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Abstract

Water contamination is one of the major effect on public health in India. Fluoride pollution in water is a main difficult across the world, with health dangers such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. Drinking water sources found in nature as both surface and groundwater are polluted with abundant polluting elements Fluoride. This review paper mainly focused on the effect of polluting elements on resources of water in India considering nearly a century on fluoride contamination in water. It is recommended for purpose of drinking water having lesser concentration then 1.5 mg/L fluoride to avoid additional fluorosis risks. Concerning the various reports that stated increased fluoride level in water resources, it is vital that further studies to be conducted to inspect whether there is a link of humans between fluoride and its effect on central nervous system. The overdose of sodium fluoride is death. There is an urgent need to make people aware about the methods of rainwater harvesting and to get fluoride-free water.
ARC Journal of Forensic Science
Volume 3, Issue 2, 2018, PP 10-15
ISSN 2456-0049
http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2456-0049.0302002
www.arcjournals.org
ARC Journal of Forensic Science Page | 10
Fluoride Contamination of Water in India and its Impact on
Public Health
Mahipal Singh Sankhla1*, Rajeev Kumar2
1Research Scholar, Division of Forensic Science, School of Basic & Applied Sciences, Galgotias University,
Greater Noida, India
2Associate Professor, Division of Forensic Science, School of Basic & Applied Sciences, Galgotias University,
Greater Noida, India
1. INTRODUCTION
Water is essential for all physiological activities
associated with humans, animals, and the plant
kingdom. However, the nature and the quality of
surface and ground water are widely variable
and are determined by the local geological
history, including the rocks and hidden ore
deposits nearby the sites for the assembly of the
water, and other issues, such as the effort of
fundamental elements and contaminants by
lentic and lotic waters and alternative aquifers
[1].
The quality of water is poorly understood due to
the variety in the interactions between water and
soluble minerals, sparingly soluble minerals,
and salts, both natural and anthropogenic [2].
Fluoride (F) come to be toxic once it happens in
drinking water away from the extreme
permissible limit of 1.5 ppm Chronic exposure
to fluoridated ground or drinking water creates a
health problem not only in human beings [3,4]
but also in diverse species of domestic animals
[5,6] in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis. In
recent times, bio-indicators of common
fluorotoxicosis due to fluoridated water [7, 8].
In India, several states are endemic for
hydrofluorosis due to the high F content in
drinking water [9, 10].Various reports present
conflicting data about the availability and
quality of drinking water to the public in the
country [11].Weathering of these fluorine rich
minerals is the most important geogenic source
of fluoride enrichment in water. Anthropogenic
sources also contribute fluoride in the water.
This includes activities such as mining, usage of
pesticides and brick kilns [12]. Excess fluoride
intake leads to dental fluorosis and at even
higher intake could cause skeletal fluorosis.
Hence, various national and international
agencies have set standard permissible limits for
fluoride in drinking water. The permissible limit
set by WHO as well as Bureau of Indian
Standards (BIS) for fluoride in drinking water is
1.5 mg/L [13, 14].
2. WATER CONTAMINATION MAJOR SOURCES
OF FLUORIDE
The sources could be both gelogenic such as the
presence of fluorine-bearing minerals in rocks and
sediments as well as anthropogenic such as use of
Abstract: Water contamination is one of the major effect on public health in India. Fluoride pollution in
water is a main difficult across the world, with health dangers such as dental and skeletal fluorosis.
Drinking water sources found in nature as both surface and groundwater are polluted with abundant
polluting elements Fluoride. This review paper mainly focused on the effect of polluting elements on
resources of water in India considering nearly a century on fluoride contamination in water. It is
recommended for purpose of drinking water having lesser concentration then 1.5 mg/L fluoride to avoid
additional fluorosis risks. Concerning the various reports that stated increased fluoride level in water
resources, it is vital that further studies to be conducted to inspect whether there is a link of humans between
fluoride and its effect on central nervous system. The overdose of sodium fluoride is death. There is an
urgent need to make people aware about the methods of rainwater harvesting and to get fluoride-free water.
Keywords: Water, Fluoride, Pollutions, Drinking, Forensic, Human Health, Effect, etc.
*Corresponding Author: Mahipal Singh Sankhla, Research Scholar, Division of Forensic Science, School of
Basic & Applied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, India, Email: mahipal4n6@gmail.com
Fluoride Contamination of Water in India and its Impact on Public Health
ARC Journal of Forensic Science Page | 11
pesticides and industrial waste. The details of both
of the sources are discussed below [15].
2.1. Anthropogenic
The major anthropogenic sources of fluoride
pollution in water are instinctive use of
phosphate fertilizers [16]. This is very common
in developing countries such as India.
Aluminum melting, glass, phosphate fertilizer,
brick manufacturing and coal-based thermal also
give fluoride into the environment
[17].Irrigation by fluoride-enriched water also
contributes fluoride into groundwater [18]. It is
estimated that up to 0.34 mg/L of fluoride can
be contributed by the use of superphosphate
fertilizers in agricultural land [19]. Areas nearby
brick oven productions also show a higher
concentration of fluoride in groundwater
[20].Clay used in the manufacture of bricks
contains several hundred ppm of fluoride [21].
A research in the Republic of South Africa has
shown that underground mine waters may
contain high fluoride concentration of levels
beyond 3 mg/L [22].
2.2. Mineral Extraction
Mineral process actions can also products
significant fluoride pollution, both from direct
extraction processes (which typically entail size
reduction - greatly increasing the surface area for
mass transfer - and generate effluents) as well as
through leaching from ore and tailings stockpiles
[23].
2.3. Mobilization of Fluoride
The concentration of fluoride in natural water
depends on many factors. This includes
temperature, pH [24], solubility of fluorine-bearing
minerals, anion exchange between hydroxyl and
fluoride ions, water residence time and the
geological formations [25]. The process of
mobilization is still unclear, but the most common
mechanism for fluoride mobilization is
displacement of fluoride ions (F-) by hydroxyl ions
(OH-) [26, 27]. Temperature and residence time
speed up the dissolution of fluorine bearing
minerals present in the rocks [28].
Table1. Range of fluoride in groundwater in different parts of the India
State/Locality/Area/Country
Fluoride range (mg/L)
References
Chandrapur, Maharashtra
0.275.3
[29]
Yavatmal, Maharashtra
0.3013.41
[30]
Karbi Anglong district, Assam
20.6
[31]
Guwahati, Assam
0.186.88
[32]
Rohtas district, Bihar
0.12.5
[33]
Gaya district, Bihar
0.1914.4
[34]
Raigarh district, Chhattisgarh
8.8
[35]
Durg, Chhattisgarh
13.2
[36]
Delhi
0.1016.5
[12]
Delhi
0.024.13
[37]
Roopnagar, Delhi
7.14
[38]
Delhi
15.12
[39]
Ahmadabad, Gujarat
0.560.72
[40]
Mehsana and Banaskantha, Gujarat
16.53
[40]
Sirsa city, Haryana
0.11.9
[41]
Hisar, Haryana
0.0316.6
[42]
Damodar River basin, Jharkhand
0.16
[43]
Gulbarga, Karnataka
2.607.40
[44]
Palghat, Kerala
5.75
[45]
Chandidongri, MP
1.54
[46]
Chhindwara, MP
0.064.74
[47]
Ranga Reddy district, AP
0.54.5
[48]
Anantapur district, AP
5.80
[49]
Imphal, Manipur
0.211.78
[50]
Puri, Orissa
16.4
[51]
Pushkar valley, Rajasthan
0.1913.49
[52]
Nagaur, Rajasthan
0.46.6
[53]
Bhilwara district, Rajasthan
0.213
[54]
Jaisalmer, Rajasthan
0.086.6
[55]
Ajmer, Rajasthan
0.1216.9
[56]
Agra, UP
0.23.2
[57]
Saidabad Tehsil, Mathura, UP
0.12.5
[58]
Bundelkhand, UP
0.014.10
[59]
Kancheepuram, TN
1.213.24
[60]
Fluoride Contamination of Water in India and its Impact on Public Health
ARC Journal of Forensic Science Page | 12
3. FLUORIDE IN WATER & EFFECT ON
HUMAN HEALTH
Fluoride are highly electronegative element has
extraordinary propensity to get concerned by
+Ve charged ions like calcium. Later the effect
of fluoride on mineralized muscles like over
sweat, urine and stool. The strength of fluorosis
is not only dependents on the fluoride
contaminated in water, but also on the fluoride
from other sources, physical activity and dietary
habits [61, 62].
3.1. Dental Fluorosis
Due to excessive fluoride intake, enamel loses
its luster. In its mild form, dental fluorosis is
characterized by white, opaque areas on the
tooth surface and in severe form, it is manifested
as yellowish brown to black stains and severe
pitting of the teeth. This discoloration may be in
the form of spots or horizontal streaks [63].
Generally dental fluorosis depends on the
quantity of fluoride exposure teen age, as
fluoride marks only the emerging teeth while
they are being shaped in the jawbones and are
still below the gums. The major effects of dental
fluorosis may not be specious if the teeth are
previously fully grown prior to the fluoride over
exposure. The fact that an adult displays no
marks of dental fluorosis does not essentially
mean that his or her fluoride taken is below
permissible limit [64].
3.2. Skeletal Fluorosis
Skeletal fluorosis affects children as well as
adults. It does not easily manifest until the
disease attains an advanced stage. Fluoride
mainly gets deposited in the joints of neck,
knee, pelvic and shoulder bones and makes it
difficult to move or walk. The symptoms of
skeletal fluorosis are similar to spondylitis or
arthritis. Early symptoms include sporadic pain,
back stiffness, burning like sensation, pricking
and tingling in the limbs, muscle weakness,
chronic fatigue, abnormal calcium deposits in
bones and ligaments. The advanced stage is
osteoporosis in long bones and bony outgrowths
may occur. Vertebrae may fuse together and
eventually the victim may be crippled. It may
even lead to a rare bone cancer, osteosarcoma
and finally spine, major joints, muscles and
nervous system get damaged [64].
3.3. Other Problems
This characteristic of fluorosis is frequently
overlooked because of the concept prevailing
that fluoride only effects on the bones and teeth
[65]. Further dental fluorosis and skeletal
extreme consumption of fluoride may lead to
muscle fiber collapse, low levels of hemoglobin
and abnormalities in RBCs, extreme thirst,
headache, skin rashes, nervousness, neurological
manifestations, depression, gastrointestinal
problems, urinary tract malfunctioning, nausea,
abdominal pain, tingling in the all body parts
and mainly affected area fingers & toes, reduced
immunity, repeated abortions or still births,
male sterility, etc. It is also responsible for
alterations in the functional mechanisms of
liver, kidney, digestive system, respiratory
system, excretory system, central nervous
system and reproductive system, destruction of
about 60 enzymes. The effects of fluoride in
drinking water on animals are analogous to
those on human beings. The continuous use of
water having high fluoride concentration also
adversely affects the crop growth [64].
4. DISCUSSION
These Review paper studies show that in India
many regions ground water and river water are
contaminated with the high amount of fluoride
pollutants. Their quantities are far above the
permissible levels according to national
guidelines of drinking water and WHO, USEPA
standards. The contamination of water with
fluoride is going to develop a serious health
problem in coming years. In Indian perspective,
highly contamination fluoride in water is
commonly observed in areas with high water
salinity and observed that this highly
concertation fluoride in water is commonly
restricted to rainfall deficient areas. Possibly in
such ranges, low groundwater drain facilitates
discharge of fluoride in groundwater system.
The toxicologist has frequently detected the
fluoride concentration in many water bodies.
Human health is directly affected by the intake
of polluted fluoride water, fish, etc. High
amount fluoride concentration is effect on
produced etrimental chemical & Biological
functional modifications in the development of
human brain. Exposure may originate with
fluoride in the maternal blood transfer from the
placenta to the fetus and continues throughout
childhood from fluoride contaminated drinking
water.
5. CONCLUSION
Several deaths due to high concentration of
fluoride poisoning on human. The cause of
death in the acute & chronic fluoride was taken
in high concentration by water or food and
found poisoning with the fluoride levels in the
Fluoride Contamination of Water in India and its Impact on Public Health
ARC Journal of Forensic Science Page | 13
gastric contents and blood being High
permissible limit by WHO, USEPA
respectively. These fluoride concentrations were
very high and sufficient to cause death in
agreement with the report of the post mortem
examination. The practice of fluoride detection
should be continued to avoid possible
consumption of contaminated eatables. It is
recommended that awareness should be spread
among the people regarding the hazards on
consumption of polluted water and related
eatables.
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[65] Fluoride Pollution of Groundwater, Discussion
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... Additionally, clay castoff in the production of bricks contains high fluoride concentrations. A number of research works concluded that underground water in mines has a high fluoride concentration (Sankhla and Kumar, 2018). Moreover, some fluorinated gases are moved to the stratosphere, and gases eventually get saved on soil over a period of time. ...
... The primary mechanism behind the mobilization of fluoride is unknown, but the most common proposed mechanism is replacing fluoride ions with the hydroxyl ion. Residence time and temperature contribute to enhance the termination rate of fluoride-rich raw materials in rocks (Sankhla and Kumar, 2018). ...
Chapter
The presence of fluoride is the most hazardous ion in drinking water for human kind. Fluorine as a corrosive gas is not stable in its elemental state owing to its high electronegativity and reactivity. Therefore it exists as a fluoride in the environment. Fluoride enters water by two sources: natural and anthropogenic. Natural discharge of fluoride in water occurs from the fluoride-rich minerals in rocks, volcanic eruptions, and marine aerosols. However, anthropogenic discharge of fluoride also takes place in water by activities such as coal combustion, cement manufacture, aluminum smelting, and excess use of fertilizers in crops. Fluoride deposition on teeth and skeletons cause dental fluorosis and skeleton fluorosis and its uptake in very high concentration may also cause death. The allowable concentration of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/L as per World Health Organization guidelines. This chapter contains the knowledge of permissible limits of fluoride, its sources, and the environment risk of fluoride pollutants, removal methods, and future prospects.
... Finally, the level of Fvaried from 0 to 1.3 mg/L (mean: 0.45 mg/L). Aqueous media with Fcarrying minerals caused Fto enter the groundwater in the studied region (Sankhla and Kumar, 2018, Organization, 2017, ISIRI, 2010. ...
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Human activities and climate may have an impact on the water quality of reservoirs. Therefore, the present research aims to use the entropy water quality index assessment technique to analyze the water quality features of the main water supply reservoirs as well as to investigate the effect of water parameters on the water quality of the reservoirs. In this study, the total non-carcinogenic health risks from various exposure paths were estimated for adults and children. The water quality of the major water supply reservoirs in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province was typically poor and unfit for human consumption. Besides, the non-carcinogenic risk was higher in males (0.958–1.497) and children (1.065–1.664) than in females (0.879–1.374) according to health risk assessments. Among the factors under study, magnesium and nitrate had the highest influence on the non-carcinogenic risk. Finally, the sensitivity of each of the parameters affecting the non-carcinogenic risk was assessed using Sobel sensitivity analysis. The results indicated that the nitrate concentration (Cw) and Ingestion Rate (IR) were the most sensitive in the oral state, while Cw and fraction of skin’s surface area (F) were more sensitive in the dermal state.
... Fluoride may affect the consumer in any of the three ways: optimal levels of fluoride in water and beverages will result in caries prevention, suboptimal levels will cause increase in dental caries incidence; whereas high level of flouride can result in fluorosis. Several methods of fluoride delivery are available; either in the form of systemic fluoride or topical fluoride [10][11][12]. Of all available methods, addition of fluoride to public drinking water has been identified the most economical and the safest delivery system. ...
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Background: Fluoride has always been considered as a “double edged sword”. The optimum and judicious use of fluoride has resulted in caries protection whereas injudicious use has resulted in chronic fluoride toxicity, which manifests as dental and skeletal fluoride. Dental fluorosis occurring due to drinking water with high concentration of fluoride is a common public health problem in India. Hence the present study was designed with an aim to estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water source of the people from Bhilai, Chattisgarh. Aim: To estimate fluoride concentration in drinking water source of the people from Bhilai, Chattisgarh. Material and Methods: Eight different samples of ground water was collected from bhiali, Chattisgarh, which is divided into four different areas: kurud (north), Maroda (south), Charoda (east), Nehrunagar (west); all these samples were tested by HI-96759-11 portable photometre and the fluoride concentration was determined. All the data obtained was then further subjected to statistical analysis and a conclusion was inferred regarding the fluoride concentration of drinking water source of the people of Bhilai, Chattisgarh which is essential for an effective fluoride regimen for prevention of dental caries in children. Result: Highest fluoride concentration in Bhilai is found to be 0.52 ± .056 ppm and the lowest being 0.31 ± .148 ppm. So, the fluoride concentration of the ground water in Bhilai is found to be in the range of 0.3-o.6 ppm. Thus, it does not possess any chance to cause dental fluorosis in the people of Bhilai. However, a fluoride supplementation of 0.25mg/day for 3-6yrs children and 0.50mg/day for 6-16yrs children can be done to enhance the prevention of dental caries in the children residing in Bhilai, Chattisgarh.
... The second component, PC2, is attributed to NH 3 -N and F À , with a variance of 13.66. The agricultural runoff, untreated industrial effluents, and domestic and municipal fresh sewage increase the level of fluoride and nitrate in the river water (Khullar 2004;Mandal et al. 2010;Dubey & Ujjania 2013;Sankhla & Kumar 2018). The third component (PC3) comprised only boron (B), with a variance of 11.56. ...
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An attempt has been made to assess the water quality status of the lower stretch of river Ganga flowing through West Bengal for drinking using integrated techniques. For this study, 11 parameters at 10 locations from Beharampur to Diamond Harbour over nine years (2011–2019) were considered. The eastern stretch of Ganga showed a variation of Water Quality Index (WQI) from 55 to 416 and Synthetic Pollution Index (SPI) from 0.59 to 3.68 in nine years. The result was endorsed through a fair correlation between WQI and SPI (r2 > 0.95). The map interpolated through GIS revealed that the entire river stretch in the year 2011, 2012, and 2019 and location near to ocean during the entire period of nine years were severely polluted (WQI > 100 or SPI > 1). Turbidity and boron concentration mainly contribute to the high scores of indices. Further, the origin of these ions was estimated through multivariate statistical techniques. It was affirmed that the origin of boron is mainly attributed to seawater influx, that of fluoride to anthropogenic sources, and other parameters originated through geogenic as well as human activities. Based on the research, a few possible water treatment mechanisms are suggested to render the water fit for drinking. HIGHLIGHTS The study provides a base line assessment of the water quality of river Ganga for drinking.; Water quality was marked as polluted and unfit for drinking.; The seawater influx, geogenic and anthropogenic activities were assessed as the major sources of pollution.; Water treatment technologies were suggested to render the water fit for drinking.; It will be helpful to formulate appropriate management strategies.;
... The most important source of nitrate in groundwater is septic tanks, domestic wastewater, fertilizers and animal dung . Several reports have highlighted the harmful health effects of Fand NO 3 enriched groundwater due to natural and man-made activities in India and China (Adimalla, Li, & Qian, 2019;Ji, Wu, Wang, Elumalai, & Subramani, 2020;Karunanidhi, Aravinthasamy, Subramani, Wu, & Srinivasamoorthy, 2019;Marghade, Malpe, Subba Rao, & Sunitha, 2019a;Singh Sankhla & Kumar, 2018;Yang et al., 2018). Nawale, Malpe, Marghade, and Yenkie (2020), have reported nitrate and fluoride sources (both natural and anthropogenic) in groundwater of central India (Wardha sub-basin). ...
Article
The main objective of the present investigation is to estimate groundwater suitability for sustainable drinking water supply and food production in a semi-urban area of south India with a focus on risk assessment for making healthy society. As urbanization and industrialization make the water unfit for water supply and crop rising in most parts of the world this study is very much significant for the fast growing Edappadi region in the southern part of India. A total of sixty-nine groundwater samples were obtained during May 2019 (summer season) and analyzed for Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH, potassium (K⁺), magnesium (Mg²⁺), sodium (Na⁺), calcium (Ca²⁺), bicarbonate (HCO3-), nitrate (NO3-), sulphate (SO4²⁻), chloride (Cl-), and fluoride (F-). Fluoride and nitrate ranged from 0.38 to 3.23 mg/L and 12 to 136 mg/L with an average of 1.7 mg/L and 62 mg/L, respectively. About 36% of samples occupying 80.74 km² area surpass the allowable limit of fluoride (1.5 mg/L). Similarly, 42% of samples occupying 98.75 km² area surpass the allowable limit of nitrate as per WHO and BIS standards (45 mg/L). Correlation studies point out that groundwater contamination is happening due to manmade activities. The Improved Water Quality Index (IWQI) suggested that about 57% of groundwater samples can be used for drinking utility. The alkalinity of groundwater is within the suitable level for crops but groundwater salinity is high to very high in most of the areas. The Total Hazard Index (THI) showed that 72%, 59%, 33% and 29% and 86%, 77%, 51% and 43% of groundwater samples are within the non-carcinogenic health risk category based on fluoride and nitrate contents, respectively, for infants, children, teens, and adults. This study will help the decision and policymakers such as municipal corporation, pollution control board, public works department, water supply and drainage boards, agricultural and public health departments, etc., to use appropriate groundwater resources for providing safe drinking water supply and food production from crops. The findings of this study can aid in the development of appropriate management strategies by the above government departments for ensuring safe water supply and health protection measures for inhabitants.
... At low concentrations fluoride ions plays an important role in teeth development but excessive level of fluoride ions present in drinking water leads to adverse health effects. The ill effects of the longterm ingestion of fluoride ions via drinking-water are mainly seen on teeth and bones [3] . Dental fluorosis is a defect of tooth enamel caused by excessive fluoride intake. ...
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The present study is carried out to know defluoridation capacity of Tulsi leaves on different water samples containing excessive fluoride ion concentration. The presence of fluoride ion does not affect the taste, appearance and odour of drinking water. It is normally accomplished by adding one of three compounds to the water: sodium fluoride (NaF), fluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium fluorosilicate (Na2SiF6) [1]. Two species of Tulsi plant: Ocimum sanctum (Krishna tulsi) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Rama tulsi) were used in different proportions. Water is an essential part of our life. Consumption of excessive fluoride ions from water can cause adverse health effects. Fluoride ions are present in trace quantities in different water bodies present in nature. The amount of fluoride ion present in the water sample was checked spectrophotometrically using Alizarin redS [2]. World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that level of fluoride from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/L (milligrams per litre) is safe to consume [6]. This method proves that the leaves of tulsi plant are an effective bio-adsorbent to remove excessive fluoride from fluoride rich water [10]. This technique is economically viable, eco-friendly and easy to understand and can be effortlessly used in rural as well as urban areas.
Chapter
Wastewater from different sources, i.e., industrial, agricultural, and domestic sectors always demand cost-effective treatment methods due to the presence of toxic chemicals in the form of heavy metals and dyes particularly. Among the various available options of treatment, adsorption technology proved to be the most effective one to purify the organic and inorganic pollutants from the wastewater. The present chapter highlights different low-cost biomaterials as adsorbents as well as their adsorption phenomenon for noxious pollutants remediation from agricultural waste residues, activated carbon prepared from different types of agricultural waste, green synthesis-based adsorbents, and microbial-based adsorbent derivatives. Recent research initiatives on the part of nanotechnology for binding these biomolecules to nanoparticles (NPs) and applications of the biosynthesized NPs as water purification systems are also discussed with their challenges and prospects. Also, this work intends to bring out the in-depth knowledge of the subject, challenges in the way forward, prosperity and adsorption efficiency of selective biomaterials along with the future perspectives.
Article
The goal of this study was to use statistical methods to create baseline data on uranium and associated physicochemical characteristics in the Bharuch district. The district is 6,527km2 in size and is situated at 21.7051° N, 72.9959° E. Factor analysis is a crucial tool in statistical analytical approaches for obtaining general relationship between measured varaibles. For the study, 144 samples were collected from the Bharuch district of Gujarat during the pre-monsoon (PRMNS) and post-monsoon (POMNS) seasons. A portable multi-parameter water analysis tool was used to test in-situ water quality parameters on-site. In the laboratory, the uranium concentration and the other parameters were examined. Principle component analysis was performed on the data that led to reduction of 18 parameters to 6 during PRMNS and POMNS periods. The eigenvalue-extracted factor generated 86.01 percent and 86.017 percent variation in the PRMNS and POMNS, respectively.
Chapter
India is the largest user of groundwater in the world using an estimated 250 km3 of groundwater per annum. In India, groundwater contributes 62% in agriculture sector. In rural India, 85% and in urban India, 45% of water consumption has been met from groundwater. However, this precious water resource is under increasing pressure due to intensification of human activities along with climate change. In India about 36% of groundwater blocks are semi-critical, critical, or overexploited and the situation is deteriorating rapidly. Not only groundwater depletion is unprecedented, its quality is also deteriorating in an alarming rate throughout India. Therefore, groundwater dependent water supply system is expected to hit adversely in the future. In this context, Geographic Information System (GIS) along with geo-statistics play an important role in depicting the spatio-temporal variation of water level and water quality. In this chapter work done by various researchers on GIS and geostatistics in groundwater is highlighted, which will help the policy makers and managers to implement proper regulations for sustainability of this precious resource in India.
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The work investigates the major solute chemistry of groundwater and fluoride enrichment (Fˉ) in the shallow phreatic aquifer of Odisha. The study also interprets the hydrogeochemical processes of solute acquisition and the genetic behavior of groundwater Fˉ contamination. A total of 1105 groundwater samples collected from across the state from different hydro-geomorphic settings have been analyzed for the major solutes and Fˉ content. Groundwater is alkaline in nature (range of pH: 6.6–8.7; ave.: 7.9) predominated by moderately hard to very hard types. Average cation and anion chemistry stand in the orders of Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3ˉ > Clˉ > SO42ˉ > CO32ˉ respectively. The average mineralization is low (319 mg/L). The primary water types are Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl-HCO3, followed by Na-Cl, Ca-Mg-Cl, and Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3-Cl. Silicate-halite dissolution and reverse ion exchange are the significant processes of solute acquisition.Both the geogenic as well as the anthropogenic sources contribute to the groundwater fluoride contamination, etc. The ratio of Na+/Ca2+ > 1.0 comprises Na-HCO3 (Cl) water types with Fˉ > 1.0 mg/L (range 1.0–3.5 mg/L) where the Fˉ bears geogenic source. Positive relations exist between Fˉ and pH, Na+, TDS, and HCO3ˉ. It also reflects a perfect Na-TDS correlation (0.85). The ratio of Na+/Ca2+
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The levels of heavy metals contaminations in water like, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, Cr, Ni etc. in various water sources as ground, surface, tap water etc. Variety of heavy metals, some of them are potentially toxic and are transferred to the surrounding environment through different pathways. The concentrations determined were more than the maximum admissible and desirable limit when compared with the National and International organizations like WHO (2008), USEPA, EUC, EPA. Water may become contaminated by the accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids through emissions from the rapidly expanding industrial areas, mine tailings, disposal of high metal wastes, leaded gasoline and paints, land application of fertilizers, animal manures, sewage sludge, pesticides, wastewater irrigation, coal, Electronic waste. Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning
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The chemical characteristics of surface, groundwater and mine water of the upper catchment of the Damodar River basin were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, geochemical processes controlling water composition and suitability of water for domestic, industrial and irrigation uses. Water samples from ponds, lakes, rivers, reservoirs and groundwater were collected and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, F, Cl, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Ca, Mg, Na and K. In general, Ca, Na, Mg, HCO3 and Cl dominate, except in samples from mining areas which have higher concentration of SO4. Water chemistry of the area reflects continental weathering, aided by mining and other anthropogenic impacts. Limiting groundwater use for domestic purposes are contents of TDS, F, Cl, SO4, NO3 and TH that exceed the desirable limits in water collected from mining and urban areas. The calculated values of SAR, RSC and %Na indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation. High salinity, %Na, Mg-hazard and RSC values at some sites limit use for agricultural purposes. Keywords Major ion chemistry � Damodar River basin � Water quality � SAR � RSC � Anthropogenic � India
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Fluoride contamination in water is a major problem across the globe, with health hazards such as dental and skeletal fluorosis. Most earlier studies are confined to local or regional scales. As the problem has serious socioeconomic implications, there is a need for a global perspective. Thus, here we review worldwide research for nearly a century on fluoride contamination in water. We investigated the distribution of fluoride contamination in water, its sources, mobilization and association. The major findings are: (1) Anomalous fluoride concentration in groundwater is mainly confined to arid and semiarid regions of Asia and North Africa. (2) The geogenic sources of fluoride in water are mainly fluorine-bearing minerals in rocks and sediments, whereas anthropogenic sources of fluoride in water are mainly pesticides and industrial waste. (3) Fluoride mobilization from geogenic sources is mainly controlled by alkalinity and temperature. (4) Fluoride occurrence in water is associated with ions such as sodium, arsenic chloride and bicarbonate. There are few associations of fluoride in water with calcium and magnesium.
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Susceptibility to fluoride toxicosis in the form of osteo-dental fluorosis was observed among 435 immature herbivorous domestic animals living in areas with less than 1.5 ppm fluoride in the drinking water. These animals included 78 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), 89 cattle (Bos taurus), 30 donkeys (Equus asinus), 21 horses (Equus caballus), 23 camels (Camelus dromedarius), 96 goats (Capra hircus), and 92 sheep (Ovis aries). Except for the bovines and equines, none of the other animals appeared to have dental fluorosis. The highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was found in calves of buffaloes (52.56%), followed by calves of cattle (49.44%), donkeys (16.67%), and horses (14.29%). Thus the teeth of bovines were the most severely affected, and moderate lameness and stiffness in hind legs, wasting of body muscles, and bony exostoses as pathognomic signs of osteal or skeletal fluorosis were also found only in the immature cattle and buffaloes. The prevalence rate of these conditions among these animals was 8.99% and 10.26%, respectively. Other signs of chronic fluoride intoxication including colic, intermittent diarrhoea, and excessive urination were also seen. In the absence of airborne F contamination, the restriction of dental and skeletal fluorosis to the immature bovines and equines appears to be related primarily to their greater need to drink water containing even a low-level F compared to the much smaller need for water intake by the immature camels, goats, and sheep.
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As in other parts of the country ground water constitutes the main source of drinking water in Orissa. But high concentration of fluoride in ground water, though in localised pockets in Orissa State is a matter of great concern. Consumption of excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental decay and physiological deformities. It is observed that 81.3% samples of ground water from shallow aquifers (tapped in dug wells and hand pump fitted tubewells) contain less than 1.0 mg/L, 7.86% are within 1.5 mg/L and 10.83% are above 1.5 mg/L. In some cases high fluoride contents have also been recorded in ground water of deeper aquifers. Studies point to a geological source of fluoride. This paper briefly presents the results of the study in Orissa.
Article
The levels of the anions fluoride (F), bromide, chloride, nitrate, and sulphate were measured in 51 underground water samples, collected from 33 places in West Bengal, India, using the ion-chromatographic method. The F concentrations were within tolerable limits except for the villages of Kapileswar, Haringhata, (1.24 mg/L); Palta, 24 Parganas (North), (1.75 mg/L); Rondia, near Panagarh, (1.61 mg/L); Midnapore (1.38 mg/L); Hijli (1.08 mg/L); and Laxmanpur, Purulia, (1.06 mg/L). The ground water samples of these villages, were found, in general, to be alkaline in nature. The F concentrations appeared to be related to the physiographic and geological nature of the soils. A forensic investigation into the death of a 25-yr-old male from sodium fluoride overdose, resulting in F levels in the gastric contents and blood of 35.05 and 4.341 mg/L, respectively, is also noted.
Article
The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from human activities. Broad interrelationships among these processes and their effects can be discerned by application of principles of chemical thermodynamics. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibirum, including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. The chemical composition of the crustal rocks of the Earth and the composition of the ocean and the atmosphere are significant in evaluating sources of solutes in natural freshwater. The ways in which solutes are taken up or precipitated and the amounts present in solution are influenced by many environmental factors, especially climate, structure and position of rock strata, and biochemical effects associated with life cycles of plants and animals, both microscopic and macroscopic. -from Author