Article

# The Surprisingly Powerful Influence of Drawing on Memory

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## Abstract

The colloquialism “a picture is worth a thousand words” has reverberated through the decades, yet there is very little basic cognitive research assessing the merit of drawing as a mnemonic strategy. In our recent research, we explored whether drawing to-be-learned information enhanced memory and found it to be a reliable, replicable means of boosting performance. Specifically, we have shown this technique can be applied to enhance learning of individual words and pictures as well as textbook definitions. In delineating the mechanism of action, we have shown that gains are greater from drawing than other known mnemonic techniques, such as semantic elaboration, visualization, writing, and even tracing to-be-remembered information. We propose that drawing improves memory by promoting the integration of elaborative, pictorial, and motor codes, facilitating creation of a context-rich representation. Importantly, the simplicity of this strategy means it can be used by people with cognitive impairments to enhance memory, with preliminary findings suggesting measurable gains in performance in both normally aging individuals and patients with dementia.

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... Examples include pleasantness ratings (Hunt & Einstein, 1981), generation (Bertsch et al., 2007;Slamecka & Graf, 1978), production (Conway & Gathercole, 1987;MacLeod & Bodner, 2017), survival processing (Nairne et al., 2007), and more recently, drawing an image of a word's referent (Wammes et al., 2016(Wammes et al., , 2017. Although the benefits of these encoding tasks on memory for studied information are well supported using a variety of study materials (e.g., Fernandes et al., 2018;Ozubko et al., 2012), it is equally important to gauge task effectiveness on memory errors when considering overall memory accuracy. The aim of our current study was to evaluate whether the correct memory benefits of drawing would extend to associative false memory errors and evaluate whether drawing individual images reflects recruitment of distinctive item-specific processing. ...
... Several processes have been proposed to support drawing benefits on memory. For instance, Fernandes et al. (2018) suggested that drawing benefits reflected the integration of three separate encoding-based processes (elaboration, motor action, and pictorial processing) to produce a cohesive and powerful memory trace. In addition to encoding processes, drawing also appears to facilitate recollection-based processes at test. ...
... We term this drawing task as the black-pencil group, given participants were instructed to generate drawings using a standard black pencil. We expected that the black-pencil group would produce a mirror effect pattern relative to reading based on the well documented benefits of drawing on correct memory (Fernandes et al., 2018) and reductions in false memory following distinctive/item-specific encoding (Huff et al., 2015). These groups were further compared with a second drawing group which similarly drew a single image but were required to use two or more different coloured pencils when producing an image. ...
Article
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We examined the effects of drawing on correct and false recognition within the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm. In Experiment 1, we compared drawing of a word’s referent using either a standard black pencil or colored pencils relative to a read-only control group. Relative to reading, drawing in either black or colored pencil similarly boosted correct recognition and reduced false recognition. Signal-detection analyses indicated that drawing reduced the amount of encoded memory information for critical lures and increased monitoring, indicating that both processes contributed to the false recognition reduction. Experiment 2 compared drawing of individual images of DRM list items relative to drawing integrated images using sets of DRM list items. False recognition was lower for drawing of individual images relative to integrated images—a pattern that reflected a decrease in encoded memory information but not monitoring. Therefore, drawing individual images improves memory accuracy in the DRM paradigm relative to a standard read-control task and an integrated drawing task, which we argue is due to the recruitment of item-specific processing.
... Memory research suggests that cues with high visual imagery can stimulate greater memory specificity when engaging in autobiographical memory retrieval (Williams, Healy, & Ellis, 1999). Along with this, research suggests that drawing, as compared to writing and viewing picture cues, improves semantic memory (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018). In a series of eight studies, Fernandes et al. (2018) have shown that drawing, versus writing or mentally visualizing, improved memory for word lists and scientific concepts. ...
... Along with this, research suggests that drawing, as compared to writing and viewing picture cues, improves semantic memory (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018). In a series of eight studies, Fernandes et al. (2018) have shown that drawing, versus writing or mentally visualizing, improved memory for word lists and scientific concepts. Current EFT approaches use written or audio cues presented during DD tasks, during which individuals are asked to visualize their events (Daniel et al., 2013a(Daniel et al., , 2013bO'Donnell, Oluyomi Daniel, & Epstein, 2017), but drawn cues have not been examined. ...
... For example, EFT has been shown to improve prospective memory in children (Nigro, Brandimonte, Cicogna, & Cosenza, 2014;Terrett et al., 2019) and young adults (Terrett et al., 2016), and adolescents asked to imagine future actions performed better on a prospective memory task (Altgassen, Kretschmer, & Schnitzspahn, 2017). Drawing can improve semantic memory recall in a variety of populations, including ones in which there is a serious memory deficit (Fernandes et al., 2018), and visual cues have aided in increasing details in episodic memory and episodic future thinking in children with autistic spectrum disorder (Anger et al., 2019). ...
Article
Delay discounting (DD) describes choices between small, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Individuals who are high in DD favor small, immediate rewards, and this preference is related to health behaviors including higher energy intake, smoking and less physical activity. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is an intervention in which one thinks about personal positive future events and this decreases DD in adults and children. In previous studies episodic events have been presented as written or auditory cues. Episodic future images are also imagined visually, but the impact of personal visual cues has not been tested. Research examining sensory modality and semantic memory has shown drawn items are associated with better recall than writing or viewing provided images. This study compared drawn versus written episodic future or recent cues on DD. Sixty-nine adults were randomized to one of three groups; EFT-written, EFT-drawn or Episodic recent thinking (ERT)-written cues, and completed a computerized adjusting amount DD task cued with episodic events. Results showed both written and drawn EFT cues had a larger effect on DD than ERT-written cues and individual differences in immediate time perspective moderated this effect. This suggests that drawn and written cues can have similar effects on DD, providing future clinical work flexibility in how to present cues in the field. In addition, presenting drawn cues may improve DD for individuals who have an immediate time perspective.
... Moreover, sketching is strongly related to human cognitive development [4,26,27]. In this vein, Fernades et al. [27] showed that drawing improves memory and creativity in normal aging individuals and those with cognitive impairments. ...
... Moreover, sketching is strongly related to human cognitive development [4,26,27]. In this vein, Fernades et al. [27] showed that drawing improves memory and creativity in normal aging individuals and those with cognitive impairments. Furthermore, De Andrade et al. [26] showed the benefits of collaborative drawing for learning and collective thinking, enhancing social-cognitive interactions among persons. ...
Article
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Sketch-based image retrieval is demanding interest in the computer vision community due to its relevance in the visual perception system and its potential application in a wide diversity of industries. In the literature, we observe significant advances when the models are evaluated in public datasets. However, when assessed in real environments, the performance drops drastically. The big problem is that the SOTA SBIR models follow a supervised regimen, strongly depending on a considerable amount of labeled sketch-photo pairs, which is unfeasible in real contexts. Therefore, we propose SBIR-BYOL, an extension of the well-known BYOL, to work in a bimodal scenario for sketch-based image retrieval. To this end, we also propose a two-stage self-supervised training methodology, exploiting existing sketch-photo pairs and contour-photo pairs generated from photographs of a target catalog. We demonstrate the benefits of our model for the eCommerce environments, where searching is a critical component. Here, our self-supervised SBIR model shows an increase of over 60%\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$60\%$$\end{document} of mAP.
... To help NP students learn illness scripts for common acute illnesses, drawing assignments are incorporated into an online course that focuses on the management of acute illnesses. Drawing is an active form of learning and has been shown to improve learning and memory over reading and note taking (Fernandes et al., 2018). It is used to facilitate learning complex concepts and processes, especially in the sciences. ...
... It is used to facilitate learning complex concepts and processes, especially in the sciences. Fernandes et al. (2018) hypothesize that drawing enhances memory through integration of three processes: ...
... This discovery safeguards a multiple coding model. Drawing involves the use of imagination, thereby forcing the brain to create a mental image of a content or idea (Fernandes et al. 2018). ...
... When we draw, we involve hand movements that contribute to building mental images of what we are observing, activating the iteration of motor action with the pictorial processing of what we are creating. Researchers in the drawing field agree that this process is a fundamental component of the learning and communication experience (Kantrowitz and Tversky 2017;Chamberlain 2018;Fernandes et al. 2018). We can say that human hands were made to draw, and the evidence that we start drawing before we learn to write suggests that drawing is our way to learning writing; a sketch is a way to learn the alphabet. ...
Article
This paper reflects on a project run in a first-year class of art and design degree, in the Curricular Unit of Art and Design Theory. The objective of the project was to investigate the potential of a teaching protocol where a set of drawings were generated in class by the teacher to facilitate knowledge transfer in the classroom. The drawings generated by the teacher in class have not been treated or explored as a strategy as such, but they supported the delivery of theoretical content in the classroom. As part of the teaching theory protocol, a series of drawings were built as a sequential visual narrative, in the form of a story; these drawings, acting as visual narratives, sought to enable students to understand the theoretical content. At the end of the sessions, all students involved in the project were evaluated through surveys, to gather evidence of their understanding of theory. The results obtained suggest that the use of drawing as a tool in explaining theory facilitates a better understanding of theoretical concepts for students. It also allows the teacher to clarify and adjust unclear points in the lectures, and as such this protocol could function as a recursive strategy. In conclusion, the simplicity of this strategy could benefit students with cognitive difficulties, offering a complementary approach in the dialogue between teacher and student. This approach is particularly useful in contributing to the transfer of knowledge in the classroom in a digital age.
... As Fernandez et al. indicate in their 2018 research, self-generated sketches may be more effective. "Gains [in knowledge retention] are greater from drawings than from other known mnemonic techniques, such as semantic elaboration, visualization, writing, and even tracing to-be-remembered information [23]." Drawing potentially "improves memory by promoting the integration of elaborative, pictorial, and motor codes, facilitating the creation of a context-rich representation [23]." ...
... "Gains [in knowledge retention] are greater from drawings than from other known mnemonic techniques, such as semantic elaboration, visualization, writing, and even tracing to-be-remembered information [23]." Drawing potentially "improves memory by promoting the integration of elaborative, pictorial, and motor codes, facilitating the creation of a context-rich representation [23]." Additionally, the person-action-object (PAO) system used by memory masters to rapidly memorize long strings of random numbers or randomly shuffled decks of cards relies on the conversion of numbers (or cards) into images, suggesting that images are easier to remember than the original string of numbers or cards [24]. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper presents an evidence-based practice pilot study of the potential cognitive benefits of requiring students to create sketches that summarize course material in ways different than presented in class. This exercise is termed a "napkin sketch" to articulate to students the benefits of simple sketches to communicate ideas-as is often done by engineers in practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate how this napkin sketch activity addresses three concerns of engineering educators: creativity, visualization and communication, and knowledge retention. Specific objectives of the study were to generate conclusions regarding the activity's ability to (1) provide an outlet for, and a means of encouraging creativity, (2) provide an opportunity for students to visualize and communicate what they have learned through drawings rather than equations or writing, and (3) encourage knowledge retention by providing a mechanism for students to think about and describe concepts learned in the classroom differently than for other requirements. The scope of this paper includes the generation, implementation, and analysis of the napkin sketch activity in three civil engineering courses across eight different class sections in the spring and fall of 2019 at the U.S. Military Academy, a small, public, undergraduate-only four-year college in the northeast United States. The motivation for the study stems from evidence-based practices of re-representation from educational psychology, minute papers from educational research, the growing shift to computer-aided design and away from hand drawing, and recent research suggesting our engineering programs may be degrading student creativity. A between-subjects quasi-experimental setup examined four activity implementations and 249 sketches were collected. Sketch creativity was assessed by three instructors using a creativity rubric adapted from literature. The sketch creativity scores, along with individual student academic and course performance data, were analyzed using standard least squares regression and machine learning techniques to investigate the effect of sketching on creativity and understanding of course material. An anonymous and optional survey was also provided to a total of 56 students, with 21 students responding (37.5%). The following key conclusions can be drawn from the study: (1) the activity does encourage students to think about the material differently, and provides a means for creative students to express lesson content creatively; however, assessment bias, selection bias, and the inherent difficulty in assessing creativity does not allow us to draw conclusions about the creativity of engineering students in any absolute sense from the collected data; (2) incorporating an emphasis on freehand sketching into the engineering curriculum could have positive effects toward developing creativity and pictorial communication skills; (3) there was evidence in the data suggesting that the sample populations examined in the study are experiencing degradation in creativity between sophomore and senior level coursework, which was an idea expressed in the literature; (4) the sketch creativity scores are higher when it is conducted after blocks of material and performed outside of class.
... Recently Fernandes published a comprehensive set of studies exploring the merits of drawing as a mnemonic strategy and observed it to reliably enhance performance on memory tests. 13 When the authors compared the participant's ability to remember things they drew themselves, vs. retaining images drawn by others, the active drawing practice enhanced retention as compared to looking at completed drawings. Medical instagrammers in our study expressed a physicality to their learning through the actual process of drawing. ...
... Their data support the idea that the mechanism of action occurs in the provision (by drawing) of vivid contextual information that could aid in subsequent retrieval. 13 They posit an "integrated components model" of the drawing effect with contributions of elaborative, motoric, and pictorial information. Following similar logic, the translation of meanings from one sign system to another (e.g., from text to drawing), termed transmediation, is thought to allow invention of new meaning which invokes reflective and generative thinking, that may contribute to recall of information. ...
Article
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Purpose Visual note taking is a strategy used by medical students in the process of learning medicine. Some medical students show a preference for learning by drawing and some also promote learning in others by sharing their drawings globally on social media platforms. Instagram is a popular platform for promoting shared visual learning by medical students but little is known about the impact for medical student learners of these shared Instagram drawings. Method In this descriptive exploratory study medical students who post on Instagram were interviewed, and their followers surveyed, to determine the efficacy of both their self and shared learning. The interview transcripts and survey responses were analyzed inductively, generating themes about the role of visual learning in medicine and the larger value in building community. Results Both medical students who post on Instagram and their followers self-identified as having a preference for visual learning; they associated learning and retention with both the act of making and looking at, drawings. They also identified a role for mnemonics and humour in their education. Importantly, they and their followers, reported that the emergence of an online community of practice played a vital role in helping them cope with the stresses of medical training. Discussion Creating visual notes/cartoons was an integral part of the learning strategy for medical students, as was looking at these images for the followers. Through the sharing of their images, medical students acted as role models for their medical student followers, illustrating that visual note taking can be a successful learning strategy in the study of medicine. Connecting online through sharing and commenting on Instagram drawings provided a virtual space for recognition and processing of the struggles inherent in medical training.
... This drawing technique was found effective for boosting memory, specifically in remembering words. This finding confirmsFernandes, Wammes, & Meade's (2018) proposition that drawing technique improves recall so that it is applicable to enhancing vocabulary learning. ...
Article
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Vocabulary mastery is essential to help students learn English. However, many elementary students struggle with having sufficient vocabulary. This classroom action research aims to improve elementary students' vocabulary mastery through the PFAR-based flipped classroom. PFAR, which stands for Plan, Flip, Assess, and Reflect, is a recent development of flipped classroom for teaching English to young learners. The participants of this study included 15 grade VI students from an Islamic elementary school. The data were collected using tests, observations, and interviews. The findings revealed that the PFAR-based flipped classroom enhanced the students' vocabulary mastery. This improvement was made possible by active learning during vocabulary lessons. The students learned vocabulary through videos, pictures, and academic games, both online and in face-to-face classes. The results of the tests showed that the students were able to achieve the learning objectives, namely (1) understanding the meaning of certain vocabulary; (2) writing certain vocabulary with correct spelling; and (3) applying certain vocabulary in simple sentences. All the students yielded a mean score of more than 70 on five vocabulary tests. In addition, they became more active during the lessons and confirmed that the entire learning process was more attractive. All of this evidence suggests that this research was successful in improving students' vocabulary mastery.
... Both methods are paper and/or computer based. Most importantly, both are supported by research, demonstrating their contribution to learning and understanding (for example, Fernandes et al, 2018;Kinchin et al, 2019). During the presentation, we shared the outcomes of our research to date via a practical workshop informed by our theoretical explorations and discussed their implications. ...
Article
Despite its importance, student note taking is under-researched and under-theorised. Many studies are outdated, analysing pre-digital behaviour. Hence, we question whether earlier findings still apply (as does van der Meer, 2012). Although we find some innovations useful, such as collaborative note taking (Orndorff, 2015), much recent research is also problematic. For example, consider widely reported claims that students taking longhand notes perform better than students using laptops (Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). Recent studies suggest more complex relationships (Luo et al., 2018) but typically adopt short-term experimental approaches. As a result, current advice and guidance for university students tends to be limited, often listing different techniques with relatively little commentary/analysis. This session enabled participants to review progress on this ALDinHE supported project, inviting discussion on issues/development regarding our three main aims to: • Investigate current students’ note taking practices/preferences and develop transferable models to inform guidance and further research. • Pilot structured interventions, introducing different methods. • Produce/disseminate tools/approaches for longer-term investigation and application/adaptation by colleagues elsewhere.
... However, unlike TEs, which seem mainly to be tools of imagination, visualizations are more flexible, serving as tools of memory, calculation, and logical inference-making. They can be powerful aides to memory (Shah and Hoeffner 2002;McCrudden, Magliano, and Schraw 2011;Fernandes, Wammes, and Meade 2018). They are also effective in guiding mathematical, scientific, and logical inference-making (Larkin and Simon 1987), as when a mathematician works through a proof in knot theory (Starikova and Giaquinto 2018). ...
Article
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Thought experiments, models, diagrams, computer simulations, and metaphors can all be understood as tools of the imagination. While these devices are usually treated separately in philosophy of science, this paper provides a unified account according to which tools of the imagination are epistemically good insofar as they improve scientific imaginings. Improving scientific imagining is characterized in terms of epistemological consequences: more improvement means better consequences. A distinction is then drawn between tools being good in retrospect, at the time, and in general. In retrospect, tools are evaluated straightforwardly in terms of the quality of their consequences. At the cutting edge, tools are evaluated positively insofar as there is reason to believe that using them will have good consequences. Lastly, tools can be generally good, insofar as their use encourages the development of epistemic virtues, which are good because they have good epistemic consequences.
... Emerging programs of research have demonstrated that both drawing and speaking during encoding, compared respectively to writing or reading silently, confer significant boosts to later memory (the drawing and production effects, respectively; Fernandes et al., 2018;MacLeod & Bodner, 2017). A common attribute of these two techniques, as with enactment, is that of purposeful conceptually related generation of an item during encoding. ...
Article
The enactment effect is the phenomenon that physically performing an action represented by a word or phrase (e.g., clap, clap your hands) results in better memory than does simply reading it. We examined data from three different methodological approaches to provide a comprehensive review of the enactment effect across 145 behavioral, 7 neuroimaging, and 31 neurological patient studies. Boosts in memory performance following execution of a physical action were compared to those produced by reading words or phrases, by watching an experimenter perform actions, or by engaging in self-generated imagery. Across the behavioral studies, we employed random-effects meta-regression with robust variance estimation (RVE) to reveal an average enactment effect size of g = 1.23. Further meta-analyses revealed that variations in study design and comparison task reliably influence the size of the enactment effect, whereas four other experiment factors-test format, learning instruction type, retention interval, and the presence of objects during encoding-likely do not influence the effect. Neuroimaging studies demonstrated enactment-related activation to be prevalent in the motor cortex and inferior parietal lobule. Patient studies indicated that, regardless of whether impairments of memory (e.g., Alzheimer's) or of motor capability (e.g., Parkinson's) were present, patients were able to benefit from enactment. The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis highlight two components accounting for the memory benefit from enactment: a primary mental contribution relating to planning the action and a secondary physical contribution of the action itself. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... This depiction can be in the form of 2D or three-dimensional (3D) images, (physical or digital) fabrications, schematics, or models along with descriptions of the structural observations. For a student (novice) of Anatomy, the act of depicting anatomy, such as factual drawing, has been shown to improve factual, inferential, and transfer learning of anatomy ( Fernandes et al 2018 ;Cromley et al. 2020 ). Students do not need artistic training to make a sketch of anatomy because the focus of an anatomical drawing is the important morphological details not the aesthetics of a rendering. ...
Article
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Core concepts offer coherence to the discourse of a scientific discipline and facilitate teaching by identifying large unifying themes that can be tailored to the level of the class and expertise of the instructor. This approach to teaching has been shown to encourage deeper learning that can be integrated across subdisciplines of Biology and has been adopted by several other Biology subdisciplines. However, Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy, although one of the oldest biological areas of study, has not had its core concepts identified. Here, we present five core concepts and seven competencies (skills) for Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy that came out of an iterative process of engagement with the broader community of vertebrate morphologists over a three-year period. The core concepts are: A) Evolution, B) Structure and Function, C) Morphological Development, D) Integration and E) Human anatomy is the result of vertebrate evolution. The core competencies students should gain from the study of comparative vertebrate anatomy are: F) Tree thinking, G) Observation, H) Dissection of specimens, I) Depiction of anatomy, J) Appreciation of the importance of natural history collections, K) Science communication and L) Data integration. We offer a succinct description of each core concept and competency, example learning outcomes that could be used to assess teaching effectiveness and examples of relevant resources for both instructors and students. Additionally, we pose a grand challenge to the community, arguing that the field of Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy needs to acknowledge racism, androcentrism, homophobia, genocide, slavery, and other influences in its history and address their lingering effects in order to move forward as a thriving discipline that is inclusive of all students and scientists and continues to generate unbiased knowledge for the betterment of humanity. Despite the rigorous process used to compile these core concepts and competencies, we anticipate that they will serve as a framework for an ongoing conversation that ensures Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy remains a relevant field in discovery, innovation, and training of future generations of scientists.
... Other studies have also used doodles with children, such as with pre-teens (Renaud, 2009b) and children slightly older than pre-teens (Alkhamis et al., 2020). Such images have superior Volume 13 Paper 2 memorability due to the action planning memory they invoke when viewed again (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018;Knoblich & Prinz, 2001). ...
... Without traditional hands-on activities, hand-drawn assignments are an alternative to help reinforce concepts beyond traditional readings or lectures. Although some students would rather write down their lab results or methods, forcing some assignments in a virtual lab setting to require drawings can connect their brain in unique ways that enhance memory (Fernandes et al., 2018). With physiological renderings or lab methods, grading rubrics can be applied to consider the location, labeling, and relevant scaling of key features. ...
Article
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SYMPOSIUM SUMMARY In 2020, classrooms across the country abruptly transitioned to emergency remote learning in response to COVID-19. Instructors quickly searched for guidance on ways to present course material in an online format that would still allow for course learning outcomes to be met. Perhaps the greatest challenge cited by instructors was engaging students when face-to-face meetings were not an option. This becomes an even greater challenge in poultry and animal science curricula that encourage hands-on learning. Most first year students are unaware of the opportunities in the animal agricultural industries and engagement in the classroom is one way to spark curiosity and interest in the subject matter. The abrupt change to online teaching challenged many instructors to rethink their teaching strategies and explore teaching pedagogies to engage students in an online student-centered learning environment. An outcome from this challenge was an increased comfort and efficacy, for both students and instructors, of applying pedagogical approaches to enhance online learning. A symposium at the 2021 Poultry Science Association brought together instructors of poultry and animal science courses from across the country to discuss the challenges and successes of implementing on-line instruction and engagement in response to COVID-19. A consistent commentary among the participants of the symposium concerned an increased desire for collaboration and dialog concerning effective pedagogical approaches among instructors of poultry and animal science courses. Thus, a summary of the symposium's presentations, as well as thoughts from a student panel, concerning effective online teaching and learning is presented.
... Participants were also asked to draw their Academic Network Plots (ANPs) while thinking aloud. Asking participants to draw ANPs is more powerful than asking them to merely describe them verbally because their memories are evoked in a better way when drawing a visual representation of their experiences (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018). This method also proved to be beneficial in other studies because of the richness of data it can provide . ...
Thesis
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... x (e.g., Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018;Gagné, Wager, Golas, & Keller, 2005;Garrett, 1986;Leow, 2015;Swain, 1985). To this end, this book offers the following unique features, some of which draw on my research (e.g., Hwu, 2003Hwu, , 2004Hwu, , 2007Hwu, , 2014Hwu, , 2015aHwu, , 2015bHwu, , 2016: ...
Book
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"Learning Spanish Grammar Through Everyday Conversational Comics" helps students learn the most challenging Spanish grammar concepts and apply them in real-life situations. The text uses comics containing catchy and colorful graphics, humor, and contextualized short conversations on a wide variety of topics to enhance comprehension and keep learners motivated and engaged. The text provides students with a collection of pedagogical grammar rules and contextualized examples to encourage rule- and exemplar-based learning. It offers students an array of examples in context to help them develop a clearer understanding of Spanish language use and apply what they learn to new situations. Grammatical rules and explanations help readers activate their existing knowledge and also produce new utterances. The comics included throughout the text serve as both examples and attainment goals to make learning more relevant, purposeful, and enjoyable. Within each chapter, activities support students’ concept formation, concept clarification, mental decision steps, hands-on learning, and creative self-expression. Developed to enhance comprehension and further students’ speaking and writing abilities, "Learning Spanish Grammar Through Everyday Conversational Comics" is an ideal resource for intermediate and advanced courses in Spanish.
... Obstacles that mainly come from their visual impairments keep their dreams so far away from them! Painting can not only mould a person's temperament, but also improve communication between people [6]. Drawing images can assist the process of remembering information, which turns out to be a good memory strategy to quickly grasp a new concept [7], [8] and help acquire knowledge of different subjects [9], [10]. While painting, people can release their pent-up emotions as a way to maintain an optimistic attitude [11], [12]. ...
Preprint
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For people who ardently love painting but unfortunately have visual impairments, holding a paintbrush to create a work is a very difficult task. People in this special group are eager to pick up the paintbrush, like Leonardo da Vinci, to create and make full use of their own talents. Therefore, to maximally bridge this gap, we propose a painting navigation system to assist blind people in painting and artistic creation. The proposed system is composed of cognitive system and guidance system. The system adopts drawing board positioning based on QR code, brush navigation based on target detection and bush real-time positioning. Meanwhile, this paper uses human-computer interaction on the basis of voice and a simple but efficient position information coding rule. In addition, we design a criterion to efficiently judge whether the brush reaches the target or not. According to the experimental results, the thermal curves extracted from the faces of testers show that it is relatively well accepted by blindfolded and even blind testers. With the prompt frequency of 1s, the painting navigation system performs best with the completion degree of 89% with SD of 8.37% and overflow degree of 347% with SD of 162.14%. Meanwhile, the excellent and good types of brush tip trajectory account for 74%, and the relative movement distance is 4.21 with SD of 2.51. This work demonstrates that it is practicable for the blind people to feel the world through the brush in their hands. In the future, we plan to deploy Angle's Eyes on the phone to make it more portable. The demo video of the proposed painting navigation system is available at: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9760004.v1.
... This is true even when people spend the same amount of time semantically elaborating by writing and for both longer and shorter time frames. Drawing aids retrieval as it helps people remember the source of the memory (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018). ...
Article
The technique of drawing to learn has received increasing attention in recent years. In this article, we will present distinct purposes for using drawing that are based on active, constructive, and interactive forms of engagement. In doing so, we hope to show that drawing to learn should be widely used and that there is good evidence to support its use in many situations. To make the most of these distinct purposes, teachers should note that what learners draw matters and that this needs to be assessed in relation to task demands. Drawing to learn will also require learners to be supported to engage meaningfully in ways that are matched to these pedagogical purposes.
... See the work of Aaron (2011), Adoniou (2012), Drake (2018),Fernandes, et. al. (2018), andWammes, et. al. (2016). ...
Article
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This paper presents a technique for structuring writing prompts in Narrative Medicine as a way to promote a reconsideration of medical professionals’ privilege in relation to non-medical professionals. The interest in such a reconsideration of privilege has become increasingly evident in faculties of medicine as a result of #MeToo. As well, it has evolved as a point of discussion within this journal, Survive & Thrive. That medical professionals not be overburdened has been recognized as imperative for the possibility of change. In one multidisciplinary educational setting, including equal participation with non-medical professionals, physicians’ feelings of being overwhelmed have been reduced with respect to their health research. The use of writing prompts is well known to faculties of medicine; however, the idea that there is a particular way prompts can be structured in Narrative Research for maximum benefit is not. The technique for structuring writing prompts, including the promotion of drawing by participants, is offered and a justification for the technique presented with respect to the reconsideration of privilege.
... Sketching has been found to help students overcome the "seductive details" effects of visual representations that can result in shallow processing (e.g., Ref. [83]). Finally, when a student sketches their own copy of a graph on a screen, they then have a permanent record of the representation to consult, and the act of copying it will likely aid memory retention [84]. ...
Article
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[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Curriculum Development: Theory into Design.] This manuscript discusses how learning theories have been applied to shape multiple aspects of the design of curricular activities combining interactive computer simulations and University of Washington style tutorials (so-called simulation-tutorials). When considering the curriculum goals (what to teach), we drew on theories of representational competence and learning with multiple representations. When considering how to teach, we drew on theories of constructivism and sketching to learn, leveraging the advantages of sketching as a constructive process that requires students to make their current understanding explicit in visual form, to make specific choices in order to make their ideas concrete, and to organize information to support deep processing. When considering when and why to sketch, we drew upon theories of representational competence, learning with multiple representations and inventing to prepare for future learning to describe six distinct purposes of sketching both prior to and while working with the simulation. This is illustrated by presenting specific sketching tasks to show how theory informed the design and the sequencing of the tasks. We followed a design-based research method, working at two institutions in two countries and with multiple cohorts of students to understand, and where necessary improve, the design of these activities, primarily basing our decisions on the sketches that students had created. The key message of this research is that the design and sequencing of sketching tasks needs to be carefully matched to the pedagogical rationale and that theory can shape these decisions in many ways.
... Cognitive milestones have been tied to features reflecting the complexity of spontaneous drawings, with older children including articulated parts such as fingers [47]. Research has also identified drawing as a cognitive aid, showing it is helpful in organizing and remembering information [48]. Because sketches reveal designers' thinking [49], we reason that designers' mindset about HCD may be similarly evident in their sketches. ...
... The thorough reviews indicated that three strategies in particular seem to be particularly robust in terms of their potential for enhancing student achievement across content domains and student ages-spacing study over time, retrieving tobe-learned information , and constructing self-explanations, such as answering why particular relations exist (Pashler et al., 2007;e.g., for benefits of this strategy in college biology, see Smith, Holliday, & Austin, 2010; for benefits of self-explanation in improving high school math problem solving, see Wong et al., 2002). We caution, however, that some generative strategies that are potent in laboratory settings, such as drawing to learn (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018), may not necessarily generalize to more complex classroom content (e.g., Alexandrini, 1981;Jaeger, Velazquez, Dawdanow, & Shipley, 2018). ...
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Surveys indicate that at all educational levels students often use relatively ineffective study strategies. One potential remedy is to include learning-strategy training into students’ educational experiences. A major challenge, however, is that it has proven difficult to design training protocols that support students’ self-regulation and transfer of effective learning strategies across a range of content. In this article we propose a practical theoretical framework called the knowledge, belief, commitment, and planning (KBCP) framework for guiding strategy training to promote students’ successful self-regulation of effective learning strategies. The KBCP framework rests on the assumption that four essential components must be included in training to support sustained strategy self-regulation: (a) acquiring knowledge about strategies, (b) belief that the strategy works, (c) commitment to using the strategy, and (d) planning of strategy implementation. We develop these assumptions in the context of pertinent research and suggest that each component alone is not sufficient to promote sustained learning-strategy self-regulation. Our intent in developing this learning-strategy training framework is to stimulate renewed interest and effort in investigating how to effectively train learning strategies and their self-regulation and to guide systematic research and application in this area. We close by sketching an example of a concrete training protocol based on the KBCP framework.
... 6 Furthermore, encouraging students to draw to-belearned material enhances their ability to remember more than do mnemonic devices. 7 In 1999, Macpherson wrote a booklet, later published on the Creative Commons in 2015 that offered a print template for instructors to use to incorporate what was then called collaborative learning structures into their classes. 8 While the article provides a useful tool, it does not provide a digital option and it is better suited to undergraduate classrooms. ...
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Objective: To describe a systematic approach to active learning using a lesson template with a graphic organizer activity. Innovation: The authors describe a tool that can be used to incorporate a graphic organizer activity into a traditional lecture class to promote active learning. This interactive template offers a step-by-step process to plan and implement a graphic organizer activity. The graphic organizer was used in a contact dermatitis lecture as part of a Nonprescription Medicines course for first year pharmacy students. Critical Analysis: A survey of students immediately after the activity identified that students agreed they were interested in the activity, were engaged with the activity, and perceived an understanding of the course material. An instructor reflection revealed that students were excited and identified some instructor challenges to executing the activity. Next Steps: Instructors interested in using graphic organizers in lectures can refer to this approach for guidance. In addition to a graphic organizer, the structure of this template can be applied to different active learning activities, thus creating consistency in delivering active learning.
... El dibujo es superior a actividades como la lectura o la escritura porque obliga a la persona a procesar la información de múltiples maneras: visual, kinestésica y semánticamente. El dibujo también promueve la integración de códigos elaborados, pictóricos y motores, lo que facilita la creación de una representación rica en contexto [103]. Basarse en dibujos o símbolos presenta una ventaja especial a la hora de proporcionar un tratamiento culturalmente sensible y eficaz para los y las pacientes que tienen problemas para conectarse con sus estados cognitivos o que se sienten culpables o avergonzados; es posible que se sientan más cómodos expresando su angustia emocional a través del dibujo. ...
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... For instance, Christman et al. [5] and Samara et al. [17] both used a 30-minute retention interval. Outside of the bilateral eye movement literature, this specific tone classification task has been used for several decades to absorb attention [54] and has been employed for the same purposes as our own in many recent studies [e.g., [55][56][57][58]. ...
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Several recent studies have reported enhanced memory when retrieval is preceded by repetitive horizontal eye movements, relative to vertical or no eye movements. The reported memory boost has been referred to as the Saccade-Induced Retrieval Enhancement (SIRE) effect. Across two experiments, memory performance was compared following repetitive horizontal or vertical eye movements, as well as following a control condition of no eye movements. In Experiment 1, we conceptually replicated Christman and colleagues’ seminal study, finding a statistically significant SIRE effect, albeit with weak Bayesian evidence. We therefore sought to conduct another close extension. In Experiment 2, horizontal and vertical eye movement conditions were manipulated separately, and sample size was increased. No evidence of a SIRE effect was found: Bayesian statistical analyses demonstrated significant evidence for a null effect. Taken together, these experiments suggest that the SIRE effect is inconsistent. The current experiments call into question the generalizability of the SIRE effect and suggest that its presence is very sensitive to experimental design. Future work should further assess the robustness of the effect before exploring related theories or underlying mechanisms.
... Menurut teori yang diungkapkan oleh Paivio, Rogers, dan Smythe pada tahun 1968 bahwa menggambar mampu memunculkan proses dual coding, di mana gambar mampu merepresentasikan fitur visual sekaligus label verbal. Sejalan dengan hal ini, temuan terbaru juga menunjukkan bahwa aktivitas menggambar telah didemonstrasikan memiliki efek positif yang lebih baik dibanding membaca atau menulis karena memaksa seseorang untuk memproses informasi dalam banyak cara, di antaranya secara visual, kinestetik, dan semantik (Fernandes, Wammes, & Meade, 2018). Mekanisme ini mempromosikan integrasi kode-kode ini, atau modus representasi, menjadi satu jejak memori yang memiliki kekayaan konteks, di mana hal ini akan memfasilitasi proses retrieval selanjutnya. ...
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Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að skoða hvað einkenndi kennsluhætti í náttúrufræði á öllum stigum grunnskólans, hvort og hvernig áherslur aðalnámskrár birtust í kennslunni. Með þessu er þess vænst að veita megi upplýsingar um náttúrufræðikennslu sem nýst gætu við stefnumótun og starfsþróun kennara. Gögnum var safnað um skipulag kennslunnar og aðbúnað. Byggt var á vettvangsathugunum úr 23 kennslustundum í gagnasafni rannsóknarinnar Starfshættir í grunnskólum og 22 athugunum sem gerðar voru með sömu aðferðum árin 2016–2018. Niðurstöður bentu til þess að kennslan einkenndist mikið af beinni kennslu, miðlun efnis í bland við spurningar og spjall og skriflegum verkefnum. Verkleg kennsla var lítil og áhersla á lífvísindi áberandi. Langflestar kennslustundir í náttúrufræði fóru fram í almennri kennslustofu og fátt var í þeim sem minnti á náttúrufræði. Algengara var að kennsla á unglingastigi færi fram í náttúrufræðistofu. Lítið virtist hafa breyst í kennsluháttum frá fyrri rannsóknum. Kennslan þyrfti að fara fram í umhverfi sem væri betur sniðið að náttúrugreinum og snúast meira um vísindahugtök, verklegar æfingar og hugmyndir nemenda. Efla þarf stuðning við náttúrufræðikennara og starfsþróun þeirra til að styrkja fagþekkingu kennara.
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Durante la década de 1970, la materia escolar de Dibujo pasó a adoptar nuevas denominaciones en buena parte del mundo occidental. En el presente artículo se analizan las coordenadas históricas que determinaron las mutaciones del campo semántico del término 'dibujo' desde su inclusión en los programas escolares del siglo XIX hasta su práctica elusión en el último tercio del XX. La investigación se sustenta en la consulta de un corpus ingente de tratados pedagógicos y manuales escolares editados en Europa y Estados Unidos a lo largo del período indicado, junto con un repertorio no menos cuantioso de contribuciones de carácter historiográfico. El texto se estructura cronológicamente en ocho apartados, más un epílogo en el que se diserta sobre los usos del vocablo en la actualidad, ciñéndose en todo momento en la esfera de la educación y el aprendizaje.
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The recall of an episodic narrative, as a function of presentation modality (audio-visual sketch, audio-only), was examined across three cumulative experiments. Experiment 1: participants (N = 84) were asked to recall a narrative delivered via audio, or audio accompanied by a sketch. Experiment 2: participants (N = 116) were asked to recall a narrative delivered via sketch or audio-only format, both of which varied in duration/number of details to recall. Experiment 3: participants (N = 173) recalled a narrative that varied by modality (audio-only, non-concurrent sketch, hybrid sketch, concurrent sketch) and access/no access to the sketch during recall. Aggregating the data across the three experiments (mini meta-analysis) revealed that participants provided with sketch-based narratives recalled more information and had higher recall accuracy (Md = 0.80 [95% CI = 0.56, 1.04], Z = 6.51, p < 0.001) than those provided with audio-only narratives. The results also revealed that concurrent sketches led to the best recall of a narrative, and having access to the sketch during recall had minimal impact on recall. The potential implications of the results for recalling information in various contexts are discussed.
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p style="text-align: justify;">In the paper, we explore the potential of sketchnoting as a tool for constructing learner´s knowledge. Sketchnoting is non-linear note-taking method that combines text and visual elements to express knowledge in a complex form, and is represented by text, symbols, arrows, frames, and other visual elements. Drawing on theory of dual coding and theory of multimedia learning, it is argued that a learner retains information more permanently if they process it verbally and visually at the same time. Sketchnoting can be effectively implemented in a learning process. We illustrate sketchnoting as a supportive learning tool by empirical study with learners at geography lessons in a secondary grammar school. We assessed twenty students´ first sketchnotes and found out most of them focused on facts rather than relations. It is therefore suggested that teachers draw more attention to organisation, structure and interrelations of the elements of knowledge in sketchnote when introducing it first to learners.</p
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The act of handwriting affected the evolutionary development of humans and still impacts the motor cognition of individuals. However, the ubiquitous use of digital technologies has drastically decreased the number of times we really need to pick a pen up and write on paper. Nonetheless, the positive cognitive impact of handwriting is widely recognized, and a possible way to merge the benefits of handwriting and digital writing is to use suitable tools to write over touchscreens or graphics tablets. In this manuscript, we focus on the possibility of using the hand itself as a writing tool. A novel hand posture named FingerPen is introduced, and can be seen as a grasp performed by the hand on the index finger. A comparison with the most common posture that people tend to assume (i.e. index finger-only exploitation) is carried out by means of a biomechanical model. A conducted user study shows that the FingerPen is appreciated by users and leads to accurate writing traits.
Thesis
This research uses interviews, photo elicitations, and journals from Syrian CYP in Zaatari refugee camp as well as Syrian and Jordanian CYP in the town of Umm al-Jimal to determine what value heritage provides to CYP in the context of forced migration and host communities. Community archaeology has long aimed to produce outcomes that benefit local stakeholders and surrounding communities as well as address local social justice issues. Under circumstances of war and poverty, how can bottom-up archaeological practices and approaches assist in creating strong host communities for and support resilience in incoming refugees? Using the Umm al-Jimal Archaeological Project (UJAP) in Northern Jordan as a case study, this dissertation evaluates how long-standing archaeological projects inspire value for traditions and heritage conservation despite the negative impacts of globalization. The outcomes show that the UJAP has encouraged the preservation of tangible and intangible heritage in the town of Umm al-Jimal, resulting in a heightened value for local heritage among residents and a desire to pass traditional Bedouin practices onto youth. This desire culminated in the creation of the Hauran Cultural Heritage Project (HCHP) a locally-run heritage education project that teaches Jordanian and Syrian children and young people (CYP) about their shared heritage, but also supports sources of resilience (identity, rights, and safety) and social cohesion. While the HCHP originated in the town of Umm al-Jimal, it has since relocated exclusively to the Zaatari refugee camp, leaving the CYP of Umm al-Jimal without a valuable cultural resource. Therefore, this research also aims to assist in the expansion of the HCHP to once again operate in the town of Umm al-Jimal.
Chapter
Considered an important learning and communication tool, the human hand has specific characteristics of control, precision and dexterity, which make possible to carry out the most diverse activities. An extraordinary activity of the human being is hand drawing, a dynamic and complex skill that requires coordination and dexterity for an effective performance. A drawing happens when we engage our hands to capture what we are thinking or experiencing. The hand is an extension for our brain, which can make visible our ideas. Drawing, nowadays, due to its interdisciplinary nature, is used from the artist to the engineer, from the designer to the project manager. However, in such a high technological era, hand drawing still maintains its relevancy? Can we state that hand drawing/sketching is still used by designers in their daily practice? This paper aims to stimulate reflection on the nowadays use of hand drawing/sketching in design process.
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Open book in Science of Learning from the Erasmus+ Illuminated project that welcomes contributions. SPANISH: https://illuminatedes.pressbooks.com/ ENGLISH: https://illuminated.pressbooks.com/
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Unter Lernen versteht man ganz allgemein den Prozess, der mit einem gewünschten, zufälligen, beiläufigen oder weitgehend unbewussten Erwerb von neuem Wissen, Erfahrungen und Fertigkeiten einhergeht. Dieser Erwerb führt letztlich zu einer Veränderung des Verhaltens, Denkens oder Fühlens aufgrund von neu gewonnenen Einsichten und Erfahrung. Dieses Kapitel befasst sich mit der Kategorisierung und Beschreibung der unterschiedlichen impliziten und expliziten Lernprozesse.
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In 7 free recall experiments, the benefit of creating drawings of to-be-remembered information relative to writing, was examined as a mnemonic strategy. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were presented with a list of words and asked to either draw or write out each. Drawn words were better recalled than written. Experiments 3-5 showed that the memory boost provided by drawing could not be explained by elaborative encoding (deep level of processing (LoP)), visual imagery, or picture superiority, respectively. In Experiment 6, we explored potential limitations of the drawing effect, by reducing encoding time, and increasing list length. Drawing, relative to writing, still benefited memory despite these constraints. In Experiment 7, the drawing effect was significant even when encoding trial types were compared in pure-lists between-participants, inconsistent with a distinctiveness account. Together these experiments indicate that drawing enhances memory relative to writing, across settings, instructions, and alternate encoding strategies, both within- and between-participants, and that a deep LoP, visual imagery, or picture superiority, alone or collectively, are not sufficient to explain the observed effect. We propose that drawing improves memory by encouraging a seamless integration of semantic, visual, and motor aspects of a memory trace.
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Reports on 5 experiments with 96 undergraduates, comparing memory for words that were generated by the Ss themselves with the same words when they were simply presented to be read. In all cases, performance in the Generate condition was superior to that in the Read condition. This held for measures of cued and uncued recognition, free and cued recall, and confidence ratings. The phenomenon persisted across variations in encoding rules, timed or self-paced presentation, presence or absence of test information, and between- or within-Ss designs. The effect was specific to the response items under recognition testing but not under cued recall. A number of potential explanatory principles are considered and their difficulties enumerated. It is concluded that the generation effect is real and that it poses an interesting interpretative problem. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article explores learner-generated drawing, a strategy in which learners construct representative illustrations in support of learning goals. Both applied and empirical literature is reviewed with the purpose of stimulating research on this strategy. Clear from this review is the gap that exists between prescriptive readings on learner-generated drawing and research-based understandings.To make sense of inconsistent empirical evidence, the research review is organized around a series of hypotheses grounded in current understandings of cognitive and strategic processing.A theoretical framework for understanding the drawing strategy is proposed by extending R. E. Mayer's (1993) theoretical processes of selection, organization, and integration.The framework is intended to guide and organize future research efforts and, to that end, earlier proposed hypotheses are incorporated into the explanatory constructs of this theoretical perspective. The article concludes with a discussion of how strategy instruction might play a role in the effectiveness of the drawing strategy.
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A series of four experiments demonstrate a generation effect with pictorial materials. Drawing the to-be-remembered pictures of objects or scenes from descriptions during study leads to better recall than either copying down already drawn versions of the same pictures or simply looking at them. Thus, the effect is generalized to the nonverbal domain. In addition, experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate the effect with nonsense figures. Such a result appears to be inconsistent with the widely advocated view that activation of preexisting semantic representations of the items is a necessary condition for the generation effect.
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This paper briefly reviews the evidence for multistore theories of memory and points out some difficulties with the approach. An alternative framework for human memory research is then outlined in terms of depth or levels of processing. Some current data and arguments are reexamined in the light of this alternative framework and implications for further research considered.
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In 8 recognition experiments, we investigated the production effect-the fact that producing a word aloud during study, relative to simply reading a word silently, improves explicit memory. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 showed the effect to be restricted to within-subject, mixed-list designs in which some individual words are spoken aloud at study. Because the effect was not evident when the same repeated manual or vocal overt response was made to some words (Experiment 4), producing a subset of studied words appears to provide additional unique and discriminative information for those words-they become distinctive. This interpretation is supported by observing a production effect in Experiment 5, in which some words were mouthed (i.e., articulated without speaking); in Experiment 6, in which the materials were pronounceable nonwords; and even in Experiment 7, in which the already robust generation effect was incremented by production. Experiment 8 incorporated a semantic judgment and showed that the production effect was not due to "lazy reading" of the words studied silently. The distinctiveness that accrues to the records of produced items at the time of study is useful at the time of test for discriminating these produced items from other items. The production effect represents a simple but quite powerful mechanism for improving memory for selected information.
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Male and female subjects who differed in their verbal reports of visual image vividness were tested for recall in three experiments involving coloured photographs as stimuli. In all three experiments subjects who reported vivid visual imagery were more accurate in recall than subjects who reported poor visual imagery. In the first two experiments, females recalled more accurately than males. On the assumption that vividness reports and recall were both mediated by the same covert event - a visual image - these results provide further evidence that images have an important role in memory.
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Brain aging research relies mostly on cross-sectional studies, which infer true changes from age differences. We present longitudinal measures of five-year change in the regional brain volumes in healthy adults. Average and individual differences in volume changes and the effects of age, sex and hypertension were assessed with latent difference score modeling. The caudate, the cerebellum, the hippocampus and the association cortices shrunk substantially. There was minimal change in the entorhinal and none in the primary visual cortex. Longitudinal measures of shrinkage exceeded cross-sectional estimates. All regions except the inferior parietal lobule showed individual differences in change. Shrinkage of the cerebellum decreased from young to middle adulthood, and increased from middle adulthood to old age. Shrinkage of the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortices, the inferior temporal cortex and the prefrontal white matter increased with age. Moreover, shrinkage in the hippocampus and the cerebellum accelerated with age. In the hippocampus, both linear and quadratic trends in incremental age-related shrinkage were limited to the hypertensive participants. Individual differences in shrinkage correlated across some regions, suggesting common causes. No sex differences in age trends except for the caudate were observed. We found no evidence of neuroprotective effects of larger brain size or educational attainment.
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Memory encoding conditions can be manipulated in a variety of ways, and many of these methods result in improved recollection for both younger and older adults relative to baseline conditions. Previous results have shown differential age-related patterns of improvement, however, with some manipulations giving equal improvement to young and old participants, some benefiting older adults more, and others benefiting younger adults more. In 2 experiments, the authors show that presenting pictures with words benefited older more than younger participants, word generation benefited both groups equally, and an encoding condition requiring novel integrative processing benefited younger more than older adults. The authors discuss these results in terms of the enhanced elaboration afforded and processing demanded by differential combinations of age groups and encoding conditions.
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In mixed lists, stable free recall advantages are observed for encoding conditions that are unusual, bizarre, or attract extensive individual item elaboration relative to more common encoding conditions; but this recall advantage is often eliminated or reversed in pure lists. We attempt to explain this ubiquitous memory puzzle with an item-order account that assumes that (1) free recall of unrelated lists depends on order and item information; (2) unusual items attract greater individual item-processing but disrupt order encoding regardless of list composition; and (3) list composition determines differences in order encoding across unusual and common items. We show that the item-order account provides a unifying explanation of five memory phenomena for which the requisite data exist. The account also successfully anticipates pure-list reversals, in which the standard mixed-list recall pattern is obtained in pure, structured lists, a finding that competing accounts cannot handle. Extending the item-order account to other "established" recall phenomena may prove fruitful.
Article
Memory is critical to the human experience, and more than a century of empirical work has been devoted to understanding its function and various means by which it can be strengthened. This literature has uncovered a long list of encoding techniques that reliably improve memory and yet little is known about the driving cognitive processes that are common to these techniques. To better understand how these diverse encoding techniques might enhance memory, we examine the mnemonic benefits of drawing, along with several related encoding techniques. Specifically, in two experiments, we disassembled drawing into a few of its component parts – elaborative, motoric, and pictorial – to systematically measure whether (1) memory is improved simply by adding information from additional modalities, and (2) particular components might be more influential to memory. We found that not all components are equal, and that the addition of active aspects – most prominently motoric information - substantially enhanced long-term retention. Together, our findings demonstrate the beneficial outcomes of including multiple distinct cognitive processes or sensory modalities during encoding. Moreover, our work highlights the potential role of these sources in improving memory, and points toward drawing as a fruitful path for applications in everyday life and in educational settings.
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Article
Drawing a picture of to-be-remembered information substantially boosts memory performance in free-recall tasks. In the current work, we sought to test the notion that drawing confers its benefit to memory performance by creating a detailed recollection of the encoding context. In Experiments 1 and 2, we demonstrated that for both pictures and words, items that were drawn by the participant at encoding were better recognized in a later test than were words that were written out. Moreover, participants’ source memory (in this experiment, correct identification of whether the word was drawn or written) was superior for items drawn relative to written at encoding. In Experiments 3A and 3B, we used a remember-know paradigm to demonstrate again that drawn words were better recognized than written words, and further showed that this effect was driven by a greater proportion of recollection-, rather than familiarity-based responses. Lastly, in Experiment 4 we implemented a response deadline procedure, and showed that when recognition responses were speeded, thereby reducing participants’ capacity for recollection, the benefit of drawing was substantially smaller. Taken together, our findings converge on the idea that drawing improves memory as a result of providing vivid contextual information which can be later called upon to aid retrieval.
Article
Traditionally, students adopt the strategy of taking written notes when attending a class or learning from a textbook in educational settings. Informed by previous work showing that learning by doing improves memory performance, we examined whether drawing to-be-remembered definitions from university textbooks would improve later memory, relative to a more typical strategy of rote transcription. Participants were asked to either write out the definition, or to draw a picture representative of the definition. Results indicated that drawing, relative to verbatim writing, conferred a reliable memorial benefit that was robust, even when participants' preexisting familiarity with the terms was included as a covariate (in Experiment 1) or when the to-be-remembered terms and definitions were fictitious, thus removing the influence of familiarity (in Experiment 2). We reasoned that drawing likely facilitates retention at least in part because at encoding, participants must retain and elaborate upon information regarding the meaning of the definition, to translate it into a new form (a picture). This is not the case when participants write out the definitions verbatim. In Experiment 3 we showed that paraphrasing during encoding, which, like drawing and in contrast with verbatim writing, requires self-generated elaboration, led to memory performance that was comparable to drawing. Taken together, results suggest that drawing is a powerful tool which improves memory, and that drawing produces a similar level of retention as does paraphrasing. This suggests that elaborative encoding plays a critical role in the memorial benefit that drawing confers to memory for definitions of academic terms.
Article
Free verbal recall is generally higher for items presented as pictures than for items presented as words. Possible interpretations of this effect include differential verbal elaboration, superiority of nonverbal imagery as a memory code, and dual encoding favoring pictures. A series of experiments investigated the relative contributions of imaginal and verbal memory codes using incidental recall tasks in which the orienting task was designed to control the way items are encoded during input. Three experiments required subjects to encode words and pictures verbally, by writing or pronouncing the words or picture labels; or imaginally, by drawing or imaging the picture or object suggested by the word. Two further experiments involved a probability learning task which required no encoding reaction to pictures or words, but an analogue of imaginal and verbal coding was provided in one experiment using picture-picture, picture-word (or word-picture) and word-word repetitions. Recall tests following these manipulations consistently yielded much higher recall for pictures than for words under all conditions except when subjects imaged to words. Strong support was also found for the hypothesis that image and verbal memory codes are independent and additive in their effect on recall. In addition, the contribution of imagery appeared to be substantially higher than that of the verbal code. Thus the usual superiority of pictures in free recall is best explained by dual encoding, or a combination of image superiority and dual coding, both of which are ordinarily favored when items are presented as pictures.
Article
Conducted 4 experiments with female undergraduates in which overt rehearsal was required during the presentation of free recall lists. This rehearsal was tape-recorded and analyzed in conjunction with written recall data. In Exp. I lists of unrelated nouns were presented to 25 Ss. The serial position effect, the order of recall of items as a function of item strength, and the organization of list items were examined using rehearsal and recall protocols. The introduction of distinctive items into a free recall list affected recall of the distinctive item, items adjacent to distinctive items, and the list as a whole. Exp. II with 15 Ss examined changes in rehearsal associated with these recall effects. In Exp. III with 11 Ss, some items of a list were repeated. Recall of repeated items increased with spacing of the repetitions. 20 Ss were tested with lists containing both categorized and unrelated items in Exp. IV. Category information was used extensively by S in structuring rehearsal. Clustering in recall was related to the observed rehearsal protocols. (30 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
PICTURES OF OBJECTS WERE RECALLED SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER THAN THEIR NAMES ON THE 1ST 2 OF 4 FREE RECALL TRIALS. RECALL FOR THE 2 MODES DID NOT DIFFER IN INTERTRIAL ORGANIZATION BUT STRIKING DIFFERENCES OCCURRED AS A FUNCTION OF INPUT SERIAL ORDER. PICTURE SUPERIORITY OCCURRED FOR TERMINAL INPUT ITEMS ON TRIAL 1, AND BOTH TERMINAL AND EARLY ITEMS ON TRIAL 2. FINDINGS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF VERBAL AND NONVERBAL (CONCRETE) MEMORY CODES. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Levels of processing were manipulated as a function of acquisition task and type of recognition test in three experiments. Experiment 1 showed that semantic acquisition was superior to rhyme acquisition given a standard recognition test, whereas rhyme acquisition was superior to semantic acquisition given a rhyming recognition test. The former finding supports, while the latter finding contradicts, the levels of processing claim that depth of processing leads to stronger memory traces. Experiment 2 replicated these findings using both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Experiment 3 indicated that these effects were not dependent upon the number of times a rhyme sound was presented during acquisition. Results are interpreted in terms of an alternate framework involving transfer appropriate processing.
Article
To account for dissociations observed in recognition memory tests, several dual-process models have been proposed that assume that recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details about previous events or on the assessment of stimulus familiarity. In the current article, these models are examined, along with the methods that have been developed to measure recollection and familiarity. The relevant empirical literature from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies is then reviewed in order to assess model predictions. Results from a variety of measurement methods, including task-dissociation and process-estimation methods, are found to lead to remarkably consistent conclusions about the nature of recollection and familiarity, particularly when ceiling effects are avoided. For example, recollection is found to be more sensitive than familiarity to response speeding, division of attention, generation, semantic encoding, the effects of aging, and the amnestic effects of benzodiazepines, but it is less sensitive than familiarity to shifts in response criterion, fluency manipulations, forgetting over short retention intervals, and some perceptual manipulations. Moreover, neuropsychological and neuroimaging results indicate that the two processes rely on partially distinct neural substrates and provide support for models that assume that recollection relies on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, whereas familiarity relies on regions surrounding the hippocampus. Double dissociations produced by experimental manipulations at time of test indicate that the two processes are independent at retrieval, and single dissociations produced by study manipulations indicate that they are partially independent during encoding. Recollection is similar but not identical to free recall, whereas familiarity is similar to conceptual implicit memory, but is dissociable from perceptual implicit memory. Finally, the results indicate that recollection reflects a thresholdlike retrieval process that supports novel learning, whereas familiarity reflects a signal-detection process that can support novel learning only under certain conditions. The results verify a number of model predictions and prove useful in resolving several theoretical disagreements.
Article
Action phrases such as “lift the pen” are recalled better when they are enacted by subjects in subject-performed tasks (SPTs) than when only listened to during verbal tasks (VTs). This SPT effect is usually attributed to the good item-specific information provided by enactment. A series of experiments investigated what role the use of real objects and the perception of the action play in the good recall of SPTs. For this purpose, recall of action phrases with and without using real objects was studied in VTs, EPTs (experimenter-performed tasks) and SPTs. It was found that the perception of real objects improved recall equally in EPTs and SPTs, but more so in VTs. Furthermore there was a recall advantage of SPTs over EPTs. However, with short lists, this advantage depended on whether the encoding condition was varied within subjects or between subjects. It was concluded that perceiving the objects used as well as perceiving the action proper does not play a decisive role in the good SPT recall. It was further concluded that EPTs and SPTs differentially depend on item-specific and relational encoding, and that relational encoding suffers from using a within-subjects mixed list design.
Article
Advances in graphical technology have now made it possible for us to interact with information in innovative ways, most notably by exploring multimedia environments and by manipulating three-dimensional virtual worlds. Many benefits have been claimed for this new kind of interactivity, a general assumption being that learning and cognitive processing are facilitated. We point out, however, that little is known about the cognitive value of any graphical representations, be they good old-fashioned (e.g. diagrams) or more advanced (e.g. animations, multimedia, virtual reality). In our paper, we critique the disparate literature on graphical representations, focusing on four representative studies. Our analysis reveals a fragmented and poorly understood account of how graphical representations work, exposing a number of assumptions and fallacies. As an alternative we propose a new agenda for graphical representation research. This builds on the nascent theoretical approach within cognitive science that analyses the role played by external representations in relation to internal mental ones. We outline some of the central properties of this relationship that are necessary for the processing of graphical representations. Finally, we consider how this analysis can inform the selection and design of both traditional and advanced forms of graphical technology.
Article
A current controversy in memory research concerns whether recognition is supported by distinct processes of familiarity and recollection, or instead by a single process wherein familiarity and recollection reflect weak and strong memories, respectively. Recent studies using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses in an animal model have shown that manipulations of the memory demands can eliminate the contribution of familiarity while sparing recollection. Here it is shown that a different manipulation, specifically the addition of a response deadline in recognition testing, results in the opposite performance pattern, eliminating the contribution of recollection while sparing that of familiarity. This dissociation, combined with the earlier findings, demonstrates that familiarity and recollection are differentially sensitive to specific memory demands, strongly supporting the dual process view.
Article
High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to understand the effect of aging on the neural correlates of the picture superiority effect. Pictures and words were systematically varied at study and test while ERPs were recorded at retrieval. Here, the results of the word-word and picture-picture study-test conditions are presented. Behavioral results showed that older adults demonstrated the picture superiority effect to a greater extent than younger adults. The ERP data helped to explain these findings. The early frontal effect, parietal effect, and late frontal effect were all indistinguishable between older and younger adults for pictures. In contrast, for words, the early frontal and parietal effects were significantly diminished for the older adults compared to the younger adults. These two old/new effects have been linked to familiarity and recollection, respectively, and the authors speculate that these processes are impaired for word-based memory in the course of healthy aging. The findings of this study suggest that pictures allow older adults to compensate for their impaired memorial processes, and may allow these memorial components to function more effectively in older adults.
On the mnemonic benefits of drawing
• J D Wammes
Wammes, J. D. (2017). On the mnemonic benefits of drawing [Doctoral dissertation]. Retrieved from https://uwspace .uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/handle/10012/12114/Wammes_ Jeff.pdf?sequence=7
Drawing boosts recall and recognition in patients with dementia
• M A Fernandes
Meade, M. E., & Fernandes, M. A. (2018). Drawing boosts recall and recognition in patients with dementia. Manuscript in preparation.
Provides an overview of age-related declines in memory and illustrates that presenting pictures at encoding boosts memory performance
• L Luo
• T Hendriks
• F I Craik
Luo, L., Hendriks, T., & Craik, F. I. (2007). (See References). Provides an overview of age-related declines in memory and illustrates that presenting pictures at encoding boosts memory performance.
A clearly written review of established encoding techniques and an introduction to the production effect, another effective means of enhancing memory
• C M Macleod
• N Gopie
• K L Hourihan
• K R Neary
• J D Ozubko
MacLeod, C. M., Gopie, N., Hourihan, K. L., Neary, K. R., & Ozubko, J. D. (2010). (See References). A clearly written review of established encoding techniques and an introduction to the production effect, another effective means of enhancing memory.
A comprehensive review of applied and empirical research suggesting that drawing can support learning goals in classroom settings
• P Van Meter
• J Garner
Van Meter, P., & Garner, J. (2005). (See References). A comprehensive review of applied and empirical research suggesting that drawing can support learning goals in classroom settings.