Article

SANKHAHOLI EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN: A REVIEW

Abstract

The Sankhaholi (Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. [EA]) of family Convolvulaceae which is commonly known as Shankhpushpi, in the traditional system of medicine including Unani medicine. It is a perennial herb with a small woody branched rootstock which contains alkaloids: Shankhapushpine and evolvine. Fresh plant of sankhholi contains volatile oil. It also contains a yellow neutral fat, an organic acid, and saline substances. Therapeutic uses of Sankhaholi EA, mentioned in the Unani medicine are alexiteric (Mufarreh), cardiac tonic (Muqawwi-e Qalb), brain tonic (Muqawwi-e Dimag), digestive (Hazim) Musaffi-e-Khoon (blood purifier), general tonic (Muqawwi-e-am), diuretic (Mudirr-e-Baul), anti-inflammatory (Muhallil-e-waram), hypoglycemic (Dafa-e-Ziabitus), and antihypertensive (Dafye Imtella). It is also used in a headache, asthma, hyperlipidemia, etc. The present article reviews the pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of Sankhaholi (EA) present in Unani literature supported with the available clinical and animal studies.
Vol 4, Issue 3, 2016 ISSN- 2347-5544
SANKHAHOLI ȍEVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINNȎ: A REVIEW
QAMAR ALAM KHAN*, ASIM ALI KHAN, AZHAR JABEEN, SHABNAM ANSARI
ABSTRACT
The Sankhaholi (Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. [EA]) of family Convolvulaceae which is commonly known as Shankhpushpi, in the traditional system of
medicine including Unani medicine. It is a perennial herb with a small woody branched rootstock which contains alkaloids: Shankhapushpine and
evolvine. Fresh plant of sankhholi contains volatile oil. It also contains a yellow neutral fat, an organic acid, and saline s ubstances. Therapeutic uses
of Sankhaholi EA, mentioned in the Unani medicine are alexiteric (Mufarreh), cardiac tonic (Muqawwi-e Qalb), brain tonic (Muqawwi-e Dimag),
digestive (Hazim) Musaffi-e-Khoon (blood purifier), general tonic (Muqawwi-e-am), diuretic (Mudirr-e-Baul), anti-inflammatory (Muhallil-e-waram),
hypoglycemic (Dafa-e-Ziabitus), and antihypertensive (Dafye Imtella). It is also used in a headache, asthma, hyperlipidemia, etc. The present article
reviews the pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of Sankhaholi (EA) present in Unani literature supported with the available clinical and
animal studies.
Keywords: Sankhahol; Evolvulus alsinoides Linn; Shankhpushpi; Unani medicine
INTRODUCTION
The traditional system of medicine is now gaining popularity after
population became aware of side effects and limitation of synthetic
medicine. In both organized (Unani, Ayurveda) and unorganized
forms, plants have been utilized as therapeutic agents since old age.
Shankhaholi (Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. [EA]) is one of such effective
herb and has been used since ancient times by physicians [1].
Shankhaholi, with flowers shaped like a shankh (conch), is one of Lord
Shiva’s sacred instruments often used in ritual worship. It is considered
memory enhancer in Unani literature and has been used as rejuvenator,
anti-aging, mental stimulant, and tranquilizers. All parts of EA are
accepted for medicinal uses as per the Indian pharmacopoeia [1].
Four plants referred to as Sankhaholi in literature they are:
(i) Convolvulus pluricaulis Chois, (ii) EA (iii) Canscora decussate roem,
and (iv) C. ternatea [2].
EA, family Convolvulaceae, is an important medicinal plant.
Traditionally, it is used for different ailments in India and o ther
countries, and grows in the open and grassy places almost throughout
India and other subtropical countries [2]. Various dosage forms and a
wide range of original products have been used in the traditional system
of medicine and have reported therapeutic activity experimentally and
clinically in various scientific journals [1]. The present article reviews
the pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses of Sankhaholi (EA)
present in Unani literature supported with the available clinical and
animal studies.
SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION OF SANKHAHOLI ȍEAȎ
Kingdom Planate - Plants
Subkingdom Tracheobionta - Vascular plants
Super division Spermatophyta - Seed plants
Division Magnoliophyta - Flowering plants
Class Magnoliopsida - Dicotyledons
Subclass Asteridae
Order Solanales
Family Convolvulaceae - Morning-glory family
Genus Evolvulus L. - dwarf morning-glory
Species EA - slender dwarf morning-glory [3]
EA: Evolvulus alsinoides
Vernacular names
Urdu Sankhaholi
Unani Sankhaholi
Hindi Shyamkranti, Sankhapuspi
Sanskrit Vishnukranti, Vishnugandhi
Punjabi Shankhpushpi, Kodyali
Bombay Sankhavalli
Gujarati Kalisankhavali
Malayalam Vishnukranthi
Marathi Vishnukanta
Tamil Vishnukarandi, Vishnukaranthi
Telgu Vishnukranta, Kancakura
English Canscora [4-9]
PLANT DESCRIPTION
EA (dwarf morning glory) belonging to the family Convolvulaceae
and is a perennial herb with a small woody branched rootstock; stem
membranous, more than 30 cm long, prostrate, spreading, slender or
rounded, wiry usually covered with long spreading hairs but sometime
quite glabrous. Leaves are small numerous 6-20 by 4-8 mm, alternate,
elliptic-oblong, obtuse, strongly petioles very short, sometimes almost
absent. Flowers light blue, or deep blue very small solitary, or sometime in
pairs. Peduncles are very long, filiform, axillary, calyx densely silky, sepals
4 mm long, lanceolate, very acute. Corolla 5 mm long; fruits are usually
glabrous, four-valved thin capsules, 3-4 mm diameter [4,10-12,25].
Habitat and distribution
Sankhaholi is a small, hairy, diffuse, and perennial herb. It grows in open
and grassy places throughout India and other sub-tropical countries.
Chemical constituent
The plant of sankhaholi contains alkaloids: Betaine, shankhapushpine,
and evolvine. Fresh plant of sankhaholi contains volatile oil. It also
contains a yellow neutral fat, an organic acid and saline substances.
An unidentified compound has been isolated. Scopoletin, scopoli n,
umbelliferone, 2-methyl-1,2,3,4-butanetetrol, ferulic acid esters
with alcohols and palmitic, stearic, oleic, 8-methyldecanoic, and
heptadecanoic acids have been reported [13,14]. 2,3,4-trihydroxy-
3methylbutyl 3-2-propenoate (1) and 1,3-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid
methyl ester, caffeic acid, 6-methoxy-7-O-glucopyranoside coumarin,
Review Article
Department of Moalejat, Faculty of Medicine (U), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India. Email: Qamaralamkhan911@gmail.com
Received: 22 April 2016, Revised and Accepted: 29 April 2016
Khan et al.
2
Innovare Journal of Health Sciences, Vol 4, Issue 3, 2016, 1-3
2-C-methyl erythritol, kaempferol-7-O-glucopyranoside, kaempferol
glucopyranoside, and quecetine-3-O-glucopyranoside were reported
from n-BuOH soluble fraction from the ethanol extract of EA [15,28].
Temperament (Mizaj)
Barid Ratab [7,16]
Har Ratab [8,17].
Therapeutic dosage (Miqdar-e-Khurak)
6-9 g [16,17]
3-5 g [8]
3-8 g [18].
Medicinal action of Sankhaholi (Afa’al wa khawas)
Anthelmintic (Qatile Deedan) [4,5,6,11]
Alexiteric (Mufarreh) [4,9]
Anti-diarrheal (Dafaye ishal) [4,9]
Aphrodisiac (Muqawwi-e-Bah) [9,27]
Appetizers (Mushtahi) [9-11]
Brain tonic (Muqawwi-e Dimag) [4,5,7-9,16,17,27]
Cardiac tonic (Muqawwi-e Qalb) [7,17,27]
Laxative (Molayyen) [7,9,16,17]
Febrifuge (Musakkin-e-Hararate) [4,5,11,12,27]
Emmenogogue (Mudirr-e-Haiz)
Conception promoter [9]
Astringent [4,9]
Digestive (Hazim) [7,27]
General tonic (Muqawwi-e-am) [4-7,12]
Blood purifier (Musaffi-e-Khoon) [7,8,16,17]
Hair tonic (Muqawwi-e-Shaar) [4,5,26]
Nervine tonic (Muqawwi-e-Asab) [7,27]
Mughalliz-e-Mani [7,8,17]
Anti-inflammatory (Muhallil-e-waram) [7,17]
Eye tonic (Muqaww-e-Basar) [7,8,17,27]
Dafa-e-Sual [7,27]
Dafa-e-Bawaseer [7,8,17,27]
Detergent (Jali) [17]
Diuretic (Mudirr-e-Baul)
Hypoglycemic (Dafa-e-Ziabitus) [7,27]
Anti-convulsant (Dafa-e-Tashannuz) [7]
Anti-emetic (Mane-Qai) [7]
Musakkin-e-Atash [17]
Coolant (Mubarrid) [7]
Mumbite sha’r [12]
THERAPEUTIC USES
It is mostly used in zofe dimagh, zofe qalb wa asab, diabetes, ihtebas-
e-baul wa haiz, istisqaa (ascites), zof-e-meda (gastric upset), nafakh-
e-shikam (flatulence), anxiety neurosis, stress Condition, qulanj
(intestinal colic), bawaseer (piles) warm-e-rahem, inteshar-e-shar,
wajaul-qutn (backache), mirgy (Sara) taqteerul baul [4,7,24]. It is also
used in nazla (common cold), suaal (cough), asthma and used in dard-e-
chashm [21] it is also used in skin eruption and fasad-e-khoon (bahaq,
bars) [7,26].
It is used to cure insomnia, irritability as well as epilepsy [4,5,9], as it
has a relaxing effect on the brain [7,8]. It is a natural tranquilizer that
promotes deep and revitalizing sleep. Recommended where the mind
becomes overactive, Agitated and restless. It is slightly laxative in action
and improves digestion. It promotes health of both the male and female
reproductive organs. It is a rejuvenative herb with anti-aging properties.
May also help in preventing changes in the neuron cell bodies in specific
brain areas. It is also useful in fever, asthma, bronchitis, biliousness,
and hypertension. It is a sovereign remedy in bowel complaints
especially diarrhea and dysentery. It has been found to be effective in
reducing different types of stress including psychological, chemical and
traumatic. A decoction of the whole plant of Sankhaholi with Ocimum
sanctum is administered in fevers accompanied by indigestion or
diarrhea. Decoction was given in cases of malarial fever [7,27]. The root
of Sankhaholi is used with sandal, for intermittent childhood fever. The
leaves of Sankhholi are made into cigarettes and smoked in chronic
bronchitis and asthma. The Sankhaholi oil promotes the growth of
hairs [4,5,26].
According to an ethnobotanical survey conducted among
Kani/Kanikaran ethnic groups in Southern Western Ghats of India,
whole plant of EA is used for the treatment of venereal diseases [19].
PHARMACOLOGICAL/CLINICAL STUDIES ON SANKHAHOLI
S. No. Actions References
1 Antioxidant
activity [14,21]
Cervenka et al., 2008, Kumar M
et al., 2010, Gomathi et al., 2013
2 Antidiabetic activity [21] Gomathi et al., 2013
3 Immunomodulator
activity [24,38]
Ganju et al., 2003,
Mahiuddin et al., 2010
4 Anti-stress activity [15,23] Gupta et al., 2007
5 Antihypertensive
activity [22,29,37]
Kiran et al., 2005,
Joshi et al., 2012
6 Antihyperlipidemic
activity [21,36]
Gomathi et al., 2013, Deepa
et al., 2014
7 Anti-anxiety activity [30] Shamsi et al., 2007
8 Antiulcer activity [35] Purohit et al., 1996
9 Hepatoprotective
activity [33,34]
Chander et al., 2014,
Ravichandra et al., 2013
10 Anti-depression
activity [32]
Babu et al., 2005
11 Antifungal activity [31] Deviha et al., 2015
Substitute (Badal)
Barhammi [17].
Formulations (Murakkabat)
Majoon-e-Suparipak [20].
Demagheen (Jamia Tibbiya)
Saϔi (Hamdard).
CONCLUSION
Sankhaholi (EA) is a very beneficial plant for human being due to its
pharmacological actions of the whole plants in almost all the disease.
Sankhaholi (EA) is widely acceptable due to its antibacterial activity,
anti-diabetic activity, and antioxidant activity, antifungal activity,
immunomodulator, hepatoprotective activity, nephroprotective and
neuroprotective activity, antihyperlipidemic activity, antihypertensive
activity. Sankhaholi is a very effective in anxiety neurosis and stress
condition. This drug is used in the traditional system of medicine since
long time. Hence, this study may be helpful to know the pharmacological
actions and uses of Sankhaholi (EA) which are mentioned in the Unani
system of medici n e .
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... The second plant which is E. alsinoides belongs the Convolvulacae family, and it is commonly known as Chuha kanni , Shankhpushpi or Shankhavali ( Austin, 2008 ). This plant is widely distributed in tropical countries and sub-tropical countries ( Khan et al., 2016 ). It is a famous indigenous plant in India and often used as an ingredient of nervine tonics that are used traditionally to cure diseases ( Naikawadi et al., 2012 ). ...
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Objective: To explore the anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-tumor effect of ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides, its chloroform fraction and isolated components in Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Animals were administered with intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Triton WR 1339 at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. After 24 h of Triton administration the test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight in rats. The ethanolic extract and stigmast-5-en-3β-ol from Evolvulus alsinoides were further investigated for the tumor take inhibitory activity in hybrid mice (of C57BL strain + Swiss albino strain). Preventive group animals were injected daily with the extract and stigmast-5-en-3β-ol at dose of 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. for 10 consecutive days. The animals were observed for the growth of tumor after injection of B16F10 melanoma cells into the dorsal skin of mice. Results: Stigmast-5-en-3β-ol showed a marked antihyperlipidemic potential by reducing the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins level, and significantly increased high density lipoprotein level compared with other isolated component. Pretreatment with the drug showed delay tumor growth by increasing the volume doubling time and growth delay. The stigmast-5-en-3β-ol showed better mean survival time. Conclusion: The supplementation of antioxidants and phytosterols rich food Evolvulus alsinoides has significant tumor take inhibitory activity.
Article
The study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective potentials of aqueous extracts of Convolvulus pluricaulis leaves against thiocetamide induced liver damage in rats. The acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD guidelines 420 and the extract was proved to be safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. The total duration of the study was 21 days and animals were divided into six groups. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the animals of all groups except normal control by single dose administration of thioacetamide (100 mg/kg) at first day of the study followed by animals were treated daily with standard drug sylimarine and aqueous extract of Convovulus pluricaulis (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg) to respective groups for 21 days. Variations in biochemical parameters like alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilurubin, direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein, ions and others parameters like clotting time and weight of the liver were considered to determine beneficial effect of the extract. At the end of the study liver samples were collected and subjected to histopathological evaluation. In control animals treated with Thioacetamide alone there were variations in the above-mentioned parameters. But in the animals treated with aqueous extract and standard drug silymarine, all the parameters were normal possibly due to their beneficial property in protecting the liver against thioacetamde induced hepatotoxicity. The results obtained in the above study suggesting that, the aqueous extract of Convolvulus pluricaulis posses significant hepatoprotective activity.