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Using current systems to inform rearing facility design in the insect-as-food industry



As wild harvesting of insects gives way to mass rearing, there is an urgent need to develop expertise and methods in insect animal husbandry and facility design. In order to advance the science of animal husbandry and production in this field, comparisons and contrasts of different insect rearing facilities currently in production are likely to be beneficial. Here we initiate this discussion by suggesting a focus on insect rearing facilities at the two ends of the production scale spectrum (small-scale rearing and mass rearing) that have different end products (insects-as- food and insects for other purposes). We suggest that organisations with a philosophy of information sharing (e.g. universities) need to play an active role in this developing production system, by bridging gaps between academia, industry and traditional knowledge to ensure a rapid and societally acceptable development of wide-scale entomophagy.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, 2018; 4(3): 167-170 Wageningen Academic
SPECIAL ISSUE: Insects in European feed and food chains
ISSN 2352-4588 online, DOI 10.3920/JIFF2017.0076 167
1. Introduction
Compared with other food production systems based
on traditional domestic animals, the developing insects-
as-food industry suffers from a clear lack of verifiable
knowledge of vital components of the food production
chain (Cortes Ortiz et al., 2016; Dobermann, 2017; Van
Huis, 2017). Thus, it is recognised that there is an urgent
need to develop expertise on insect animal husbandry and
facility design, as wild harvesting gives way to mass rearing
in the entomophagy market (Miech et al., 2016; Van Huis,
2013). To this end, the knowledge base on rearing facility
design for insects produced for human consumption is
increasing (discussed in e.g. Durst and Hanboonsong, 2015;
Oonincx and De Boer, 2012; Rumpold and Schlüter, 2013;
Van Huis, 2013; and examined in Dossey et al., 2016a; Van
Huis and Tomberlin, 2017). To maximise the potential for
information growth during this early development phase,
it is important to consider where knowledge and expertise
may already exist and could be adapted to mass insect
rearing facility design and management.
Insect housing and rearing techniques have been developed
for the pet market and for producing sterile insects as
pest control and in medical industries (Dossey et al.,
2016b). Thus there is great potential for adapting expertise
from these production systems. However, these facilities
and techniques are geared towards those fields’ specific
production goals (e.g. Fanson et al., 2014; Scott et al., 2017)
and will need to be closely examined to find what aspects
are transferable to insects-as-food mass rearing. The other
key repository of knowledge about insect rearing is the
established small-scale enterprises whose current focus
is producing insects for human consumption (at a local
scale). Thus we see real potential for advancing the science
of insect husbandry and production, by comparing and
contrasting the different scales of insect rearing facilities
currently in production. This can be used as a foundation
to explore which elements and methodologies are based on
scientific or expert knowledge and which aspects require
further critical evaluation and development. Here we
initiate this discussion by focussing on rearing facilities at
the different scales of production in order to understand
the common aspects that likely underlie different levels of
production (and can be scaled up from current practices)
and where key differences should occur as the scale of
production increases.
Using current systems to inform rearing facility design in the insect-as-food industry
Å. Berggren1*, A. Jansson2 and M. Low1
1Department of Ecology, P.O. Box 7044, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 75007 Uppsala, Sweden;
2Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7011,
75007 Uppsala, Sweden;
Received: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 May 2018
© 2018 Wageningen Academic Publishers
As wild harvesting of insects gives way to mass rearing, there is an urgent need to develop expertise and methods
in insect animal husbandry and facility design. In order to advance the science of animal husbandry and production
in this field, comparisons and contrasts of different insect rearing facilities currently in production are likely to be
beneficial. Here we initiate this discussion by suggesting a focus on insect rearing facilities at the two ends of the
production scale spectrum (small-scale rearing and mass rearing) that have different end products (insects-as-
food and insects for other purposes). We suggest that organisations with a philosophy of information sharing (e.g.
universities) need to play an active role in this developing production system, by bridging gaps between academia,
industry and traditional knowledge to ensure a rapid and societally acceptable development of wide-scale entomophagy.
Keywords: entomophagy, food system, sustainable, mass rearing, animal husbandry
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Å. Berggren et al.
168 Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4(3)
2. Current types and scale of the insect rearing
Rearing of insects for human consumption are mostly based
around smaller-scale enterprises, mainly in developing
countries. New initiatives are found in south-east Asia
as well as in central and southern Africa (Durst and
Hanboonsong, 2015; Gahukar, 2016; Kelemu et al., 2015).
These facilities are often small-scale businesses and run as
family companies or by farmer groups that generally rear
insects for local markets, with some facilities export to
neighbouring regions (Figure 1) (Durst and Hanboonsong,
2015; Gahukar, 2016; Van Huis, 2013). The insects used are
locally sourced and may be supplemented by additional
wild-caught individuals brought into the rearing facility
(Caparros Medigo et al., 2017; Miech et al., 2016). Rearing
facilities on an industrial scale have only appeared in the
last few years and are generally predicted as the future of
the global industry. They are emerging in western countries
like the Netherlands, as well as in Asia (e.g. China and
Thailand; Van Huis, 2013). These businesses have goals to
sell their products to regional and/or international markets
(Figure 1). These large-scale rearing facilities are more
likely to rely on their own core breeding stock to ensure a
predictable supply of insect biomass as output and to limit
the possibility of introducing diseases into the system.
Thus as the industry upscales its production intensity, it
is important to consider what aspects of facility design
and animal husbandry methods can be conserved and
which aspects will require modification. To determine how
these modifications should best occur will require research
into rearing methodologies and a deep understanding of
the ecology of the focal species in captivity (Kok, 2017).
Critically is also how these factors interact in producing
the insect protein as the marketable end product. This
is especially important if the industry’s environmental
credentials and the nutritional quality of the food will
be used to justify the emerging insect-as-food market
(Oonincx and De Boer, 2012).
3. Demands of the different types of rearing
Regardless of the scale of production, facilities share
particular purposes and demands in their function and
organisation. Notably, that rearing environments must be
suited to the focal insect species being reared including
health and welfare aspects (Gjerris et al., 2016). Facilities
must offer suitable feed and water sources, environmental
controls, maintenance of hygiene, disease control and the
ability to monitor and harvest the population (Belluco et
al., 2013; Eilenberg et al., 2015; Halloran et al., 2016; Stoops
et al., 2016), be a clean and safe working environment
(Pener, 2014). Here it will be instructive to compare how
these critical factors are delivered in small-scale insect-
as-food enterprises (using species for the food trade) and
the current mass rearing systems for medical and pest
control industries (using species not necessarily suited
for human consumption). This will provide key insights
into how facility design and husbandry can be conserved
when scaling up insect-as-food production and where it
likely needs to evolve. It is also important to consider how
Knowledge transfer
between scales
of production
Scale of
Market for
local and
regional and
Knowledge to
• automation
• disease control
• stock control
• climate control
• feed security
• waste management
• processing
as mass
once mass
Figure 1. The scale of production relates to the intended market, the current knowledge base and the sophistication of production
traits that are required to ensure the success of the industry. Initially, the small-scale industry will provide key informational
aspects for mass rearing; however, as mass rearing develops its methods, advances in husbandry knowledge may feedback
into small-scale husbandry practices.
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Using current systems to inform rearing facility design
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4(3) 169
lessons learned from mass rearing husbandry could be used
to improve small-scale production enterprises (Figure 1);
this would ensure that research was not solely focussed on
taking hard-won lessons from developing countries without
giving something in return. By using a perspective that
compares system components in insect production systems
between different scales of production and with different
end products, research programmes can be informed by
both the current small-scale insect-as-food industry, and
the larger scale medical and pet industries, to be applied to
mass rearing situations for human consumption. Current
insect-as-food production is small scale; thus the methods
that have been developed for food insects will need to be
adapted to systems like those currently used in the medical/
pest industries:
Specifics for small-scale facilities (insects-as-food):
Manual work predominantly for feeding, cleaning, and
Visual inspection can be used to gather information on
insect health.
Breeding and supplementary animals can be mixed as
part of the production stock.
Pathogens have a limited number of insects to infect.
Restocking is for some species and regions possible
from the wild.
Outdoor facilities with open sections have limited ability
to control climate and pathogens.
Potential to be more flexible and variable in feed
Specifics for large-scale facilities (medical, pest control,
pet industry):
Automated work processes for feeding, cleaning, sorting,
Large screening programs for pathogens likely needed
because of the relationship between epidemiological
patterns and population size/density.
Greater need to separate breeding and rearing stock.
Spread of pathogens in populations have potential to
reach a high number of insect individuals.
Restocking includes evaluating insect quality and safety
Establishment of core breeding lines and little or no
input from wild-caught insects.
Great need for advanced climate control systems.
Need for large mass of feed resources, secure in delivery
and quality.
Large mass of waste products produced that needs to
be managed.
Large storage, processing and packaging facilities.
4. Key points for future development
General advances in facility design, animal welfare and
production are often driven by independent researchers
with the freedom to share information. Thus, if this
industry is to rapidly advance in ways that society deems
preferable (i.e. with key nutritional and sustainability
goals), universities and other organisations with a
philosophy of information sharing, environmental and
cultural sensitivity need to play an active role in its
Knowledge from insect rearing in the pet industry may
be useful in terms of population responses related to
rearing conditions, but most of these are not easily
accessible because of the lack of published sources.
Researchers should look to establish networks and
working groups that include experts from within this
industry to facilitate knowledge dissemination.
The production of sterile insects for pest control and
the medical industry are usually done on a large scale.
Much of this information is available (e.g. individual
growth, health and survival in relation to environmental
factors; Fanson et al., 2014; Scott et al., 2017) and could
be adapted for the insect-as-food industry. In particular,
for understanding certain aspects of species’ behaviour,
interactions and habitat use for incorporation into both
small- and large-scale rearing.
Knowledge of species’ ecology including developmental
needs, animal health and welfare aspects, potential
feeds and space requirements gathered from small-
scale rearing are likely to be important for developing
methods in large-scale facilities.
There is unlikely to be a generic insect-rearing facility
template, since different insects have their own specific
needs and life history requirements. Just as we do not
lump together the facility design of pigs, sheep and cattle,
we need to be careful in such discussions that different
insect species are recognised as similarly different in
their needs and rearing requirements.
We are grateful for the suggestions from the reviewers. We
thank the Faculties of Natural Resources and Agricultural
Sciences and Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science,
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences for support.
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170 Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 4(3)
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... The development and promotion of insect farming has so far had limited anchorage in research and innovation [9]. However, stakeholders in private and public sectors are currently focusing on innovation and knowledge transfer activities to develop farming systems including rearing facilities and management practices suitable to various insect species [9,23,24]. This has led to the emergence of several new insect farming systems around the world [5,9,14]. ...
... Thus, the multisite approach can strengthen the institutional frameworks needed to establish sustainable edible insect value chains and food systems in Africa. Fourth, our study involves three different insect species across the three countries, selected based on their likelihood of acceptability within the local culture and the availability of insect farming systems tailored to their specific life cycle and needs [23]. These species include Palm weevil larvae (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) in Ghana, Crickets (Scapsipedus icipe, Acheta domesticus) in Kenya, and African edible bush crickets (Ruspolia differens Serville) in Uganda [26,30,31]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Edible insects are a sustainable source of high-quality animal protein. Insect farming is gaining interest globally, particularly in low-income countries, where it may provide substantial nutritional and economic benefits. To enhance insect farming practices in Africa, new farming systems are being developed. However, knowledge on how to best promote uptake of these systems is lacking. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the effectiveness of educational interventions in promoting insect farming for household consumption in Africa. Method: The study is designed as a multi-site randomized controlled trial to evaluate the impacts of agricultural training alone or in combination with nutrition education on the adoption of insect farming in Ghana, Kenya and Uganda. In each of the three countries, ninety-nine villages are randomly assigned to one of three arms: two intervention arms and a control arm with no interventions. Focusing on production (P), the first intervention arm covers agricultural training on insect farming combined with provision of insect production starter kits. Focusing on both production and consumption (PC), the second intervention arm involves the same intervention components as treatment P plus additional nutrition education. The impacts of the interventions are measured by comparing baseline and endline data collected one year apart. Primary outcomes are adoption of insect farming and consumption of the farmed insects. Discussion: Understanding the drivers and impacts of novel agricultural practices is crucial for transitioning to sustainable food systems. The current project is the first to investigate how educational interventions promote insect farming for household consumption in low-income countries. The results will contribute evidence-based knowledge to support sustainable development through insect farming in Africa. Trial registration: The protocol is registered in the American Economic Association registry for randomized control trials with registration number AEARCTR-0009996. Initial registration date: 02 September 2022, last updated 17 May 2023.
... The notable exceptions are beneficial insects with a long history of commercialization, such as honeybees (3) and silkworms (4,5). The rapidly emerging insects-as-feed-and-food industry has major knowledge, awareness and research gaps concerning the diseases specific to this industry (6,7). These are diseases that could significantly impact the production, processing and commercialization of both the insects and their derived products (8). ...
... These are diseases that could significantly impact the production, processing and commercialization of both the insects and their derived products (8). There is consequently an urgent need to develop expertise on insect health and pathology, as the small-scale harvesting of wild insects transitions to commercial insect cultivation, and rearing insects for animal feed develops into rearing for human consumption (7). The feed-food insect rearing industry presently focuses on a few insect species, with Orthopteran insects (grasshoppers and crickets) constituting approximately half the volume of insects reared (9)(10)(11). ...
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Insects generally have high reproductive rates leading to rapid population growth and high local densities; ideal conditions for disease epidemics. The parasites and diseases that naturally regulate wild insect populations can also impact when these insects are produced commercially, on farms. While insects produced for human or animal consumption are often reared under high density conditions, very little is known about the microbes associated with these insects, particularly those with pathogenic potential. In this study we used both target-free and targeted screening approaches to explore the virome of two cricket species commonly reared for feed and food, Acheta domesticus and Gryllus bimaculatus . The target-free screening of DNA and RNA from a single A. domesticus frass sample revealed that only 1% of the nucleic acid reads belonged to viruses, including known cricket, insect, bacterial and plant pathogens, as well as a diverse selection of novel viruses. The targeted screening revealed relatively high levels of Acheta domesticus densovirus, invertebrate iridovirus 6 and a novel iflavirus, as well as low levels of Acheta domesticus volvovirus, in insect and frass samples from several retailers. Our findings highlight the value of multiple screening approaches for a comprehensive and robust cricket disease monitoring and management strategy. This will become particularly relevant as-and-when cricket rearing facilities scale up and transform from producing insects for animal feed to producing insects for human consumption.
... If insects become a profitable dietary component for humans, large quantities of insects need to be produced continuously. This means that both farming and processing need to be highly advanced and approachable (Berggren, Jansson, and Low 2018). A detailed description is given in Figure 6.2. ...
The burgeoning world population puts pressure on resources and causes food insecurity. Unfortunately, conventional farming methods (Agriculture and Livestock) seem insufficient to cope with the hunger monster. The dilemma of food insecurity, poor dietary constituents and high diversity profile draws the world's attention towards insects as an alternative source of essential and healthy nutrients. In the modern world, insects are no more disgusting creatures due to their remarkable services to society. Insect farming is regarded as the most sustainable, cheaper and eco-friendly source of sustenance. The insect cultivation by means of different methods (wild, indoor and outdoor farming) depends upon the availability of species, environmental conditions and consumer acceptance. Farming of Housefly, Black soldier fly, Grasshoppers, Crickets, silkworm, Red palm weevil, weaver ants practiced in many developed and underdeveloped countries to obtain good quality proteins, fats, and carbohydrates than traditional sources. Advanced farming practices, ease of accessibility, and attractive marketing strategies have increased the per capita consumption of insects. The inclusion of more professionals and local people will make edible insect farming a more viable source of to enhance the GDP (gross domestic production).
... [14] The development of genetically modified/improved crickets by gene transcripts from the embryo, day-old hatchlings, and nymphs was reported to increased production. [59] Berggren et al. [60] recommended setting up a small rearing facility for small-scale production and growing consumer acceptance. Proper legislation and regulatory framework will be required, especially in developing countries, to facilitate safe and suitable quality products during harvesting, processing, and storage to consumers. ...
With the ever-increasing global population, it is impossible to meet the demand for animal protein by relying only on conventional methods due to the depleting natural resources. It is very challenging to ensure a sustainable supply of animal proteins from a single source or form and requires a holistic approach by using all suitable options. The present review critically reviewed various technological, sustainability, nutritional value, regulatory framework, food safety challenge, and prospect aspects of plantbased meat analogs, in vitro meat, edible insect, and single-cell proteins as suitable candidates for future food security and supply of animal protein in a sustainable way. For in vitro meat, the technological challenge in the supply of raw inputs, large-size bioreactors, and scale-up remains a major issue. Although having a lower environmental impact, the acceptance of edible insects to more comprehensive sections and associated food safety risks remains a major concern. There is a need for uniform and proper regulations of these alternatives/novel foods across the globe, covering various aspects throughout the food supply chain. Plant-based meat analogs, in vitro meat, insects, and single-cell proteins along with conventional meat can meet the demand for high-quality protein in the near future.
... Appropriate husbandry methods for the mass rearing of healthy insects are still being developed for an industry that is in its infancy 20 . These methods are being adapted from the experience of insects reared for pet feed and sterile insect production for pest control 38 , and there are serious challenges to create conditions that not only are suitable for healthy insect rearing, but that also offer opportunities for individuals to appropriately respond to stressors like pathogens. Based on our observations in this study, it is clear that benefits for the industry and animal welfare can be derived from behavioural experiments that examine individual reactions to changing infection status. ...
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Disease-induced personality change results from endogenous and adaptive host responses or parasitic manipulation. Within animal husbandry systems understanding the connection between behaviour and disease is important for health monitoring and for designing systems considerate to animal welfare. However, understanding these relationships within insect mass-rearing systems is still in its infancy. We used a simple repeated behavioural-emergence test to examine parasite-induced differences in group personality traits in the house cricket Acheta domesticus , by comparing the behaviours of 37 individuals infected with the Acheta domesticus densovirus (AdDV) and 50 virus-free individuals . AdDV-infected animals had a much lower emergence probability, longer times until emergence, and did not change their behaviour with experience compared to the virus-free animals. AdDV-infected animals also had lower variation in their probability of emergence within the population, most likely related to animals displaying a relatively uniform sickness response. These infected animals also had higher variation in their response to experimental trial experience; this greater variation resulted from a difference between males and females. Infected females responded to experience in a similar way as virus-free animals, while AdDV-infected males showed a response to experience in the opposite direction: i.e., while all other groups reduced emergence time with experience, infected males always increased their mean emergence time as trials progressed. Our results are important not only in the context of animal personality research, but also with regards to creating husbandry systems and disease monitoring within the insects-as-food industry that are considerate to both production traits and animal welfare.
... The protein value of insects is affected by the rearing condition and harvesting age (Morales-Ramos et al., 2018). The design of an insect rearing facility can also have effects on protein quality (Berggren et al., 2018). Compositions of insect nutrients depend on the rearing method, feed composition (Chinarak et al., 2020) and their ability to convert feed into body mass (Straub et al., 2019). ...
Full-text available
There is an urgent need for alternative protein sources due to the rapid population growth, climate change, environmental degradation by pollution, food-fuel competition and the reduction in arable land for agricultural use. Conventional livestock production is also deleterious to the environment due to the production of greenhouse gasses and ammonia. This article provides insights into the potentials of edibleinsects as novel food ingredients. The manuscript provides concise explanations for the need of embracing additional protein sources, edibleinsects consumption and their nutritional benefits and environmental and economic advantages of using edibleinsects as food. Literature was gathered through an online search on the Science Direct database and Google Scholar, relevant papers published between January 2002 and November 2020 were cited. Edibleinsects are good source of essential nutrients. They are rich in proteins and essential amino acids, contain good quality lipids and significant amounts of important minerals. They are potential source of proteins for humans and animals. They can play an important role in global food security by providing essential nutrients to the increasing global population. This can only be achieved when more attention is given to their production and processing. Creating awareness among new consumers on their nutritional and environmental benefits and the development of food products with appealing sensory properties will surely improve their acceptance as food.
... Insect rearing facilities may face many problems, which should be considered during plant design. It is important to design these plants according to the guidelines of the International Platform of Insects for Food and Feed and the information available in the literature; the number of studies on this topic is increasing (Berggren et al., 2018;IPIFF, 2020). These essential points are crucial even when building a new facility is not an option and it is necessary to adapt an existing one. ...
Livestock farms represent a source of attraction for other species, which find food resources on the animals themselves, in the food supplied to them, in their manure, etc. Insect farms too can suffer infestation by different organisms living on substrates or behaving as parasites and/or predators. Breeding of the black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.) requires organic materials which are attractive for other arthropods (commensals, mycetophages, scavengers, etc.). During recent years, the breeding system adopted at the Di.Pro.Ve.S. of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy), has suffered the presence of the following ‘pests’: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera Phoridae), Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (Diptera Muscidae), Monomorium pharaonis (L.) (Hymenoptera Formicidae) and Caloglyphus berlesei (Michael) (Astigmata Acaridae). The use of fermented fruit, vegetables or of an artificial diet to induce egg laying proved to be attractive for small flies such as M. scalaris. This species also takes advantage of the aqueous sugar solution used to feed BSF adults. Infestations by M. scalaris are worrying because its larvae can compete efficiently with those of the BSF in substrate colonisation. Likewise, M. stabulans can be attracted by the substrates, even though this species has not shown the same levels of high competitiveness as the previously mentioned species. M. pharaonis was observed to prey on eggs and newborn BSF larvae. Lastly, infestations by the mite C. berlesei were detected when conditions for the larval development of the BSF were not optimal. This species could also be harmful for the workers involved in the breeding. The establishment of insect and mite populations inside BSF rearing boxes suggests that a careful analysis should be made based on the location of the breeding facility and a series of measures should of course be adopted when this kind of structure and activities are designed and realised.
... There is a need to develop rearing facility designs to be made available to small mass production units, which can help create a socially acceptable climate for the expansion of entomophagy [199]. Mass collections of aquatic insects by using nets woven by fishermen may be a remunerative venture, but encouraging locals and creating marketing channels as well as obtaining permits to fish for aquatic insects could be major hurdles. ...
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Edible insects have been considered as either nutritious food itemsper se, or as wholesome ingredients to various dishes and components of traditional subsistence. Protein, fat, mineral and vitamin contents in insects generally satisfy the requirements of healthy food, although there is considerable variation associated with insect species, collection site, processing method, insect life stage, rearing technology and insect feed. A comparison of available data (based on dry weight) showed that processing can improve the nutrient content, taste, flavour, appearance and palatability of insects, but that there are additional factors, which can impact the content and composition of insect species that have been recommended for consumption by humans. This review focuses on factors that have received little attention in connection with the task to improve acceptability or choice of edible insects and suggests ways to guarantee food security in countries where deficiencies in protein and minerals are an acute and perpetual problem. This review is meant to assist the food industry to select the most suitable species as well as processing methods for insect-based food products.
Insects in animal feed can enhance the sustainability of animal diets while meeting the expanding worldwide demand for other feedstuffs. Despite this, little is known about people's attitudes and inclination to adopt insect-based animal food and feed. The production, consumption and marketing of insects as food and feed has been the most debated issue in the present time to ensure food security. After the production, marketing strategies affect the success of the insects-based food industry. It has been noted that consumer acceptance is the main reveal for the success of entomophagy in the market. This chapter describes the importance of insects in consumption, consumer acceptance, market potential, estimation of edible insects market in future, cash benefit, and enterprises development. In the later section, market strategies and analysis of insect consumption and the species list of Asia, Europe, US, and Africa are described. This chapter can be helpful to understand the acceptance, adoption and market potential of the entomophagy industry. Overall, the outcomes of this work indicate momentum for change in use of insects as a novel additive of animal feed.
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Bazı böcek türlerinin insanlar tarafından tüketilmesi yeni bir konu olmamakla birlikte, son yıllarda özellikle nüfusun ve hayvansal protein talebinin artışı ile birlikte yeniden ele alınan bir konudur. Yenilebilir böceklerin hâlihazırda en az 2 milyar insan tarafından tüketildiği tahmin edilmektedir. Diğer pek çok hayvansal kaynağa göre daha az yem ile daha fazla vücut ağırlığı kazanımı ve küresel ısınmada çok önemli rol oynayan sera gazı salınımındaki payının oransal olarak çok daha az olması, yenilebilir böceklerin gelecek senaryolarında hem insan gıdası hem de hayvan yemi olarak potansiyelinin değerlendirilmesini önemli kılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada yenilebilir böceklerin besin değeri, üretimi, işlenmesi, depolanması, ekonomisi, sağlık ve çevre üzerine etkileri, tüketici kabulü ve yasal düzenlemeler gibi başlıklar ele alınarak konu çok boyutlu bir yaklaşımla derlenmiştir.
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The recent research interest is illustrated by the many refereed articles that appeared during the last years. Only in 2016, there were 47 articles listed in Web of Science (consulted 15 February 2017) when using ‘edible insects’ compared to only 25 during the entire five-year period 2006-2010. At the start of 2017 there are close to 200 start-up companies worldwide ( In 2016, a number of organisations made predictions about how the global edible insect market will grow. With an increased interest, what are the research challenges ahead of us? Where should we be focussing on? What are the bottlenecks to be solved to make it a viable sector?
Full-text available Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the publication of Insects as Sustainable Food Ingredients: Production, Processing and Food Applications, edited by Aaron T. Dossey, Juan Morales-Ramos and M. Guadalupe Rojas. This book provides valuable guidance on how to build insect-based agriculture, food and biomaterials industries. A pioneer in the industry, Dr. Dossey has brought together a team of international experts who effectively summarize the current state of the art, providing helpful recommendations upon which readers can build companies, products and research programs. Researchers, entrepreneurs, farmers, policymakers and anyone interested in insect mass production and the industrial use of insects will benefit from the content in this comprehensive reference. Read the introductory chapter from the book. Dr. Dossey holds a Ph.D. in biochemistry and molecular biology, and an undergraduate degree in biochemistry and molecular biology cum laude with minors in mathematics and chemistry. He is a professional self-taught entomologist, founding president of All Things Bugs LLC, and inventor of Griopro® cricket powder ( His research involves developing technologies derived from insects and other invertebrates, with award-winning research and publications in the fields of entomology and chemistry. Dr. Dossey has won more than $750,000 in major research grants from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as well as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) developing insect farming and processing technologies as well as Ready to Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF) for malnourished children. He has invented and patented technology for production of insect-based food ingredient products, and his company is already the world's largest in production and selling these products. "Insect mass production and use in human food, animal feed and numerous other applications is very promising," said Dr. Dossey. "Insect farms, processors and new entrepreneurs are beginning to capitalize on it and make it an important resource for the world. There is great need for a book with the focus, scope and content that ours contains, and we trust it will be a standard reference for this important emerging industry for decades to come." Dr. Morales-Ramos's main expertise is in mass production of arthropods, insect nutritional ecology and the development of rearing methods and mechanization of rearing processes for beneficial arthropods. He developed mass propagation technology for the boll weevil parasitoid Catolaccus grandis, leading to the USDA-ARS scientist of the year award in 2002. Dr. Morales-Ramos also created termite and ant baiting systems, which earned him the USDA-ARS technology transfer award and the Federal Laboratory Consortium regional excellence in technology transfer award in 2004. Since 2004, he has developed novel rearing methods for predatory mites and other beneficial arthropods. He has produced 104 publications and holds 12 patents. Dr. Morales-Ramos recently co-edited the book, Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms: Invertebrates and Entomopathogens, also published by Elsevier. Dr. Rojas is an expert in insect nutrition, nutritional ecology and the development of artificial diets for biological control agents and bait matrixes to control termites and ants. She developed an artificial diet for the boll weevil parasitoid Catolaccus grandis, and bait matrices for control of the Formosan subterranean termite and household ants, both of which were successfully commercialized by Ensystex and FMC, and still are sold worldwide. This work earned her the USDA-ARS technology transfer award and the Federal Laboratory Consortium regional excellence in technology transfer award in 2004. Since 2004, Dr. Rojas has developed artificial diets for predatory mites and other insect predators and improved susceptibility of Tenebrio molitor to entomopathogenic nematodes. She has produced 99 publications and holds 12 patents, and also co-edited, Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms.
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This study evaluated survival and growth of Cambodian field crickets (Teleogryllus testaceus) during captivity when fed a set of local weed species, agricultural and food industry by-products. Wild individuals were caught at two locations in Cambodia, kept in pens and fed commercial chicken feed until the second generation off-spring hatched. First larval stage nymphs from this generation were collected and used in a 70-day feeding trial with one control treatment (chicken feed) and 12 experimental treatments (rice bran, cassava plant tops, water spinach, spent grain, residue from mungbean sprout production, and Alternanthera sessilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Commelina benghalensis, Cleome rutidosperma, Cleome viscosa, Boerhavia diffusa and Synedrela nodiflora). The crickets were kept in plastic cages and feed intake, weight and survival of crickets were recorded weekly. Overall survival did not differ between chicken feed and the experimental treatments with the exception of crickets fed B. diffusa, which had lower survival. From day 35 to day 49, survival on A. sessilis was also lower (P<0.05) than on chicken feed. There was no difference in weight between crickets fed chicken feed, cassava tops and C. rutidosperma. However, crickets fed A. sessilis, A. spinosus and B. diffusa weighed less than those fed chicken feed already at day 21. The feed conversion rate ranged from 1.6 to 3.9 and was ≤1.9 in crickets fed chicken feed, cassava plant tops and C. rutidosperma. Thus this study shows that it is possible, using simple means, to rear Cambodian field crickets. Cassava plant tops and C. rutidosperma both have great potential as cricket feed and the other weeds, with the exception of A. sessilis, A. spinosus and B. diffusa, agricultural and food industry by-products tested, also showed potential.
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Insects provide a very promising alternative for the future production of animal protein. Their nutritional value in conjunction with their food conversion efficiency and low water requirements make them a more sustainable choice for the production of food of animal origin. However, to realize their potential as a viable source of food for a growing human population, it is necessary to create the infrastructure for their production, processing, storage, distribution, and marketing, and to develop legislation for their use as food. But none of these steps become relevant unless we have the ability to produce insects in sufficient quantities to supply the potential demands for animal protein. In this chapter we present and describe the current technologies and state-of-the-art of insect production (farming) for feed and food. Nutritional requirements of insects are discussed with methods for developing and producing insect feed formulations. An example of a modern insect farm is presented describing mechanized and automated steps on multiple insect species production. Current methods for producing the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.), the super worm (Zophobas morio Fab.), the housefly (Musca domestica L.), the soldier fly [Hermetia illucens (L.)], the house cricket (Acheta domesticus L.), and the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella L.) are described in detail. And an extensive review of the equipment currently available for environmental rearing room control and process automation is presented and discussed.
New World screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae: Chrysomyinae), are devastating pests of warm-blooded animals that cause significant economic damage to livestock. The successful campaign to eradicate screwworms from continental North America, led by the US Department of Agriculture and using the sterile insect technique, continues to receive research support that has resulted in improved technologies for all aspects of the program. The process and ingredients for mass-rearing screwworms is more efficient and sustainable, and there is now a standardized protocol for developing new strains used in mass rearing. Cryopreservation of screwworm embryos allows strains to be preserved and recovered if necessary and also reduces rearing requirements for backup and research strains. Sterile fly release procedures and equipment have been updated leading to optimized sterile fly release rates. Surveillance for screwworm infestations and outbreaks have incorporated new trap designs, habitat analysis, and molecular genetic techniques that enhance monitoring the progress of the program as well as early detection and response to outbreaks. Genetic analyses of screwworm populations across their current range have increased the understanding of genetic differentiation, which may aide in developing new strains and determining the geographic origin of screwworms causing outbreaks when they occur. The ability to release only sterile males, which has been a goal of the program for over 60 years, has recently been accomplished through the development of transgenic sexing strains. The strains carry a conditional female lethal gene and are comparable to the wild-type strain for several biological parameters that are important for mass production and performance in the field. The strains should improve efficiency of population suppression of the current and future eradication and prevention programs against screwworms. These research advances as well as future considerations are presented.
The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion also addresses the occurrence of these hazards in non-processed insects, grown on different substrate categories, in comparison to the occurrence of these hazards in other non-processed sources of protein of animal origin. When currently allowed feed materials are used as substrate to feed insects, the possible occurrence of microbiological hazards is expected to be comparable to their occurrence in other non-processed sources of protein of animal origin. The possible occurrence of prions in non-processed insects will depend on whether the substrate includes protein of human or ruminant origin. Data on transfer of chemical contaminants from different substrates to the insects are very limited. Substrates like kitchen waste, human and animal manure are also considered and hazards from insects fed on these substrates need to be specifically assessed. It is concluded that for both biological and chemical hazards, the specific production methods, the substrate used, the stage of harvest, the insect species and developmental stage, as well as the methods for further processing will all have an impact on the occurrence and levels of biological and chemical contaminants in food and feed products derived from insects. Hazards related to the environment are expected to be comparable to other animal production systems. The opinion also identifies the uncertainties (lack of knowledge) related to possible hazards when insects are used as food and feed and notes that there are no systematically collected data on animal and human consumption of insects. Studies on the occurrence of microbial pathogens of vertebrates as well as published data on hazardous chemicals in reared insects are scarce. Further data generation on these issues are highly recommended.
There is an apparent incongruence between businesses and researchers targeting insects for food and feed. With the Novel Foods Application looming, legislative hurdles to insects in animal feed and the uncertainty of Brexit, businesses and researchers find themselves questioning whether a collaborative partnership is worth pursuing. Discussion with experts on both sides highlighted the main tension points and possible paths to reconciliation. The key differences were established as views on end goals, access to resources, inherent personal risk and communication of findings. Ultimately, for the marriage of business and research to survive it must be recognised how similarities, however limited, work together rather than how differences divide.