Article

Theory and methodology of pedagogical-phenomenological video analysis

Abstract and Figures

This paper introduces the methodological approach and the pedagogical-phenomenological practice of video analysis. In a first step, basic structures of phenomenological theories of experience, of embodiment as well as theories of responsivity and image will be introduced. In a second step, watching and perceiving video data is identified as a responsive and participatory experience. In a third step, the methodical ground of our research is introduced by giving an overview of epistemological and methodological aspects of the phenomenological approach. In this context, the individual steps of phenomenological video analysis and phenomenological analysis in general will be put to practice on an example. In doing so, teaching in the classroom is determined as an interattentional form of responsivity, in which showing as a specific pedagogical form of embodiment corresponds with becoming attentive. In a final step, research results on a typology of pedagogical gestures of showing and pointing will be introduced. Keywords: Phenomenology, Video analysis, Image, Lived body, Embodiment, Responsivity, Participatory experience, Teaching, Learning, Showing, Attentiveness, Interattentionality
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R E S E A R C H Open Access
Theory and methodology of pedagogical-
phenomenological video analysis
Severin Sales Rödel
*
and Malte Brinkmann
* Correspondence: sales.severin.
roedel@hu-berlin.de
Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,
Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin,
Germany
Abstract
This paper introduces the methodological approach and the pedagogical-
phenomenological practice of video analysis. In a first step, basic structures of
phenomenological theories of experience, of embodiment as well as theories of
responsivity and image will be introduced. In a second step, watching and
perceiving video data is identified as a responsive and participatory experience. In a
third step, the methodical ground of our research is introduced by giving an
overview of epistemological and methodological aspects of the phenomenological
approach. In this context, the individual steps of phenomenological video analysis
and phenomenological analysis in general will be put to practice on an example. In
doing so, teaching in the classroom is determined as an interattentional form of
responsivity, in which showing as a specific pedagogical form of embodiment
corresponds with becoming attentive. In a final step, research results on a typology
of pedagogical gestures of showing and pointing will be introduced.
Keywords: Phenomenology, Video analysis, Image, Lived body, Embodiment,
Responsivity, Participatory experience, Teaching, Learning, Showing, Attentiveness,
Interattentionality
Introduction
Video analysis in educational science
Video analytical approaches are renowned methods of qualitative research in social sci-
ences (Heath et al. 2010; Erickson 2011a) and in educational research today (Flewitt
2006; Derry et al. 2010). They have been a constitutive part of qualitative-reconstructive
classroom research (Goldman et al. 2007) from the so-called practice-theoretical orienta-
tion (Schatzki et al. 2001; Reckwitz 2003) onwards, permitting differentiated descriptions
of the complexity of human interactions (Flewitt et al. 2009, Knoblauch et al. 2008,2012)
as well as grasping situations both temporally and spatially. Most importantly, verbal and
non-verbal expressions can be analyzed with regard to their relation towards each other.
Dimensions of the lived body as well as material dimensions can be captured more effi-
ciently and implicit matters, which cannot be verbalized but shown, can be rendered sub-
ject of discussion. As classroom situations and pedagogical interaction in general are a
complex, multi-layered, phenomenon, perspectives following the paradigm of multimod-
ality seem to be most fruitful (Erickson 2006). This paper follows the idea of reflecting on
the multimodality and polysemy of both pedagogical practice and video data recorded in
pedagogical settings. In difference to existing multimodality approaches in video research
and Pedagog
y
Video Journal of Education
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indicate if changes were made.
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10
https://doi.org/10.1186/s40990-018-0023-1
(Erickson 2011b), this paper suggests to add a phenomenological perspective to educa-
tional video research. The aim of employing phenomenology as a research approach is to
get access to subjective experience of learning and teaching (on the side of participants)
and at the same time reflect on the performativity of the research process as an experience
of researchers. By referring to theories from visual culture and image science, we will also
reflect the medium video itself. In contrast to existing approaches, which take a semiotic
or social-semiotic approach and render images as a specific kind of text (Jewitt et al. 2016
p. 115, Kress and van Leeuwen 2006), we will try to reflect on the specific reality and
responsivity created by (moving) images.
We will start with some remarks on the status of experience (2), embodiment and
the body (3) and images in phenomenological theory (4) and then present a methodo-
logical section (5) and a step-by-step sample analysis (6), explaining the method of
pedagogical-phenomenological video analysis.
The phenomenological approach Experiences
Regarding content, methodology and discipline, phenomenological educational science is
concerned with the concept of experience,
1
as fleshed out by Husserl, Heidegger and
Merleau-Ponty (Brinkmann 2016c, 2018a, 2015). As a philosophy of experience
(Waldenfels 1992), phenomenology aims at qualitatively describing
2
and defining the
temporal, corporal, sensual and mundane dimensions of experiences as they occur.
Phenomenology has developed a methodology based on description, reduction and vari-
ation(BrinkmannandFriesen2018, Brinkmann 2016ab). It assumes that a scientific and
objective quality can be achieved by a focus on the thing itself rather than through
method alone: The slogan To the things themselves!(Edmund Husserl) does not
imply a positivistic but a skeptical and reflective approach to the phenomenon as
that which shows itself in itself(Heidegger 1962, pp. 5158). Phenomenological
approaches insist on the diversity and complexity of meaning and experience.
Recent phenomenology-based approaches in educational research critically follows
Husserls life-world turn, which starts with his Crisis paper (Hua VI). His approach
to rehabilitate dimensions of meaning beyond the realms of science, in which
world, self and others are perceived in a pre-verbal, ambiguous manner or in terms
of the lived body, is still up-to-date. Phenomenological educational science has
related this concept of experience to pedagogical contexts, in order to describe and
analyze pedagogical experience (van Manen 2014,Lippitz1984). Educational
science can phenomenologically be determined as a science of experience
(Brinkmann and Friesen 2018).
From a phenomenological perspective, experience is established as a phenomenon of am-
biguity on the basis of the lived body (Merleau-Ponty 1965), a philosophical anthropology
and a general moment of being-in-the-world (Heidegger 1962), which opens up the ability
to learn (Lippitz 2003). It takes subjective and sensory experiences within learning, teaching
and education into account (Brinkmann 2011). Following phenomenological and hermen-
eutic theories, we assume that meaning is constituted as situational, subjective meaning
characterized by corporality and sociality (Schütz 1967; Brinkmann 2011). Experience is not
understood as a finished product in the sense of output, but as a continuous process which
can be disrupted or fractured(Waldenfels 2011, p. 5). These disruptions can occur in re-
sistant moments, in moments when our being-in-the-world is confronted with things
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 2 of 25
un-ready-to-hand
3
(Heidegger 1962, p. 103), or pathos
4
(Widerfahrnis), as something by
which we are touched, affected, stimulated, surprised and to some extent violated(Walden-
fels 2004, p. 238; emphasis in original). They come into focus as life-worldly, inter-corporal
5
and inter-subjective processes marked by differences, ruptures and experiences of the alien
or foreign (Waldenfels 2011).
For an empirical phenomenological educational science, the primacy of experience
raises the difficulty, that subjective experiences are not accessible in an unmediated
way. Experiences are not visiblein video data, which is why we place our focus on the
lived body as a medium of embodiment of subjective experiences.
Externalization, embodiment, responsive event
In phenomenological philosophy and educational research, the expressivity of the lived
body has become a research subject of growing interest. Non-essentialist and
non-dualistic conceptions of corporality are developed against traditional European
metaphysical conceptions and the division of body and mind. These newtheories of
the body explore the inherent logic of being-in-the-world as an embodied person and
the productivity of the lived body in learning and education.
When he speaks of the lived body as a transfer-point (Umschlagstelle)(Hua IV, p.
286), Husserl determines the lived body as the field of entanglement of world and self.
Merleau-Ponty defines corporality as the world-organ of experience and differentiate being
a lived body from having a body (Merleau-Ponty 1965, p. 401; Brinkmann 2016a). We ex-
perience in and through the lived body. The embodied relation is a pre-verbal and
pre-cognitive one. The lived body is neither thing or object nor center of the self. In the
lived bodys materiality between inside and outside, own and other, we experience an unme-
diated and pre-verbal presence (Waldenfels 2002). The relation to ourselves and others be
it an experiential, a sensory, a verbal or a cognitive one is always established later than the
experience itself (Meyer-Drawe 1991). This ex-post character of our self-relation and rela-
tion to others and the precarious state of experiences is of great significance for qualitative
research in social sciences with regard to epistemology and methodology.
6
Plessner, one of the main representatives of philosophical anthropology, highlights
the expressivity of the lived body in facial expressions, gestures, postures, language as
well as in laughing and crying (Plessner 2003). These expressions hint at the general,
expressive character of human being-in-the-world. They materialize in practical em-
bodiment as a subjective and social form. While externalizations are spontaneous and
subjective corporal expressions of mimic and gestural nature, embodiments claim la-
tency in the habitual. They are corporal forms of response under the condition of social
orders, which become habitualized and incarnated in the mode of repetition. Within
embodiment, individuals practically position themselves towards themselves and to-
wards the social and, at the same time, comment on these acts of positioning by
responding in front of others (Brinkmann 2016a). Plessner defines embodiments as so-
cial modes of adopting a role, differentiating between elementary, representative and
functional roles as modes of embodiment and as modes of disguise, understood in the
original sense of persona (Plessner 1976). Within and through embodiments, we com-
pare ourselves with others, judge them and identify with them (Waldenfels 2008,p.
168). Within processes of embodiment, the other (he/she/it) is present in a space of so-
ciality in an elementary sense (Bedorf 2010). Ones own perspective on the lived body is
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 3 of 25
therefore not the same as the perspective on the other. Embodied corporal behavior
thus becomes tangible as a responsive event (Rödel 2015).
Responding as embodied behavior is described by Waldenfels in the sense of a situ-
ational embodied responsory scheme, regarding sensory function, motor function and
expression (Waldenfels 2007). Within this embodied responsory scheme, the person
responding is already affected by the call and the claim of the other: In the call that I
receive, there is something that is demanded from me(Waldenfels 2011, p. 37). The
response is thus an incident, not a state, not intentional behavior or reaction to a
stimulus or the effect of a cause. On the contrary, the inevitable passivity of every ex-
perience becomes evident in the experience of responding. In responding, an embodied
resonance-space opens up. Responding as pathic responding is located in the difference
between own and other (Waldenfels 2011).
Unlike experiences, embodiments can be observed and described, which makes them
fruitful for empirical research. They are visible, perceptible and can be experienced
as an embodied expression or as a response in front of others. With theories of em-
bodiment, subjective externalizations can be empirically described in their non-verbal
dimensions. Subjective meaning becomes graspable for qualitative empirical research
because it enters social and worldly interactions and embodies itself within these inter-
actions. In practice, subjective meaning and social meaning intersect. This chiasm
(Merleau-Ponty 1968, p. 328) promises to prove very fruitful as a basic figure of experi-
ence and the reconstruction of experience in empirical pedagogical research.
One of the advantages of the concept of embodiment for qualitative empirical re-
search is, that cognitive-intellectual as well as sensory-embodied processes can be con-
ceived as moments of a practice of the self. Another benefit is, that subjective and
social aspects of action can be described. Subjective meaning is neither understood as
an interpretation of a subjective intention, a re-living of sentimental inwardness
(Dilthey 2010), nor as a different understanding of text and language based objectivity
(Gadamer 2013).
7
Rather, subjective meaning as embodied meaning can be inferred
from the responses of others. Phenomenology has developed a distinct methodology
for this purpose (see sect. Methodology of Phenomenological Video Analysis).
Processes of learning and educating can thus be described as embodiments in an
inter-corporal responsive event. The sociality of education as a shared experience of
learning and teaching (Brinkmann 2018) and the materiality of the lived body and of
things change the focus from interactions to situations. In situations, the acts of expres-
sion and the call or claim of the other/others are either responded to or not responded
to. This can occur in various ways: in the form of a conversation, facial expressions and
gestures, showing-something and showing-oneself or disguising. Taking an embodied
perspective into research also means, that researchers themselves become the focus of
attention. They are considered as perceiving individuals, responding in an embodied
way to events and embodied interactions depicted in videos. To elaborate on the point
of responding to images and videos, we will now sketch out the specific character of
images and their role in qualitative research in more detail.
Phenomenological description of images
In order to make video analysis fruitful for phenomenological and pedagogical research
(and vice versa), preliminary epistemological as well as methodological issues have to
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 4 of 25
be taken into consideration. In the following, we will further discuss the role of the
image in video analysis in its specific reality, its mediality and its responsivity. These re-
flections will be brought together in theoretical remarks on how we understand images
in responding to them.
Picturality and reality of the image
Do we have to mistrust images? This question seems to become increasingly urgent
under conditions of a medial post-democratic society dominantly governed by images.
Images are generated and produced. They are perspectival. They have an extremely po-
tent illusory character. Fiction becomes even more prevalent in moving images, which
can be said to augment fiction to simulation. At the same time, images as well as
medial images are always framed. They only show an extract revealing the per-
spective of the person who has produced them. They exclude by including (Kress
and van Leeuwen 2006). This common understanding of image and video as well
as the widespread duality of a factual reality (i.e. what we commonly refer to as
reality) and a fictional or simulated reality (of the image or the video) is to be
questioned (Mersch 2002;Boehm2007;Wiesing2013;Sternagel2016).
8
Images produce a reality of their own. This specific reality cannot be grasped by dualisti-
cally separating it from an alleged reality of the factual. We can clearly see this effect of
creating an ownreality in works of art of abstract modernism displaying something
which eludes objective, measurable and countable approaches. What is displayed by these
images points to meaning (or emotion) rather than matter. This implicit meaning
of the image is perceived as the reality of the image. From an epistemological
perspective, the reality of the image and the reality of the factual are incongruent
and disparate (Schütz 2016a,2016b).Therealityoftheimagewithitsinherent
logic and materiality can become tangible precisely in this incongruity. From an
epistemological point of view, the reality of the image is not only perceived as
reality, but also responded to immediately. The multitude of experiences which
are constituted while looking at an image are immediate responses to the mean-
ing of the image. The inherent, experiential reality of the image is grounded in
this pre-verbal and implicit meaning.
Mediality of images and videos
Images and videos only show a surface. While the participantsbehavior and the ma-
teriality of things can be observed, intentions, motifs and emotions remain covert. Phe-
nomenological approaches assume the superficiality, presence and materiality of
images. The difference between visibility and invisibility is pivotal, not the difference
between outside and inside (which is significant in hermeneutics). In his work on
intentionality, Husserl points out that the perception of an image, e.g. an image of a
dice, always implies the invisible. The two-dimensional image conceals at least three
sides of the dice, which remain hidden, no matter which perspective is represented. To
put it differently: The iconic difference (Boehm 2007) between what is visible and what
is invisible, between the picturality of the image and the visualization (of a dice) is con-
stitutive for images (Sternagel 2016, p. 16). What is visible from one perspective consti-
tutes that which is phenomenally invisible (ibid. p. 17).
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 5 of 25
Perception and the image stand in fundamental relation with each another. Look-
ing at and perceiving an image is only possible if there is a background from
which an object (in our example: the dice) stands out. An interplay between what
is present (the surface) and what is absent (the rear side of the dice), between the
active observation of the visible and the passive perception (cf. Waldenfels 2004,p.
238) of what the image itself shows emerges. The image is thus not an object, not
a thing, but is perceived in a perceptual field or horizon. The horizon itself is in-
visible in the process of seeing (Alloa 2011, p. 235). Yet, as the non-visible, it plays
an important role in constituting the image as a whole. The picturality of the
image is therefore to be distinguished from the visibility of elements in an image
that show themselves (in phenomenological terms). Moreover, the presence of the
image is not given without its materiality, i.e. its concrete quality, its surface, its
composition, its texture or digital resolution.
In producing videos, technical devices capture images and process these into moving
images. They can be described as prosthetic forms of technical seeing. Videos and vide-
ography have to be regarded as technical forms of producing reality. However, videos
offer experiences in seeing and experiences of seeing. When we watch videos, we see
and perceive the reality of the image as a reality under the conditions of medialization
and technization of moving images. An analysis and description of videos has to con-
sider this difference. In carrying out such an analysis, we have to bear in mind that in
the immediate act of seeing experiences are being made, which can stand in resonance
to the ones constitutive for our experiential horizon. The reality of the image as well as
the engineered, moving image of the video can be regarded as a regional ontology
(Hua IV p. 413), i.e. a common groundof experiences for both researchers and partici-
pants depicted in videos. This regional ontology or common groundallows to establish a
relation of similarity between the experiences of participants and the experiences. The rela-
tion of similarity becomes manifest in responses to observed experiences, without pleading
for a causal or dualistic approach. Viewing and analyzing videos can thus be regarded as
forms of a participatory experience (Beekman 1986), in which corporal embodied responses
have to be focused on in particular. Video research assumes a dual responsivity to the
shown (that which is real) and to the representation (in its picturality).
Responsivity of images
Primarily, images awaken emotions, disapproval or affinity, embodied reactions and so
forth. We are within the image before we can distance ourselves from it. We respond to
what shows itself in a natural attitude. Through this natural attitude, we naïvely take for
granted the reality of the image as an embodied experience of reality in the moment of
seeing. Temporal and spatial distance to what is displayed as well as to the mediality of
the image is initially not thematic in this aisthetic state of perception and responding
(Merleau-Ponty 1965). It becomes thematic as soon as it enters the field of attention. This
field is structured by that which shows itself. The showing-itself of the image, i.e. its de-
ixis(Boehm 2007,pp.1921), is to be epistemologically distinguished from that which is
visible of the image. It is, so to speak, to be understood as an activity. It does something
to us, causes something in us. The affects are thus more specifically described as re-
sponses to what shows itself. We respond to images by being affected by them.
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 6 of 25
Understanding as responding
In observing images and videos, a sphere of inter-corporal responding in which the
own and the other intertwine (Waldenfels 2002) emerges, where there is no right or
wrong. Someone or something shows oneself/itself to the researcher by expressing one-
self/itself; the researcher responds in an embodied-affective way. At the same time, the
symbolic surplus of images shows itself in this affect, producing polysemy and
polyvalence.
Understanding is therefore not a process of drawing conclusions from the outside to
the inside (Dilthey 2010), also not a process of decoding, but an embodied practice of
responding. Higher, objective or semiotic understanding has its foundation in an elem-
entary live-world, embodied understanding as resonance and responsivity. We are
already live in a world structured by understanding (Schütz 1967), before we under-
stand hermeneutically or semiotically. In this practice, embodied externalizations and
embodiments incarnate as affects and responses. The embodied-affective intermediate
sphere is therefore of great interest for the description of images and videos. Given
these remarks on the medium videoand the specific experiences it evokes, we will
now elaborate on the basics of phenomenological analysis of experiences.
Methodology of phenomenological video analysis
Phenomenological approaches of seeing and understanding open the perspective of re-
searchers to the world that shows itself and within showing itself covers, conceals
and shadows certain areas (remember the example of Husserls dice). The phenomeno-
logical stance acts in a double movement between appearance and concealment, be-
tween letting-see and being-able-to-see a position towards the world and others that
accepts other ways of experiencing in their own right while examining their conse-
quences and their claims of validity. In the following, we will sketch three basic opera-
tions of phenomenological exploration of experiences
Description
The first step of phenomenological analysis is description, not interpretation (Brink-
mann and Friesen 2018, Brinkmann 2016ab). The description first has to stick to the
superficiality and exteriority of the medium: Emotions and motifs cannot be observed,
while behavior is visible to the observer. We cannot see the process of learning, we can
only observe facial and gestural expressions, we are able to see actions not intentions.
The methodological ruleof phenomenological description is thus not to be con-
cerned with interpretations but only to keep strictly to that which shows itself, regard-
less of how meager it may be(Heidegger 1985 [1979], p. 47).
In contrast to hermeneutic interpretation or social-scientific reconstruction, phenom-
enological description aims at keeping different epistemological levels apart; the visible
and the utterable, the implicit and the explicit. With regards to research practice, the
difference of having to say something which cannot be said, but which shows itself and
in showing shows itself as something, becomes thematic. At this point, the respect for
the matter in question and for the different perspectives on the matter becomes mani-
fest (Brinkmann 2016a,b).
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 7 of 25
A reflection can aim particularly at the difference between the utterable and the un-
utterable, the embodied and the verbal, saying and seeing, describing and interpreting.
A signification as a subsequent and violent (Foucault 1970) exploitation of silent expe-
riences(Husserl 1995, p. 77) always means counterfactually bypassing an unbridgeable,
incongruent relation. This form of bypassing cannot occur in the form of a translation
(Kalthoff 2008, pp. 1113) but only as a response, an externalization in the medium of
language in resonance to an externalization in the medium of seeing (Brinkmann and
Friesen 2018, Brinkmann 2016a,b).
Reduction and variation
A description can, technically speaking, never be practiced without reduction. Reduction
takes its starting point with the subjectivity of researchers, i.e. immediate, affective under-
standing of phenomena, related schemata or concepts as well as scientific models and the-
ories that come to mind when viewing videos. Researchers first try to explicate these
immediate responses and trace them back to underlying concepts and theories, then these
underlying models of explication are reflected upon separately. In this reflective exercise, en-
suing judgments and evaluations are suspended. They are not eliminated but put into
brackets, trying to keep them from influencing our perception. This skeptical and critical
part of phenomenological reduction (Fink 2004,pp.8790; Brinkmann 2016a,b)enablesre-
searchers to generate a new perspective and perceive unfamiliar and different nuances of
the phenomenon. Something can show itself as something else, without having to rely on in-
terpretations and theories.
In the ensuing variation of different perspectives, meaning is again pluralized. In a playful
variation of perspectives from research of education, but also aesthetical, life-world, political,
economical or existential perspectives, researchers try to open new approaches to the
phenomenon or video data. Applying different perspectives helps in achieving a temporary
estrangement from onesownpointofviewnot as a result of an active endeavor of the
subject, but as a result of opening up for the matter in a mode of passivity. Phenomenology
therefore regards methodological self-estrangement in research as suggested by ethnog-
raphy (Geertz 1988;Schütz1971; Malinowski 1922; critical approach: Madden 2010,p.19;
OReilly 2012, p. 96) as paradox and impossible. In addition to this, variation of different
perspectives can flesh out invariant characteristics and types of the matterby comparison
(Heidegger 1994,p.92).
Description, reduction and variation are applied in the hope that something shows it-
self even if it potentially hides itself at the same time. The qualitative description has
to capture what shows itself as something under technical conditions. The technical
possibilities of video analysis can provide new means for this endeavor: Watching the
video in real time and slowing down and increasing its speed offers different modes of
watching. Different possibilities of describing something as something occur and enable
variations and changes of perspective.
Generating of types and re-theorization
The methodological operations of reduction and variation systematically differentiate
between an apprehending perception (a phenomenon) and an operation aiming at ana-
lytical insights. Only the latter can be understood as a skeptical and critical operation.
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 8 of 25
By comparing the described situations, they can be related to each other and thus be
distinguished from related, adjoining phenomena. Typical features can be focused on
through examining varieties (Loch 1998, p. 314).
Inductive comparisons of similarities allow research operations in which differences
appear. Differences and incongruences can again be the motive for a reflective turn to-
wards pre-assumptions and formerly applied models. These become the subject of es-
trangement or skeptical bracketing. Through the constitution of a dual distance to the
field and the responses to what has been seen in the video on the one hand, and to the
individual pre-assumptions on the other hand, researchers can enter a reflective process
of generating types from research data. Following Husserl, types or categories in quali-
tative research are then not only generated by abstraction (Husserl 1999, p. 413) and by
inductively inferring the general from the particular. The operation of variation as de-
scribed above is of a hybrid nature(ibid.). What is actually perceived and theoretically
imagined, what is empirically given and theoretically added in an act of giving meaning
to empirical data conflicts or overlaps(ibid.). Similar types are therefore not gener-
ated inductively from the materialor data, but abductively (Peirce 1931, p. 171 follow-
ing) by reflecting and bracketing. Types are neither re-constructed nor constructed but
show themselves as a general characteristic, which is found in typical situations through
acts of producing meaning (Fink 1978, pp. 1315; Brinkmann 2014a, p. 217). Adding
or generating meaning thus also means to anticipate something which is to show itself
as persevering and characteristic in different sets of data. In a second step, this general
characteristic has to be constantly reexamined, in order to check if it is still empirically
valid by comparing the results against the material or data. It can furthermore serve as
substantial critique and cause for a change of pre-existing theories, which are applied
in variation. On the basis of empirical research, theories can be validated and the em-
pirically observed situations can be re-theorized. From this empirical-theoretical basis,
new theories can be generated.
In the following step, the practice of empirical video analysis will be displayed along
the lines of an example from our research. We will also try to show in an exemplary
way how pedagogical theory in this case a theory of interattentionality can be cre-
ated through employing phenomenological videographic methodology.
Results and discussion
Phenomenology as style or attitude (Merleau-Ponty 1965, p. 4) has always been con-
cerned with the question whether methodizing the phenomenological approach com-
plies with the fundamental phenomenological attitude. According to this fundamental
stance, a scientific and objective quality is not only achieved through method but
through an orientation towards the matter or phenomenon, aiming at
reflexively-critically decoding the phenomenon, which is what shows itself in itself.The
relation to the matter also entails a circularity of phenomenological research between
matter and our own experience of the matter, between acts of interpretation and acts
of deprivation of meaning, between activity and passivity. Such a stance is characterized
by a focus on plurality and multidimensionality of meaning and experience and takes
ambiguities, phenomena of deprivation, transgression and estrangement into account.
Aligned with it is a general skepticism towards scientific dogmatisms and universalized
methods, as they rather lead to a reduction, de-contextualization and logification of
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 9 of 25
live-world meaning (Brinkmann et al. 2015) than to a pluralization of meaning. The fol-
lowing account of analytical steps is therefore an endeavor in rationalizing a circular re-
search process infused with manifold reflective loops from an ex-post perspective and
grouping the different steps so they can be retraced methodically. This paper does not
claim to present a finalized method or the phenomenological method. Our method en-
tails two phases. In the first phase (6.1), which involves five steps, experiences are col-
lected, put into writing and are documented for video analysis. In the second phase
(6.2), which involves six further steps, the collected experiences are analyzed with re-
gard to phenomenological methodology and by using the transcription software Feld-
partitur (Moritz 2010).
Participatory experience in the field
In the first phase, we proceed in five steps of collecting experiences, putting them in
writing and recording them:
a) The research process begins with an extended stay in the field, i.e. pedagogical
settings. In the mode of a participatory experience (Beekman 1986), visits to the
classroom are undertaken and experiences and observations in the field are
collected, in order to get an impression of the atmosphere, the specific
interpersonal relations in the field and the spatial situation. Embodied, atmospheric
and social aspects of teaching are central to this first exploration (Geier and
Pollmanns 2016).
b) In exemplary descriptions (Lippitz 1984), observed experiences of participants as well
as the experiences made by researchers while observing are described as closely as
possible and in a qualitatively substantial way (van Manen 2014). These exemplary
descriptions are written documentations sensitive to experience, aiming at producing
a surplus of meaning. In the process of writing, the aim is to apply the
aforementioned methods of reduction and variation reflexively to generate a concise
description of the situation at school, open to different readings (Meyer-Drawe 2012,
p. 12). The descriptions can serve as documents of a first reflective breakthrough,
sensitive to problems of a dual ex-post character (of having made experiencesand
documenting experience) and to the difficulty of signifying silent experiences(Hus-
serl 1995, p. 77) and therefore the problem of explicating the implicit (see sect.De-
scription). Exemplary descriptions are not a final product of research (as
phenomenological research of anecdotes would suggest, see van Manen 1990,2014).
They rather serve the purpose of making individual experiences communicable inter-
subjectively and enable conversations with other researchers (Lippitz 1984,p.14).
c) In a third step, descriptions are analyzed in a research group. In these data
sessions, the focus of further research proceedings is discussed in greater detail.
Affects and responses to the described experiences are collected and different
perspectives regarding the exemplary descriptions are generated in the mode of
variation. Also, the steps of reduction and variation are applied once more to re-
write and reexamine existing descriptions. The guiding question in this phase of
the research process is how specific descriptions have been developed, how the
focus of attention in the field shapes the perspective of descriptions and, more
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 10 of 25
generally, what can be said about the constitution of specific experiences accounted
for in descriptions.
d) The actual research perspective can only be determined after the research focus is
refined through the discussion of descriptions. At this point, it is decided which
classes or which specific pedagogical situations will be videotaped and how the
subsequent research process should be designed. In the project we are referring to
in this paper, the focus was laid on attentiveness (students) and showing and
pointing (teachers) in class.
9
Unlike ethnographic approaches (Schensul and
LeCompte 2013, p. 91 following), which first find their focus in the field, our
approach suggests to employ a flexible perspective, which is already defined before
the second phase of field work starts. This perspective can and should be
challenged and put to into question by video documents and further analysis,
however.
e) In a fifth step, various lessons are taped with two video cameras mounted on
stands but able to swivel, filming from antagonistic perspectives. The goal is to
capture the studentsand the teachers perspectives, reflecting the educational
situation of shared experiences (Brinkmann 2018) and the perspective of the
researcher, who is focusing on attentiveness and showing (Brinkmann 2016b).
After filming specific classes, semi-structured interviews with teachers are con-
ducted. Thus, the teachers perspective is addressed and insight into didactic rela-
tions can be gained. The collected documents (exemplary descriptions, interviews,
videos and transcripts of incomprehensible video sequences) form a multimodal
data corpus, in which each document describes, documents and signifies experi-
ences differently.
Phenomenological video analysis: Showing, response, interattentionality
To make the practice of phenomenological video analysis comprehensible in six steps,
we will illustrate the procedure with an example from our research. The following sam-
ple description of a video sequence is taken from a chemistry class in 9th grade:
The students sit at their desks, which are positioned so that the students face the
front. The students seem relaxed, the atmosphere is quiet. Some students support their
heads with their arms, while others lean back on their chairs. The teacher, Mr. H.,
shows different bottles and containers containing chemical substances. He states that
they all contain the same amount of substance (one mole, a chemical unit). He asks the
students how different masses and volumes of the substances have come into being.
Mr. H. speaks calmly and the class faces him. Some students frown and rub their
cheeks and foreheads. They raise their hands and try to answer Mr. Hs questions, but
the correctanswer does not seem to be among the students suggestions. Students sup-
port each other while answering, stepping in when another one wavers. Mr. H. shows
new containers to the class. These are filled with chemical elements but also with peas
and walnuts. Finally, he presents a plastic model of a hydrogen particle to the students.
He reminds the students that they had addressed a similar problem in the previous
class. The students start to go through their notes, raise their hands again, but still fail
to answer the question. Some of them merely stare at their notes while others show
their neighbors something in their notes or go through their neighbors notes. None of
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 11 of 25
the students seems to be occupied with anything other than the content of Mr. Hs
class. Mr. H. now points to the periodic table of elements with a pointer and to equa-
tions he had drawn on the board earlier. While pointing, his posture remains relaxed,
his gestures are not very space consuming and, apart from an occasional smile, his fa-
cial expressions are not particularly distinct (Figs. 1,2,3,4)
10
.
a) Phenomenological video analysis begins with a first viewing of the video, which can
be described as perceptual viewing. Researchers observe themselves, their own
affects and embodied expressions while watching the video. The videos materiality
and inherent reality enables responses to the content and the experiences gained
while watching (in the mode of responsivity, see sect. Responsivity of Images), as
well as comprehension of individual responses as embodied-affected ways of under-
standing (4.4). The focus in this step lies especially on the embodiments (3.) of the
students. Their postures and facial expressions as well as their gestures imply that
their attention is engaged in the course of class they are attentive (Brinkmann
2016b). If the theory of a responsive event as an anticipation of the possible per-
spectivation, the process of laying-inmeaning (5.3), is applied, embodiments can
come into view as a response to engaging attention. This puts the focus on the op-
erations of showing carried out by the teacher and poses a specific question of the
correlation between becoming attentive, responding to others/the other and show-
ing. To an outside observer and at first glance, the studentsattentiveness stands in
contrast to the uninspiring subject matter and the rather unsuccessful discourse in
class: Despite the fact that the students fail to answer or understand the question,
they remain attentive.
b) In a second step, sequences are selected to be further analyzed. Considering the
question posed above, further situations from the video material are collected,
which point to something similar. These sequences are presented and discussed in
data sessions. Their relevance for the further research process as well as the
question of their exact length is decided in these sessions. This step of the research
process is based on the theories of visual culture as well on the methodological
operations mentioned above (4. and 5.), so that the selection of sequences can once
more be critically questioned regarding subjective and theoretical pre-assumptions.
Usually, at the end of the selection process, several sequences of about one to three
minutes are chosen.
c) Related to the aforementioned step is the ascertainment of a first understanding of
the situation. Experiences of resonance while watching the video are expressed,
collected, sorted and rendered subject of discussion as a shared experience (4.4) in
data sessions. The discussion and pluralization of different perspectives opened
through a first understanding and different experiences in understanding is thus
already part of this analytical step. The given example of a classroom situation was
understood in very different ways in our data session, e.g. as a demonstrative and
well-illustrated lesson, as teacher-centered instruction, as an example for boring or
on the complete contrary interesting and engaging teaching.
d) In a fourth step, the software Feldpartitur for analyzing videos (Moritz 2010,2011)is
first applied. The user surface of this software depicts a video in its sequential through
a chart and frames of the video. In addition to this, the software offers a perspective of
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 12 of 25
synchronicity by using score notation (similar to sheet music for large arrangements),
to account for the complexity of pedagogical situations.
11
The use of symbols instead
of verbal signifiers in the transcription enables a change in the registerof
signification. Symbols are more open to meaning and interpretation and enable a
signification less oriented on grammar and the logic of language (5.1) (Fig. 5).
e) In a fifth step, a phenomenological analysis is carried out. Subjective theories as well as
scientific ones, pre-assumptions and pre-experiences shaping the perspective of the re-
searchers are taken into account to later operatively identify the matteror
phenomenon itself. In a reduction (5.2), subjective theories evolving from personal ex-
periences at school, normative ideas on good teaching practice or personal learners
biographies are bracketed. At the same time, scientific or theories from popular science
are critically determined and bracketed as well. Psychological, neuroscientific or socio-
logical theories, for example, can shape perception and prefigure normative ideas, sha-
dowing(Fink 2004, p. 189) the view on data. Bracketed elements are not put ad acta,
they can be reconsidered in variation (5.2) together with further respects (e.g. concern-
ing didactics, theories of Bildung or theories of teaching). Meaning is thus pluralized
once more. This fifth step differs from the first and the third: In perceptual viewing and
in the first understanding, a reflective, methodically guided viewing, judgment or
categorization is avoided in order to do justice to the claim of the phenomenon and
our responses to it. In the phenomenological analysis, becoming attentive to affects and
responsivity is not the issue, they rather form the center of the reflective approach.
In the example above, we first noticed embodiments, followed by an atmosphere of
shared attentiveness and the specific gestures of showing and pointing of Mr. H. These
impressions could be analyzed with pedagogical theories of showing and pointing (Prange
Fig. 1 Mr. H. shows container with walnuts. Rights to the use are with the authors
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 13 of 25
2005), theories of materiality of teaching (König 2012), theories of power in pedagogical
relations or theories of goodteaching (Hattie 2009). All these respects can be explicated
and bracketed in reduction.
As an effect of carrying out such a reduction, studentsembodiments move into the spot-
light. The students in our example position themselves towards themselves in a social
sphere in front of the teacher and their fellow students andshowembodiedexpression
often associated with a certain state of attentiveness (3.). The studentsfrowns, the fact that
they face the teacher and fellow students as well as the fact that they are checking their
notes and raise their hands show the teacher and their peers that class is followed atten-
tively. The teacher responds to these embodiments with his own embodiments (of showing)
and by addressing his studentsconcerns and questions regarding the subject matter. He
systematically shows new models and demonstrative objects and poses new questions in re-
sponse to the studentsincomprehension. This can only be successful in an atmosphere of
Fig. 3 Students raise their hands and respond to others. Rights to the use are with the authors
Fig. 2 Mr. H. shows container with walnuts. Rights to the use are with the authors
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 14 of 25
interattentionality or shared attentiveness, in which everyone can expect mutual attention.
This mutual attention exists not only between students and teachers, but also among stu-
dents who are attentive towards each other which we can see when they are adding to
their fellow studentsremarks or showing them their notes. By doing so, they not only re-
spond to the call or claim of the teacher but also to the tacit call of their classmates. If we
take a look at the teachers operations of showing, it becomes obvious that different forms
of showing and pointing are applied: Sometimes he demonstrates things, points at specific
details or points out a connection to previously studied subject matter. The contents, which
his gestures are directed to or which are represented by his gestures, are of different quality
as well. He shows familiar things from the life-world of the students (walnuts etc.), models
of structures invisible to the naked eye (atom or particle models) and finally abstractions in
form of calculations and equations. An embodied responsive event meets the misunderstand-
ing or incomprehension of the students on the basis of language the students cannot state
the correctanswer in which the students become attentive and the teacher responds to
them in various forms of embodied showing. These fracture lines of teaching, coming into be-
ing by misunderstanding and incomprehension or negative experiences of teaching and learn-
ing, are of specific interest to pedagogical-phenomenological empirical research.
Fig. 4 Students show each other approaches to finding a solution in their notes. Rights to the use are with
the authors
Fig. 5 Screenshot of the software Feldpartitur in use. Image results from work with the program Feldpartitur
(http://www.feldpartitur.de/en/). Use has been approved through Feldpartitur
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 15 of 25
f) The analyzed situations can now be compared to and contrasted with other
sequences, which can be taken from other classes as well. Other types of data, such
as teacher interviews, descriptions and transcripts can be consulted as
supplementary and comparative material. In this step, the aim is a precise analysis
of pedagogical situations(Brinkmann 2016b,2018). Additionally, types of
pedagogical interactions and specific relations can be generated. Phenomenological
video analysis investigates typical situations, or rather typical experiences in
specific situations in this sixth step.
Concerning our example, moments of shared attentiveness were recognized in con-
trast to other situations. In extensive reflective loops we developed a theory of interat-
tentionality in the classroom (Brinkmann 2016b). Furthermore, we were exploring
Fig. 6 Different types of showing and pointing. The symbols of different gestures were developed by the
Feldpartitur-team following a suggestion of the research team at the Department for Philosophy of
Education at Humboldt-University Berlin [https://www.erziehungswissenschaften.hu-berlin.de/en/allgemeine-
en]. Use has been approved through Feldpartitur
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 16 of 25
additional examples of specific forms of embodiment in a responsive event. The as-
sumption that the operations of showing were directed at the attentiveness of the stu-
dents and at sustaining this attentiveness was guiding our inquiry. In observing various
gestures of Mr. H. (and other teachers), different types of showing and pointing could
be mapped out (Figs. 6,7,8,9,10,11,12).
Showing by using gestures often precedes the spoken word. Pointing at something,
demonstrating something and calling for attention frequently intertwine. We also found
that often something is shown and related to something someone else has said or
shown by showing it again, while speaking. Thus, a moment of intensive shared atten-
tiveness and showing is embedded in a responsive event of interattentionality.
Fig. 8 Example for Calling for attention. Rights to the use are with the authors
Fig. 7 Example for Calling for attention. Rights to the use are with the authors
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 17 of 25
Furthermore, something is shown, which cannot show itself as a concrete thing, for ex-
ample the mole, an abstract unit in a scientific system of symbols. At the same time,
this abstraction is explicated on a concrete life-world example (here: walnuts or a pack
of 12 eggs), marking a decisive moment (not only) for science classes. Showing and
pointing serve as a mediatorof the phenomenological difference (Brinkmann 2009)
between concrete life-world knowledge and abstract scientific knowledge. At the same
time, showing renders plausible how one thing adds to another a core element of
teaching in schools (Fig. 13)
Fig. 9 Example for Socratic showing. Rights to the use are with the authors
Fig. 10 Example for Socratic showing. Rights to the use are with the authors
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 18 of 25
Conclusions
The phenomenological approach is not a reconstructive but a productive approach. In
order to establish new pedagogical theories, researchers can question and re-formulate
existing theories on an empirical base and re-frame and re-adjust discourse on peda-
gogical phenomena (in our case: attentiveness and showing in educational settings).
The approach suggested in this paper combines phenomenological theories of learning
as pedagogical experience (Brinkmann 2011) with theories of showing (Prange 2005)
form educational research to develop a theory of pedagogical interattentionality. Peda-
gogical situations are rendered as situations of shared attentiveness, in which compre-
hension and incomprehension occur (Brinkmann 2016b). In this exemplary study, we
Fig. 12 Example for Pointing at something. Rights to the use are with the authors
Fig. 11 Example for Pointing at something. Rights to the use are with the authors
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 19 of 25
also pointed out different types of showing and pointing related to (inter)attentionality.
The developmental context of these types a language critical, lived-body centered
and situation based research practice not only entails that they are described in the-
oretically elaborated descriptions but that they are turned into symbols which can be
used in the video analysis software Feldpartitur for upcoming research projects. These
new symbols are designed in a way that makes them applicable for various research
contexts, beyond classroom centered research as presented above. Further findings of
the research project encompass a precise and qualitatively rich description of the role
of things and materials in classrooms or more generally: of the role materiality plays in
processes of learning (Wilde 2015). These individual investigations are related to learn-
ing and teaching in the classroom and therefore have to include the specificity of class-
room situations. At the same time, they can contribute to more general reflections on
the structure of classroom interaction. In our current research, teaching in the class-
room is presented as an interattentional event determined by mutual pretence
teachers pretend to not know in order to pose questions and students feign interest in
these questions and commitment to the subject matter (Brinkmann 2017). Teaching
furthermore follows a specific logic, aiming at transforming life-world knowledge into
scientific knowledge. Teaching thus has a specific character of artificiality. Similar to
the fracture lines of incomprehension in teaching and learning, this order of artificiality
is also questioned and interrupted by teachers and students at times. The logic of
teaching is temporarily undermined by these interruptions but remains stable all the
same and is confirmed by teachers as well as students.
Phenomenological and videographic perspectives on experiences in learning and
teaching not only offer precise analyzes of phenomena, they also provide valuable stim-
uli for forms of teaching and learning and didactic conceptualization (Brinkmann
2014b) in connection with a theory of interattentional teaching in classrooms.
Endnotes
1
Experience is seen as an ambiguous phenomenon between making-an-experience
(process) and having-an-experience (product) (Brinkmann 2011; Waldenfels 2002).
Phenomenological reflection aims at exploring the productivity of
making-an-experience, capturing experience as a process. Theories of embodiment
(Merleau-Ponty 1965) and of intentionality (Hua XI, p. 165) lead to an understanding
of experiences as pathic events, i.e. an event in which we undergo something coming
Fig. 13 Showing life-world relations for the chemical unit mole. The description in the projection reads 1
dozen eggs 12 eggsand 1 mole of salt - ? salt. Rights to the use are with the authors
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 20 of 25
from the world around us (Waldenfels calls this pathos, 2011 p. 27; 2007). In peda-
gogical perspective, Dewey has marked the pathic or disturbing character of experi-
ences as the point, where learning and inquiry begin (Dewey 2008). We would like to
thank Sophia Zedlitz for her help in translating this text.
2
Phenomenological description as an experience-based and experience-related ac-
count aims at grasping processes of experience through description and variation of
various modes of perception. Temporal, corporal, emotional modes and modes of inter-
action can thus be described in their co-occurrence, without introducing a hierarchy.
3
In his work Being and Time, Heidegger differentiates between things ready-to-hand
and things un-ready-to-hand. Things are ready-to-hand, if they show themselves and
can be inferred from their practical use (Heidegger 1962, p. 103). In their self-evident
use, they remain unquestioned. In the experiences of things un-ready-to-hand, this
self-evidence is challenged (ibid. p. 104) and things show themselves as conspicuous, intru-
sive and defiant. Only then can the meaning of being (Sinn von Sein) be questioned (ibid.
p.103).
4
Widerfahrnis or pathos is the passive and painful experience of a non-identical self
(Waldenfels 1998). In pathos, something alien(Waldenfels 2011) intrudes the own
horizon or frame o reference and demands a response of the person who is experien-
cing (Meyer-Drawe 2011, p. 199; Waldenfels 2009, p. 31, also Waldenfels 2008, p. 96).
Pathos causes a rupture of the previous structure of experience. On this basis, new and
formative experiences can occur.
5
Life-world, experience and (inter-)corporality are central terms of the late Husserlian
phenomenology (cf. Hua VI). Life-world means the world we live in, not only the
objective-material environmentthat is given, but also the shared world of our collected
experiences, interpretations and assumptions about the world. Life-world is the world we
always presuppose in unwavering certainty that world is real(Lippitz 1992,p.300).
Inter-corporality is a term from a phenomenology of the lived body (see sect.
Externalization, Embodiment, Responsive Event). It designates the sphere between em-
bodied subjects, in which a responsive event can occur between the own and the other.
6
Husserl accentuates the difference between that which is experienced with and through
the lived body and its subsequent linguistic fixation (Husserl 1995, p. 77). Merleau-Ponty
(1968) points out that the retrospective articulation of an experience is not simply an
exact representation of this very experience. The linguistic fixation rather tries to articu-
late something which escapes the fixation. Interpreting a pre-verbal, silentmeaning of
experience (ibid.) is therefore a practiceofsignification.Theposteriorityofthe
description of experience has become subject to an intensive reflection in phe-
nomenology, ethnomethodology and ethnography (see sect. Reduction and
Variat ion).
7
In qualitative social research, mearning is often regarded as latent meaning of impli-
cit structures (as in objective hermeneutics, see Wernet 2009), of an implicit habitus
(Bourdieu 1990), a practice(Schatzki et al. 2001; Schatzki 2017, Kemmis et al. 2017)
or an implicit horizon of meanig (Gadamer 2013; Buck 1981). Meaning is thus some-
thing which represents itself in empirical data. It is only in the reconstruction of latent
meaning through knowing and apprehending researchers that meaning can be articu-
lated. The self-Authorization of the interpreter legitimizes the reconstruction of a latent
world of meaning as a representation of the subconscious and unexpressed.
Rödel and Brinkmann Video Journal of Education and Pedagogy (2018) 3:10 Page 21 of 25
8
Central points of reference for this argument are theories of non-proportionality of
images, the fundamental pictorality of experience, presence (Gumbrecht 2012, pp. 240
260) and materiality (Mersch 2011) tracing back to Husserl and Heidegger.
9
In the context of research project SZeNe at Berlin and Freiburg, we observed differ-
ent classes (German, English, Chemistry) in primary, comprehensive and secondary,
from year 6 to 9. We followed lessons and student groups for over a year and created
46 field notes and phenomenological descriptions. We took 16 videos in 8 different
classes and subsequently interviewed teachers. For the results of this study see sect.
Results and Discussion.4, the exemplary description in sect. Phenomenological Video
Analysis: Showing, Response, Interattentionalityand the works of Brinkmann 2014b,
2015,2016c; Rödel 2015; Wilde 2015.
10
Figures 1,2,3,4and 7,8,9,10,11,12,13 result from video analytic research at the
Department for Philosophy of Education at Humboldt-University Berlin. Rights to the
use of the images are with the authors. Figures 5and 6result from work with the pro-
gram Feldpartitur (http://www.feldpartitur.de/en/). The symbols of different gestures of
showing in Fig. 6were developed by the Feldpartitur-team following a suggestion of
the research team at the Department Humboldt-University (https://www.erziehungs-
wissenschaften.hu-berlin.de/en/allgemeine-en).
11
Bezemer and Mavers (2011) point out, that the multimodality video data requires a
specific kind of transcription, taking the different spheres of social (or pedagogical)
interaction into account: language and the spoken word, movement, mimics, gestures,
materiality and spaciality of surroundings. A video software should be able to depict
these multimodal levels and also allow users to switch between different perspectives in
the process of analysis. For our project, we chose the Software Feldpartitur as it covers
all these features and was readily available to our research team. Other software offer-
ing similar opportunities would be Studiocode and Videograph.
Funding
The research described in this paper and the paper itself have not been supported by any kind of funding.
Availability of data and materials
The complete video data this paper refers to cannot be shared publicly (German data protection regulations).
However, single sequences can be shared through safe sharing platforms upon request (or if the journal provides safe
data sharing).
Authorscontributions
Malte Brinkman and Severin Sales Rödel contributed equally to the research presented in this paper, to the analysis of
the results and to the writing of the manuscript.
Competing interests
This article has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere.
PublishersNote
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Received: 4 May 2018 Accepted: 6 August 2018
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... För att få tillgång till lärarnas förkroppsligade spontana berättande med exempelvis gester, hållning och ansiktsuttryck vid sidan av det verbala språket valdes deltagande observation och ljud-såväl som audiovisuella inspelningar som materialinsamlingsmetoder (Derry, 2007;Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018). Den videosekvens som är föremål för analys i föreliggande studie valdes ur ett större material med videoinspelningar av lärare som berättar. ...
... Rytmisk gest används för att markera, stryka under vissa ord eller händelser. I undervisning är pekande gester vanligt (Roth, 2001;Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018) då eleverna ska göras uppmärksamma på föremål och företeelser såväl i den faktiska verkligheten som på kartor och andra illustrationer och även mot gestaltade föremål och händelser i berättelsens värld. ...
... Videoinspelningen gav möjligheter att identifiera och belysa innebörder i de gester och de ansiktsuttryck som lyssnaren vanligtvis registrerar och tolkar som en immanent del av muntligt berättande (Young, 2011). Videoinspelningen gav också möjlighet att spela upp situationen upprepade gånger och i olika hastighet för att undvika misstolkningar och oklarheter (Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018). ...
Article
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Syftet med studien är att beskriva en lärares spontana berättande och vilka didaktiska innebörder det kan ha. Spontant berättande beskrivs här som en improviserad didaktisk handling med begreppet pedagogisk takt-en lärares kvicka bedömning och spontana handlande, grundat på erfarenhet såväl som känsla, vid oförutsedda händelser i mötet med elever. Ur ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv med fokus på den levda kroppens betydelse analyseras en video-inspelning där en lärare berättar i helklass. I enlighet med kriterier för urval, tidigare analyser av muntligt berättande och för att vara följsam mot fenomenet i tid och rum valdes en lärares berättande ut för djupanalys. I den två minuter långa videosekvensen berättar en lärare, spontant, en anekdot för elever i årskurs sex inom ramen för ämnet teknik. Resultatet visar att lärarens berättande som endast inledningsvis relaterar till ämnet för undervisningen samtidigt har generella didaktiska innebörder då det visar sig som: återhållen undervisning, lyhördhetens oförutsägbarhet och en undervisningens risk.
... Pedagogical-Phenomenological Video Analysis (PPVA) as a research method is a rather recent development of a group of educational researchers based in Berlin. The method was mainly developed by Brinkmann and the author (Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018). However, the steps presented here feature some modifications as compared to the extensive paper, which mainly stem from practical experience with applying PPVA (Rödel, 2018). ...
... The constitution of meaning in social settings thus plays between the sphere of subjective meaning(s) and their social dimension, as they are embedded in situations. As subjective experiences are not visible to the outside observer, PPVA places its focus on the lived body as an expressive medium of embodied experience (Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018 and the 'further readings' section). ...
... The term "responsiveness" (Antwortgeschehen) stems from Waldenfels' phenomenological theory of the alien and foreign, suggesting that we meet the other always in a responsive attitude, which means we respond to his or her claims in an embodied, pre-predicative way (Friesen, 2014). The third operationalization for pedagogical contexts is showing or pointing, which is directed at attentiveness (Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018). This operationalization covers the sphere of education and teaching. ...
... Med språket strukturerar vi bara en liten del av det vi, i all dess komplexitet, redan upplevt, förstått och känt med våra sinnen. Sådana aspekter kan synliggöras genom videoobservation (Rödel & Brinkmann, 2018). Vid videoobservationer skapas en stor mängd empiriskt material men genom att studera händelsebaserade anekdoter -"small-stories" eller "event-narratives" -kunde empirin begränsas till tydligt avgränsade enheter vid analys och tolkning. ...
Thesis
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Storytelling is deeply interwoven with the act of teaching and learning. Teachers tell stories and anecdotes within their everyday teaching practice. Previous research on teachers’ storytelling in the interdisciplinary field of educational science has focused mainly on language development, literacy, and students’ learning from social, historical and psychological perspectives. In this thesis, the main interest is in the teachers’ perspective and their lived experience of telling stories in teaching situations. The overall aim of this thesis is to describe the pedagogical implications of teachers’ oral storytelling. Storytelling is contextualized within the framework of teaching - which in turn is understood and discussed within the continental European tradition of didaktik. From this tradition, the concept pedagogical tact is used to illuminate teachers’ storytelling at the intersection of theory and practice. The empirical data is derived from interviews and video observations. The interviews are contextualized and exemplified through both a Swedish and an Indian context. The analysis of the interviews and observations is based on a phenomenological analysis of storytelling which implies a perspective that sees storytelling as embodied. Four studies were carried out and the findings are presented in four papers. Overall, the results show that teachers’ storytelling is an everyday phenomenon, both spontaneous and prepared, closely intertwined with their relationship to their students and the content. Since teachers’ experiences of storytelling appear from the data to be spontaneous and reciprocal, such as listening to the listeners, it is suggested here that the pedagogical actions of the teachers can be described as a pedagogical tact – a tact of telling. Another important result which appears in this thesis is the importance of taking the lived body into account in teachers’ storytelling, and this aspect constitutes a contribution to research on teachers’ storytelling. Thus, the teachers’ experience of and knowledge about storytelling and didaktik are crucial for how their students experience the content. Storytelling as teaching is not completely possible to predict and consequently impossible to fully measure and control. With today’s increased demands for students’ performance to be measurable, teaching that does not lead to measurable results can therefore be seen as carrying a risk of failure. From a continental European didaktik perspective, teachers’ storytelling is, on the contrary, seen as important and as an opportunity - a way of teaching that enables students and teachers to create meanings in relation to content.
Chapter
Embodied learning is a theoretical framework for educators that is based on different fields, theories, and models that support the embodied mind in education. Based on the literature, the framework presents three hypotheses: 1) perceptual inference is at the core of education; 2) ‘surprise’ is critical in learning; 3) pedagogies can be divided into maximizing evidence from observations and prior knowledge. The paper presents work in human-computer interaction and teaching practice to test and exemplify how the framework can capitalize on the simplicity of predictive processing to exploit meaning from sounds, smells, and textures.
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Ich möchte im Folgenden einige Aspekte des Zusammenhangs von Gefühl und Bildung am Beispiel der Scham herausarbeiten. Dabei soll gezeigt werden, dass erstens Gefühle eine eigene Rationalität bzw. Vernünftigkeit haben. Der Gegensatz von Vernunft und Gefühl, wie ihn unsere europäische Tradition sieht, ist falsch. Vielmehr haben Gefühle eine lebensweltliche Orientierungsfunktion und eine soziale und moralische Bewertungs- und Erschließungsfunktion. Schließlich haben sie drittens eine Bildungsfunktion. Die Vernunft des Gefühls ermöglicht eine Bildung durch Gefühle, weil Bildungserfahrungen immer emotional strukturiert sind und Emotionen in ihrer antizipatorischen Struktur den Anfang möglicher Bildungserfahrungen bilden. Die eigensinnige Vernunft des Gefühls ermöglicht darüber hinaus eine Bildung der Gefühle insofern, als dass Gefühle eine besondere Stellung in der Lernerfahrung haben. Am Beispiel der Scham bzw. des Schamgefühls möchte ich zeigen, dass Emotion als Beginn eines reflexiven Bildungsprozesses gesehen werden kann: ein Anfang, in dem das Selbst- und Weltverhältnis auf eine besondere Art und Weise in Stimmung und Resonanz versetzt und eine Transformation bzw. eine Umwendung möglich wird. Die Vernunft des Schamgefühls verbindet sich in der Erfahrung des Lernens zu einer Umwendung der Person, zu einer bildenden Erfahrung. In dieser „bildenden“ Verbindung von Gefühl und Vernunft sind Leiblichkeit, Sozialität und Fremdheit wichtige Dimensionen der Erfahrung.
Chapter
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Dieser Beitrag versucht, die Potentiale aufzuzeigen, die die phänomenologische Betrachtungsweise in der Frühpädagogik einzubringen vermag. Phänomenologische Forschungen in der Frühpädagogik können zu einer theoretisch reflektierten und methodologisch abgesicherten, pädagogischen Bestimmung ihres Gegenstandes beitragen. Im Folgenden werden zunächst aus einer Perspektive der Allgemeinen Erziehungswissenschaft grundlagentheoretische Desiderata der Frühpädagogik wie Anthropologisierung und Essentialisierung „des“ Kindes sowie Finalisierung und Funktionalisierung kindlichen Lernens kritisch erörtert. Danach werden aus phänomenologischer Sicht Erfahrungs-Strukturen und Reflexions-Kategorien systematisch unterschieden und vor dem Hintergrund phänomenologischer, empirischer und theoretischer Studien in Kindheitsforschung und Frühpädagogik veranschaulicht.
Chapter
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This article provides a historical and thematic overview of the most important contributions to phenomenology in German and English-language educational studies. In this context, phenomenology is important both as a theoretical tradition and a research method, in both cases directing attention to the experiential, relational and intersubjective dimensions of pedagogy, teaching and learning. In Germany, phenomenology as a method and as a philosophy has aimed at redefining traditional theories of education and Bildung (personal formation) in terms both empirical and theoretical. In the English-speaking world, phenomenology has been used primarily as a methodological approach to illuminate lived experience particularly in the caring professions including education; it has also occasionally provided possibilities for articulating theories of teaching and learning in close relation with concrete practice.
Chapter
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This chapter provides a historical and thematic overview of the most important contributions to phenomenology in German- and English-language educational studies. In this context, phenomenology is important both as a theoretical tradition and a research method, in both cases directing attention to the experiential, relational, and intersubjective dimensions of pedagogy, teaching, and learning. In Germany, phenomenology as a method and as a philosophy has aimed at redefining traditional theories of education and Bildung (personal formation) in terms both empirical and theoretical. In the English-speaking world, phenomenology has been used primarily as a methodological approach to illuminate lived experience particularly in the caring professions including education; it has also occasionally provided possibilities for articulating theories of teaching and learning in close relation with concrete practice.
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Es gehört zur Tradition von Gesamtdarstellungen pädagogischer Theorierichtungen und von Kompendien über pädagogische bzw. erziehungswissenschaftliche Forschungsmethoden, „die“ phänomenologische Methode als relativ eigenständige innerhalb der geisteswissenschaftlichen, evtl. sogar in enger Nachbarschaft mit empirischen Methoden aufzuführen, seitdem die Pädagogik zu Anfang unseres Jahrhunderts ihren Anteil an der „phänomenologischen Bewegung“ nahm (Spiegelberg 1965).
Chapter
Allgemeine Pädagogik ist das durch neue Forschungsbefunde immer wieder in Frage gestellte und deshalb laufend zu revidierende System der Kategorien (grundlegender Aussagen), die erforderlich sind, um Notwendigkeit, Möglichkeit und Wirklichkeit des für das Lebewesen Mensch charakteristischen Phänomens der Erziehung in allen seinen wesentlichen Aspekten zu beschreiben und in seiner Bedeutung für das menschliche Leben zu verstehen. Darin liegt die konstitutive Aufgabe, sich in ständiger Wechselwirkung mit konkreter Forschung unablässig als systematische Theorie zu konzipieren und sich so in einer Art von „Autopoiesis“ als Wissenschaft von der Erziehung gewissermaßen selbst hervorzubringen. Das ist möglich, weil das Phänomen der Erziehung bei aller Verborgenheit, Vergeblichkeit und Vergänglichkeit und allen Zufällen, denen es ausgesetzt ist, im menschlichen Leben als aufdringliches Faktum und unvermeidliche Funktion gegeben ist (vgl. Sünkel 1995).
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Angesichts verschiedener qualitativ-empirischer Zugriffsweisen auf Unterricht und einer bislang noch ungenügenden wechselseitigen Rezeption ihrer Versuche, den Gegenstand Unterricht zu bestimmen, sollen mit dem vorliegenden Band die Gemeinsamkeiten und Differenzen der Perspektiven herausgestellt werden. Die AutorInnen interpretieren bzw. rekonstruieren dazu dieselbe transkribierte Unterrichtsstunde aus ihrer jeweiligen Forschungsperspektive und theoretisieren sie im Kontext ihrer Forschungserfahrungen. So sollen die Erträge der versammelten Ansätze für die Beantwortung der Frage „Was ist Unterricht?“ hervortreten. Der Inhalt Was ist Unterricht? • Was ist hier Unterricht? • Die systemtheoretische Analyse einer Ordnung des Pädagogischen • Die Perspektive der Ethnomethodologie • Adressierungen des Subjekts und die ‚Sache‘ im Geschichtsunterricht • Kein gemeinsamer Nenner Die Zielgruppen FachwissenschaftlerInnen in den Fachbereichen Erziehungswissenschaft und Bildungswissenschaften • Studierende und Dozierende der Erziehungswissenschaft und Pädagogik an Universitäten und Fachhochschulen Die HerausgeberIn Dr. Thomas Geier ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am ZSB der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg. Zur Zeit vertritt er die Professur für Interkulturelle Pädagogik und Lebenslange Bildung an der PH Karlsruhe. Dr. habil. Marion Pollmanns ist wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Fachbereich Erziehungswissenschaften der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main.
Chapter
This essay considers the contribution that practice theory makes to understand learning . It argues that practice theory does not foster a new conception of learning but instead holds insights into learning traditionally conceptualized as the acquisition of knowledge . Part one considers Lave and Wenger’s idea that learning is coming to participate in practices . I argue that coming to participate in a practice amounts to acquiring the knowledges of different sorts needed to participate in it. As a result, learning qua coming to participate in practices is a version of the traditional conception that highlights practical knowledge and ties contents and processes of knowledge to the organization of social life as practices. Part two explores implications of the ontological centrality of practices for learning and illustrates how practice theory ties the contents and processes of knowledge to practices. After an interlude on the nature of knowledge, the conclusion argues that training à la Wittgenstein underlies the acquisition of knowledge, thus participation in practices , and is itself a form of learning.