ArticlePDF Available

Pantothenate Rescues Iron Accumulation in Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration Depending on the Type of Mutation

Authors:

Abstract

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of inherited neurologic disorders in which iron accumulates in the basal ganglia resulting in progressive dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, and optic atrophy or retinal degeneration. The most prevalent form of NBIA is pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) associated with mutations in the gene of pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) which is essential for coenzyme A (CoA) synthesis. There is no cure for NBIA, nor is there a standard course of treatment. In the current work, we describe that fibroblasts derived from patients harbouring PANK2 mutations can reproduce many of the cellular pathological alterations found in the disease such as intracellular iron and lipofuscin accumulation, increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, mutant fibroblasts showed a characteristic senescent morphology. Treatment with pantothenate, the PANK2 enzyme substrate, was able to correct all pathological alterations in responder mutant fibroblasts with residual PANK2 enzyme expression. However, pantothenate had no effect on mutant fibroblasts with truncated/incomplete protein expression. The positive effect of pantothenate in particular mutations was also confirmed in induced neurons obtained by direct reprograming of mutant fibroblasts. Our results suggest that pantothenate treatment can stabilize the expression levels of PANK2 in selected mutations. These results encourage us to propose our screening model as a quick and easy way to detect pantothenate-responder patients with PANK2 mutations. The existence of residual enzyme expression in some affected individuals raises the possibility of treatment using high dose of pantothenate. FULL TEXT: https://rdcu.be/5FHU
Pantothenate rescues iron accumulation in Pantothenate Kinase-
associated neurodegeneration depending on the type of mutation
Mónica Álvarez-Córdoba, Aida Fernández Khoury, Marina Villanueva-Paz,Carmen
Gómez-Navarro, Irene Villalón-García, Juan M. Suárez-Rivero, Suleva Povea-Cabello,
Mario de la Mata, David Cotán, Marta Talaverón-Rey, Antonio J. Pérez-Pulido, Joaquín
J. Salas, Eva Mª Pérez-Villegas, Antonio Díaz-Quintana, José A. Armengol and José A.
Sánchez-Alcázar.
Molecular Neurobiology, 2018 in press
Highlights
- Mutant PANK2 fibroblasts derived from patients show accumulation of iron and
lipofuscin (age pigment). Furthermore, mutant fibroblasts show a characteristic
senescent morphology.
- Paradoxically, impaired mitochondrial iron metabolism in patient cells induces
cytosolic iron deficiency and a vicious cycle with increased iron uptake which is
accumulated in lipofuscin granules.
- Pantothenate can correct pathological alterations depending on the type of
mutation in mutant fibroblasts.
- Expression levels of mutant PANK2 can be restored by pantothenate in particular
mutations.
- For the first time, iron accumulation is demonstrated in induced neuronsobtained by
direct reprograming of mutant fibroblasts.
- The positive effect of pantothenate is also confirmed in induced neurons.
- Residual enzyme expression raises the possibility of treatment with pantothenate in
selected mutations.
- The methodological strategy described in this manuscript can be also applied to
other NBIA subtypes such as PLAN, BPAN or MPAN.
Electron microscopy image of a PANK2 mutant fibroblast with lipofuscin granules
... Atypical forms are characterized by later onset, slower progression and more varied clinical features with parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive decline [61]. Several mutations have been described; many of them are expected to lead to a null allele with the complete loss of protein function; others appear to be associated with the presence of residual protein level and function [62][63][64] and even to be able to partially rescue pathological phenotypes when overexpressed in specific experimental models [65]. This could have some relevance for therapeutic strategies (see below). ...
... Analysis of distinct intracellular CoA pools could provide more precise information in this regard, as indicated by the recent work by Alvarez-Cordoba and colleagues [64], but further work with improvement of the analytical procedures is necessary to confirm this evidence. Extensive experimental modelling of the disease has led to the identification of distinct biological processes which are affected by PANK2 deficiency. ...
... Mitochondrial iron-dependent biosynthesis was defective, as indicated by the reduction of aconitase activity and heme content. Many of these features were confirmed in most studies investigating PKAN neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), and were associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and reduced glutathione [64,[83][84][85]. The analysis of CoA and its thioester derivatives in these cellular models was less common and provided contradictory results [64,85]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential cofactor in all living organisms. It is involved in a large number of biochemical processes functioning either as an activator of molecules with carbonyl groups or as a carrier of acyl moieties. Together with its thioester derivatives, it plays a central role in cell metabolism, post-translational modification, and gene expression. Furthermore, recent studies revealed a role for CoA in the redox regulation by the S-thiolation of cysteine residues in cellular proteins. The intracellular concentration and distribution in different cellular compartments of CoA and its derivatives are controlled by several extracellular stimuli such as nutrients, hormones, metabolites, and cellular stresses. Perturbations of the biosynthesis and homeostasis of CoA and/or acyl-CoA are connected with several pathological conditions, including cancer, myopathies, and cardiomyopathies. In the most recent years, defects in genes involved in CoA production and distribution have been found in patients affected by rare forms of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we will summarize the most relevant aspects of CoA cellular metabolism, their role in the pathogenesis of selected neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and recent advancements in the search for therapeutic approaches for such diseases.
... The enzyme alteration causes coenzyme A deficiency, mitochondria dysfunction and low energy production, intracellular iron accumulation, alterations in cell membranes renewal and impaired protection against oxidative damage, which provokes lipid peroxidation and pathological changes of cell membranes, and eventually cell demise [4,6]. Altered mitochondrial membrane potential and defective mitochondrial respiration have been demonstrated in PANK2-defective neurons derived from KO mice [7] and in cellular models derived from PKAN patients [8][9][10]. However, the precise pathological mechanisms involved in PKAN are not completely understood. ...
... In a previous work, we analyzed PANK2 expression levels in fibroblast cell lines derived from three PKAN patients and three healthy subjects [8]. Two PKAN patients, P1 and P2, harbouring compound heterozygous mutations and decreased PANK2 expression levels, while patient P3 carried a homozygous frame shift mutation that results in the complete lack of PANK2 expression [8]. ...
... In a previous work, we analyzed PANK2 expression levels in fibroblast cell lines derived from three PKAN patients and three healthy subjects [8]. Two PKAN patients, P1 and P2, harbouring compound heterozygous mutations and decreased PANK2 expression levels, while patient P3 carried a homozygous frame shift mutation that results in the complete lack of PANK2 expression [8]. As shown by Western-blot analysis in Fig. 1a, PANK2 expression levels were markedly reduced in patients P1 and P2 and practically absent in P3 while normal expression levels were present in control fibroblasts. ...
Article
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of genetic neurological disorders frequently associated with iron accumulation in the basal nuclei of the brain characterized by progressive spasticity, dystonia, muscle rigidity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and retinal degeneration or optic nerve atrophy. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is the most widespread NBIA disorder. It is caused by mutations in the gene of pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) which catalyzes the first reaction of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Thus, altered PANK2 activity is expected to induce CoA deficiency as well as low levels of essential metabolic intermediates such as 4′-phosphopantetheine which is a necessary cofactor for critical proteins involved in cytosolic and mitochondrial pathways such as fatty acid biosynthesis, mitochondrial respiratory complex I assembly and lysine and tetrahydrofolate metabolism, among other metabolic processes. Methods In this manuscript, we examined the effect of PANK2 mutations on the expression levels of proteins with phosphopantetheine cofactors in fibroblast derived from PKAN patients. These proteins include cytosolic acyl carrier protein (ACP), which is integrated within the multifunctional polypeptide chain of the fatty acid synthase involved in cytosolic fatty acid biosynthesis type I (FASI); mitochondrial ACP (mtACP) associated with mitocondrial fatty acid biosynthesis type II (FASII); mitochondrial alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase (AASS); and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenases (cytosolic, ALD1L1, and mitochondrial, ALD1L2). Results In PKAN fibroblasts the expression levels of cytosolic FAS and ALD1L1 were not affected while the expression levels of mtACP, AASS and ALD1L2 were markedly reduced, suggesting that 4′-phosphopantetheinylation of mitochondrial but no cytosolic proteins were markedly affected in PKAN patients. Furthermore, the correction of PANK2 expression levels by treatment with pantothenate in selected mutations with residual enzyme content was able to correct the expression levels of mitochondrial phosphopantetheinyl-proteins and restore the affected pathways. The positive effects of pantothenate in particular mutations were also corroborated in induced neurons obtained by direct reprograming of mutant PANK2 fibroblasts. Conclusions Our results suggest that the expression levels of mitochondrial phosphopantetheinyl-proteins are severely reduced in PKAN cells and that in selected mutations pantothenate increases the expression levels of both PANK2 and mitochondrial phosphopantetheinyl-proteins associated with remarkable improvement of cell pathophysiology.
... Abnormal iron metabolism is common in most neurological diseases. The pathology most directly related to iron accumulation is neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a group of inherited neurologic disorders in which iron accumulates in the basal ganglia, resulting in progressive dystonia, spasticity, parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric abnormalities, and optic atrophy or retinal degeneration [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The alteration of iron homeostasis related to the aging process is responsible for increased iron levels, potentially leading to oxidative cellular damage. Iron is modulated in the Central Nervous System in a very sensitive manner and an abnormal accumulation of iron in the brain has been proposed as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. However, contrasting results have been presented regarding brain iron accumulation and the potential link with other factors during aging and neurodegeneration. Such uncertainties partly depend on the fact that different techniques can be used to estimate the distribution of iron in the brain, e.g., indirect (e.g., MRI) or direct (post-mortem estimation) approaches. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that the propensity of brain cells to accumulate excessive iron as a function of aging largely depends on their anatomical location. This review aims to collect the available data on the association between iron concentration in the brain and aging, shedding light on potential mechanisms that may be helpful in the detection of physiological neurodegeneration processes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.
... Supplementation of coenzyme A or, in the case of partially preserved PANK2 activity, pantothenate, rescued the phenotype in cellular and animal models of PKAN [178,185,186]. Iron accumulation was also reduced after pantothenate supplementation suggesting that coenzyme A depletion is directly associated with Fe accumulation [187]. The role of coenzyme A deficiency was further supported by showing that patients with biallelic pathogenic variants in Coenzyme A synthase have phenotype and MRI abnormalities like PKAN [188] and that zebrafish models of coenzyme A synthase and PANK2 deficiency exhibit similar phenotypes [189]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Disruption of cerebral iron regulation appears to have a role in aging and in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders. Possible unfavorable impacts of iron accumulation include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of ferroptosis, and acceleration of inflammatory changes. Whole-brain iron-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques allow the examination of macroscopic patterns of brain iron deposits in vivo, while modern analytical methods ex vivo enable the determination of metal-specific content inside individual cell-types, sometimes also within specific cellular compartments. The present review summarizes the whole brain, cellular, and subcellular patterns of iron accumulation in neurodegenerative diseases of genetic and sporadic origin. We also provide an update on mechanisms, biomarkers, and effects of brain iron accumulation in these disorders, focusing on recent publications. In Parkinson’s disease, Friedreich’s disease, and several disorders within the neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation group, there is a focal siderosis, typically in regions with the most pronounced neuropathological changes. The second group of disorders including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis shows iron accumulation in the globus pallidus, caudate, and putamen, and in specific cortical regions. Yet, other disorders such as aceruloplasminemia, neuroferritinopathy, or Wilson disease manifest with diffuse iron accumulation in the deep gray matter in a pattern comparable to or even more extensive than that observed during normal aging. On the microscopic level, brain iron deposits are present mostly in dystrophic microglia variably accompanied by iron-laden macrophages and in astrocytes, implicating a role of inflammatory changes and blood–brain barrier disturbance in iron accumulation. Options and potential benefits of iron reducing strategies in neurodegeneration are discussed. Future research investigating whether genetic predispositions play a role in brain Fe accumulation is necessary. If confirmed, the prevention of further brain Fe uptake in individuals at risk may be key for preventing neurodegenerative disorders.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Blackground: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of rare neurogenetic disorders frequently associated with iron accumulation in the basal nuclei of the brain characterized by progressive spasticity, dystonia, muscle rigidity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and retinal degeneration or optic nerve atrophy. Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is one of the most widespread NBIA subtypes. It is caused by mutations in the gene of pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) that result in dysfunction in PANK2 enzyme activity, with consequent deficiency of coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis, as well as low levels of essential metabolic intermediates such as 4′-phosphopantetheine, a necessary cofactor for essential cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins. Methods: In this manuscript, we examined the therapeutic effectiveness of pantothenate, panthetine, antioxidants (vitamin E and omega 3) and mitochondrial function boosting supplements (L-carnitine and thiamine) in mutant PANK2 cells with residual expression levels. Results: Commercial supplements, pantothenate, pantethine, vitamin E, omega 3, carnitine and thiamine were able to eliminate iron accumulation, increase PANK2, mtACP, and NFS1 expression levels and improve pathological alterations in mutant cells with residual PANK2 expression levels. Conclusion: Our results suggest that several commercial compounds are indeed able to significantly correct the mutant phenotype in cellular models of PKAN. These compounds alone or in combinations are of common use in clinical practice and may be useful for the treatment of PKAN patients with residual enzyme expression levels.
Article
Understanding the pathophysiology of CNS-associated neurological diseases has been hampered by the inaccessibility of patient brain tissue to perform live analyses at the molecular level. To this end, neural cells obtained by differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are considerably helpful, especially in the context of monogenic-based disorders. More recently, the use of direct reprogramming to convert somatic cells to neural cells has emerged as an alternative to iPSCs to generate neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This review focuses on the different studies that used direct neural reprogramming to study disease-associated phenotypes in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Article
Full-text available
Background PLA2G6-Associated Neurodegeneration (PLAN) is a rare neurodegenerative disease with autosomal recessive inheritance, which belongs to the NBIA (Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation) group. Although the pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unclear, lipid peroxidation seems to play a central role in the pathogenesis. Currently, there is no cure for the disease. Objective In this work, we examined the presence of lipid peroxidation, iron accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction in two cellular models of PLAN, patients-derived fibroblasts and induced neurons, and assessed the effects of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) in correcting the pathophysiological alterations in PLAN cell cultures. Methods Pathophysiological alterations were examined in fibroblasts and induced neurons generated by direct reprograming. Iron and lipofuscin accumulation were assessed using light and electron microscopy, as well as biochemical analysis techniques. Reactive Oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial dysfunction were measured using specific fluorescent probes analysed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Results PLAN fibroblasts and induced neurons clearly showed increased lipid peroxidation, iron accumulation and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. All these pathological features were reverted with vitamin E treatment. Conclusions PLAN fibroblasts and induced neurons reproduce the main pathological alterations of the disease and provide useful tools for disease modelling. The main pathological alterations were corrected by Vitamin E supplementation in both models, suggesting that blocking lipid peroxidation progression is a critical therapeutic target.
Article
Full-text available
Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an incurable rare genetic disorder of children and young adults caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, which encodes an enzyme critical for the biosynthesis of Coenzyme A. Although PKAN affects only a small number of patients, it shares several hallmarks of more common neurodegenerative diseases of older adults such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Advances in etiological understanding and treatment of PKAN could therefore have implications for our understanding of more common diseases and may shed new lights on the physiological importance of Coenzyme A, a cofactor critical for the operation of various cellular metabolic processes. The large body of knowledge which accumulated over the years around PKAN pathology, including but not limited to studies of various PKAN models and therapies, has contributed not only to progress in our understanding of the disease, but as importantly, to the crystallization of key questions that guide future investigations of the disease. In this Review, we will summarize this knowledge and demonstrate how it forms the backdrop to new avenues of research.
Article
Background: This review highlights the recent scientific advances that have enabled rational design of novel clinical trials for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), a rare autosomal recessive neurogenetic disorder associated with progressive neurodegenerative changes and functional impairment. PKAN is caused by genetic variants in the PANK2 gene that result in dysfunction in pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2) enzyme activity, with consequent disruption of coenzyme A (CoA) synthesis, and subsequent accumulation of brain iron. The clinical phenotype is varied and may include dystonia, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, spasticity, loss of ambulation and ability to communicate, feeding difficulties, psychiatric issues, and cognitive and visual impairment. There are several symptom-targeted treatments, but these do not provide sustained benefit as the disorder progresses. Objectives: A detailed understanding of the molecular and biochemical pathogenesis of PKAN has opened the door for the design of novel rationally designed therapeutics that target the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Two large double-blind phase 3 clinical trials have been completed for deferiprone (an iron chelation treatment) and fosmetpantotenate (precursor replacement therapy). A pilot open-label trial of pantethine as a potential precursor replacement strategy has also been completed, and a trial of 4-phosphopantetheine has begun enrollment. Several other compounds have been evaluated in pre-clinical studies, and additional clinical trials may be anticipated. Conclusions: Experience with these trials has encouraged a critical evaluation of optimal trial designs, as well as the development of PKAN-specific measures to monitor outcomes. PKAN provides a valuable example for understanding targeted drug development and clinical trial design for rare disorders. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Article
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide health problem contributing to significant economic burden. TBI is difficult to treat partly due to incomplete understanding of pathophysiology. Ferroptosis is a type of iron-dependent programmed cell death which has gained increasing attention due to its possible role in TBI. Current studies have demonstrated that ferroptosis is related to the pathology of TBI, and inhibition of ferroptosis may improve long term outcomes of TBI. Therefore, clarification of the exact association between ferroptosis and traumatic brain injury is necessary and may provide new targets for treatment. This review describes (1) the ferroptosis pathways following traumatic brain injury, (2) the role of ferroptosis during the chronic phase of traumatic brain injury, and (3) potential therapies targeting the ferroptosis pathways.
Article
Full-text available
Induced neurons (iNs), the product of somatic cells directly converted to neurons, are a way to obtain patient-derived neurons from tissue that is easily accessible. Through this route, mature neurons can be obtained in a matter of a few weeks. Here, we describe a straightforward and rapid one-step protocol to obtain iNs from dermal fibroblasts obtained through biopsy samples from adult human donors. We explain each step of the process, including the maintenance of the dermal fibroblasts, the freezing procedure to build a stock of the cell line, seeding of the cells for reprogramming, as well as the culture conditions during the conversion process. In addition, we describe the preparation of glass coverslips for electrophysiological recordings, long-term coating conditions, and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). We also illustrate examples of the results to be expected. The protocol described here is easy to perform and can be applied to human fibroblasts derived from human skin biopsies from patients with various different diagnoses and ages. This protocol generates a sufficient amount of iNs which can be used for a wide array of biomedical applications, including disease modeling, drug screening, and target validation. © 2018, Journal of Visualized Experiments. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Brain iron accumulation is the hallmark of a group of seriously invalidating and progressive rare diseases collectively denominated Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), characterized by movement disorder, painful dystonia, parkinsonism, mental disability and early death. Currently there is no established therapy available to slow down or reverse the progression of these conditions. Several genes have been identified as responsible for NBIA but only two encode for proteins playing a direct role in iron metabolism. The other genes encode for proteins either with various functions in lipid metabolism, lysosomal activity and autophagic processes or with still unknown roles. The different NBIA subtypes have been classified and denominated on the basis of the mutated genes and, despite genetic heterogeneity, some of them code for proteins, which share or converge on common metabolic pathways. In the last ten years, the implementation of genetic screening based on Whole Exome Sequencing has greatly accelerated gene discovery, nevertheless our knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the NBIA syndromes is still largely incomplete.
Article
Full-text available
Direct conversion of human fibroblasts into mature and functional neurons, termed induced neurons (iNs), was achieved for the first time 6 years ago. This technology offers a promising shortcut for obtaining patient- and disease-specific neurons for disease modeling, drug screening, and other biomedical applications. However, fibroblasts from adult donors do not reprogram as easily as fetal donors, and no current reprogramming approach is sufficiently efficient to allow the use of this technology using patient-derived material for large-scale applications. Here, we investigate the difference in reprogramming requirements between fetal and adult human fibroblasts and identify REST as a major reprogramming barrier in adult fibroblasts. Via functional experiments where we overexpress and knockdown the REST-controlled neuron-specific microRNAs miR-9 and miR-124, we show that the effect of REST inhibition is only partially mediated via microRNA up-regulation. Transcriptional analysis confirmed that REST knockdown activates an overlapping subset of neuronal genes as microRNA overexpression and also a distinct set of neuronal genes that are not activated via microRNA overexpression. Based on this, we developed an optimized one-step method to efficiently reprogram dermal fibroblasts from elderly individuals using a single-vector system and demonstrate that it is possible to obtain iNs of high yield and purity from aged individuals with a range of familial and sporadic neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's, Huntington's, as well as Alzheimer's disease.
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519Val 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN.
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondria have been in the focus of oxidative stress and aging research for decades due to their permanent production of ROS during the oxidative phosphorylation. The hypothesis exists that mitochondria are involved in the formation of lipofuscin, an autofluorescent protein aggregate that accumulates progressively over time in lysosomes of post-mitotic and senescent cells. To investigate the influence and involvement of mitochondria in lipofuscinogenesis, we analyzed lipofuscin amounts as well as the mitochondrial function in young and senescent cells. In addition we used an aging model and Lon protease deficient HeLa cells to investigate the influence of mitochondrial degradation processes on lipofuscin formation. We were able to show that mitophagy is impaired in senescent cells resulting in an increased mitochondrial mass and superoxide formation. In addition, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission leads to increased lipofuscin formation. Moreover, we observed that Lon protease downregulation is linked to a higher lipofuscinogenesis whereas the application of the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant mitoTEMPO is able to prevent the accumulation of this protein aggregate.
Article
Full-text available
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is an early onset and severely disabling neurodegenerative disease for which no therapy is available. PKAN is caused by mutations in PANK2, which encodes for the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase 2. Its function is to catalyze the first limiting step of Coen-zyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells from PKAN patients and showed that their derived neurons exhibited premature death, increased ROS production, mito-chondrial dysfunctions—including impairment of mitochondrial iron-dependent biosynthesis—and major membrane excitability defects. CoA supplementation prevented neuronal death and ROS formation by restoring mitochondrial and neuronal functionality. Our findings provide direct evidence that PANK2 malfunctioning is responsible for abnormal phenotypes in human neuronal cells and indicate CoA treatment as a possible therapeutic intervention.
Article
Full-text available
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease with gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons. Despite extensive research in the past decades, the etiology of PD remains elusive. Nevertheless, multiple lines of evidence suggest that oxidative stress is one of the common causes in the pathogenesis of PD. It has also been suggested that heavy metal-associated oxidative stress may be implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of PD. Here we review the roles of redox metals, including iron, copper and cobalt, in PD. Iron is a highly reactive element and deregulation of iron homeostasis is accompanied by concomitant oxidation processes in PD. Copper is a key metal in cell division process, and it has been shown to have an important role in neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Cobalt induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in brain tissues.
Article
Full-text available
In the present work, it has been shown that isolated mitochondria can undergo transformation to lipofuscin granules without any additional factors (oxygen saturation or prooxidants). The process occurs spontaneously and slowly at low temperature and rapidly upon heating (thermolipofuscin) or UV irradiation (photolipofuscin). The main contribution to the formation of mitochondrial lipofuscin is made by denatured proteins. The formation of thermolipofuscin depends on lipid peroxidation, while the presence of lipids is not required for photolipofuscin formation. It has been shown that the use of a detergent that is able to degrade mitochondria is necessary to measure the lipofuscin content properly.
Article
Most laboratories interested in autophagy use different imaging software for managing and analyzing heterogeneous parameters in immunofluorescence experiments (e.g., LC3-puncta quantification and determination of the number and size of lysosomes). One solution would be software that works on a user's laptop or workstation that can access all image settings and provide quick and easy-to-use analysis of data. Thus, we have designed and implemented an application called IFDOTMETER, which can run on all major operating systems because it has been programmed using JAVA (Sun Microsystems). Briefly, IFDOTMETER software has been created to quantify a variety of biological hallmarks, including mitochondrial morphology and nuclear condensation. The program interface is intuitive and user-friendly, making it useful for users not familiar with computer handling. By setting previously defined parameters, the software can automatically analyze a large number of images without the supervision of the researcher. Once analysis is complete, the results are stored in a spreadsheet. Using software for high-throughput cell image analysis offers researchers the possibility of performing comprehensive and precise analysis of a high number of images in an automated manner, making this routine task easier. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.