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Effect of 1-week betalain-rich beetroot concentrate supplementation on cycling performance and select physiological parameters

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Purpose Betalains are indole-derived pigments found in beet root, and recent studies suggest that they may exert ergogenic effects. Herein, we examined if supplementation for 7 days with betalain-rich beetroot concentrate (BLN) improved cycling performance or altered hemodynamic and serum analytes prior to, during and following a cycling time trial (TT). Methods Twenty-eight trained male cyclists (29 ± 10 years, 77.3 ± 13.3 kg, and 3.03 ± 0.62 W/kg) performed a counterbalanced crossover study whereby BLN (100 mg/day) or placebo (PLA) supplementation occurred over 7 days with a 1-week washout between conditions. On the morning of day seven of each supplementation condition, participants consumed one final serving of BLN or PLA and performed a 30-min cycling TT with concurrent assessment of several physiological variables and blood markers. Results BLN supplementation improved average absolute power compared to PLA (231.6 ± 36.2 vs. 225.3 ± 35.8 W, p = 0.050, d = 0.02). Average relative power, distance traveled, blood parameters (e.g., pH, lactate, glucose, NOx) and inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα) were not significantly different between conditions. BLN supplementation significantly improved exercise efficiency (W/ml/kg/min) in the last 5 min of the TT compared to PLA (p = 0.029, d = 0.45). Brachial artery blood flow in the BLN condition, immediately post-exercise, tended to be greater compared to PLA (p = 0.065, d = 0.32). Conclusions We report that 7 days of BLN supplementation modestly improves 30-min TT power output, exercise efficiency as well as post-exercise blood flow without increasing plasma NOx levels or altering blood markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and/or hematopoiesis.
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European Journal of Applied Physiology (2018) 118:2465–2476
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-018-3973-1
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effect of1-week betalain-rich beetroot concentrate supplementation
oncycling performance andselect physiological parameters
PeteyW.Mumford1· WesleyC.Kephart2· MatthewA.Romero1· CodyT.Haun1· C.BrooksMobley1·
ShelbyC.Osburn1· JamesC.Healy1,3· AngeliqueN.Moore3· DavidD.Pascoe1· WilliamC.Run3· DarrenT.Beck1,3·
JereyS.Martin1,3· MichaelD.Roberts1,3· KaelinC.Young1,3
Received: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published online: 28 August 2018
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract
Purpose Betalains are indole-derived pigments found in beet root, and recent studies suggest that they may exert ergogenic
effects. Herein, we examined if supplementation for 7days with betalain-rich beetroot concentrate (BLN) improved cycling
performance or altered hemodynamic and serum analytes prior to, during and following a cycling time trial (TT).
Methods Twenty-eight trained male cyclists (29 ± 10years, 77.3 ± 13.3kg, and 3.03 ± 0.62W/kg) performed a counterbal-
anced crossover study whereby BLN (100mg/day) or placebo (PLA) supplementation occurred over 7days with a 1-week
washout between conditions. On the morning of day seven of each supplementation condition, participants consumed one
final serving of BLN or PLA and performed a 30-min cycling TT with concurrent assessment of several physiological vari-
ables and blood markers.
Results BLN supplementation improved average absolute power compared to PLA (231.6 ± 36.2 vs. 225.3 ± 35.8W,
p = 0.050, d = 0.02). Average relative power, distance traveled, blood parameters (e.g., pH, lactate, glucose, NOx) and
inflammatory markers (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα) were not significantly different between conditions. BLN supplemen-
tation significantly improved exercise efficiency (W/ml/kg/min) in the last 5min of the TT compared to PLA (p = 0.029,
d = 0.45). Brachial artery blood flow in the BLN condition, immediately post-exercise, tended to be greater compared to
PLA (p = 0.065, d = 0.32).
Conclusions We report that 7days of BLN supplementation modestly improves 30-min TT power output, exercise efficiency
as well as post-exercise blood flow without increasing plasma NOx levels or altering blood markers of inflammation, oxida-
tive stress, and/or hematopoiesis.
Keywords Betalains· Exercise efficiency· Blood flow· Cycling
Abbreviations
ANOVA Analysis of variance
BLN Betalain-rich beetroot concentrate
CO Cardiac output
EPO Erythropoietin
FMD Flow-mediated dilation
HR Heart rate
NO Nitric oxide
PLA Placebo
RER Respiratory exchange ratio
TBARS Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
TT Time trial
Introduction
Beetroot contains multiple phytochemical compounds
along with bioactive pigments known as betalains (Lee
etal. 2005; Clifford etal. 2015). Betalains are classified
Communicated by Anni Vanhatalo.
Jeffrey S. Martin, Michael D. Roberts and Kaelin C. Young are
co-principal investigators.
* Kaelin C. Young
Kyoung@auburn.vcom.edu
1 School ofKinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL,
USA
2 University ofWisconsin-Whitewater, Whitewater, WI, USA
3 Department ofCell Biology andPhysiology, Edward Via
College ofOsteopathic Medicine, Auburn Campus, 910
S. Donahue Dr., Auburn, AL36832, USA
Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved.
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