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Mindfulness Training Reduces Stress At Work: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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Mindfulness-based interventions have been suggested as one way to improve employee well-being in the workplace. Despite these purported benefits, there have been few well-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating mindfulness training in the workplace. Here, we conducted a two-arm RCT at work among employees of a digital marketing firm comparing the efficacy of a high-dose 6-week mindfulness training to a low-dose single-day mindfulness training for improving multiple measures of employee well-being assessed using ecological momentary assessment. High-dose mindfulness training reduced both perceived and momentary stress, and buffered employees against worsened affect and decreased coping efficacy compared to low-dose mindfulness training. These results provide well-controlled evidence that mindfulness training programs can reduce momentary stress at work, suggesting that more intensive mindfulness training doses (i.e., 6 weeks) may be necessary for improving workplace well-being outcomes. This RCT utilizes a novel experience sampling approach to measure the effects of a mindfulness intervention on employee well-being and considers potential dose-response effects of mindfulness training at work.
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ORIGINAL PAPER
Mindfulness Training Reduces Stress at Work: a Randomized
Controlled Trial
Brian Chin
1
&Jerry Slutsky
1
&Julianna Raye
2
&John David Creswell
1
#Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018
Abstract
Mindfulness-based interventions have been suggested asone way to improve employee well-being in the workplace. Despite these
purported benefits, there have been few well-controlled randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating mindfulness training in the
workplace. Here, we conducted a two-arm RCTat work among employees of a digital marketing firm comparing the efficacy of a
high-dose 6-week mindfulness training to a low-dose single-day mindfulness training for improving multiple measures of em-
ployee well-being assessed using ecological momentary assessment. High-dose mindfulness training reduced both perceived and
momentary stress, and buffered employees against worsened affect and decreased coping efficacy compared to low-dose mind-
fulnesstraining. Theseresults provide well-controlled evidence that mindfulness training programs can reduce momentary stress at
work, suggesting that more intensive mindfulness training doses (i.e., 6 weeks) may be necessary for improving workplace well-
being outcomes. This RCT utilizes a novel experience sampling approach to measure the effects of a mindfulness intervention on
employee well-being and considers potential dose-response effects of mindfulness training at work.
Keywords Mindfulness .Stress .Coping .Well -being
Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the
use of mindfulness training programs in the workplace (Good
et al. 2016; Lomas et al. 2017). Corporations such as Aetna,
General Mills, and Goldman Sachs have begun to implement
mindfulness meditation training programs for their employees
(Gelles 2015). Indeed, a recent survey of the US workforce
found nearly one in six white-collar workers reported engag-
ing in some form of mindfulness-based practice over the pre-
vious year (Kachan et al. 2017). Numerous CEOs also report
integrating mindfulness meditation into their daily routines,
providing anecdotal evidence that this practice has helped
them to build resilience against stressors, focus their attention,
and improve their interpersonal work relationships (Seppala
2015). One reason for this surge in popularity is that mindful-
ness practices train an open attention and awareness to present
moment experiences, which may foster greater self-regulation
and performance (Brown et al. 2007; Glomb et al. 2011).
However, the immense popularity of the organizational mind-
fulness movement has led some to argue for the necessity of a
more balanced and rigorous assessment of mindfulness train-
ing in the workplace (Brendel 2015). Despite its purported
benefits, there have been few well-controlled randomized con-
trolled trials (RCTs) evaluating mindfulness training in the
workplace (Good et al. 2016).
Previous research has demonstrated initial benefits of mind-
fulness interventions in workplace settings such as hospitals
(e.g., Krasner et al. 2009) and schools (e.g., Harris et al.
2016; Roeser et al. 2013). However, there have been few
well-controlled studies testing the effects of a mindfulness-
based intervention in for-profit organizations (see critique by
Lomas et al. 2017). The few previous randomized controlled
trials ofmindfulness training programs in for-profit workplaces
have provided promising initial evidence that mindfulness-
based interventions can reduce stress and increase resilience
among employees (Aikens et al. 2014; Shonin et al. 2014;
Wolever et al. 2012). However, one limitation of these previ-
ous studies is that all of them have utilized either a waitlist
control group (Aikens et al. 2014; Hülsheger et al. 2015;
Wolever et al. 2012) or non-equivalent comparison groups
such as yoga (e.g., Wolever et al. 2012) or cognitive behavioral
*John David Creswell
creswell@cmu.edu
1
Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, 342 Baker
Hall, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
2
Unified Mindfulness, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Mindfulness
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-1022-0
therapy (CBT; e.g., Shonin et al. 2014). In the latter case,
mindfulness programs have shown little relative advantage
compared to these different treatment programs. For example,
Wol e ver e t al. (2012) found no differences between a
mindfulness- and yoga-based intervention in reducing per-
ceived stress, depressive symptoms, sleep difficulties, or
health-related work limitations. One possible reason that these
studies did not find any additional benefits of mindfulness
training relative to control trainings may be that these compar-
ator programs also included some of the same components as
mindfulness training and may have therefore masked any po-
tential benefits. Alternatively, it is also a possibility that mind-
fulness interventions may be just as beneficial as these other
behavioral treatments.
Additionally, it is unclear from previous research how
much mindfulness intervention is needed to experience work-
place benefits. Developing a better understanding of the dose-
response effects of mindfulness interventions for different out-
comes is necessary to facilitate the design of more efficacious
and efficient workplace interventions (Carmody and Baer
2009;Creswell2017). Specifically, it may be particularly in-
formative to examine which workplace benefits can be
achieved with a brief lower dose mindfulness training and
which benefits may only be observed following a longer-
term higher dose mindfulness-based intervention. For exam-
ple, it has been shown previously that a more intensive,
longer-term mindfulness intervention improves clinical
markers of physical health in patient populations relative to
a single day mindfulness workshop (Creswell et al. 2009).
An additional limitation of earlier investigations of
mindfulness-based interventions in for-profit workplaces is a
reliance on global retrospective self-report measures to evalu-
ate primary study outcomes which can introduce multiple
forms of bias (Nisbett and Wilson 1977). To this end, the
use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to measure
momentary experience during the workday may be particular-
ly beneficial. EMA is particularly well-suited to capture dy-
namic processes such as stress and changes in affect through-
out the day (Shiffman et al. 2008;SmythandStone2003).
Compared to standard retrospective assessments, the use of
EMA is advantageous because this approach boosts ecologi-
cal validity (e.g., Anestis et al. 2010), reduces memory biases
associated with retrospective reporting (Stone and Broderick
2007), and provides novel insight and greater sensitivity to
detect change (e.g., Moore et al. 2016; Solhan et al. 2009).
One important workplace domain potentially influenced by
mindfulness meditation is employee well-being (Good et al.
2016; Hyland et al. 2015). Employee well-being refers to the
general quality of an employees experience at work and is
thought to encompass both general emotional tone and resil-
ience during stressful events such as coworker conflict or poor
performance evaluations (Good et al. 2016). Earlier evidence
suggests that mindfulness in the workplace may be associated
with improvements in employee well-being. For example, one
cross-sectional survey of CEOs, middle managers, and junior
managers found that higher trait mindfulness was associated
with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and negative affect
(Roche et al. 2014). Similarly, studies in other types of occu-
pational settings such as schools have found that teachers
assigned to complete a mindfulness training intervention de-
creased in perceived stress and increased in self-compassion
compared to those assigned to a waitlist control group (Roeser
et al. 2013). Finally, one recent study found that a behavioral
self-monitoring intervention increased mindfulness and re-
duced work-to-family conflict (Kiburz et al. 2017).
Stress in the workplace is harmful to employee well-being
and can lead to increased absenteeism, organizational dys-
function, and decreased productivity (Colligan and Higgins
2006). Many studies have shown that mindfulness interven-
tions reliably reduce both overall psychological stress (for a
review, see Creswell and Lindsay 2014) and occupational dis-
tress (review by Virgili 2015). Furthermore, other evidence
suggests that mindfulness is associated with improved coping
success and resilience during stressful events (e.g., Weinstein
et al. 2009), though none of these previous studies have mea-
sured stress and coping using EMA in the workplace.
The role of affect in the workplace has also long been
recognized as an important area of research (Muchinsky
2000). Mindfulness interventions have previously been theo-
rized to promote positive emotional states at work (Good et al.
2016). Indeed, mindfulness interventions have been shown to
be associated with increased positive affect and decreased
negative affect in a number of settings (reviews by Creswell
2017; Eberth and Sedlmeier 2012).
The aim of the current study was to examine the potential
dose-response effects of mindfulness training for improving
well-being in the workplace. To do this, we randomly assigned
employees of a digital marketing firm to complete either: (i) a
single-day mindfulness training workshop followed by a 6-
week mindfulness intervention (Bhigh dose^mindfulness trai-
ning; HDMT) or (ii) a single-day mindfulness training work-
shop only (Blow dose^mindfulness training; LDMT). EMA
was used to measure stress, coping, and affect during working
hours at baseline and following the intervention period. We
hypothesized that HDMT would decrease overall stress, in-
crease coping efficacy when stressful events did occur, reduce
negative affect, and increase positive affect relative to LDMT.
Method
Participants
There were 60 adults between the ages of 2157 (M=30.52,
SD = 7.80) enrolled in the study. The sample was 66.7% fe-
male and 95.0% white. All participants were recruited from a
Mindfulness
digital marketing firm based in Ohio for a study testing the
effects of mindfulness training in the workplace. This firm
consists of approximately 100 employees that work with a
diverse range of clients including educators, lawyers, and con-
sumer brands. Work at this firm focuses on digital advertising,
content marketing, search engine optimization, and public re-
lationships. Employees spend a typical workday interacting
with clients, managing accounts, and creating digital content
in a fast-paced work environment. Notably, the firm experi-
enced a period of significant organizational change and major
restructuring during the studys intervention and assessment
period which was expected to raise overall stress levels.
Of the 60 randomized participants, 58 completed the inter-
vention (96.7%). Both participants who dropped out of the
intervention were assigned to the HDMT group (n= 2). In
addition, 54 participants (90.0%) responded to at least one
post-intervention experience sampling assessment and 51 par-
ticipants (85.0%) completed the post-intervention question-
naire battery (see Fig. 1). Following intent-to-treat principles,
these participants were included in primary analyses but not in
estimates of daily practice for the HDMT group. Eligible par-
ticipants were fluent English-speaking smartphone owners
(Android or iPhone) over the age of 18. Individuals with sig-
nificant experience (defined as daily practice for at least one of
the previous 6 months) with or daily practice of mindfulness
meditation or related mind-body practiceswere also excluded.
Written informed consent was obtained from all participants,
and all study procedures were approved by the home
universitys institutional IRB. Participants received free mind-
fulness training but were not additionally compensated for
their participation. This approach was adopted with an imple-
mentation science goal, as companies are likely to offer mind-
fulness programs for free but unlikely to provide additional
compensation beyond company time. Study data were collect-
ed between September 2016 and November 2016.
Procedures
Interested participants first completed an eligibility
prescreening via online questionnaire which assessed whether
they were interested in participating, owned a smartphone,
spoke English, were between ages 18 and 70, were available
for the entire 8-week study period, and did not have daily
practice with mindfulness for at least 1 month within the pre-
vious 6 months. Those who were eligible then provided in-
formed consent and completed baseline questionnaires. On
Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of the following week,
participants completed 3 days of baseline ecological momen-
tary assessments and daily diaries. Ecological Momentary
Assessment (EMA) involves intensive sampling of participant
experiences in real time during a typical day. Here, we used
experience sampling assessments administered during the
workday to measure momentary stress, coping, and affect in
the natural work environment. Experience sampling assess-
ments were administered using participantspersonal
smartphones via MetricWire (Kitchener, Ontario).
Participants were prompted to complete experience sampling
surveys via text links sent during each of four 2-h blocks
distributed between 9:00 am and 5:00 pm with links expiring
after 45 min. There were 24 experience sampling assessments
in total across the baseline and post-intervention periods.
The following week, participants attended one of three
identical 4-h in-person mindfulness workshops based on
availability; workshops were held on consecutive days
(Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday). There were two partici-
pants (3.3%) who attended this workshop via video chat. All
workshops were led by the same senior mindfulness instructor
trained in the Unified Mindfulness system (Young 2016).
Immediately following completion of this workshop, partici-
pants were randomly assigned to one of two study conditions
using a random number generator: (i) high dose mindfulness
training (HDMT); or (ii) low dose mindfulness training
(LDMT). The content of the workshop and HDMT interven-
tion are described below. Participants randomized to the
LDMT did not receive any additional mindfulness instruction
during the intervention period and were explicitly asked to
refrain from any additional mindfulness practice until the con-
clusion of the study.
Following the 6-week intervention period, all participants
completed 3 days of post-intervention experience sampling
and daily diary assessments; these assessments were complet-
ed during the week immediately following the intervention on
the same days of the week as baseline assessments (Tuesday
through Thursday). Next, participants completed a post-
intervention battery of questionnaires and tasks during the
week following post-intervention experience sampling.
Finally, all participants were debriefed, informed of the
studys aims, and thanked for their participation. For a com-
plete timeline of study procedures, see Table 1.
Intervention
The in-person workshop consisted of both direct instruction
and guided activities. Participants were provided with didactic
information about mindful awareness, including a description
of the mechanisms through which mindfulness can improve
various dimensions of well-being. Participants were also pro-
vided with a conceptual framework for classifying sensory
experience and a description of the range of situations in
which mindfulness practice can be done. Participants were
then guided through exercises intended to foster an ability to
monitor and accept ones current visual, auditory and somatic
sensory experiences, and create positive emotional states.
These exercises included both formal and informal practice
performed while completing routine activities including mind-
ful dyadic conversations, mindful eating, and mindful music
Mindfulness
listening. During these exercises, participants were taught an
open awareness technique which allows attention to move
freely between sensory modalities, as well as a technique that
narrows attention to focus on a single sensory modality. They
were also taught techniques intended to cultivate pleasant
bodily emotion. Both the didactic content and activities of this
workshop were based on the Unified Mindfulness system,
which is noted for its fine grained and comprehensive dimen-
sional analysis of mindfulness practice (for details see Young
2016).
During the 6-week intervention period, HDMT participants
viewed a didactic video series that described the principles of the
Unified Mindfulness System and also complete daily 25-min
guided audio practice sessions for 5 days each week. Daily home
practice consisted of recordings from the senior mindfulness
instructor. Participants were given a range of practices to choose
from that guided their attention to: Visual experiences include
mental image, physical sight, visual rest, visual flow, and/or
visualizing positivity; auditory experience includes mental talk,
physical sound, auditory rest, auditory flow, and/or positive self-
talk; and somatic experiences include emotional body sensa-
tions, non-emotional body sensations, restful states (such as re-
laxation), physical flow, and/or emotional positivity. Home prac-
tice audios recordings were hosted on a commercial web plat-
form which tracked the duration of time that participants spent
listening to the recordings each day. These timestamps were used
to assess participant compliance with home practice during the
intervention period.
During the intervention period, HDMT participants also
participated in weekly group conference calls where they
Excluded at s creening (n=12)
Did not m eet inclusion criteria ( n=2)
Unreachable (n=5)
Le company ( n=3)
Declined parcipaon (n=2)
Enrollment
Assessed for Eligibility (n=96)
Baseline Assessment (n=84)
Excluded at ba seline (n=2 4)
Did not aend work shop (n=18)
Declined parcipaon (n=6)
Randomized (n=60)
Allocaon
Allocated to LDMT (n=29) Allocated to HDMT (n=31)
Opted out o f intervenon (n= 2)
Completed po st-interv enon
assessment(n=27)
Lost to follow-up(n =2)
Completed p ost-interv enon
assessment(n=27)
Lost to follow-up (n= 2)
Analyzed
Experience s ampling (n=29)
Post-interve non asse ssment (n=2 9)
Analyzed
Experience sampling(n=31)
Post-intervenon assessment (n=31)
Follow-Up
Analysis
Fig. 1 CONSORT flow chart
Mindfulness
could ask questions, offer reports, and receive additional di-
dactic instructions for applying mindfulness techniques to dai-
ly life activities. Finally, participants received an optional 15-
min individual phone meeting with the mindfulness instructor
in order to discuss their experiences with the trainingprogram.
Measures
Perceived stress was assessed as part of the baseline and post-
intervention battery of questionnaires. Momentary stress, cop-
ing, and affect were assessed via beeped assessments four
times daily for 3 days before and 3 days after the intervention.
See Table 2for specific items used to assess each construct.
Please note that the baseline and post-intervention question-
naire batteries and beeped assessments also included addition-
al measures which were either exploratory in nature or will be
described in other manuscripts.
Perceived Stress
Perceived stress was measured using the 10-item Perceived
Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen and Williamson 1988). The PSS
asks participants to rate how often they find their lives to be
unpredictable, uncontrollable, and overloaded on a five-point
scale ranging from 0 (never)to4(very often). Responses were
coded, so higher scores indicated greater perceived stress and
then summed to create an index of total perceived stress (av-
erage α= .87; average αwas calculated by averaging reliabil-
ityvaluescomputedateachtimepoint).
Stress and Coping Efficacy
To assess stress since previous assessment, participants were
asked to provide a single stress rating indicating how much
stress they were experiencing or feeling right now on a seven-
point Likertscale with anchors at 1 (mild), 4 (moderate), and 7
(severe). Participants were also asked to provide a single yes/
no response indicating whether they had experienced any feel-
ings of stress since the previous assessment. Participants indi-
cating that they had experienced stress since the previous as-
sessment were asked three additional questions assessing
stressor severity, amount of time stressed, and success of cop-
ing. Stressor severity was assessed by asking participants how
severe their experiences of stress were since the previous
Table 1 Timeline of study
activity Time Study activity
Week 2 Online eligibility prescreening
Informed consent
Baseline questionnaires and tasks
Week 1 Three days of baseline experience sampling and daily diary assessments
Week 0 Four-hour in-person mindfulness workshops
Randomization to HDMT or LDMT
Wee ks 16 HDMT: Viewed didactic video series, completed guided audio practice sessions, participated
in weekly conference calls with instructor, completed individual phone meeting with instructor
LDMT: No additional mindfulness instruction
Week 7 Three days of post-intervention experience sampling and daily diary assessments
Week 8 Post-intervention questionnaires and tasks
Debriefing
Table 2 Items used to assess
momentary stress, coping, and
affect
Constructs Item
Stress and coping
1. Stress ratings How much stress are you experiencing or feeling right now?
2. Stress since previous Did you experience any feelings of stress in the time since you
completed the last survey?
3. Stressor severity How severe was your experience of stress since the last survey?
4. Stress time Since the last survey, how much of the time were you feeling stressed?
5. Successful coping How successful were you in coping with stress since the last survey?
Affect
1. Positive affect Just before this survey, how positive was your emotional state or mood?
2. Negative affect Just before this survey, how negative was your emotional state or mood?
Mindfulness
assessment on a seven-point Likert scale from 1 (mild)to7
(severe) with a midpoint of 4 (moderate). Amount of time
stressed was assessed by asking participants to estimate the
proportion of time they felt stressed since the previous assess-
ment on a seven-point Likert scale from 1 (very little, 010%)
to 7 (almost the entire time, 90100%). Coping success was
assessed by asking participants to indicate how successful
they were in coping with stress since the previous survey from
1(not at all)to7(extremely).
Affect
Two items were used to assess momentary affect at each as-
sessment. Participants were asked to rate how positive/
negative they felt immediately before beginning the survey
on a seven-point Likert scale from 1 (not at all)to7
(extremely).
Data Analyses
To assess changes in perceived stress, two-level multilevel
models were used to test for Time (baseline, post-interven-
tion) × Condition (HDMT, LDMT) differences using Statas
mixed command. In two-level models, observations (level 1)
are nested within individuals (level 2). To test experience
sampling predictions, three-level multilevel models were used
to test for Time × Condition differences using Statasmixed
command. For the sole binary outcome (stress since previous
assessment), the melogit command was used to conduct a
multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression. In three-level
models, beeped assessment observations (level 1) are nested
within days (level 2) which are nested within individuals (lev-
el 3). Restricted maximum likelihood estimation with an iden-
tity covariance matrix was used for all multilevel mixed effect
linear regressions. An unstructured random-effects covariance
matrix was used for multilevel logistic regressions. The term
of interest in all models was the Time × Condition interaction
because this term indicates whether changes in each outcome
over time differ by condition (HDMT or LDMT).
Although multilevel models for longitudinal studies typi-
cally include an autoregressive term (ρ)toaccountforserial
autocorrelation between proximal observations, we were un-
able to do so here because the continuous term for time since
study onset was collinear with the categorical predictor for
time (baseline, post-intervention). The nesting of observations
within days in our three-level models accounts for autocorre-
lation between consecutive measurements. We also elected to
take a conservative approach by including a fixed-effect term
in the model for observation number of the day. Examination
of the residuals produced from the specified model indicates
that these steps were generally successful in detrending the
data.
In summary, predictions about changes in perceived stress
followed the two-level equation below:
Level 1:
Stress ¼β0j þβ1j
*TimeðÞþrij
Level 2:
β0j ¼γ00 þγ01 ConditionðÞþu0j
β1j ¼γ10 þγ11 ConditionðÞ
Experience sampling predictions were tested using the gen-
eral three-level equation below:
Level 1:
Stress ¼π0jk þπ1jk*Time of DayðÞþeijk
Level 2:
π0jk ¼β00k þβ01k TimeðÞþr0jk
π1jk ¼β10k
Level 3:
β00k ¼γ000 þγ001 ConditionðÞþu00 j
β01k ¼γ010 þγ011 ConditionðÞ
β10k ¼γ100
Results
First, success of randomization on major demographic char-
acteristics was evaluated using the full randomized sample
(N= 60). There were no baseline differences between groups
in age, sex, or race indicating that randomization was success-
ful (see Table 3). Next, we assessed participant compliance
with the ecological momentary assessment sampling proce-
dures. The maximum possible number of completed beeped
assessment responses was 1440 (60 participants × 6 days of
assessments × 4 beeped assessments daily). The actual num-
ber of beeped assessments completed was 830 (57.6% of all
possible assessments). The median number of beeped assess-
ments completed was 14. Using a median split of experience
sampling compliance, there were no age, race, or sex differ-
ences between those who were high or low in ecological mo-
mentary assessment sampling adherence (all ps > .514).
Finally, we assessed adherence to the study intervention
among HDMT participants (LDMT participants were not
assigned home practice). HDMT participants were asked to
complete a total of 750 min of mindfulness meditation home
practice during the intervention period (25 min daily × 5 days
per week × 6 weeks), and completed 303.07 min (SD =
236.11; median = 247) on average. There were no demo-
graphic differences between those high and low in home
Mindfulness
practice compliance (all ps > .100). Including minutes of
home practice as a person-level covariate (with a value of 0
for LDMT participants) in all primary analyses did not change
any of the results reported below.
Number of Stressors Experienced
We hypothesized that HDMT and LDMT participants would
not differ in change in the number of stressors they experienced
from baseline to post-intervention. To test this hypothesis, we
used three-level multilevel models to evaluate the Time ×
Condition interaction. Consistent with the high stress context
in which this study took place, participants reported experienc-
ing feelings of stress since the previous survey at nearly half of
all beeped assessments (n= 405; 48.8%). However, there was
no main effect of condition across time points (χ
2
(1) < 0.01,
p= .969), no main effect of time across conditions (χ
2
(1) =
0.97, p= .325), and no interaction between time and condition
in the number of stressors experienced since last assessment
(χ
2
(1) = 0.36, p=.547, d= .16). These preliminary analyses
were consistent with expectations and indicate that while all
participants experienced high levels of stress overall, the num-
ber of reported stressors experienced did not differ between
groups or change significantly over time.
Perceived Stress
We predicted that HDMT would reduce perceptions of overall
stress during the past month (as measured by the PSS) from
baseline to post-intervention relative to LDMT participants.
(Note that this PSS measure was collected at baseline and
post-intervention and is not an EMA measure.) To test this,
we used two-level multilevel models to evaluate the Study
Condition × Time interaction. There were six participants
who did not complete the post-intervention questionnaire bat-
tery (n= 6). Thus, only 114 of 120 possible measurements
(95.0%) were included in this set of analyses. There was no
main effect of condition across time points (χ
2
(1) = 0.15,
p= .694), a marginal main effect of time across conditions
(χ
2
(1) = 3.81, p= .051), and consistent with predictions, an
interaction between time and condition (χ
2
(1) = 5.16,
p=.023,d= .52). HDMT participants decreased in perceived
stress from baseline (M= 28.00, SE = 1.11) to post-
intervention (M= 25.01, SE = 1.13; mean change = 2.99,
p=.002, d= .48), while LDMT participants did not change
in perceived stress from baseline (M= 26.97, SE = 1.14) to
post-intervention (M= 27.19, SE = 1.20; mean change = .226,
p=.827,d=.04) (see Fig. 2a).
Momentary Stress Perceptions
Although HDMT and LDMT participants did not differ or
change over time in the number of stressors they reported
experiencing, we tested the prediction that HDMT participants
would decrease in momentary stress perception ratings from
baseline to post-intervention relative to LDMT participants.
To test this, we used three-level multilevel models to evaluate
the Time × Condition interaction. There was no main effect of
condition across time points (χ
2
(1) = 0.08, p= .774) and no
main effect of time across conditions (χ
2
(1) = 0.08, p=.783).
Consistent with initial predictions, there was an interaction
between time and condition (χ
2
(1) = 6.03, p=.014,d=.52).
While LDMT participants marginally increased in momentary
stress from baseline (M=2.49, SE=.17) topost-intervention
(M= 2.75, SE = .18; mean change = .258, p= .0613, d=
.275), HDMT participants slightly decreased in momentary
stress from baseline (M=2.66, SE=.16) topost-intervention
(M= 2.45, SE = .18; mean change = .206, p=.114,
d= .224) (see Fig. 2b).
Coping Efficacy
Although the number of stressors HDMT and LDMT partici-
pants reported experiencing did not change from baseline to
post-intervention, we hypothesized that HDMT participants
would have lower stress severity ratings and time stressed,
as well as increases in coping efficacy when stressors did
occur. Of the 405 observations where participants reported
experiencing stress since the previous assessment, there were
two observations where follow-up items were left blank (n=
2; 0.5%). Thus, only the remaining 403 observations were
included in this set of analyses.
For coping efficacy, there was no main effect of condition
across time points (χ
2
(1) = 0.67, p=.414),nomaineffectof
time across conditions (χ
2
(1) = 1.61, p= .205), and consistent
with predictions, an interaction between time and condition
Table 3 Baseline characteristics of randomized participants by
condition (N=60)
HDMT
(n=31)
LDMT
(n=29)
Difference statistic
Age 30.87 (8.87) 30.14 (6.61) F(1,58) = .130, p= .719
Sex χ
2
(1) = .534, p= .465
Male 9 (29.0%) 11 (37.9%)
Female 22 (71.0%) 18 (62.1%)
Race χ
2
(1) = 2.954, p= .086
White 28 (90.3%) 29 (100.0%)
Non-White 3 (9.7%) 0 (0.0%)
For binary or categorical variables (i.e., sex and race), numbers inside
parentheses represent percentage of sample. For continuous variables
(age), numbers inside parentheses represent standard deviations.
Randomization was successful for all demographic variables. Of the 60
participants randomized, six dropped out before study conclusion
(10.0%). Those who dropped out did not differ in age, F(1,134) = .112,
p= .740, sex, χ
2
(1) = .833, p= .361, or race, χ
2
(1) = .351, p= .554
Mindfulness
(χ
2
(1) = 7.57, p= .006, d= .74). While LDMT participants
increased in proportion of time stressed from baseline (M=
2.67, SE = .18) to post-intervention (M= 3.19, SE = .21; mean
change = .528, p=.006, d=.49), HDMT participants were
buffered against this increase and did not change from base-
line (M= 2.84, SE = .17) to post-intervention (M= 2.64,
SE = .19; mean change = .193, p=.284,d=.20).
For stressor severity, there was no main effect of condition
across time points (χ
2
(1) = 2.10, p=.147), no main effect of
time across conditions (χ
2
(1) = 1.51, p= .219), and a margin-
ally significant time by condition interaction (χ
2
(1) = 3.70,
p=.055, d= .55). While LDMT participants increased in re-
ported stressor severity from baseline (M= 3.45, SE = .18) to
post-intervention (M= 3.88, SE = .21; mean change = .432,
p=.031,d=.41), HDMT participants were buffered against
this increase and did not change in reported stressor severity
from baseline (M= 3.38, SE = .17) to post-intervention (M=
3.29, SE = .19; mean change = .093, p=.620,d=.09).
For coping success, there was no main effect of condition
across time points (χ
2
(1) = 0.26, p= .612), but there was a
main effect of time across conditions (χ
2
(1) = 5.94,
p= .015). This was qualified by an interaction between time
and condition (χ
2
(1) = 4.80, p=.028, d= .66). While LDMT
participants decreased in coping success from baseline (M=
4.07, SE = .17) to post-intervention (M= 3.44, SE = .20; mean
change = .626, p= .002, d=.64), HDMT participants
were buffered against this decrease and did not change in
coping success from baseline (M= 3.88, SE = .16) to post-
intervention (M= 3.84, SE = .18; mean change = .036,
p=.846,d=.04).
Momentary Affect
We predicted that HDMT participants would increase in pos-
itive affect and decrease in negative affect during working
hours from baseline to post-intervention relative to LDMT
20
25
30
TMDLTMDH
Perceived Stress
Baseline
Post-Intervention
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
TMDLTMDH
Exper ience-sampled Stress
Baseline
Post-Intervention
a
b
Fig. 2 aPerceived stress at
baseline and post-intervention by
study condition. bExperience-
sampled stress at baseline and
post-intervention by study
condition
Mindfulness
participants. To test this, we used three-level multilevel models
to evaluate the Time × Condition interaction. Of the 830 com-
pleted assessments, 38 did not assess momentary affect due to
problems with the software platform. Thus, only the remaining
792 observations were included in this set of analyses. For
momentary positive affect, there was no main effect of condi-
tion across time points (χ
2
(1) = 0.04, p= .832) and no main
effect of time across conditions (χ
2
(1) = 1.05, p= .307).
However, there was an interaction between time and condition
(χ
2
(1) = 6.84, p=.009,d= .55). While LDMT participants de-
creased in momentary positive affect from baseline (M=4.56,
SE = .16) to post-intervention (M= 4.24, SE = .17; mean
change = .324, p=.014,d=.36), HDMT participants were
buffered against this decrease and did not change in positive
affect from baseline (M= 4.37, SE = .15) to post-intervention
(M= 4.51, SE = .16; mean change = .141, p= .242, d= .16)
(see Fig. 3). For momentary negative affect, there was no main
effect of condition across time points (χ
2
(1) = 2.19, p= .139),
but there was a main effect of time across conditions (χ
2
(1) =
17.53, p< .001). This was qualified by an interaction between
time and condition (χ
2
(1) = 5.48, p= .019, d= .58). While
LDMT participants increased in negative affect from baseline
(M= 1.99, SE = .13) to post-intervention (M=2.54, SE=.15;
mean change = .553, p<.001, d=.74), HDMT participants
were buffered against this increase and did not change in neg-
ative affect from baseline (M= 1.94, SE = .12) to post-
intervention (M= 2.09, SE = .14; mean change = .158,
p=.169,d=.21) (see Fig. 3).
Discussion
This RCT provides evidence that 6 weeks of mindfulness
training can improve multiplemeasures of well-being at work.
Consistent with predictions, HDMT participants decreased in
both momentary stress and overall perceived stress. HDMT
participants were also buffered against worsened affect and
decreases in coping efficacy observed among LDMT partici-
pants. One particularly novel feature of this study is the use of
EMA measures administered during the workday to assess
study outcomes. Though previous investigations have sug-
gested that mindfulness interventions may improve worker
well-being (e.g., Aikens et al. 2014; Shonin et al. 2014;
Wolever et al. 2012), these studies have tended to rely on
global retrospective self-report measures to evaluate out-
comes. The use of such measures can introduce sources of
bias that limit accuracy (Nisbett and Wilson 1977). The use
of EMA in the present study is advantageous because it allows
for dynamic processes such as stress, coping, and affect to be
captured in real time as they unfold during the workday
(Shiffman et al. 2008; Smyth and Stone 2003).
It is particularly notable that HDMT was associated with
reductions in both overall perceived stress and momentary
stress ratings during the workday. While previous studies have
shown that mindfulness training can reduce globalperceptions
of life stress (Aikens et al. 2014; Shonin et al. 2014; Wolever
et al. 2012), this RCT demonstrates that mindfulness training
can also decrease stress assessed in the workplace during the
workday. Additionally, one important contribution of this re-
search is that it provides evidence that the effects of mindful-
ness training on stress within an organizational setting are
dose-dependent.
Another important contribution of this study is that it com-
pares the effects of a high-dose mindfulness-based training to
that of a low-dose mindfulness training in a for-profit work-
place using a randomized controlled trial design. This ap-
proach is especially advantageous because it provides a sys-
tematic examination of the dose-response effects of mindful-
ness training. One potentially surprising finding was that
LDMT was actually associated with decreased worker well-
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
HDMT LDMT HDMT LDMT
ANAP
Exper ience-sampled Aff ect
Baseline Post-Intervention
Fig. 3 Experience-sampled affect
at baseline and post-intervention
by study condition
Mindfulness
being. One possible reason for this is that as noted previously,
this study examined employees of a digital marketing firm that
underwent a period of significant organizational change and
restructuring during the intervention period. It is therefore
possible that any relative benefits of HDMT are actually at-
tributable to stress buffering rather than direct effects.
Consistent with this possibility, HDMT participants were
buffered against increases in momentary negative affect, de-
creases in momentary positive affect, and decreases in coping
efficacy experienced by LDMT participants; HDMT partici-
pants did not improve significantly in any of these outcomes
from baseline to post-intervention. However, HDMT was as-
sociated with reductions in both overall perceived stress and
momentary stress, suggesting that HDMT conferred direct
benefits that were not observed in the LDMT group.
Another possible reason that LDMT was associated with de-
creased worker well-being is that continued daily mindfulness
practice may be particularly important for reducing momen-
tary stress in a high stress work environment. This possibility
is consistent with earlier work examining the dose-response
effects of mindfulness interventions in patient populations
which found that a single-day mindfulness seminar was asso-
ciated with negative health impacts among a patient sample
(Creswell et al. 2009). Similarly, it is possible that LDMT in
this study was insufficient for reducing the increased stress
associated with a workplace experiencing significant change
and restructuring.
Overall, these stress buffering effects are consistent with
previous theoretical accounts of how mindfulness interven-
tions may impact health outcomes (Creswell and Lindsay
2014). Given popular interest among corporations in low-
dose mindfulness programs, these results suggest that several
hours of mindfulness training (in a single low dose seminar) is
insufficient for stress buffering benefits in the workplace. As
such, these findings may be particularly useful for facilitating
the design of more efficient and efficacious workplace inter-
ventions (Carmody and Baer 2009; Creswell 2017). This is
especially important given that numerous companies currently
design and offer mindfulness training programs in the absence
of sufficient empirical evidence (Gelles 2015).
Limitations and Future Research
There are several limitations of the present study. First, this
RCT was conducted in a small digital marketing company,
and so, the sample size is relatively small. However, it is
important to acknowledge that the use of EMA and multilevel
analyses allows for the use of all available data and therefore
provides greater statistical power compared to more tradition-
al pre- and post-treatment assessments (Raudenbush and Bryk
2002). Second, it would have been optimal to conduct a three-
arm RCT comparing HDMT to both LDMT and to an
assessment-only control group. This approach would have
helped clarify the benefits of LDMT compared to a no treat-
ment control group, but given the small sample size, this three-
arm study approach would have been underpowered. Third,
an additional limitation of this study was that stress and well-
being were measured exclusively using self-report. Although
the EMA sampling approach used here is thought to minimize
many of the biases associated with self-reporting (e.g., Stone
and Broderick 2007), future studies should seek to replicate
these effects using objective measures such as performance or
sick days. Additionally, the EMA items used to assess stress,
coping, and affect were adapted from available trait invento-
ries, but have not been extensively tested or validated. Future
studies are also needed both to establish the psychometric
properties of the measures used in this study and to replicate
these findings using previously validated measures. Fourth,
the individuals examined in this study were predominantly
white (95% white) which may limit the generalizability of
these findings to more diverse organizations. Future research
should seek to replicate these results in more diverse samples.
Finally, one novel feature of this study was the evaluation of
compliance with home practice among HDMT participants.
Although the use of timestamps to assess home practice com-
pliance was a unique strength of this study, this approach did
not provide a sufficiently detailed or accurate picture of engage-
ment with home practice among HDMT participants.
Moreover, potential home practice among LDMT participants
was not probed at study completion. Future studies should con-
sider the importance of developing more objective and accurate
means of tracking the nature and extent of participant home
practice. Future research is also needed to compare the efficacy
and feasibility of the mindfulness training program used in this
study to that of other programs such as 8-week MBSR.
This study demonstrates the efficacy of a workplace mind-
fulness interventions for improving employee well-being.
Employees who completed a high-dose 6-week mindfulness
intervention decreased in both momentary and perceived
stress, and were buffered against worsened affect and de-
creased coping efficacy observed among employees complet-
ing a low-dose single-day mindfulness workshop. This adds to
a growing body of anecdotal (Kachan et al. 2017; Seppala
2015) and empirical evidence (Good et al. 2016; Roche et
al. 2014) suggesting that mindfulness may be one useful tool
for improving employee well-being. The results of the current
investigation underscore the need for future studies in this area
to more closely consider issues of dosing effects and worker
well-being benefits.
Author Contributions BC: Performed the data analysis, wrote the paper.
JS: Executed the study, assisted with the data analysis, assisted with
designing the study, collaborated in writing and editing of the manuscript.
JR: Assisted with executing the study, wrote part of the methods, collab-
orated in writing and editing of the manuscript. JDC: Designed the study,
supervised execution of the study, supervised data analysis, supervised
manuscript preparation.
Mindfulness
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in this
study. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants
were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Carnegie Mellon
University Institutional Review Board and the American Psychological
Association.
Conflict of Interest JR is a senior trainer with Unified Mindfulness. BC,
JS, and JDC declare no conflict of interest.
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Mindfulness
... Previous studies have shown that mindfulness reduces employee stress and improves well-being and job performance. [25][26][27] Due to the benefits on mental health, mindfulness has recently been used as core content in several mobile healthcare applications such as Headspace and Calm which cultivate mindfulness, and through several clinical studies, it has been found that they reduce users' stress, depression, and anxiety, and further improve their quality of life. [18,[28][29][30][31] However, previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies on the effectiveness of smartphone-based mindfulness training have mostly been conducted with students or the general public, and there are relatively few RCT studies on employees. ...
... This finding is inconsistent with previous studies' findings regarding mindfulness meditation positive effect on stress reduction. [24,26] These results can be explained by the sample and training period duration. First, the effect of MMT on perceived stress may have been underestimated because this study used a sample of healthy employees. ...
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Background: Employee stress and well-being affect organizational efficiency and productivity, as well as physical and psychological health of employees. Mindfulness is believed to reduce stress, prevent diseases, and promote well-being. Mindfulness has been used as the main component of various smartphone-based healthcare applications. Previous studies have suggested that mindfulness applications have a positive effect on employee stress and mental health. However, relatively few randomized controlled trials have examined the effectiveness of mindfulness applications on employees. This study aims to evaluate whether mobile mindfulness training (MMT) as a stress self-management tool improves employees' perceived stress, subjective well-being, and Mibyeong, a condition that is not a disease but shows obvious health abnormalities. Methods: Participants were recruited through advertisements displayed at 3 workplaces, including a patent attorney's office, a construction company, and a public relations firm. A total of 45 employees were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: the MMT group (Group A) receiving smartphone application-based mindfulness training, and a wait-list control (WLC) group (Group B), who received no intervention. Group A employees conducted MMT following daily and event guidelines for 4 weeks. In contrast, Group B employees did not receive any intervention in that time. The outcome variables were perceived stress, subjective well-being, and Mibyeong. Surveys were conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and follow-up (fourth week post-intervention). Results: Demographic characteristics and baseline assessments were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The results of this study revealed that subjective well-being and Mibyeong were significantly improved in the MMT group compared with the WLC group. Moreover, this improvement was maintained up to at least 4 weeks later. However, perceived stress was not significantly reduced in the MMT group compared to the WLC group. Conclusion: Four weeks of MMT improved the subjective well-being and Mibyeong of employees. However, further studies are required to investigate the effect of MMT on other areas of mental health.
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Background Work-related stress is a common phenomenon, often noticed in the employees of the finance sector. It mirrors counter effects on the wellness of employees, their mental well-being, and physical health. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) raise awareness and attention to the present moment experiences by adopting coping skills. It is necessary to promote employee well-being and reduce work-related stress; hence, the need arises to associate between the level of mindfulness, employee well-being, and work-related stress. A systematic review on the effectiveness of MBIs in the finance sector is necessary to facilitate evidence for the future utility to reduce work-related stress and promote employee well-being. Methods In this review, randomized controlled trials, non-randomized control trials, cohort, and cross-sectional and case-control studies that assess the effectiveness of MBIs on the employees in the finance sector will be considered. We propose to perform a literature search which will be conducted from the years 2000 to 2021 on CINAHL, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The search terms will include controlled and accessible terms such as mindfulness-based interventions, mindfulness training, workplace, employees, workers, well-being, employee wellness, occupational health, and finance sector. The outcomes will include the effect on employee well-being and reduction in work-related stress. Two researchers will independently conduct the screening and data extraction and assess the risk of bias. Based on the availability of data, a meta-analysis will also be performed. This protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis-Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. “Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews” will be used to assess the quality of this review. Discussion The review attempts to methodically analyse the effectiveness of MBIs among finance sector employees. It will foster to facilitate a detailed description and evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of MBIs on improving work-related stress, mindful awareness, and employee wellness and well-being in employees in the finance sector. The current study will provide an evidence base to researchers, academicians, and practitioners in the selection of mindfulness-based therapies for employees in the finance sector. Systematic review registration PROSPERO 2021 CRD42021249782
... Initial randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness training programs show significant promise for fostering stress resilience and improving mental and physical health (Creswell, 2017;Creswell et al., 2019). For example, mindfulness training interventions have been shown to reduce physiological and self-reported stress responses to a laboratory stress task (Hoge et al., 2013;Lindsay et al., 2018b;Nyklíček et al., 2013) and reduce perceived and daily stress (Chin et al., 2018;Roeser et al., 2013). There have been indications that behavioral stress management programs can reduce pro-inflammatory gene expression in lonely older adults (Creswell et al., 2012), breast cancer survivors (Bower et al., 2020), and older adults with sleep disturbances (Black et al., 2015). ...
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... In addition, maternal stress during pregnancy has been shown to negatively affect offspring's neuro and cognitive development, triggering negative affectivity, difficult temperament, and psychiatric disorders (23). Stress can be reduced or managed through mindfulness and meditation (24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32), music (33), and nature relatedness (34,35), cognitivebehavioral therapy (36)(37)(38), stress-reduction programs (31,39), and structured counseling (40,41). ...
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... There is increased interest in mindfulness and MBIs to address stress and anxiety in the workplace (Bartlett et al., 2019;Janssen et al., 2018;Lomas et al., 2019) across professions (Chin et al., 2019;Donaldson-Feilder et al., 2019;Kriakous et al., 2021;Suleiman-Martos et al., 2020;Trombka et al., 2021) and globally (Charoensukmongkol, 2016;Charoensukmongkol & Puyod, 2020;Charoensukmongkol & Suthatorn, 2018). Similarly, MBIs are becoming increasingly popular in educational settings; however, the research on MBIs in education, similar to the greater MBI field, provide little in the way of descriptions of the actual intervention design, development, and application of theorybased intervention design strategies. ...
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... Mindfulness stimulates an upward spiral of positive affect and cognition, which contributes to higher happiness (Garland et al., 2015). Prior research indicates that mindfulness is positively associated with happiness (Coo and Salanova, 2018;Chin et al., 2019). Considering the rationale discussed above and the empirical evidence provided, it is feasible to hypothesize that mindfulness is positively related to happiness. ...
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The aim of the present study was to examine the mediation effects of resilience and stress, two perceived opposite constructs, in the relationship between mindfulness and happiness. Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Subjective Happiness Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales short version-21 were administered to 523 undergraduate university students in India. Structural Equation Modeling with bootstrapping was applied to test the mediating effects of resilience and stress. Results showed that resilience and stress partially mediated the mindfulness-happiness relationship. In addition, resilience partially mediated the relationship of mindfulness to stress. Findings suggest that mindfulness may play an influential role in enhancing happiness through the mediating effects of resilience and stress.
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This particular paper's goals would be to analyze the particular part associated with mindfulness upon employees' results within the monetary field within Mauritius. In spite of numerous study becoming carried out around the mindfulness impact, the partnership in the direction of worker wedding, worker wellbeing, plus place of work tension in the direction of mindfulness impact amongst monetary industry workers within Mauritius continues to be not clear. There exists a scarcity associated with analysis associated with the particular mindfulness result amongst small , and building Africa nations such as Mauritius. With this quantitative research, the study strategy has been put on acquire 167 participants within the economic field business within Mauritius. The particular gathered information were examined utilizing the incomplete minimum squares-structural formula building, also called SmartPls. The end result of the information exposed that will mindfulness a new substantial effect on staff wedding. Mindfulness recently had an minor impact on worker wellbeing in addition to place of work tension. Typically the results of the research are required to boost understanding of good a result of mindfulness inside the current atmosphere. This is actually the 1st examine from the type throughout Mauritius that will plays a role in typically the mindfulness books.
Thesis
Im Zuge der Globalisierung, Digitalisierung und des gesellschaftlichen Wandels, hat sich die Arbeitswelt in den letzten Jahren stark verändert. Diese Veränderungen stellen erhöhte Anforderungen an die psychische Gesundheit der Beschäftigten. Die Prävention psychischer Störungen am Arbeitsplatz und die Frage, wie Arbeit gesund gestaltet werden kann, gewinnt daher zunehmend an Bedeutung. Eine zentrale Rolle nimmt dabei die Führungskraft ein, da diese maßgeblich die Arbeitsumgebung und die Arbeitsprozesse gestaltet und im direkten Kontakt mit ihren Mitarbeitenden steht. Zudem haben in den letzten Jahren achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme zur Prävention psychischer Störungen enorm an Bedeutung gewonnen, deren Wirksamkeit im Arbeitskontext jedoch oft in Frage gestellt wurde. Ziel dieser Dissertation ist es, die Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen achtsamkeitsbasierter Programme in der Arbeitswelt zu prüfen und deren Integration im Rahmen der gesunden Führung zu untersuchen. Zu diesem Zweck ist die vorliegende Dissertationsarbeit in insgesamt vier Abschnitte gegliedert. In Abschnitt 1 wird der Effekt psychischer Belastungen von N = 2.287 Studienteilnehmenden im Hinblick auf deren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten in den folgenden zwei Jahren geprüft, um die langfristigen ökonomischen Folgen psychischer Belastungen zu erörtern und die Relevanz von Präventionsangeboten aus einer sozioökonomischen Perspektive zu beurteilen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen signifikanten Zusammenhang zwischen subjektiv erlebter psychischer Belastung und späteren Arbeitsunfähigkeitstagen bzw. Krankheitskosten. So zeigt sich, dass schwer belastete Personen 27mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im ersten Jahr und 10mal so viele Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage im zweiten Jahr aufweisen, verglichen mit Personen ohne psychische Belastungen. Außerdem zeigten schwer belastete Personen 11fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im ersten Jahr und 6fach erhöhte Krankheitskosten im zweiten Jahr, verglichen mit nicht belasteten Personen. Auch schon bei leichten und mittleren psychischen Belastungen zeigten sich signifikant erhöhte Arbeitsunfähigkeitstage und Krankheitskosten (2fach bis 11fach erhöht). Diese Ergebnisse verdeutlichen die sozioökonomische Relevanz psychischer Belastungen und bilden eine empirische Grundlage für die Annahme, dass durch effektive Präventionsmaßnahmen sowohl individuelles Leid gelindert als auch sozioökonomische Kosten reduziert werden können. In Abschnitt 2 wird in Form einer Übersichtsarbeit der aktuelle Forschungsstand zu achtsamkeitsbasierten Programmen in der Arbeitswelt skizziert und deren Wirksamkeit und potentielle Wirkmechanismen metaanalytisch geprüft. Über k = 56 randomisiert-kontrollierte Interventionsstudien hinweg zeigen sich kleine bis mittlere Effekte (g = 0,32 bis 0,77) auf unterschiedlichen gesundheitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Wohlbefinden, Stress, subsyndromale Symptome, Burnout und somatische Beschwerden) sowie arbeitsbezogenen Variablen (z.B. Arbeitsengagement, Arbeitszufriedenheit und Produktivität), die bis zu 12 Wochen nach der Intervention bestehen bleiben. Diese Ergebnisse legen nahe, dass achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme effektiv in verschiedenen Arbeitskontexten eingesetzt werden können und somit eine gute Grundlage zur Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt bilden. In Abschnitt 3 wird der Zusammenhang zwischen gesunder Führung und psychischer Gesundheit aus Perspektive von Führungskräften und deren Mitarbeitenden in einem querschnittlichen Studiendesign mit Hilfe von Mehrebenenanalysen untersucht, um den komplexen Zusammenhang zwischen Führung und Gesundheit besser zu verstehen. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Einschätzungen der gesunden Führung zwischen Führungskräften und ihren Mitarbeitenden deutlich abweichen und nur auf konkreten Verhaltensdimensionen signifikante Zusammenhänge aufweisen. Die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung durch die Mitarbeitenden zeigt einen signifikanten Zusammenhang mit deren psychischer Gesundheit, nicht aber die Selbsteinschätzungen der Führungskräfte. Insgesamt weisen diese Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung gesunder Führung eine wichtige Determinante für die psychische Gesundheit bei der Arbeit darstellt, dass das Thema gesunde Führung jedoch expliziter im Arbeitskontext ausgestaltet werden sollte, um ein gemeinsames Verständnis von gesunder Führung zwischen Führungskräften und Mitarbeitenden zu schaffen. In Abschnitt 4 wird dargestellt, wie die gesunde Führung mit Hilfe einer gezielten Intervention gefördert werden kann und welche Rolle das Konzept der Achtsamkeit dabei einnimmt. Die achtsamkeitsbasierte Intervention umfasst drei Seminartage (à 8 Stunden) zu i) gesunder Selbstführung, ii) gesunder Mitarbeiterführung und iii) Umgang mit psychisch belasteten Mitarbeitenden sowie zwei Nachhaltigkeitstermine (à 3 Stunden). Anschließend werden die Wirksamkeit sowie potentielle Wirkmechanismen der Intervention in einem quasiexperimentellen Studiendesign sowohl auf Ebene der Führungskräfte als auch auf Ebene der Mitarbeitenden empirisch geprüft. In 12 Unternehmen nahmen insgesamt 117 Führungskräfte an der Intervention teil. Die Führungskräfte und deren 744 Mitarbeitende machten Angaben zu ihrer psychischen Belastung sowie zur gesunden Führung zu drei Messzeitpunkten (Prä, Post, 3 Monate Follow-Up). Diese Angaben wurden mit einer passiven Kontrollgruppe, basierend auf Propensity Score Matching, verglichen. Hierarchische lineare Modelle ergaben, dass die Führungskräfte, die an der Intervention teilgenommen haben, eine signifikant stärkere Abnahme der psychischen Belastung und eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung im Zeitverlauf aufzeigen als die gematchten Kontrollpersonen (g = 0,27 bis 0,55). Der signifikante Interventionseffekt auf die psychische Belastung der Führungskräfte wird durch die Häufigkeit der selbstständig durchgeführten Achtsamkeitsübungen moderiert und durch eine Zunahme der gesunden Selbstführung vermittelt. Auf Mitarbeiterebene ergaben sich keine signifikanten Effekte zwischen den Gruppen im Zeitverlauf. Es zeigte sich jedoch ein signifikanter Zusammenhang zwischen der subjektiv erlebten gesunden Führung und der späteren psychischen Belastung. Dies deutet darauf hin, dass die subjektive Wahrnehmung der gesunden Führung eine wichtige Determinante der psychischen Gesundheit von Mitarbeitenden darstellt. Insgesamt tragen diese Ergebnisse zu unserem Verständnis bei, wie eine gesunde Führung effektiv trainiert werden kann, um die gesunde Selbst- und Mitarbeiterführung der teilnehmenden Führungskräfte zu erhöhen und deren psychische Belastung zu reduzieren. Die Ergebnisse weisen jedoch gleichermaßen auf die Herausforderung hin, Interventionsprogramme weiter zu verbessern, um deren indirekte Effektivität auf Mitarbeiterebene zu erhöhen. Diese Dissertation trägt insgesamt dazu bei, die Bedeutung der Prävention psychischer Störungen in der Arbeitswelt zu verdeutlichen und zeigt Möglichkeiten auf, wie eine effektive Prävention in Unternehmen ausgestaltet werden kann.
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Background There is a rising demand for methods to support well-being at work. Mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to enhance nurses' psychological well-being. Purpose To identify mindfulness-based interventions and outcome measures and to evaluate the effect on the psychological well-being of nurses. Methods A systematic review following Prisma protocol with search of four electronic databases was undertaken covering English language publications between January 2011 and July 2021. Findings A total of 11 randomized controlled trial (RCT) and quasi-experimental studies with a total of 1009 participants were included. The outcome measures were stress, depression, anxiety, burnout, resilience, quality of life, self-compassion, happiness, and the level of mindfulness. Ten studies demonstrated positive impact of mindfulness-based intervention on nurses' psychological well-being. Discussion Mindfulness-based interventions have the potential to enhance the well-being of nurses. RCTs using rigorous designs, consistent outcome measures and bigger sample sizes are required to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness programs.
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Work can be demanding, imposing challenges that can be detrimental to the physical and mental health of workers. Efforts are therefore underway to develop practices and initiatives that may improve occupational wellbeing. These include interventions based on mindfulness meditation. This paper offers a systematic review of empirical studies featuring analyses of mindfulness in occupational contexts. Databases were reviewed from the start of records to January 2016. Eligibility criteria included experimental and correlative studies of mindfulness conducted in work settings, with a variety of wellbeing and performance measures. 153 papers met the eligibility criteria and were included in the systematic review, comprising 12,571 participants. Mindfulness was generally associated with positive outcomes in relation to most measures. However, the quality of the studies was inconsistent, so further research is needed, particularly involving high-quality randomised control trials.
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