mindsets. We found that there are no gender differences in the proportion of students with fixed mindsets and, as expected, somewhat higher proportions of low-achieving students have fixed mindsets in comparisons with high-achieving students. Differences amongst reading self-concepts of boys and girls are well-known. Our analyses further revealed the within-gender differences in self-concepts between those with fixed and those with growth mindset; girls or boys with a growth mindset have, on average, higher reading literacy, higher self-concept and enjoy reading more than girls or boys with a fixed mindset. If these comparisons are further adjusted only to students with similarly low levels of reading literacy, we find that students with average-low reading literacy have a similar self-concept of reading competence regardless of their mindset, their perceptions of how many difficulties they have in reading in general and on the PISA reading test are, however, very different. While girls with average-low reading literacy and a growth mindset are perceived to have an average (within the group of average-low readers) amount of problems in both reading in general and in the PISA test, girls with average-low reading literacy and a fixed mindset are perceived to have more of such problems – despite being similarly successful on the PISA test. Boys with average-low reading literacy of both mindsets reported fewer difficulties in reading in general than girls – even though their reading achievements are similar. However, fewer problems on the PISA test were reported by boys with average-low reading literacy and a growth mindset, while those with a fixed mindset, interestingly, reported a similar amount of these problems as girls with average-low reading literacy and a growth mindset. The effects of a fixed mindset therefore seem to show in some cases in an inappropriate self-assessment of reading problems. Key words: Fixed and growth mindset, reading literacy, reading self-concept, PISA study
... Research has shown that one's mindset is related to an array of self-regulatory processes, henceforth referred to as perseverance. These processes are related to persons attributions and reactions to effort, failure, and challenge (Burnette et al., 2013;Mrazek et al., 2018;Sisk, Burgoyne, Sun, Butler, & Macnamara, 2018). In particular, when people believe they are capable of change, they will be more eager to learn and practice and therefore embrace challenges as opportunities to grow (Dweck, 2006). ...
... However, what individuals believe about the malleability and relevance of self-regulation remains largely unexplored. Initial studies indicate that these implicit theories of selfregulation are associated with self-regulatory processes such as goal orientation and learning strategy use (Hertel and Karlen, under review; Stern et al., under review), and influence effort and perseverance (Mrazek et al., 2018). ...
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This study examined parents' implicit theories of intelligence and self-regulation from a person-centered perspective using latent profile analysis. First, we explored whether different belief profiles exist. Second, we examined if the emergent belief profiles (1) differ by demographic variables (e.g., age, education, child's self-regulation) and (2) are related to parents' failure beliefs, goal orientation (i.e., learning goals, performance-approach goals, performance-avoidance goals), and co-regulatory strategies (i.e., mastery-oriented and helpless-oriented strategies). Data were collected from N = 137 parents of preschoolers who answered an online survey comprising their implicit theories about the malleability and relevance of the domains (a) intelligence and (b) self-regulation. We identified three belief profiles: profile 1 (9% of the sample) displayed an entity theory, profile 2 (61% of the sample) showed a balanced pattern of both domains of implicit theories, and profile 3 (30% of the sample) was characterized by high incremental self-regulation theories. Analyses showed that parents differed significantly in education and their perception of child self-regulatory competence depending on profile membership, with parents in profile 1 having the lowest scores compared to parents of the other profiles. Differences in parents' failure beliefs, goal orientation, and co-regulatory strategies were also found depending on profile membership. Parents in profile 3 reported failure-is-enhancing mindsets, and mastery-oriented strategies significantly more often than parents in profiles 1 and 2. The results provide new insights into the interplay of important domains of implicit theories, and their associations with parents' failure beliefs, goal orientation, and co-regulatory strategies.
... Psychotherapy, deconstructive meditation, and other insight-based interventions (see SI Appendix, Table S2 for examples), appear to relieve mental distress and bolster psychological well-being by altering the content and functioning of self-related beliefs. Strategies to enhance growth mindset, for instance, have been found to alter both mindset and behavioral self-regulation (117). Similarly, CBT, which enables individuals to identify maladaptive beliefs about the self and replace them with more adaptive beliefs, has been shown to alleviate stress and reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders (118). ...
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Research indicates that core dimensions of psychological well-being can be cultivated through intentional mental training. Despite growing research in this area and an increasing number of interventions designed to improve psychological well-being, the field lacks a unifying framework that clarifies the dimensions of human flourishing that can be cultivated. Here, we integrate evidence from well-being research, cognitive and affective neuroscience, and clinical psychology to highlight four core dimensions of well-being—awareness, connection, insight, and purpose. We discuss the importance of each dimension for psychological well-being, identify mechanisms that underlie their cultivation, and present evidence of their neural and psychological plasticity. This synthesis highlights key insights, as well as important gaps, in the scientific understanding of well-being and how it may be cultivated, thus highlighting future research directions.
... Children who possess a growth mindset believe that the harder they work at something, the better they will be at it (Mrazek et al., 2018). Accordingly, they tend to choose more challenging tasks (Dweck and Leggett, 1988;Blackwell et al., 2007), view setbacks as opportunities to learn and improve (Davis, 2016;Burnette et al., 2018), and exhibit persistence and strategy shifting in the face of challenges (Hong et al., 1999). ...
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Growth mindset is an important aspect of children’s socioemotional development and is subject to change due to environmental influence. Orchestral music education may function as a fertile context in which to promote growth mindset; however, this education is not widely available to children facing economic hardship. This study examined whether participation in a program of orchestral music education was associated with higher levels of overall growth mindset and greater change in levels of musical growth mindset among children placed at risk by poverty. After at least 2 years of orchestral participation, students reported significantly higher levels of overall growth mindset than their peers; participating students also reported statistically significant increases in musical growth mindset regardless of the number of years that they were enrolled in orchestral music education. These findings have implications for future research into specific pedagogical practices that may promote growth mindset in the context of orchestral music education and more generally for future studies of the extra-musical benefits of high-quality music education.
... For instance, spiritual focus requires a degree of self-regulation -the ability to direct one's attention, thoughts, moods, and behavior in line with one's goals. Mrazek et al. (2018) reported that training in how to hold a growth mindset of self-regulation-as indicated by disagreeing with statements such as "Your self-regulation is something about you that you can't change very much" (p.167)-enhances four critical components of self-regulation. First is construing feelings of mental fatigue as a sign that "I'm developing my mental control skills," as opposed to a sign that "I should scale back my effort, so I don't get too exhausted" (p.167). ...
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Successful aging broadly refers to the development and maintenance of favorable life outcomes with increasing age. We propose that the likelihood of people aging successfully is enhanced by routinely engaging in habitually repeated, enjoyable actions (henceforth, “rituals”) that cultivate their personal resources in the physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual domains. We suggest that fixed mindsets will impede the discovery and adoption of such rituals, whereas growth mindsets will facilitate people exploring, trialing, and perpetually enacting rituals that help them age successfully. After defining successful aging, we explain the nature of mindsets and discuss their role in systematically cultivating relevant physical, emotional, mental, social, and spiritual resources. Practical examples of personal resource-building rituals are provided throughout. We outline several avenues for future research to test hypotheses derived from the propositions we have advanced and illustrate how mindsets might be deliberately fostered to support successful aging. We also suggest potential boundary conditions on the utility of growth mindsets.
... У целини, испитивања указују да развојна уверења помажу људима који их имају да раде ефикасно током дужих периода и да се успешно одупиру искушењима када наступи стресна ситуација. Када је саморегулација препозната као нешто што се може проширити вежбањем, долази до већег улагања напора и истрајавања у раду, који воде ка достизању постављених циљева (Mrazek et al., 2018). Развојне или неограни-Истине и заблуде о креативном учењу чавајуће теорије о људској природи предвиђале су бољу саморегулацију у савладавању високих захтева: студенти који су имали тежак студијски програм добијали су боље оцене (Job et al., 2015). ...
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TRUTH AND MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT CREATIVE LEARNING Creativity in a tangible and intangible product is an attempt at overcoming the current situ¬ation in the field of creation and the life of the person who creates the product. The main feature of creativity is an effective novelty in relation to something familiar, which means that it offers an appro¬priate solution to the problem to which it refers. The paper criticizes the thesis on the innateness of cre¬ativity, according to which a person is creative on the basis of heritage, which would practically mean that education does not have any special significance for the creation of creative works. The criticism is based on the current theories of creativity that indicate the developmental nature of creativity and emphasize the role of learning in the development of creative potentials. The new is built on the exist¬ing knowledge through learning, which implies creative processing of information, becoming familiar with it, understanding, acceptance and placement of that information in one’s own knowledge-base of what has been learned. The more creative the learning process is, the greater the chances that it will encourage the creativity of the learner in relation to the existing knowledge and the aspiration for its re-examination and change. The developmental approach to creativity, which begins with creative learning, has been linked to the theory of growth and fixed mindsets about human nature, which ad¬dresses our capacity to adapt, change, and grow. In the continuation of the paper, the conditions are considered that would support to a greater extent the creative learning in school. In the final part of the paper, the limitations of this approach are discussed and questions proposed for future research.
... Although the topic of mindset was started with the assumption that we believe that our intelligence is constant (fixed mindset) or that it can change (growth), further research has gone much further than that. A study by Alissa Mrazek et al (2018) proves the relationship between the growth mindset and high levels of self-regulation, which predict better academic achievement, greater professional success and income, stronger interpersonal relationships, greater fulfillment, and better health. Mindset theory originated and has long been used only in the fields of education and social psychology, but Heslin et al. (2005), using an interdisciplinary approach, extended the theoretical framework of mindset theory to the domains of organizational psychology and performance evaluation. ...
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In this publication we set an objectively complicated task to analyse the opportunities of strategic decision-making during crisis by attempting to make a partial analysis of the ongoing crisis caused by the COVID 19 pandemic and the emerged military conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Crisis circumstances require societies to quickly rethink and develop adequate strategies and respectively to formulate strategic goals and plan processes. In many cases preliminary analysis and assessment are practically impossible /especially when it comes to natural disasters or crises/ and this requires a different operational order of problem solving, which includes formulating new unconventional goals and then implementing planning not objectified by a particular and accurate analysis. All this puts whole systems and societies to the test, and those who are empowered to manage the process – under high pressure from unforeseen circumstances and not always objective judgments. Which, in turn, creates a number of subsequent critical issues in the management process.
... He also argued that learners with growth mindset try hard to do their responsibilities efficaciously. Mrazek et al. (2018), in their study, revealed that learners with a growth mindset are inclined to self-regulate their thoughts and affections. In addition, they found out that learners' understandings of effort influence their self-regulation. ...
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This review made a critical attempt to examine the studies on the role of English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ academic motivation and growth mindsets in their grit. Some investigations have been done on the role of academic motivation in learner grit. However, a significant positive correlation between academic motivation and grit has been approved in related studies. The related literature review justified the results by broaden-and-build and expectancy-value theories. The related literature has shown that grittier learners persist in doing tasks, and developing their intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, the related literature has approved the effect of learners’ language mindset on their grit. In other words, learners with a growth mindset are persistent, and they devote their time to their performance. Finally, the pedagogical implications are expanded to promote the quality of language learning. This review also provides some suggestions for further research to illuminate our perspectives over motivation, mindset, and their interactions with each other.
... In other words, jack-of-all-trades entrepreneurs have more difficulty paying sufficient attention to every role (i.e., "a jack of all trades and master of none" [Penney et al., 2018]) and face a high cognitive load (Mathias & Williams, 2017). Such efforts to deal with many uncertain (Kruglanski et al., 2012), complex (Schmeichel et al., 2003), and otherwise cognitively demanding tasks (Mrazek et al., 2018) are likely to deplete personal resources. This depletion can impair decision-making regulation and lead to a destructive entrepreneurial action. ...
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Entrepreneurial action can be directed toward identifying, generating, and exploiting potential business opportunities that can cause harm to others. Over and above the “rules of the game” of the economic system, we theorize on destructive entrepreneurial actions that result from entrepreneurs’ impaired regulation of their decision making. Specifically, we build on the entrepreneurial action literature and draw on regulation theories of goal attainment and moral disengagement to develop an impaired-regulation model of destructive entrepreneurial actions. This model contributes to the entrepreneurship literature by providing new insights into (1) why some entrepreneurs are more susceptible to engaging their ventures in destructive entrepreneurial actions, (2) everyday entrepreneurs (the “who”) engaging in destructive entrepreneurial actions (i.e., the “how” and “why”), and (3) when and why some entrepreneurs respond to their destructive entrepreneurial actions by becoming repentant do-gooders while others grow into serial offenders.
... Different beliefs about the underlying nature of ability are found to influence how individuals interpret and respond to notions such as effort and failure (6,7). People with a growth mindset believe that abilities can be learned and improved with effort, negative feedback, setbacks, or failure to reach a goal are more likely to be interpreted as opportunities for learning, and they are likely to adjust their efforts to realize those learnings (8). ...
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Self-tracking technologies aim to offer a better understanding of ourselves through data, create self-awareness, and facilitate healthy behavior change. Despite such promising objectives, very little is known about whether the implicit beliefs users may have about the changeability of their own behavior influence the way they experience self-tracking. These implicit beliefs about the permanence of the abilities are called mindsets; someone with a fixed mindset typically perceives human qualities (e.g., intelligence) as fixed, while someone with a growth mindset perceives them as amenable to change and improvement through learning. This paper investigates the concept of mindset in the context of self-tracking and uses online survey data from individuals wearing a self-tracking device (n = 290) to explore the ways in which users with different mindsets experience self-tracking. A combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches indicates that implicit beliefs about the changeability of behavior influence the extent to which users are self-determined toward self-tracking use. Moreover, differences were found in how users perceive and respond to failure, and how self-judgmental vs. self-compassionate they are toward their own mistakes. Overall, considering that how users respond to the self-tracking data is one of the core dimensions of self-tracking, our results suggest that mindset is one of the important determinants in shaping the self-tracking experience. This paper concludes by presenting design considerations and directions for future research.
... The current study sought an alternative to fill the gap between reality and the theory of behaviorism. Recent research has revealed that improving behaviors and performance correlates with changing students' mindsets, and mindset can influence both behavior and cognition (e.g., Armor & Taylor, 2003;Burnette et al., 2020;Mrazek et al., 2018). Some researchers have focused on improving noncognitive skills, including developing a growth mindset, rather than targeting specific behaviors, and revealed promising results (e.g., Yeager & Dweck, 2012). ...
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In childhood education, a behaviorist approach (a mixture of praise and punishment) has been used for student target behaviors; however, the results have not been consistent. This study investigated how a constructivist approach would work in the same setting. The participant was a four-year-old student who showed target behaviors with negative attention-seeking and avoidance of self-regulation; three teachers and the author worked with him on collaborative action research. We treated him using the behaviorist approach in the first cycle of intervention. It seemed to work on the surface but was not helping him become autonomously self-regulated; his surroundings learned to remove the antecedents. We took the constructivist approach for the second cycle of intervention, wherein the student was provided opportunities to build puzzle pictures and give them to his teachers or friends. The teacher’s scaffolding helped him complete the task, perceive his competence, and aim for even bigger challenges. Through his efforts, he experienced making others happy, and as the growing-giving mindset was fostered, the target behaviors were decreased.
... When faced with inevitable setbacks, weightloss maintainers recommended restarting anew the next day or as soon as possible. Outside of the weight-control literature, research has suggested that perseverance can be promoted by modifying perceptions of effort (32). In educational settings, "grit" has been considered teachable and defined as "perseverance to accomplish long-term or higher-order goals in the face of challenges and setbacks" (33). ...
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Objective: This study aimed to identify major themes of a large cohort experiencing long-term weight-loss maintenance who answered open-ended questions about weight-loss triggers, current motivations, strategies, and experiences. Methods: Machine learning and topic modeling were used to analyze responses to six open-ended questions among 6,139 WW International, Inc., (formerly Weight Watchers) members with weight-loss maintenance; inclusion criteria included ≥9.1-kg loss with weight-loss maintenance for ≥1 year. Results: Participants (mean age = 53.6 years; 94.3% White; mean BMI = 27.8 kg/m2 ) had lost 24.5 kg and maintained the loss for 3.4 years. Descriptions of factors triggering weight loss coalesced into five topics: medical status, appearance, mobility, social prompts, and change needed. Factors currently motivating weight-loss maintenance yielded two topics: looking back at experiences at higher weight and health/appearance concerns. Advice for others to succeed in weight-loss maintenance coalesced on two recommendations: perseverance in the face of setbacks and consistency in tracking. Rewards for weight management included improved confidence, pain, mobility, fitness, body image, medical status, and affect. Two thematic negative consequences were clothing costs and sagging skin. Conclusions: Future weight-maintenance research should include more diverse populations and investigate weight-loss maintenance as a journey with highs and lows, perseverance in the face of setbacks, sustained tracking, and making changes in medical status more salient during the weight-maintenance journey.
... Although the topic of mindset was started with the assumption that we believe that our intelligence is constant (fixed mindset) or that it can change (growth), further research has gone much further than that. A study by Alissa Mrazek et al (2018) proves the relationship between the growth mindset and high levels of self-regulation, which predict better academic achievement, greater professional success and income, stronger interpersonal relationships, greater fulfillment, and better health. Mindset theory originated and has long been used only in the fields of education and social psychology, but Heslin et al. (2005), using an interdisciplinary approach, extended the theoretical framework of mindset theory to the domains of organizational psychology and performance evaluation. ...
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Empathy enhances leadership effectiveness. In times of the pandemic and increased commitment to fostering diversity and inclusion, it is considered an essential ingredient of leadership. The importance of empathy in leadership is especially emphasized in global organizations operating in a cross-cultural and multicultural environment. This study aims to develop a multi-level conceptual framework of the impact of empathy on leadership effectiveness in the field of business management. For this purpose, a systematic literature review based on Web of Science and Scopus databases has been conducted. The content analysis method was used to analyze and synthesize qualitative data. The research results show that empathy enhances leadership effectiveness through its extensive effects on the level of leader, followers, and organization. It contributes to raising self-awareness, developing listening and mentoring skills, and enhancing the relationships of the leader as an individual. On the followers’ level, empathy in leadership is associated with improving well-being, empowering, and providing role models in developing emotional intelligence. It enhances organizational effectiveness by inspiring diversity and inclusion, increasing employee engagement and retention, and creating a culture of responsibility, care, and innovation. These findings have practical implications for leadership and organizational development specialists, human resources managers, and business leaders. The interdisciplinary nature of the topic calls for the collaboration of researchers from the fields of business economics, psychology, and neuroscience to advance future research on empathy in leadership.
... Although the topic of mindset was started with the assumption that we believe that our intelligence is constant (fixed mindset) or that it can change (growth), further research has gone much further than that. A study by Alissa Mrazek et al (2018) proves the relationship between the growth mindset and high levels of self-regulation, which predict better academic achievement, greater professional success and income, stronger interpersonal relationships, greater fulfillment, and better health. Mindset theory originated and has long been used only in the fields of education and social psychology, but Heslin et al. (2005), using an interdisciplinary approach, extended the theoretical framework of mindset theory to the domains of organizational psychology and performance evaluation. ...
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This article briefly analyses the works of Acad. Mihail Arnaudov. He is an author of insightful research of a number of classics of the Bulgarian and world literature. His determination and persistence with which he worked on his research are incredible and admirable. The long-lasting research activity of Acad. Mihail Arnaudov is “sealed” on the pages of books, periodicals, prints and thematically collected clippings from Bulgarian and foreign publications. With the help of his numerous research works covering the topic of Bulgarian National Revival, Acad. Mihail Arnaudov managed to realize his noble ambition – to create a scientific epic of the spiritual leaders of his people, or the “Unforgettable” as he called them himself, during one of the most difficult and most glorious periods in the Bulgarian history. And with even more passion he kept studying life and works of postliberation writers.
... In addition, growth mindset is not a unitary concept, and is associated with multiple sub-abilities, such as self-regulation and self-awareness (Mrazek et al., 2018). How might these abilities help us remain socially connected? ...
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Students, staff, and faculty in higher education are facing unprecedented challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent data revealed that a good number of academic activities and opportunities were disrupted as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic and its variants. While much uncertainty remains for the next academic year, how higher education institutions and their students might improve responses to the rapidly changing situation matters. This systematic review and framework proposal aim to update previous empirical work and examine the current evidence for the effectiveness of growth mindset interventions in young adults. To this end, a systematic search identified 20 empirical studies involving 5, 805 young adults. These studies examined growth mindset within ecologically valid educational contexts and various content areas. Generally, these findings showed that brief messages of growth mindset can improve underrepresented students' academic performance and facilitate other relevant psychological constructs. In addition, we argue, although growth mindset has been identified as a unitary concept, it is comprised of multiple interdependent skills, such as self-control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Understanding the nature of growth mindset may contribute to successful mindset implementation. Therefore, this article presents a practical framework to help educators in higher education rethink the multidimensionality of growth mindset and to provide their students with alternative routes to achieve their goals. Finally, additional articles were discussed to help evaluate growth mindset interventions in higher education.
... Destiny belief did not significantly explain students' career preparation behavior, implying that having lower levels of destiny belief does not seem to motivate students to participate in higher career preparation behavior. Growth belief, however, significantly explained higher career preparation behavior and less goal disengagement, indicating that growth belief is more likely to encourage students to proactively regulate their career-related behaviors (Burnette et al., 2020;Mrazek et al., 2018). Yet, growth belief did not significantly explain employment anxiety, suggesting that having growth belief may not help students lower their career-related anxiety. ...
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To investigate individuals’ implicit beliefs—underlying assumptions about the self and the world—the present study validated the Korean version of the implicit theory of work scale for undergraduates, exploring its role in career-related behaviors and affect. The study used two different samples of 560 and 340 undergraduates who participated in an online survey. The validity evidence of the scale was as follows: (1) The content of domains and items was appropriate for measuring implicit belief in work among Korean undergraduates; (2) a two-factor model with destiny belief and growth belief was confirmed by factor analysis; and (3) higher levels of destiny belief were related to higher levels of entity belief in intelligence and lower levels of incremental belief in intelligence, flexibility in career belief, and curiosity in career adaptability, whereas higher levels of growth belief showed the opposite patterns. The validated scale also showed the distinctive role of destiny and growth belief.
Chapter
Leadership plays a significant role in determining an institution’s success in an international context. The extent to which a cross-cultural organization is effective in an international environment is largely determined by its structure, processes, and leadership. These success factors remain somewhat consistent across industries and lessons learned in one industry may have cross-industry implications. While higher education leadership is recognized as complex, demanding, and unique, it also offers valuable insight into the field of international leadership and may yield transferable lessons learned to any transnational organization. Specifically, that there is much to learn from higher education leadership in international contexts. Both academics who author this study have lived, taught, and led in international higher education for many years. This self-study of leadership in this field contributes to the knowledge base in relation to the complexities of leadership in International Branch Campuses (IBC) wherein the leadership is charged with balancing diverse cultural aspects of employees, but also of the cultures of the host country and the guest institution. Findings reveal three areas of complexity: possibilities and tensions of budget change; leadership in a transitory international environment; transitory/contract faculty in IBCs in times of economic change. The authors assert the need for extensive commitment to embrace, integrate, and embody intercultural competencies particularly in addressing difficult and changing times as a feature of their self-study of international and transnational leadership.KeywordsLeadershipEducationInternational branch campuses
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Despite the important role growth mindsets play in second/foreign language (L2) writing, insight into its influence on motivation and strategy use in L2 writing contexts has been limited. To address this research gap, the present study explored the relationship between growth mindsets, ideal and ought-to L2 writing selves, and the use of environmental, behavioral, and personal self-regulated learning (SRL) writing strategies, particularly how ideal and ought-to L2 writing selves mediated the relationship between growth mindsets and three SRL writing strategies. Three hundred and sixty-two English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) undergraduates completed the questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results on the direct effect showed that growth mindsets positively predicted ideal and ought-to L2 writing selves, and three SRL writing strategies; the ideal L2 writing self, rather than the ought-to L2 writing self, positively predicted the use of three SRL writing strategies. The results on the indirect effect revealed that the ideal L2 writing self mediated the relationship between growth mindsets and three SRL writing strategies, whereas the ought-to L2 writing self did not. Implications for L2 writing instruction in a tertiary context are discussed.
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Self-regulation is widely considered as a relatively stable trait, and the extent to which it can be improved through training is unknown. This randomized controlled investigation found dramatic and enduring increases in self-regulation among college students, as measured by experience sampling, nightly journaling, and questionnaires. Participants encountered stable levels of temptations throughout the intervention but became better at resisting them over time. Increases in self-regulation were accompanied by improvements across a diversity of additional outcomes like mood, stress, focus, mindfulness, emotional regulation, and life satisfaction. Collectively, this points to higher levels of plasticity in self-regulation and wellbeing than is widely assumed.
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Because peer review publication is essential for academic advancement across scientific fields, when authorship is wrongly attributed the consequences can be profound, particularly for junior researchers who are still establishing their professional norms and scientific reputations. Professional societies have published guidelines for authorship, yet authorship dilemmas frequently arise and have harmful consequences for scientific careers. Researchers have noted the complexities of authorship and called for new mechanisms to foster more ethical research cultures within institutions. To address this call, we organized a panel discussion at the Institute for Clinical Research Education at the University of Pittsburgh in which senior faculty members from diverse backgrounds and professional disciplines discussed their own authorship challenges (e.g., renegotiating author order, reconciling inter-professional authorship norms, managing co-author power differentials) and offered strategies to avoid and/or resolve them. Informed by growth mindset theory, our storytelling format facilitated an open exchange between senior and junior researchers, situated authorship dilemmas in specific contexts and career stages, and taught researchers how to address authorship challenges not adequately informed by guideline recommendations. Though not empirically assessed, we believe this approach represents a simple, low-cost, and replicable way to cultivate ethical and transparent authorship practices among researchers across scientific fields.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the changes made to course delivery, course materials and assessment approaches required in response to the COVID-19 pandemic which forced many changes to occur in a very short time. Design/methodology/approach It is a case study of the changes made to content, teaching methods and assessment in a postgraduate introductory financial accounting course of approximately 350 students across two terms. Findings The key findings are that the sudden change from face-to-face to online teaching to address government regulations, social distancing expectations and students’ needs required immediate changes to how content was delivered, how to interact with students (many of who were studying outside of Australia), and how to adapt to online assessments. Many of the innovations the authors describe will continue to be used in the course going forward both in face-to-face and online formats. That is, the need to change resulted in innovations that can be implemented in a post-pandemic environment. Originality/value The key value of this paper is to provide instructors with insights into the innovations the authors made to address the changed circumstances, which can be incorporated into other accounting courses in the future.
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According to the hybrid model (van Bergen, van der Leij, & de Jong, 2014), the significant association among executive functioning (EF), reading, and math may be partially explained by parent-reported EF’s role as a common risk and/or protective factor in reading and math (dis)abilities. The current study used a sample of 434 twin pairs (Mage 􏰀 12.12) from Florida to conduct genetically sensitive modeling on children’s parent-reported EF, reading, and math skills to determine the common and unique etiological influences among the three domains. EF was measured through parent report and reading and math were measured with standardized test scores drawn from Florida’s Progress Monitoring and Reporting Network as well as standardized parent-administered assessments collected by mail. Our trivariate Cholesky modeling showed that no matter which parent-reported EF component was modeled, the overlap of parent-reported EF with reading and math was explained by common genetic influences. Supplemental analysis suggested that this might in part be due to general parent report of problem behaviors. Additionally, significant environmental influences, with higher shared environmental overlap than previous work, were also found for reading and math. Findings indicate that poor parent-reported EF is a common cognitive risk factor for reading and math disabilities, which is driven by a shared genetic basis among all three domains.
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To provide optimal learning and career outcomes for accounting graduates, we propose complementing competency-based frameworks of accounting education with the cultivation of relevant mindsets. Building on insights from research in cognitive psychology, organizational leadership, and education, we define a mindset as a combination of cognitive filters and processes through which professionals interpret their professional environments and execute their professional responsibilities. We review the professional and academic literature and identify five key mindsets relevant for accounting graduates. Given the overarching obligation of accountants to protect the public trust, we treat the "public interest mindset" (focus on "we" vs. "I," integrity, and professionalism) as foundational in the accounting profession. The four other key mindsets include: 1) growth; 2) professional skepticism; 3) analytical/digital; and 4) global. In addition to providing a definition and discussion of the relevance of each mindset to accounting, we suggest potential pedagogical approaches for integrating these mindsets into 21st-century accounting education.
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According to the Hybrid Model (van Bergen et al., 2014), the significant association among Executive functioning (EF), reading, and math may be partially explained by parent-reported EF’s role as a common risk and/or protective factor in reading and math (dis)abilities. The current study used a sample of 434 twin pairs (Mage = 12.12) from Florida to conduct genetically-sensitive modeling on children’s parent-reported EF, reading, and math skills to determine the common and unique etiological influences among the three domains. EF was measured through parent report and reading and math were measured with standardized test scores drawn from Florida’s Progress Monitoring and Reporting Network as well as standardized parent-administered assessments collected by mail. Our trivariate Cholesky modeling showed that no matter which parent-reported EF component was modeled, the overlap of parent-reported EF with reading and math was explained by common genetic influences. Supplemental analysis suggested that this might in part be due to general parent report of problem behaviors. Additionally, significant environmental influences, with higher shared environmental overlap than previous work, were also found for reading and math. Findings indicate that poor parent-reported EF is a common cognitive risk factor for reading and math disabilities, which is driven by a shared genetic basis among all three domains.
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According to the Hybrid Model (van Bergen et al., 2014), the significant association among Executive functioning (EF), reading, and math may be partially explained by parent-reported EF’s role as a common risk and/or protective factor in reading and math (dis)abilities. The current study used a sample of 434 twin pairs (Mage = 12.12) from Florida to conduct genetically-sensitive modeling on children’s parent-reported EF, reading, and math skills to determine the common and unique etiological influences among the three domains. EF was measured through parent report and reading and math were measured with standardized test scores drawn from Florida’s Progress Monitoring and Reporting Network as well as standardized parent-administered assessments collected by mail. Our trivariate Cholesky modeling showed that no matter which parent-reported EF component was modeled, the overlap of parent-reported EF with reading and math was explained by common genetic influences. Supplemental analysis suggested that this might in part be due to general parent report of problem behaviors. Additionally, significant environmental influences, with higher shared environmental overlap than previous work, were also found for reading and math. Findings indicate that poor parent-reported EF is a common cognitive risk factor for reading and math disabilities, which is driven by a shared genetic basis among all three domains.
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Mind wandering is a universal phenomenon in which a person’s attention decouples from stimuli within their current environment. Researchers have sought objective, less disruptive indicators of cognitive disengagement, resulting in a focus eye tracking and blink characteristics. Such research has found positive associations between mind wandering and blink characteristics, typically in reading tasks. However, extracting blinks accurately from continuous eye-tracking data is complex, and the literature contains inconsistently reported data processing methods, some of which may have an elevated risk of identifying noise as signal. Further, the relationship between attentional disengagement and blink durations has not been fully explored in multiple task modalities. We conducted three modality-specific experiments while recording eye movements. Blink durations varied as a function of stimulus/task engagingness; less engaging tasks yielded longer blink durations, suggesting a link between blinking and mind wandering. Recommendations are provided for researchers seeking to accurately derive blink events from continuous, binocular, eye-tracking data.
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This study investigated the relationship between growth and fixed mindsets, orientation toward written corrective feedback, and self-regulated learning (SRL) writing strategies in English writing among a group of university-level Chinese learners of English (N = 311). A questionnaire survey was sent to participants, and path model and mediation analysis were utilized to model the direct and indirect relationships between mindsets, feedback orientation, and SRL writing strategies. The results indicated that growth mindsets were positively correlated with feedback-seeking orientation, negatively correlated with feedback-avoiding orientation, and positively associated with cognitive, metacognitive, social behavior, and motivational regulation strategies; fixed mindsets were positively related to feedback-avoiding orientation and motivational regulation strategies. The results of mediation analysis showed that feedback-seeking orientation played a mediating role in the relationship between growth mindsets and cognitive, metacognitive, social behavior, and motivational regulation strategies. Implications for training English writing teachers and L2 writing instruction are discussed.
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Background: This study examines participant satisfaction and effectiveness of the online mindset intervention 'The Growth Factory' (TGF) for youth with intellectual disabilities using a randomised controlled trial design. Method: Youth with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities (N = 119; 12-23 years) were randomly assigned to TGF (n = 60) or control group (n = 59). Primary outcome measures were mindsets and perseverance. Secondary outcomes were empowerment, mental health problems, self-esteem, treatment motivation, therapeutic alliance and challenge seeking. Measurements were conducted at pre-test, post-test and at 3 and 6 months follow-up. Results: TGF had positive effects on perseverance, mental health problems, self-esteem and therapeutic alliance at post-test. TGF had follow-up effects on mental health problems (3 months), mindset of intelligence (3 and 6 months) and mindset of emotion and behaviour (6 months). Conclusions: TGF offers a promising add-on intervention complementing usual care programmes accelerating improvements in mindsets and mental health in youth with intellectual disabilities.
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The pervasive shelter in place mandates of March 2020 forced all educators to precipitously migrate to online education. After grappling with myriad technical concerns such as hardware, software, and internet connectivity, educators began addressing more complex issues such as a new, different online pedagogy. Other hurdles to virtual education included appropriate curricular adaptations, modifications to instructional delivery and assessment, and evolving parameters of social engagement. This chapter explores the intersection of the pandemic and the growth mindset which many educators manifested during online migration, often with no preparation and under the duress of immediacy. Successfully navigating such a large magnitude of change challenged educators, and their ability to embrace a growth mindset often facilitated more positive outcomes with online teaching and learning. The silver lining of the dark cloud of COVID-19 was its unexpected intersection with the growth mindset, leading teachers and learners to develop new skills, abilities, and potentialities.
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Background: The online mindset intervention The Growth Factory (TGF) has shown promising effects-increasing growth mindsets and perseverance and decreasing mental health problems among youth with intellectual disabilities (ID). Studying moderators and mediators of intervention effects is essential to elucidate for whom and why TGF works. Using a randomised controlled trial design, we examined youth's baseline mindset, gender, age, level of ID and intervention satisfaction as moderators of TGF effects and examined whether the intervention effects of TGF on improvements in mental health were mediated by perseverance. Methods: The sample consisted of 119 participants with mild to borderline ID (Mage = 15.83; SD = 2.23), randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 60) or passive control group (n = 59). Participants reported mindsets, perseverance, internalising, externalising, attention and total mental health problems at pre-test, at post-test and at 3-month follow-up. Additionally, youth in the intervention group graded their satisfaction with a score at the end of each session. Results: Findings indicated that the effectiveness of TGF was not affected by participants' baseline mindsets, age and ID level. TGF was more effective in reducing internalising problems in girls and increasing perseverance in boys. In addition, in the intervention group TGF was more effective in improving internalising, externalising and total mental health problems for youth who reported higher levels of intervention satisfaction at post-test. Finally, TGF indirectly decreased internalising and externalising problems at follow-up through improvements in perseverance reported at post-test. Conclusions: TGF offers a universal, 'add-on' mindset intervention complementing usual care programmes. It improves mindsets, perseverance and mental health in youth with ID. Both practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
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We examined the additive associations of two motivational beliefs (growth mindset and academic self-efficacy) and self-regulation with mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA) scores, as well as the interplay of students' beliefs and self-regulation skills, controlling for previous test scores. We tested whether these pathways differed across three mutually exclusive levels of economic risk: (1) low-risk students; (2) students receiving free and reduced price meals (FRPM); and (3) students identified as homeless and highly-mobile (HHM). Our results showed that motivational beliefs and self-regulation skills interact to promote academic achievement. Greater levels of growth mindset were related to higher academic achievement only for HHM students with higher levels of self-regulation.
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Although enormously beneficial, self-regulation often proves to be enormously difficult. The typical explanation for such difficulty has been that people's capacity for self-regulation is limited and depletes with use, hindering sustained regulation. However, recent findings challenge this capacity view, suggesting instead that people's shifting experiences with and motivations for continued self-regulation better explain why regulation so frequently fails. This chapter integrates such findings, and several emerging theoretical perspectives developed to explain them, into an integrated model of self-regulation based on processes of motivated effort-allocation. The model incorporates three main components: (a) assessments of motives to engage in self-regulation; (b) allocations of effort and attention based on these motives; and (c) monitoring of the consequences of this allocation, which then triggers a reassessment of motives and begins the cycle anew. After presenting the details of the model, the chapter reviews its implications for capacity views of self- regulation and future research on improving regulation.
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Good self-control has been linked to adaptive outcomes such as better health, cohesive personal relationships, success in the workplace and at school, and less susceptibility to crime and addictions. In contrast, self-control failure is linked to maladaptive outcomes. Understanding the mechanisms by which self-control predicts behavior may assist in promoting better regulation and outcomes. A popular approach to understanding self-control is the strength or resource depletion model. Self-control is conceptualized as a limited resource that becomes depleted after a period of exertion resulting in self-control failure. The model has typically been tested using a sequential-task experimental paradigm, in which people completing an initial self-control task have reduced self-control capacity and poorer performance on a subsequent task, a state known as ego depletion. Although a meta-analysis of ego-depletion experiments found a medium-sized effect, subsequent meta-analyses have questioned the size and existence of the effect and identified instances of possible bias. The analyses served as a catalyst for the current Registered Replication Report of the ego-depletion effect. Multiple laboratories (k = 23, total N = 2,141) conducted replications of a standardized ego-depletion protocol based on a sequential-task paradigm by Sripada et al. Meta-analysis of the studies revealed that the size of the ego-depletion effect was small with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) that encompassed zero (d = 0.04, 95% CI [−0.07, 0.15]. We discuss implications of the findings for the ego-depletion effect and the resource depletion model of self-control.
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The objective of the present study was to examine whether subjective ease of goal pursuit would mediate the relation between an individual's motivation for pursuing a goal and their subsequent goal progress. Toward the beginning of a university semester, participants (n = 176) identified three goals they planned to pursue throughout the semester and reported their motivation for pursuing each of them. Participants then indicated, at two monthly follow-ups, how easy and natural it felt to pursue these goals and how much effort they were putting into attaining them. At the end of the semester, participants reported on their goal progress. Within-person analyses indicated that self-concordant goals were perceived as being easier to pursue relative to an individual's other goals. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, results indicated that subjective ease, but not effort, mediated the relation between motivation and goal progress, such that people were more likely to successfully accomplish self-concordant goals because pursuing those goals was perceived as being more effortless, and not because more effort was exerted. Discussion focuses on the implications and future directions for research on subjective effort and goal pursuit.
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There are many promising psychological interventions on the horizon, but there is no clear methodology for preparing them to be scaled up. Drawing on design thinking, the present research formalizes a methodology for redesigning and tailoring initial interventions. We test the methodology using the case of fixed versus growth mindsets during the transition to high school. Qualitative inquiry and rapid, iterative, randomized “A/B” experiments were conducted with ~3,000 participants to inform intervention revisions for this population. Next, two experimental evaluations showed that the revised growth mindset intervention was an improvement over previous versions in terms of short-term proxy outcomes (Study 1, N=7,501), and it improved 9th grade core-course GPA and reduced D/F GPAs for lower achieving students when delivered via the Internet under routine conditions with ~95% of students at 10 schools (Study 2, N=3,676). Although the intervention could still be improved even further, the current research provides a model for how to improve and scale interventions that begin to address pressing educational problems. It also provides insight into how to teach a growth mindset more effectively.
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Given the importance of self-regulation to everyday function, a natural question for scientists and laypeople alike to ask is whether self-regulation can be improved with training. In this chapter, I review theoretical models that explain why and how such training might work, describe the empirical evidence for and against those models, and discuss several conceptual issues that have emerged in the field to date. I focus on the strength model of self-regulation, as well as on various motivational and cognitive models, that offer predictions about how self-regulation can be improved. I also highlight future directions for research and theory on self-regulation training. Among these are greater needs for increased focus on mechanisms, theoretical clarity about which mental processes contribute to self-regulation, and attention to practical issues related to implementation. There is much initial promise in self-regulation training, but more theoretical and empirical work is needed before the knowledge we have gained can be applied at scale.
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Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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The efficacy of academic-mind-set interventions has been demonstrated by small-scale, proof-of-concept interventions, generally delivered in person in one school at a time. Whether this approach could be a practical way to raise school achievement on a large scale remains unknown. We therefore delivered brief growth-mind-set and sense-of-purpose interventions through online modules to 1,594 students in 13 geographically diverse high schools. Both interventions were intended to help students persist when they experienced academic difficulty; thus, both were predicted to be most beneficial for poorly performing students. This was the case. Among students at risk of dropping out of high school (one third of the sample), each intervention raised students' semester grade point averages in core academic courses and increased the rate at which students performed satisfactorily in core courses by 6.4 percentage points. We discuss implications for the pipeline from theory to practice and for education reform. © The Author(s) 2015.
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Laboratory research shows that when people believe that willpower is an abundant (rather than highly limited) resource they exhibit better self-control after demanding tasks. However, some have questioned whether this "nonlimited" theory leads to squandering of resources and worse outcomes in everyday life when demands on self-regulation are high. To examine this, we conducted a longitudinal study, assessing students' theories about willpower and tracking their self-regulation and academic performance. As hypothesized, a nonlimited theory predicted better self-regulation (better time management and less procrastination, unhealthy eating, and impulsive spending) for students who faced high self-regulatory demands. Moreover, among students taking a heavy course load, those with a nonlimited theory earned higher grades, which was mediated by less procrastination. These findings contradict the idea that a limited theory helps people allocate their resources more effectively; instead, it is people with the nonlimited theory who self-regulate well in the face of high demands. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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Az elmúlt évtizedekben az áramlat élmény (flow) és dimenzióinak mérésére számos vizsgálati módszer született (interjúk, az Élményértékelõ Mintavételi Eljárás különböző verziói, kérdőívek). Jelen mérõeszköz, a Flow Állapot Kérdõív (FÁK) kifejlesztéséhez Csíkszentmihályi Mihály (1997) fenomenológiai definíciójából indultunk ki. Célunk a flow alapdimenzióinak megbízható megragadása (mivel egyelõre nincs konszenzus a flow élmény alapvetõ faktoraira vonatkozóan) és egy elméleti alapokon nyugvó, mégis empirikusan kipróbált mérõeszköz kimunkálása volt. A FÁK elsõ verziója egy 40 itemes, ötfokú Likert-skálás mérõeszköz. Ennek tesztelésére több vizsgálatot is folytattunk, melynek során összesen 214 személy töltötte ki a kérdõívet. Az adatokon feltáró post hoc elemzéseket és faktorelemzést végeztünk, és egy 16 itemes, kétfaktoros modellhez jutottunk. A kérdőívet iteminputáció segítségével (+7 item) fejlesztettük tovább, így született meg a kérdõív 23 itemes második verziója. A mérőõeszközt ezután több vizsgálat során alkalmaztuk – összesen 260 fõ részvételével – és megvizsgáltuk a kérdőív látens struktúráját. Az itemek közül lépésenként kizártuk azt a hármat, melyeknek a faktortöltése 0,5-nél kisebb volt, így a feltáró faktoranalízis egy 20 itemes kétfaktoros megoldást eredményezett: (1) a „Kihívás-készség egyensúly” (11 item), valamint az (2) „Egybeolvadás a feladattal” (9 item) faktorok. E két faktor azonosítása megerősíti azt az elméleti feltételezést, mely szerint a flow élmény alapvetõ, meghatározó tényezői a kihívás-készség egyensúly, valamint a feladattal való egybeolvadás. Kulcsszavak: flow, kérdőív, faktorelemzés, alapdimenzió
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Often seen as the paragon of higher cognition, here we suggest that cognitive control is dependent on emotion. Rather than asking whether control is influenced by emotion, we ask whether control itself can be understood as an emotional process. Reviewing converging evidence from cybernetics, animal research, cognitive neuroscience, and social and personality psychology, we suggest that cognitive control is initiated when goal conflicts evoke phasic changes to emotional primitives that both focus attention on the presence of goal conflicts and energize conflict resolution to support goal-directed behavior. Critically, we propose that emotion is not an inert byproduct of conflict but is instrumental in recruiting control. Appreciating the emotional foundations of control leads to testable predictions that can spur future research.
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In the last decades several measuring methods have been established for studying flow experience. The starting point for the establishment of the Flow State Questionnaire (PPL-FSQ: Flow State Questionnaire of the Positive Psychology Lab) was Csíkszentmihályi's phenomenological definition. There is no consensus about the basic factors of flow experience, so the goal was to develop a questionnaire which is based on theoretical principles and empirical results also. The first version of the PPL-FSQ had 40 items. In order to test this questionnaire a study was conducted with 214 participants. Exploratory post hoc analysis and factor analysis were performed and had a result of a two-factor model of 16 items. The questionnaire was improved by item-imputation, so the second version of the survey consisted of 23 items. Then the instrument was tested through several studies (N = 260) and the latent structure of the questionnaire was examined. The exploratory factor analysis resulted in a two-factor model of 20 items. The balance between challenges and skills (11 items) and Absorption in the activity (9 items) factors. Identifying these two factors strengthens the theoretical hypothesis that the basic dimensions of flow experience are the balance between challenges and skills, as well as absorption in the task. Özet Son y×llarda, ak×ü deneyimini deùerlendirmek üzere farkl× ölçme yöntemleri kullan×lm×üt×r. Ak×ü Durum Ölçeùi (ADÖ) için ç×k×ü noktas×, Csíkszentmihályi'nin fenemenolojik tan×m× olmuütur. Ak×ü deneyiminin temel faktörlerinin ne olduùu ile ilgili bir uzlaüma söz konusu deùildir, dolay×s×yla bu çal×ümada amaç kuramsal temellere dayal× ve deneysel bulgularla desteklenmiü bir ölçme arac× geliütirmektir. ADÖ'nün ilk versiyonu 40 maddeden oluümuütur. Bu ölçek 214 kat×l×mc×dan elde edilen veriler üzerinden test edilmiütir. Aç×mlay×c× post-hoc analizi ve aç×mlay×c× faktör analizi sonucu iki faktörlü 16 maddelik bir ölçek elde edilmiütir. Daha sonra yap×lan çal×ümada, ölçek maddeleri art×r×lm×ü ölçeùin ikinci versiyonu 23 maddeden oluümuütur. Ölçek birkaç çal×ümada test edilmiü (N = 260) ve ölçeùin faktör yap×s× incelenmiütir. Aç×mlay×c× faktör analizi sonucu, iki faktörlü 20 maddelik bir ölçek elde edilmiütir. Buna gore ölçeùi oluüturan faktörler, güçlükler ve beceriler aras×ndaki denge (11 madde) ve iüe yoùunlaüma olarak belirlenmiütir. Sözkonusu bu iki faktör, ak×üla ilgili tan×mlanan teorik hipotezi destekler niteliktedir.
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People have a basic need to maintain the integrity of the self, a global sense of personal adequacy. Events that threaten self-integrity arouse stress and self-protective defenses that can hamper performance and growth. However, an intervention known as self-affirmation can curb these negative outcomes. Self-affirmation interventions typically have people write about core personal values. The interventions bring about a more expansive view of the self and its resources, weakening the implications of a threat for personal integrity. Timely affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and relationship outcomes, with benefits that sometimes persist for months and years. Like other interventions and experiences, self-affirmations can have lasting benefits when they touch off a cycle of adaptive potential, a positive feedback loop between the self-system and the social system that propagates adaptive outcomes over time. The present review highlights both connections with other disciplines and lessons for a social psychological understanding of intervention and change.
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Kurzban and colleagues carry forward an important contemporary movement in cognitive control research, tending away from resource-based models and toward a framework focusing on motivation or value. However, their specific proposal, centering on opportunity costs, appears problematic. We favor a simpler view, according to which the exertion of cognitive control carries intrinsic subjective costs.
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Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost - that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternative explanations for both the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across sub-disciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternative models might be empirically distinguished.
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To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.
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Past research found that the ingestion of glucose can enhance self-control. It has been widely assumed that basic physiological processes underlie this effect. We hypothesized that the effect of glucose also depends on people's theories about willpower. Three experiments, both measuring (experiment 1) and manipulating (experiments 2 and 3) theories about willpower, showed that, following a demanding task, only people who view willpower as limited and easily depleted (a limited resource theory) exhibited improved self-control after sugar consumption. In contrast, people who view willpower as plentiful (a nonlimited resource theory) showed no benefits from glucose-they exhibited high levels of self-control performance with or without sugar boosts. Additionally, creating beliefs about glucose ingestion (experiment 3) did not have the same effect as ingesting glucose for those with a limited resource theory. We suggest that the belief that willpower is limited sensitizes people to cues about their available resources including physiological cues, making them dependent on glucose boosts for high self-control performance.
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Research suggests that two, consecutive acts of self-control lead to impaired performance. This phenomenon is termed "ego depletion." It is assumed that an act of self-control consumes energy from some limited resource leaving less energy available for a subsequent act of self-control. Study 1 tested the alternative hypothesis that people's naïve theory or expectancy of the consequences of self-control influences their performance on control-demanding tasks. Participants watched an upsetting video fragment and subsequently performed a physical exercise test demanding self-control. Participants who suppressed their emotional reactions to the video showed ego-depletion: Their performance at the physical test decreased. However, if their (implicit) expectation that self-control negatively influences subsequent performance was challenged, their performance increased. Study 2 showed the existence of a dominant expectation that self-control consumes energy. These results indicate that the occurrence of the ego depletion phenomenon is strongly influenced by expectancies or schemata about self-control.
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Enacting effortful self-control depletes a finite resource, leaving less self-control available for subsequent effortful tasks. Positive social interaction can restore self-control, but hurtful or effortful social interaction depletes self-control. Given this conflict, people might seek an alternative to social interaction to restore self-control. The current research examines social surrogate restoration—the possibility that people seek a social surrogate when depleted, and that seeking social surrogacy restores selfcontrol. One experiment (Study 1) and one daily diary (Study 2) demonstrate that people seek familiar fictional worlds (e.g., a favorite television program) after exerting effortful self-control. Moreover, immersion in this familiar fictional world restores self-control. Supplementary analyses suggest that it is the social nature of this familiar fictional world that contributes to restoration.
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This study supported hypotheses derived from Dweck's model about the implications of two implicit self-theories: Entity theorists believe their intelligence is fixed, whereas Incremental theorists believe their intelligence can be increased. Findings showed no normative change in implicit self-theories from high school through college and relatively stable individual differences during college. Entity theorists tended to adopt performance goals, whereas Incremental theorists tended to adopt learning goals. In terms of attributions, affect, and behavioral response to challenge, Entity theorists displayed a helpless response pattern and Incremental theorists displayed a mastery-oriented response pattern. Finally, Entity theorists declined in self-esteem during college whereas Incremental theorists increased self-esteem, and path analyses showed that this effect was mediated by goal orientation and the helpless versus mastery response patterns.
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Evaluative conditioning refers to changes in the liking of a stimulus that are due to the fact that the stimulus has been paired with other, positive or negative stimuli. Although evaluative conditioning appears to be subjected to certain boundary conditions, significant evaluative conditioning effects have been obtained using a large variety of stimuli and procedures. Some data suggest that evaluative conditioning can occur under conditions that do not support other forms of Pavlovian conditioning, and several models have been proposed to account for these differences. In the present article, the authors summarize the available literature, draw conclusions where possible, and provide suggestions for future research.
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This research sought to integrate C. S. Dweck and E. L. Leggett's (1988) model with attribution theory. Three studies tested the hypothesis that theories of intelligence-the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) versus fixed (entity theory)-would predict (and create) effort versus ability attributions, which would then mediate mastery-oriented coping. Study 1 revealed that, when given negative feedback, incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to attribute to effort. Studies 2 and 3 showed that incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to take remedial action if performance was unsatisfactory. Study 3, in which an entity or incremental theory was induced, showed that incremental theorists' remedial action was mediated by their effort attributions. These results suggest that implicit theories create the meaning framework in which attributions occur and are important for understanding motivation.
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Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud—may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective—namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control.
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Self-determination theory maintains and has provided empirical support for the proposition that all human beings have fundamental psychological needs to be competent, autonomous, and related to others. Satisfaction of these basic needs facilitates people's autonomous motivation (i.e., acting with a sense of full endorsement and volition), whereas thwarting the needs promotes controlled motivation (i.e., feeling pressured to behave in particular ways) or being amotivated (i.e., lacking intentionality). Satisfying these basic needs and acting autonomously have been consistently shown to be associated with psychological health and effective performance. Social contexts within which people operate, however proximal (e.g., a family or workgroup) or distal (e.g., a cultural value or economic system), affect their need satisfaction and type of motivation, thus affecting their wellness and effectiveness. Social contexts also affect whether people's life goals or aspirations tend to be more intrinsic or more extrinsic, and that in turn affects important life outcomes.
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This study tested the hypothesis that conceptions of ability affect self-regulatory processes and the acquisition rate of a perceptual-motor skill. Subjects performed a rotary pursuit task under induced cognitive sets that task performance reflected inherent aptitude or acquirable skill. Their perceived self-efficacy, affective self-reactions, and performance attainments were measured over a series of trials. Subjects who performed the task under the inherent-aptitude conception of ability displayed no growth in perceived self-efficacy across phases, negative self-reactions to performances, low interest in the activity, and a limited level of skill development. In contrast, those who performed the task under the conception of ability as an acquirable skill displayed growth in perceived self-efficacy, positive self-reactions to their performances, widespread interest in the activity, and a high level of skill acquisition. The stronger the positive self-reactions, the greater the subsequent performance atta...
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A theory of ironic processes of mental control is proposed to account for the intentional and counterintentional effects that result from efforts at self-control of mental states. The theory holds that an attempt to control the mind introduces 2 processes: (a) an operating process that promotes the intended change by searching for mental contents consistent with the intended state and (b) a monitoring process that tests whether the operating process is needed by searching for mental contents inconsistent with the intended state. The operating process requires greater cognitive capacity and normally has more pronounced cognitive effects than the monitoring process, and the 2 working together thus promote whatever degree of mental control is enjoyed. Under conditions that reduce capacity, however, the monitoring process may supersede the operating process and thus enhance the person's sensitivity to mental contents that are the ironic opposite of those that are intended.
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Failures of self-control are thought to underlie various important behaviors (e.g., addiction, violence, obesity, poor academic achievement). The modern conceptualization of self-control failure has been heavily influenced by the idea that self-control functions as if it relied upon a limited physiological or cognitive resource. This view of self-control has inspired hundreds of experiments designed to test the prediction that acts of self-control are more likely to fail when they follow previous acts of self-control (the depletion effect). Here, we evaluated the empirical evidence for this effect with a series of focused, meta-analytic tests that address the limitations in prior appraisals of the evidence. We find very little evidence that the depletion effect is a real phenomenon, at least when assessed with the methods most frequently used in the laboratory. Our results strongly challenge the idea that self-control functions as if it relies on a limited psychological or physical resource. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
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This paper discusses common approaches to presenting the topic of skewness in the classroom, and explains why students need to know how to measure it. Two skewness statistics are examined: the Fisher-Pearson standardized third moment coefficient, and the Pearson 2 coefficient that compares the mean and median. The former is reported in statistical software packages, while the latter is all but forgotten in textbooks. Given its intuitive appeal, why did Pearson 2 disappear? Is it ever useful? Using Monte Carlo simulation, tables of percentiles are created for Pearson 2. It is shown that while Pearson 2 has lower power, it matches classroom explanations of skewness and can be calculated when summarized data are available. This paper suggests reviving the Pearson 2 skewness statistic for the introductory statistics course because it compares the mean to the median in a precise way that students can understand. The paper reiterates warnings about what any skewness statistic can actually tell us.
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We reviewed the literature on the role of working memory in the solution of arithmetic problems such as 3 + 4 or 345 + 29. The literature was neither comprehensive nor systematic, but a few conclusions are tenable. First, all three components of the working memory system proposed by Baddeley (i.e., central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) play a role in mental arithmetic, albeit under different conditions. Second, mental arithmetic requires central executive resources, even for single-digit problems. Third, further progress in understanding the role of working memory in arithmetic requires that researchers systematically manipulate factors such as presentation conditions (e.g., operand duration, format), problem complexity, task requirements (e.g., verification vs production), and response requirements (e.g., spoken vs written); and that they consider individual differences in solution procedures. Fourth, the encoding-complex model (Campbell, 1994) seems more likely to account for the variability observed in arithmetic solutions than other models of numerical processing. Finally, working memory researchers are urged to use mental arithmetic as a primary task because the results of the present review suggest that solution of problems that involve multiple digits are likely to involve an interaction of all the components of the working memory system.