Jeffrey Herbst is Assistant Professor of Politics and International Affairs, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University.
I am grateful to Henry Bienen, Aaron Friedberg, Elizabeth Hart, Dave Rawson, the International Relations Discussion Group at Princeton University, and two anonymous readers for helpful comments.
1. Samuel P. Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968), p. 123; and Charles Tilly, "Reflections on the History of European State-Making," in Charles Tilly, ed., The Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), p. 42. An important recent addition to this literature is Brian M. Downing, "Constitutionalism, Warfare and Political Change in Early Modern Europe," Theory and Society, Vol. 17, No. 1 (January 1988), pp. 7-56. The general literature on warfare's effect on society is voluminous. An early work which concentrates on some of the themes examined here is Hans Delbrück, History of the Art of War within the Framework of Political History, Vol. III, trans. Walter J. Renfroe, Jr. (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982).
2. For instance, in Morris Janowitz's classic study of the military in the developing world, the political, social, and economic functions of the military are studied extensively but the potential effects of war, or of peace, are not analyzed. Morris Janowitz, The Military in the Political Development of New Nations: An Essay in Comparative Analysis (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964), p. 12.
3. The literature is reviewed by Henry Bienen, "Armed Forces and National Modernization: Continuing the Debate," Comparative Politics, Vol. 16, No. 1 (October 1983), pp. 1-16.
4. Gabriel Ardent, "Financial Policy and Economic Infrastructure of Modern States and Nations," in Tilly, The Formation of National States, p. 89.
5. A useful corrective to the conventional view is provided by John A. Hall, "War and the Rise of the West," in Colin Creighton and Martin Shaw, eds., The Sociology of War and Peace (London: Macmillan, 1987).
6. Richard Bean, "War and the Birth of the Nation State," Journal of Economic History, Vol. 33, No. 1 (March 1973), p. 220.
7. Michael Mann, "State and Society, 1130-1815: An Analysis of English State Finances," in Mann, States, War and Capitalism: Studies in Political Sociology (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), p. 109.
8. Michael Mann, The Sources of Social Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 486.
9. Michael Duffy, "The Military Revolution and the State, 1500-1800," in Michael Duffy, ed., The Military Revolution and the State, 1500-1800, Exeter Studies in History No. 1 (Exeter, U.K.: University of Exeter, 1980), p. 5.
10. "Lumpy" goods are products which are not useful if only part is purchased. Margaret Levi, Of Rule and Revenue (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 56-57.
11. Mann, Sources of Social Power, pp. 483-490.
12. Joseph P. Smaldone, Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate: Historical and Sociological Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977), p. 139. The same point is made by Richard L. Roberts in his Warriors, Merchants, and Slaves: The State and the Economy in the Middle Niger Valley, 1700-1914 (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1987), p. 20.
13. Joel S. Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), p. 274.
14. Anthony Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, vol. II of A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), p. 235.
15. Michael Howard, War and the Nation State (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), p. 9. Emphasis in the original.
16. See, for instance, Joseph LaPalombara, "Penetration: A Crisis of Governmental Capacity," in Leonard Binder, et al., Crises and Sequences in Political Development (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971), p. 222.
17. In 1977 Somalia, as part of its irredentist project to create "Greater Somalia," invaded Ethiopia in the hope of annexing the Ogaden; the Ethiopians, with significant help from the Soviet Union and Cuba, defeated Somalia in 1978. David D. Laitin and Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State (Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1987), pp. 140-143. In 1973 Libyan forces invaded Chad by moving forces into the disputed Aozou strip. The Libyan military presence...