ResearchPDF Available
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Does Repetition with Variation Improve Students’
Mathematics Conceptual Understanding and
Retention?
Laila S. Lomibao1, Santos O. Ombay2
1University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippine, Lapasan, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
2Bulua National High School, Department of Education, Division of Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
Abstract: Western education culture viewed repetitive learning as opposite of deep learning and understanding, while Asian
mathematics education considered repetition as an important route to understanding. With these conflicting views, this study was
undertaken to determine the influence of repetition with variation in students’ achievement scores, conceptual understanding and
retention. Pretest-posttest control group research design was employed. 31-item teacher-made multiple choice test with open-ended
questionnaire was the main instrument of the study. Results of the analysis revealed that students exposed to repetition with
variation approach had significantly higher achievement, conceptual understanding and improved retention.
Keywords: repetition with variation, conceptual understanding, retention
1. Introduction
Western and Eastern education have conflicting views on
repetition in learning and instruction. Western education
culture often viewed repetitive learning as an opposite of
deep learning and understanding, while East Asian
mathematics education idea of repetition with variation was
often seen as an important route to understanding. Western
educators oppose the concept of repetition and emphasize the
need for students to construct a conceptual understanding of
mathematical symbols and rules before they practice the rules
(Li, 2006). Similarly, many Western educators hold the view
that students should be encouraged to understand rather than
to memorize what they are learning as they believe that
understanding is more likely to lead to high quality outcomes
than memorizing (Dahlin & Watkins, 2000).
On the other hand, Marton, Wen and Wong (2005) pointed
out that the likelihood of being able to recall something is
higher if the learners hear or see something several times than
if they do not. Furthermore, they commented that, unlike
when you read the same presentation of something several
times in the same way and thus repeat the same thing again
and again, or read the same presentation in different ways,
something is repeated and something is varied. They also
reported that Chinese learners recognise the mechanism of
repetition as an important part of the process of
memorization and that understanding can be developed
through memorisation. Dahlin and Watkins (2000) asserted
that the traditional Asian practice of repetition can create a
deep impression on the mind and enhance memorization, but
they also argue that repetition can be used to deepen and
develop understanding.
The Western idea of rote drilling is not the same as the East
Asian idea of repetition with variation. The idea of repetition
with variation is often seen in East Asian mathematics
education. With a set of practicing exercises that vary
systematically, repeated practice may become an important
route to understanding (Leung, 2006).
With these aforementioned views, this paper sought to
explore the theory of variation and repetition in its place in
the development of mathematical understanding. This study
also aimed to investigate the influence of repetition with
variation on students’ understanding and retention.
2. Review of Related Literature
2.1 Repetition with variation on conceptual
understanding
This study was to investigate the influence of repetition with
variation on students’ achievement, conceptual understanding
and repetition is anchored on variation theory of learning
which emerged from the phenomenographic research
tradition described by Marton and Booth (1997). There are
two fundamentals in the variation theory. The first one is that
learning always has an object; the second one is that the
object of learning is experienced and conceptualized by
learners in different ways.
This study is also based on the teaching with variation
developed by Gu (2004). Gu independently based his theory
on the result of the longitudinal mathematics teaching
experiments in China and the influence of cognitive science
and constructivism. According to this theory, meaningful
learning enables learners to establish a substantial and non-
arbitrary connection between new knowledge and their
previous knowledge. Classroom activities are developed to
help students establish this kind of connection by
experiencing certain dimensions of variation. This theory
suggests that two types of variation are helpful for
meaningful learning. One is called conceptual variation
which provides students with multiple experiences from
different perspectives. The other is called procedural
variation which is concerned with the process of forming a
Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2131
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
concept, logically or chronologically in arriving at solutions
to problems.
Marton & Morris(2002) and Marton & Tsui (2004) described
variation theory as learning concepts for learning through the
experience of discernment, simultaneity and variation. For
every concept, situation or phenomena, it has particular
aspects, and if an aspect is varied and another remained
invariant, the varied aspect will be discerned. In addition,
understanding of the concept in a certain way requires the
simultaneous discernment of the critical aspects of the
concept of learning. This theory on discernment, simultaneity
and variation is related to learning and is believed to be
critical for learning to happen which can also be used as an
analytical tool for analyzing teaching. As a result, learning
and teaching are brought closer together. In this study on the
use of repetition with variation, the class would be given
different mathematics problems of the same concept with
varied questions. Here, students would apply the concept
learned to differentiate one problem from the other, and plan
another strategy to solve it; hence, the conceptual
understanding as well as retention would be improved.
Watson & Mason (2005) further claimed that teaching with
variation helps students to actively try things out, and then to
construct mathematical concepts that meet specified
constraints with related components richly interconnected.
Building on this idea, teaching with variation matches the
central idea of constructivism that is, seeing learners as
constructors of meaning. Hence, using repetition with
variation as an approach can help the students develop their
ability to explain, interpret and apply certain concepts in
mathematics.
Bruner (1961) stated that it is only through the exercise of
problem solving and the effort of discovery that one learns
the working heuristics of discovery. The more one has
practice, the more likely is one to generalize what one has
learned into a style of problem solving or inquiry that serves
for any kind of task or almost any kind of task. Bruner also
believed that it was by translating redundancy into a
manipulable model that the child is able to go beyond the
information before him. The importance of repetition to
Bruner’s concept of learning was particularly clear in his
description of the spiral curriculum which, he said, as it
develops basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the
student has grasped the full formal apparatus that goes with
them. In repetition with variation, the students were given
mathematics problems such that they would be able to
practice solving and thus, helping them to conceptualize such
principles. Retention is being developed as well, for the
given problems are of the same concept but the question is
stated in varied ways.
Also, according to Piaget (1963), development is the result of
repeated patterns of exercise of the reflex, the circular
reaction, the reuse of known schemes of assimilation
employed in novel situations, the gradual accommodation to
external reality through repeated use, and in short, the
tendency toward repetition of behavior patterns and toward
the utilization of external objects in the framework of such
repetition. Brooks & Brooks (1993) affirmed this by stating
that the role of repetition in constructive learning theory is
the similarities found when relating new experience to
previous experience. They further stressed that deep
understanding occurs when the presence of new information
prompts the emergence or enhancement of cognitive
structures that enable a person to rethink his prior ideas.
Likewise, according to Vygotsky (1978), through repeated
experiences children learn covertly to plan their activities.
Such repeated experience, he said, proceeds not in a circle
but in a spiral, passing through the same point at each new
revolution while advancing to a higher level.
Tong (2012) affirmed with these theories and stated that
there is no one way of understanding or experiencing a
particular phenomenon depending on the context and prior
experiences. Applied to learning, this means that individual
students will understand new concepts in varying ways
depending on their existing framework of knowledge. With
this present study varying problems were given to students
for them to consolidate concepts by extending the original
problem by varying the conditions, changing the results and
making generalization. It provides students with an
opportunity to experience a way of mathematical thinking,
investigating the cases from special to general, from which
students can see and construct mathematical concept.
Lai (2015), in his study entitled teaching with procedural
variation: a Chinese way of promoting deep understanding of
mathematics, also found out that by creating this form of
procedural variation, students are able to comprehend
different components of a concept and hence upgrade their
structure of knowledge, while, a non-arbitrary relationship
between different components of teaching with procedural
variation the concept can be built. In other words, this form
of procedural variation offers a structured and structural
approach to exposing underlying mathematical forms and
therefore, can enhance students’ conceptual understanding of
a series of related concepts.
On similar aspect, Noche & Yu (2015) found out from her
study on supplemental self-paced instruction that focuses on
the mastery of either concepts or procedures through
repetition with variation, helps young adults improve their
performance in tasks designed and proportional reasoning
understanding and skills. Hence, according to Olteanu &
Olteanu (2011), in classroom situations, it is very important
that the teacher is able to bring critical features of the object
of learning into students’ focal awareness. The learning
theory of variation serves as a useful theoretical framework
to help teachers plan and structure their lessons. It guides
teachers to decide what aspects to focus on, what aspects to
vary simultaneously, and what aspects remain invariant or
constant. Furthermore, it guides teachers to consciously
design patterns of variation to bring about the desired
learning outcomes. Student’s lived object of learning can be
compared against categories of description as a means of
assessing the level of learning achieved or against the enacted
level of learning to determine whether the enacted concept of
learning is being transferred to the lived concept of learning
as expected.
Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2132
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
2.2 Repetition with variation on retention
Retention is the ability of the students to retain things in
mind, preserve information about the concept discussed as
aftereffects of learning experiences that makes recall or
recognition possible after a period of time. However,
attaining and gaining retention requires an intensive process
and effort. Ritter & Schooler (2010) suggested that there
should be extended practice to take place to have a
potentially strong retention. In other words, learning by
practice helps the students understand the concept well and
their long term memory will somehow help them retrieve
whatever concepts or ideas that may be necessary in the
future. In this present study, students were exposed to varied
repetitive exercises to encourage constant practice through to
promote retention. Also, the students in this study were given
a retention test two weeks after it was given the first time to
find out if they preserved concepts or ideas and could
retrieve it in answering the test.
Furthermore, Chanson, Kurumeh and Obida (2010) stated
that consistent elaboration and explaining of a topic would
surely bring deep retention of a concept. Their findings
stressed out that students were able to retain concepts of a
specific topic for longer period of time when they were asked
to explain and reasons during discussion. This is related to
the present study because in the open ended-questions the
learners were told to explain and justify their solution after
they arrived at the answer.
Furthermore, various studies shows that variations in
classroom activities promotes retention, such as the study of
Haltiwanger and Simpson (2013) who emphasized that
allowing students to construct ideas through writing in
mathematics can promote thinking for writing in mathematics
can develop students’ skills to illustrate an awareness of
mathematical connections, communicate their thoughts and
share their ideas comfortably with pairs. If students were able
to show all these manifestations, this means that they acquire
conception which promotes retention of learning. Ubalde
(2015), on her study on the effect of bridging the knowing-
doing gap through the zone of generatively on pupils’
achievement, retention and anxiety towards mathematics,
found out that knowing-doing gap through the zone of
generativity had the best effect on the students’ retention.
This study is related to the present study because it also dealt
with retention. Another study is that of Herrera (2007),
which focused on problem-based and activity-based
instructions and their influence on the students’ achievement
and retentions scores in probability and statistics and attitude
towards mathematics, found out that the activity method in
teaching mathematics can promote better retention. This is
related to the present study because the researcher used
similar method in teaching by giving an activity to be
answered after the discussion. Tan (2015) also studied
retention based on the influence of problem posing and sense
making. Her study revealed that problem posing and sense
making in mathematics class is effective in improving
students’ retention in conceptual understanding. This is
related to the present study because one of the variables in
the study was retention and the students were allowed to
explain the given problem based from their ability to use the
knowledge and experience about the given lessons.
3. Methodology
The study employed a pretest-postest control group design.
453 Grade-10 students of Bulua National High School were
randomly distributed to 10 sections and one intact section
composed of 55 students was randomly assigned as control
group and another 55 students as one section for
experimental group. A teacher-made test was used in the
study, the 31-item multiple choice which assessed students’
achievement and with open-ended questions which required
students to interpret, to write the step-by-step process of the
solutions, and to provide justification and explanation on
how and why to apply such concept in solving the problem
on circles and geometry. These tests were prepared in
accordance with a table of specification and validated with
coefficient of reliability index of 0.95.
The researcher handled the two classes to minimize the
possible effect of the teacher factor that might affect the
outcome of the study. To ensure that the two approaches
were implemented appropriately and distinctively in the
control and experimental groups, the researcher invited the
mathematics department coordinator and one mathematics
teacher to observe the two classes under study. This was
done to avoid bias. There were three observations done for
each class.
The discussion in both groups started with a lecture of the
basic terms and steps in solving each problem of identifying
what was asked in the problem, listing down the given facts,
sketching the diagram, indicating the part that needed to be
solved. However, in the control group, the teacher illustrated
concepts by solving sample problems. Then the teacher gave
repetitively similar problems for students to solve. This
repetitive way of asking mathematics problems could make
the learners master a certain topic because students focused
only on the same type of problem. The class was told first to
answer the given example in their seat, and discuss their
solution with the group. After which a student was asked to
present the solution. Then the class was given an activity to
be written in their activity notebook. The students were
instructed to submit their activity notebook with their
solutions to be checked by the teacher. Their outputs were
returned right after checking with the correct solution written
on it. While in the experimental group, students were given
varied problems as an example. Then, the class answered it
first in their seat, once they have their answer, they were
asked to discuss it with the group. After the group activity,
volunteers were asked to write the answer on the board and
to explain it before the class. Immediately after the
discussion, an activity was given where they were given
varied mathematics problems of the same concept. After the
responses were written, the students were instructed to
submit their activity notebook and have it checked by the
teacher with the correct solutions written on it. Their outputs
were returned right after checking, then they were instructed
to rewrite their answers correctly and their rewritten work
were collected again by the researchers to be reviewed for
Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2133
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
accuracy. Upon completion of the series of lessons, the
participants were required to complete the post-test.
Answers on the open-ended questions were evaluated using
rubric scale adapted from the study of Lomibao (2016) where
students were required to explain, interpret and apply. There
were three mathematics teachers, including the researcher,
who rated the answers of the participants.
The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to
determine the effects of the treatment because the samples
were intact. The performance in terms of achievement,
conceptual understanding and retention of the students of
both groups were described using the mean and standard
deviation. In testing the hypotheses, alpha is set at 0.05 level
of significance.
4. Results and Discussion
Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation of Students’
Achievement Scores
Experimental Group
N=35 Control Group
N=35
Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest
Mean 11.43 21.31 9.23 14.66
SD 2.78 4.90 2.76 3.43
*Perfect Score: 31
Table 2: One-way ANCOVA Summary for students’
Achievement Scores
Source Adj. SS DF Mean Square F p-value
Treatment within 405.599 1 405.599 27.556 0.0001
Error 986.165 67 14.719
Total 1391.764 68
*Significant at .05 level
Table 1 shows the mean and standard deviation of
achievement scores. It can be notice that there is a little
difference of the achievement which means that both groups
had a little knowledge about the lessons. On other hand, in
the post test, the experimental group gets a higher mean score
compare to the control group, which means that there is an
increase of their achievement scores. Pretest standard
deviation in the achievement test showed that both groups
were of the same ability before the treatment was
implemented since standard deviation difference is negligible
at 0.02. As regards to posttest, the experimental group scores
were widely spread compared to the control group, this
indicates that students have heterogeneous ability after the
treatment.
To determine if there was significant difference between the
retention of the students on procedural knowledge test, the
analysis of covariance ANCOVA was employed. Table 2
shows the analysis of covariance of pre-test and post-test
scores of students’ achievement scores. The analysis yielded
a computed probability value of .001 which is less than 0.05
level of significance. This led the researcher to reject the null
hypothesis. This implies that there is a significant difference
in the students’ mathematics performance in favor of the
experimental group. This means that the experimental group
exposed to repetition with variation approach performed
better than those exposed to repetition with no variation. It
manifests further that, individual student would understand
new concepts in varying ways depending on their existing
framework of knowledge. Varying the unknown of
mathematics problems could enhance deep understanding,
proving that students performed better if they were exposed
to repetition with variation. The result concurred with the
finding of Tong (2012), Noche & Yu (2015), Olteanu, &
Olteanu, (2011) that repetition with variation improved
students’ achievement.
Table 3: Mean and Standard Deviation of Students’
Conceptual Understanding
Experimental Group
N=35 Control Group
N=35
Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest
Mean 13.82 94.56 15.70 69.31
SD 5.98 23.88 5.10 18.17
Table 4: One-way ANCOVA Summary for students’
Conceptual Understanding
Source Adj. SS df Mean Square F p-value
Treatment within 10610.749 1 405.599 27.556 0.0001
Error 30545.444 67 14.719
Total 41156.193
*Significant at .05 level
Table 3 shows that the mean score of the experimental
group’s conceptual understanding. Posttest scores reveal that
the students in the experimental group got higher mean
scores compare to the control group, indicating that both
groups have increase their scores in conceptual
understanding. This means that they had acquired knowledge
on the lessons after a series of discussions made by the
teacher. However, a greater increase can be observed from
the students in the experimental group compared to the
control group. With regards to pretest of students’ standard
deviation in conceptual understanding, both experimental and
control groups got 5.98 and 5.10, respectively, which means
that students had comparable initial knowledge of the
subject. As regards to posttest, the experimental group with
23.88, which means that the scores were widely spread
compared to the control group with 18.17.This is an
indication that some of the students’ scores were low, while
those of the others were high.
Table 4 shows the analysis of covariance of pre-test and post-
test scores of students’ conceptual understanding. The
analysis yielded a computed probability value of .0001 which
is less than 0.05 level of significance. This led to non-
acceptance of the null hypothesis. This means that there is a
significant difference in the students’ conceptual
understanding between the experimental and control groups.
This implies that the conceptual understanding of students
exposed to repetition with variation approach is significantly
higher than those exposed to repetition without variation.
This happened because students were engaged in critical
thinking that facilitated learning of important mathematics
concepts and mathematical processes. In this case,
conceptual understanding was acquired because students
were required to explain and interpret what they were doing
in mathematical operation, why it worked, and where and
Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2134
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
when it could be applied. In creating this form of variation,
the students were able to comprehend different components
of a concept and upgrade their structure of knowledge. This
form of variation offered a structured and structural approach
to exposing underlying mathematical forms and, therefore,
could enhance students’ conceptual understanding of a series
of related concepts. This finding confirmed the claims of
Ketterlin-Geller (2007), and Lai, (2015), on enhancing
conceptual understanding.
Table 5: Mean and Standard Deviation of Students’
Achievement Scores on the Retention Test on Circles and
Plane Coordinate Geometry
Experimental Group
N=35 Control Group
N=35
Posttest Retention Posttest Retention Test
Mean 21.31 21.60 14.66 16.46
SD 4.90 4.97 3.43 6.66
Table 6: One-way ANCOVA Summary for students’
Retention on Achievement Scores Test
Source Adj. SS df Mean Square F p-value
Treatment within 242.839 1 242.839 6.95 0.010
Error 2341.188 67 34.943
Total 2584.027 68
*Significant at .05 level
Table 5 shows the mean and standard deviation of students’
achievement on the retention test on Circles and Plane
Coordinate Geometry. It can be observed that the retention
mean score is higher than the posttest mean scores for both
experimental and control groups, indicating that students
remembered more concepts after two weeks. In addition to
that, Table 5 shows that the retention mean score increase of
the control group is a little bit higher compared to the
experimental group since the increase of the control group
from posttest to retention test is 1.8 while that of the
experimental group, it is only 0.29, a difference of 1.51 in
favor of the control group. The standard deviation of
students’ retention test reveals that the control group scores is
more spread that that of the experimental group. This implies
that some of the students’ scores were low while those of the
others were high.
Table 6 shows the summary of the analysis of covariance of
the posttest and retention of the experimental and control
groups in the achievement test. The analysis yielded a
computed F-ratio of 6.95 and a probability-value of 0.010
which is lesser than the 0.05 level of significance. This led to
the rejection of the null hypothesis. This means that there is
enough evidence to conclude that the retention score of the
experimental group in the test is significantly higher than
those exposed to the conventional method which is repetition
without variation. This further implies that their experience in
the previous tests helped the students understand the concept
well and the repetition with variation have helped develop
their long term memory which allow to retrieve whatever
concepts or ideas they needed. Despite the difference, the
experimental group still showed better retention because their
mean score is higher compared to the control group. This
denotes that consistent elaboration or explanation of a topic
would surely bring deep retention of the concept; strong
retention took place as a result of extended practice. In other
words, learning by practice helped the students understand
the concept well and their long term memory would help
them retrieve whatever concepts or ideas they need for future
use. In addition, writing could help enhance students’
performance and improve their communication ability and
problem solving competence .Moreover, writing developed a
more positive attitude towards mathematics, allowed students
to construct ideas in mathematics that promoted thinking and
illustrated an awareness of mathematical connections. This
finding confirmed the claims of Chanson, Kurumeh and
obida (2010), Ritter (2010), Haltiwanger and Simpson
(2013), Ubalde (2015), Herrera (2007) and Tan (2115).
Table 7: Mean, Standard Deviation of Students’ Conceptual
Understanding on the Retention Test on Circles and Plane
Coordinate Geometry.
Experimental Group
N=35 Control Group
N=35
Posttest Retention Test Posttest Retention Test
Mean 94.56 95.01 69.31 69.70
SD 23.88 17.98 18.17 15.93
Table 8: One-way ANCOVA Summary for students’
Retention on Conceptual Understanding Test
Source Adj. SS df Mean
Square F p-
value
Treatment within 1272.575 1 1272.575 10.255 0.002
Error 314.487 67 124.097
Total 9587.062 68
*Significant at .05 level
Table 7 shows the mean and standard deviation of students’
conceptual understanding on the retention test on Circles and
Plane Coordinate Geometry. It can be observed that there is
no noticeable difference between the posttest and retention
test means for both groups, an indication that the students
had retained conceptual understanding, however, a greater
improvement can be observed with the students in the
experimental group. The standard deviation of the
experimental group is higher compared to the control group.
This indicates that the scores of the experimental group in the
retention test were more dispersed than that of the control
group. This explains why participants in the experimental
group got a very high score while others got a very low score.
Table 8 shows the summary of the analysis of posttest and
retention of the experimental and control groups in the
conceptual understanding test. The analysis yielded a
computed F-ratio of 10.255 and a probability-value of .002
which is lesser than the .05 level of significance. This led to
the rejection of the null hypothesis. This means that there is
enough evidence to conclude that the retention score of the
experimental group in conceptual understanding test is
significantly higher than those exposed to the conventional
method which is repetition without variation. This implies
that the said approach in mathematics class is an effective
teaching method to improve students’ conceptual
understanding and retention. In this study on the use of
repetition with variation, it showed that this method has
helped students’ improved their learning of certain concepts
because they have higher retention when given mathematics
Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2135
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
problems they would be able to solve it using the concept and
principles appropriately. The more one has practiced, the
more likely is one to generalize what one has learned using
the style of problem solving or inquiry that is appropriate for
any kind of task. Hence, using repetition with variation as an
approach could help the students develop their ability to
explain, interpret and apply certain concepts in mathematics.
This finding supports the theory of variation described by
Marton and Booth (1997), Gu (2004), Marton and Morris
(2002), Watson &Mason (2005), Bruner (1961), Piaget
(1963), and Vygotsky (1978) for students’ retention on
conceptual understanding.
5. Conclusion and Recommendations
Based on the analysis and findings of the study the
researchers concluded that repetition with variation is
effective in teaching mathematics to improve students’
achievement and conceptual understanding and enhanced
students’ retention. Hence, they recommended that teachers
could use repetition with variation as an approach in teaching
word problems in Mathematics that involve the four
fundamental operations to enhance the K-12 lesson guides.
Teachers and researchers could use this method as a basis for
future studies for more insights on instruction that use
repetition with variation and ssimilar studies may be
conducted to wider scope using different population in
different institutions for better generalizability of the method.
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Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2136
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Volume 6 Issue 6, June 2017
www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
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Author Profile
Laila S. Lomibao received her BS Physics for
Teachers from Philippine Normal University, MSciEd
in Physics from Mindanao State University-Iligan
Institute of Technology and PhD in mathematical
Science major in Mathematics Education from Mindanao
University of Science and technology. Currentl,y she is the
chairperson of the Department of Mathematics Education of the
University of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines
(USTP), College of Science and Technology Education.
Santos O. Ombay is a secondary mathematics teachers
from the public school of the Deparment of Education-
Division of Cagayan de Oro City. He received his
BSEd Mathematics degree from Bukidnun State
University and Master of Science in Teac hing Mathematics from
USTP.
Paper ID: ART20174479
DOI: 10.21275/ART20174479
2137
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