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Getting Clarity by Defining Artificial Intelligence—A Survey


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Intelligence remains ill-defined. Theories of intelligence and the goal of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) have been the source of much confusion both within the field and among the general public. Studies that contribute to a well-defined goal of the discipline and spread a stronger, more coherent message, to the mainstream media, policy-makers, investors, and the general public to help dispel myths about A.I. are needed. We present the preliminary results of our research survey “Defining (machine) Intelligence.” Opinions, from a cross sector of professionals, to help create a unified message on the goal and definition of A.I.
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Getting Clarity by Defining Artificial
Intelligence—A Survey
Dagmar Monett1,2(B
)and Colin W. P. Lewis1(B
), Berlin, Germany
2HWR Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Abstract. Intelligence remains ill-defined. Theories of intelligence and
the goal of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) have been the source of much
confusion both within the field and among the general public. Stud-
ies that contribute to a well-defined goal of the discipline and spread
a stronger, more coherent message, to the mainstream media, policy-
makers, investors, and the general public to help dispel myths about
A.I. are needed. We present the preliminary results of our research sur-
vey “Defining (machine) Intelligence.” Opinions, from a cross sector of
professionals, to help create a unified message on the goal and definition
of A.I.
1 Introduction
Intelligence permeates almost everything we do. Formally providing a robust and
scientific definition of intelligence has been a goal of scientists and researchers for
several centuries. During the last sixty years, the formal definition of intelligence
has taken on extra impetus as machine intelligence, or A.I., developers pursue
their vision of creating intelligent machines that “replicate” human intelligence
(Brooks 1991). For others, the goal is creating Artificial General Intelligent sys-
tems which exceed human intelligence. However, it is still very hard to define
what intelligence is (Kambhampati 2017). Furthermore, creating an agreed upon
message on the goal and definition of A.I. is far from obvious or straightforward
(Nilsson 2010).
In order to clarify the goal and definition of A.I. the research survey “Defining
(machine) Intelligence” solicits opinions from a cross sector of professionals. The
ongoing survey1has attracted a significant volume of responses and high level
comments and recommendations concerning the definitions of A.I. and human
intelligence from experts around the world. We believe that collecting experts’
opinions can contribute to both a deeper understanding and a better definition
of what intelligence is. In this short paper, a partial analysis of the first 400
responses is presented.
1See intelligence.html for more about the survey.
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018
V. C. M¨uller (Ed.): PT-AI 2017, SAPERE 44, pp. 212–214, 2018.
Getting Clarity by Defining AI 213
2 Research Survey: Preliminary Results and Discussion
The research survey focuses on specific definitions of human and machine
intelligence,2and on the level of agreement of respondents with those defini-
tions. The survey further asks respondents to provide their level of agreement
with statements based on DeBoeck’s (2013) questions concerning the defini-
tion of intelligence. Potential respondents were collected from different sources
with research topics relevant to the survey. News lists informing computer sci-
entists, neuroscientists, cognitive sociologists, and roboticists, to name a few,
were also considered. Survey respondents originate from 48 countries and 131
different institutions (academia 77%, industry 21.3%). Respondents are mainly
researchers (75.3%), educators (36%), and developers or engineers (16.8%), and
come from Computer Science (58%), Psychology or Cognitive Science (9.3%),
and Engineering (8.5%).
Partial results show (see Table 1) that most respondents disagree or strongly
disagree there is a difficulty in defining the goal of A.I. (1.b) Only a small minor-
ity seem to believe that a definition of intelligence is self-evident (1.a) and over
the half of respondents disagree that it will never be possible to reach an agree-
ment upon a definition of A.I. (1.f) Most respondents indicated disagreement
or strong disagreement with the statement that a unified definition of artificial
intelligence does not pay off (1.d). However, there are also strong opinions for the
contrary and an almost equal amount of opinions are neutral. Other statements
to agree upon considered differences in opinion when defining A.I. being too
large to bridge (1.c), a definition of A.I. experienced as a restriction (1.e), and
scientific advances in A.I. being “a huge step forward and possibly a promising
paradigm shift towards creating machines that can be measured to match or
exceed human level intelligence” (1.g).
Table 1. Level of agreement with some statements to agree upon in the survey
(N= 400).
Id Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
1.a 160 (40.0%) 169 (42.3%) 34 (8.5%) 24 (6.0%) 13 (3.3%)
1.b 61 (15.3%) 173 (43.3%) 83 (20.8%) 71 (17.8%) 12 (3.0%)
1.c 19 (4.8%) 152 (38.0%) 116 (29.0%) 93 (23.3%) 20 (5.0%)
1.d 26 (6.5%) 125 (31.3%) 119 (29.8%) 115 (28.8%) 15 (3.8%)
1.e 51 (12.8%) 160 (40.0%) 81 (20.3%) 93 (23.3%) 15 (3.8%)
1.f 55 (13.8%) 171 (42.8%) 94 (23.5%) 62 (15.5%) 18 (4.5%)
1.g 40 (10.0%) 66 (16.5%) 74 (18.5%) 147 (36.8%) 73 (18.3%)
Many respondents (N= 187, 46.8%) express agreement or strong agree-
ment concerning the need for having separate definitions of human and machine
2See intelligence.html for a complete list of definitions.
214 D. Monett and C. W. P. Lewis
intelligence, but a slightly equal number (N= 172, 43%) indicate that only
one definition is adequate. The definition of machine intelligence that received
the most comments was Russell and Norvig’s (2010) definition with a total of
224 (56%) opinions. However, the most accepted definition of machine intelli-
gence was Wang’s (2008): 224 (56%) respondents agree or strongly agree with it.
Similarly, the definition of human intelligence that received the most comments
was Humphreys’ (1984) definition with a total of 148 (37%) opinions. However,
the most accepted definition was Gottfredson’s (1997) definition: 246 (61.5%)
respondents agree or strongly agree with it. Survey participants provided a total
of 3453 reasons for supporting their selections of the definitions. Furthermore, a
total of 213 (53.3%) survey participants provided their suggested definitions of
human and/or machine intelligence.3
3 Conclusions
Getting clarity around defining A.I. must include experts’ opinions. The first 400
responses to our survey comprise thousands of those opinions, not to mention
other hundreds of suggested definitions of intelligence and overall feedback that
were received. A significant variety of judgements and viewpoints that allow for
first understanding and then creating an agreed upon message on the goal and
definition of A.I. The question of combined versus separate definitions of human
and machine intelligence remains highly polarized. Our work in progress includes
building a catalogue of factors contributing to intelligence, and a methodology
for and best practices to be applied when defining (machine) intelligence.
Brooks, R.A.: Intelligence without representation. Artif. Intell. 47, 139–159 (1991)
De Boeck, P.: Intelligence, where to look, where to go? J. Intell. 1, 5–24 (2013)
Gottfredson, L.S.: Mainstream science on intelligence: an editorial with 52 signatories,
history, and bibliography. Intelligence 24, 13–23 (1997)
Humphreys, L.G.: General intelligence. In: Reynolds, C.R., Brown, R.T. (eds.)
Perspectives on Bias in Mental Testing, p. 243. Springer, Boston (1984)
Kambhampati, S.: On the Past and Future of AI. Interviews with Experts in Artificial
Intelligence, Iridescent (2017).
Nilsson, N.J.: The Quest for Artificial Intelligence. A History of Ideas and Achieve-
ments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2010)
Russell, S.J., Norvig, P.: Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 3rd edn. Prentice
Hall, Upper Saddle River (2010)
Wang, P.: What do you mean by “AI”? In: Wang, P., Goertzel, B., Franklin, S. (eds.)
Proceedings of the First AGI Conference on Artificial General Intelligence 2008.
Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, vol. 171, pp. 362-373. IOS Press,
Amsterdam (2008)
3More results can be found in our poster to the PT-AI 2017 conference (Leeds, UK)
that is available at PT- AI2017 poster.pdf.
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On the Past and Future of AI
  • S Kambhampati
Kambhampati, S.: On the Past and Future of AI. Interviews with Experts in Artificial Intelligence, Iridescent (2017).