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... The first two objectives have been extensively investigated in recent years. For example, doping with transition elements (Ag, Fe, V, Bi, Sn and Mo) [26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] and non-metallic elements (C, N, S, P and B) [35][36][37][38] has been shown to be ways of modifying the electronic structure and decreasing TiO 2 E bg . Doping and/or modification with boron (B) has been shown to improve the photoactivity of TiO 2 , as it can occupy and displace the positions of the interstitial oxygen network, creating intermediate energy levels in TiO 2 E bg [39,40]. ...
The photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) using B-doped TiO2 photo-anodes for degradation of the propyphenazone (PPZ) was investigated. For this, four different composites based on TiO2 and TiO2-x%B (x = 1, 3 or 5) were synthesized by sol-gel method and supported on titanium substrate by the dip-coating technique. The morphology, optical and electrochemical properties of photo-anodes were evaluated by SEM, TEM, XPS, TGA, DSC, XRD, FTIR, DRS, and sweep voltammetry, respectively. The influence of pH (3, 6 or 9) and electrical potential intensity (+1 V, +2 V or +3 V) used in PEC were evaluated by kinetic study. To understand the synergistic effect of the composition of the photoelectrochemical system, photolysis (PS), electrocatalysis (EC) and photocatalysis (PC) experiments were realized under comparative conditions. Doping 3% of B into TiO2 promoted a decrease in band gap energy (Ebg = 2.91 eV), thus providing better radiation absorption and greater generation of charge carriers on the surface of the photo-anode. Characterization analyzes indicate the presence of B2O3 coexisting with TiO2. The most promising results were obtained using Ti/TiO2-3%B photo-anode (vs a DSA cathode), applying +1 V at pH 6, resulting in 91% of PPZ degradation after 60 min of PEC treatment. Toxicity tests using A. salina and L. sativa showed that the effluent generated after 2 h of PEC treatment of 30 mg L⁻¹ of PPZ is non-toxic for the studied species. Up to 13 by-products formed during the PEC and PS treatment were detected and a proposal pathway involving possible routes of PPZ degradation were presented.
... Non-metallic doping of TiO 2 is more effective than metal doping due to the reduction of recombination centers [19]. Various nonmetals (N [50][51][52][53][54][55][56], B [57][58][59][60], C [61][62][63][64][65], P [66][67][68][69], S [70][71][72], F [73][74][75][76][77][78], Br [79,80]) are used to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 in the field of visible light [10,19,81]. ...
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Water and air pollutants pose a significant environmental problem worldwide and photocatalysis is one way to address this global issue. Photocatalytic degradation of toxic substances under the influence of visible electromagnetic radiation is widely used for wastewater treatment. The most promising method of pollutant removal is the use of photocatalysts based on titanium (IV) oxide, which are recognized as one of the most effective due to chemical resistance, non-toxicity and low cost. However, their practical application is limited by the rapid recombination of photogenerated charge carriers and selective absorption of light in the UV region due to the large width of band gap. To solve this scientific and practical problem, it is necessary to modify the TiO2 surface, for example, through metallic or nonmetallic doping, in order to increase its photocatalytic activity due to additional absorption in the visible range of the spectrum. This review presents an analysis of current research on ways to increase the efficiency of TiO2-based photocatalysts.
... Namun, titania sebagai fotokatalis menunjukkan beberapa kelemahan intrinsik, seperti penyerapan cahaya tampak terbatas karena celah pita lebar, yang menghambat efisiensi dan aplikasi yang lebih luas . [6] Pada review ini digunakan doping senyawa non logam (F,N,C) untuk meningkatkan aktivitas fotokatalis pada serapan cahaya tampak yang hasilnya dianalisis menggunakan XRD dan DRUV-Vis ...
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ABSTRAK Titania (TiO2) merupakan material yang banyak digunakan sebagai fotokatalis yang didasarkan pada sifat semikonduktornya. TiO2 memiliki beberapa keunggulan dibandingkan dengan oksida logam yang lain yaitu fotoreaktif, inert secara kimia dan biologi, anti korosi, non toxic, dan kemampuannya untuk digunakan secara berulang tanpa kehilangan aktifitas katalitik.TiO2 dapat disintesis dengan beberapa metode salah satunya dengan menggunakan metode sol-gel. Fase kristal TiO2 dianalisa dengan XRD menunjukkan fase kritsal anatase. Namun aktivitas fotokatalis TiO2 pada cahaya uv sehingga dapat mempengaruhi performa jika diaplikasikan pada cahaya tampak. Sehingga diperlukan modifikasi pergeseran merah pada serapan cahaya merah dengan pengaruh dopan. Pada review ini mengunakan dopan non logam seperti karbon, nitrogen dan fluor untuk meningkatkan aktivitas serapan cahaya tampak yang dianalisa dengan spektrum UV-Vis. Hasil tersebut dapat menjadi investigasi lebih lanjut dalam pengaplikasian TiO2 dengan pengaruh dopan (C, N, dan F) terhadap aplikasi fotokatalis dalam cahaya tampak. Kata Kunci: TiO2, Dopan, Cahaya Tampak, Fotokatalis.
Industrial waste is the primary source of highly toxic organic pollutants and heavy metal contaminants. Treatment of such effluence is necessary to mitigate environmental pollution to provide a clean ecosystem for living species. Various approaches have been effectively utilized for the removal of industrial waste particularly, photocatalysis being an effective, economical, and time-efficient approach to remove toxic ions. Large organic molecules found in pesticides and dyes can be removed with relative ease using nano-photocatalysts with a wide energy band gap, which is one of its major merits. For this purpose, a combination of various metal oxides with relevant materials is generally employed to activate visible regions in photocatalysts. Moreover, modification in physical parameters such as surface area of the catalyst, crystallinity, particle size and morphology, band gap, and microstructure is undertaken, which serves to enhance the photocatalytic activity. Here, advanced techniques that are presently used to synthesize different types of photocatalysts and their potential use in the degradation of the organic dye have been described in detail. The focus of the current review is various metal oxide NPs such as ZnO, TiO2, WO3, SnO2, and CuO with potential applications in photocatalysis, their structural characteristics, classification, and their photocatalytic mechanism. The review covers the influence of dopants on morphological, electrical, optical, and photocatalytic activity of selected nanocomposite systems. Moreover, the current review grasps extensive literature on the role of metal oxides as a photocatalyst that will facilitate researchers by providing guidelines to design more suitable nano-photocatalytic systems.
Conference Paper
During this work, the properties of mesoporous titanium oxide were improved by nitrogen and carbon co-doping. The synthesis of C,N-co-doped mesoporous titania was conducted using the in situ via template-guided sol-gel self-assembly method. Chitosan was used as templating agent, but also, to provide the carbon and nitrogen sources for doping. In case of conventional TiO2, F127 was be used as surfactant. All the TiO2 synthesis were Ultrasound (US) assisted, followed by microwaves (MW) thermal treatment, since these processes proved to be time and energy saving. For comparison, conventional thermal treatment was also applied. Some preliminary photodegradation studies were made to investigate whether the conventional and the N, C-co-doped TiO2 are suitable for organic pollutants removal from wastewaters.
In this paper, E-carbon nanotubes were electrochemically assembled into binary TiO2 NTs. The assembled E-carbon nanotube, a nanoantenna for the sensitization of photocatalysis, enables trapping and transferring channels of mass and charge for uniformity and extension of the binary surface of the two-layer TiO2 NTs in the microstructure. Also, the E-carbon nanoantenna is electrojunctionally functionalized for an efficient charge separationone dominated by the photocatalytic process, determined by the effective photocapacitance. The E-carbon nanoantenna exhibited a superior adsorptive capacity to the reactive molecular adsorption—one key photocatalytic process—by increasing the mass transfer. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry of the assembled binary TiO2 NTs covered a large integrated area of the capacitance under UV-light. This characteristic indicated that super-photocapacitance exists in the catalytic system via light irradiation. In light of principles of photovoltage and photocatalysis, the NT features can generate a photovoltage by accelerating the charge separation, prolonging the charge lifetime and decreasing the charge recombination. It is necessary to promote the photocatalysis, as results, that the charges can be moved to the target substances on the surface of TiO2 NTs more quickly, which can greatly alter the photocatalytic process. Raised from the total sensitization, the photocatalysis was significantly enhanced by the exquisitely coupled catalyst system in the efficient NB oxidation increase of 24.5% compared to the unassembled one.
"Space--the final frontier." This preamble to a well-known television series captures the challenge encountered not only in space travel adventures, but also in the field of porous materials, which aims to control the size, shape and uniformity of the porous space and the atoms and molecules that define it. The past decade has seen significant advances in the ability to fabricate new porous solids with ordered structures from a wide range of different materials. This has resulted in materials with unusual properties and broadened their application range beyond the traditional use as catalysts and adsorbents. In fact, porous materials now seem set to contribute to developments in areas ranging from microelectronics to medical diagnosis.
Green titana: Carbon-doped titanium dioxide, supported onto filter paper, photocatalyzes the gas-phase degradation of the atmospheric pollutants benzene (a), acetaldehyde (b) and carbon monoxide
Over the past decades, the tremendous effort put into TiO2 nanomaterials has resulted in a rich database for their synthesis, properties, modifications, and applications. The continuing breakthroughs in the synthesis and modifications of TiO2 nanomaterials have brought new properties and new applications with improved performance. Accompanied by the progress in the synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles are new findings in the synthesis of TiO2 nanorods, nanotubes, nanowires, as well as mesoporous and photonic structures. Besides the well-know quantum-confinement effect, these new nanomaterials demonstrate size-dependent as well as shape- and structure-dependent optical, electronic, thermal, and structural properties. TiO2 nanomaterials have continued to be highly active in photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications, and they also demonstrate new applications including electrochromics, sensing, and hydrogen storage. This steady progress has demonstrated that TiO2 nanomaterials are playing and will continue to play an important role in the protections of the environment and in the search for renewable and clean energy technologies.
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