Article

Student voice in secondary schools: the possibility for deeper change

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Abstract

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of student voice in secondary school reform. Design/methodology/approach Through a literature review, it defines the concept of student voice within bodies of research on youth participation internationally. Findings It notes the ways the USA is distinct and lagging behind. It then looks at the broadening scope of ways that young people have become involved in change efforts. It considers ways that student voice can deepen implementation efforts and strengthen classroom practice. It breaks this discussion into: outcomes for classroom instruction, organizational change, and the relationship between student voice and power. The paper ends with a discussion of the importance of attending to issues of power in youth–adult relationships, including ways to avoid the co-optation of young people. Originality/value This paper reviews the most recent work showing how student voice can impact change, with a particular focus when possible on urban secondary schools to fit with this special issue. It updates a previous review of the field conducted ten years ago (Mitra, 2006). Before beginning this review, however, it is important to understand how student voice varies across global contexts.

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... While it is interesting and crucial to know how CLIL teachers and learners feel and perceive CLIL instruction in general, taking the participants' voices into account when creating didactic materials and tools, e.g., in the context of an intervention-, a DBR-, or an action research study, is assumed to be a key element for the success of the design (Dijkstra et al., 2017;Filice, 2021;Lo & Jeong, 2018;McKenney & Reeves, 2012). In contrast to a descriptive treatment of attitudes, perceptions, or beliefs, the concept of voice entails agency, i.e., giving the participants active roles in educational research and reform (see Cook-Sather, 2006Groundwater-Smith & Mockler, 2016;Mitra, 2018;Skinnari, 2020). ...
... So far, there have been just a few CLIL studies not only considering learners as data source but involving them from the start, as for example Banegas (2013), Coyle (2013), or Gupta (2020). In contrast, in the Anglo-American (non-CLIL) context, the concept of student voice and its role for improving local school experiences and educational policies on the basis of participatory research has received considerable attention (Cook-Sather, 2006Flutter & Rudduck, 2004;Mitra, 2018). In the context of CLIL, Coyle (2013) argues that learners are indeed capable of contributing to the improvement of their own education while also shedding more light on their learning processes and thus calls for involving students more actively in research, regarding them as "competent social actors" (p. ...
... While learners might not have been able to provide detailed and targeted input prior to the intervention, their contributions were crucial for the success of the design. Listening to the learners' voices turned out to be a central element in the fine-tuning process of the design, improving the materials, as has been suggested by Döring (2020), Coyle (2013), or Filice (2021 in the context of CLIL (see also Cook-Sather, 2006Flutter & Rudduck, 2004;Groundwater-Smith & Mockler, 2016;Mitra, 2018). Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that listening to the students and developing materials accordingly did not only result in more positive learner attitudes towards the materials but also in perceived learning benefits and, potentially, actual learning gains, at least as measured by the written tasks used in this study. ...
Thesis
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Being an educational approach that was primarily introduced to innovate language instruction, it is not surprising that Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has mostly been researched from the perspective of applied linguistics. Concerns relating to subject learning, in contrast, have only recently started to gain attention. With subject learning taking on a greater role in CLIL research, the content-and-language-integrative nature of this educational approach has become one of the central themes in the field. Conceptually, several propositions have been made concerning the integration of content and language learning, many of which aligning with systemic functional linguistics and/ or sociocultural theory. While these theoretical approaches have yielded interesting insights into the integration of subject and language learning, they do not translate into classroom practice easily. One notion allowing conceptual integration while appearing to be tangible for practitioners is the construct of cognitive discourse functions (CDFs; Dalton-Puffer, 2013). Being both anchored in linguistics and education, CDFs are assumed to be the generic linguistic manifestation of cognitive processes essential to learning and teaching. In the field of history education, too, CDFs have been shown to be tightly linked to history skills, both conceptually and empirically. Thus far, however, this construct has not been operationalized for pedagogical use, and generally more research is needed concerning the nexus of content-and-language-integrative learning, pedagogical practice, and didactic materials, also considering that CLIL teachers urgently lack integrative material as well as conceptual understanding in this respect. To address this gap, this PhD project is set in a framework of design-based research (DBR), which has been heralded as a transdisciplinary methodological approach able to reconcile theory- and practice-related concerns by being dual-focused. As such, this thesis aims to (1) further illuminate the theoretical underpinnings of the integration of content and language learning and (2) to develop practice-oriented tools and materials for upper secondary CLIL history education. With these aims in mind, I closely collaborated with teachers in order to systematically develop CDF-based history materials. First, the needs of participants were determined using individual interviews with teachers, focus group interviews with students, and written competency-based task for the learners, which informed the intervention we designed. Then, the teacher implemented these materials in their own class. Finally, the process and the products were evaluated from the learners’ and the teacher’s perspective as well as via written learner tasks once again. Based on these findings, our approach and the materials were advanced and fine-tuned over three such research cycles in two contexts. The findings of this study have shown that CDFs present an ecologically valid and effective approach to integrate content and language learning in upper secondary CLIL history education. Yet, for these materials to be accepted and to take effect, several conditions need to be met: First of all, competency-based tasks need to be engaging, interactive, and scaffolded in small steps, and the links between the linguistic support and the subject discipline need to be made explicit. Moreover, such scaffolding should not only consider linguistic forms and functions but also vi subject-specific concepts and notions important in the discipline. Additionally, in the course of the project, the importance of differentiated instruction crystallized. These aspects were crucial for the participants’ acceptance of the new approach, which also seemed to be reflected in the learners’ performance. Initially, both groups involved in the main study struggled with demonstrating subject-specific skills in English in various domains, such as appropriately justifying claims, signalling communicative intentions, or linking ideas. In the case of group A, who received two treatments, ratings improved significantly both in terms of academic language skills and history competences, with the bigger leap in performance in their second round. In contrast, the scores in group B, who received one treatment, increased only moderately (but statistically significantly) in the linguistic domain, while content results remained steady. Finally, this thesis has also demonstrated that the CDF construct is a useful and manageable tool for research. Yet, to ensure reliable coding, further specifications for different subjects may be needed, which this thesis intends to provide for the subject history.
... Most studies applied a human rights framework, derived from the participation rights anchored in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989, hereinafter UNCRC; e.g., Perry-Hazan, 2021a; Leung et al., 2016;Wyness, 2009). Some studies also used student-voice models, primarily prevalent in the US, a country that has not ratified the UNCRC (e.g., Fielding, 2004;Gonzalez et al., 2017;Mitra, 2018), and in Australia (e.g., Mayes, 2020;Quinn & Owen, 2016). When student participation is analysed based on the terminology of the UNCRC, rights-based practices are typically described as those supported by government mandate, whereas the concept of student voice often denotes practices that have emerged from the bottom up (see Mitra et al., 2014). ...
... 4 (Thomson & Holdsworth, 2003;Walsh et al., 2019) or on the other concepts used to analyse student participation (Cook-Sather, 2018;Gonzalez et al., 2017). Conceptual vagueness also characterises the broader research field of children's participation in decision making, which has become a "container" concept (Herbots & Put, 2015, p. 166), offering no tools to systematically compare participatory practices anchored in different contexts and to determine to what extent participation goals are achieved (see Mager & Nowak, 2012;Mitra, 2018). ...
... Empirical research on the impact of student participation has focused on specific case studies that measured students' personal outcomes (e.g., Mitra, 2004). Large-scale quantitative studies that include school outcomes and apply valid and reliable measures are lacking (see Mager & Nowak, 2012;Mitra, 2018). ...
Article
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The study of student participation in decision making has been characterised by conceptual vagueness and an absence of empirical tools to compare participatory practices in various contexts and to determine when they achieve their goals. This study presents an integrative theoretical model grounded in the organisational literature on participative decision making (PDM) – particularly on teacher participative decision making – as well as in the children’s participation literature. The model focuses on decisions having collective implications made by a group of students or a group of students and adults. It views student participative decision making as a multidimensional structure that emerges within a context. Specifically, the model suggests that the rationales behind promoting student participative decision making (pragmatic, moral, or developmental/pedagogical) will determine its dimensions, which, in turn, will affect student, teacher and school outcomes. It posits that the school organisational culture will shape the patterns of these relationships. The model answers repeated calls in the children’s participation literature for frameworks that are more attentive to diverse cultural environments. It provides an empirical foundation for comparative studies to explore how student participative decision making is interpreted, perceived and implemented in different organisational cultures.
... [39] (p. 80) Structure the organization to facilitate collaboration. While it is clearly important for school leaders to create structures that encourage collaboration, the types of structures described by the studies included in the review did not seem unique. ...
... [45] (p. 436) Two other studies in the review [79,80] also provided evidence about the value of providing both formal and informal opportunities for students who feel marginalized by their school, to share their opinions about how well the school is or is not serving their needs, and what might be done to improve the contribution the school is making to their development. These actions contribute to trusting relationships between students and staff, provide the school with a uniquely valuable perspective on the value of teaching and learning for underserved students in the school, and produce useful evidence about progress toward achieving the school's equity goals. ...
... These actions contribute to trusting relationships between students and staff, provide the school with a uniquely valuable perspective on the value of teaching and learning for underserved students in the school, and produce useful evidence about progress toward achieving the school's equity goals. As Mitra [80] explains: Student voice activities can create meaningful experiences for youth that help to meet fundamental developmental needs especially for students who otherwise do not find meaning in their school experiences. Specifically, this research finds a marked consistency in the growth of agency, belonging and competence, three assets that are central to youth development. ...
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This paper reviews the results of 63 empirical studies and reviews of research in order to identify those school leadership practices and dispositions likely to help improve equitable school conditions and outcomes for diverse and traditionally underserved students. Guided by a well-developed framework of successful school leadership, results indicate that most of the practices and dispositions in the framework can be enacted in ways that contribute to more equitable conditions and outcomes for students. A handful of these practices and dispositions appear to make an especially significant contribution to the development of more equitable schools as well as several additional practices and dispositions associated with equitable leadership merit mastery by equitably-oriented leaders. Among the especially significant practices are building productive partnerships among parents, schools, and the larger community as well as encouraging teachers to engage in forms of instruction with all students that are both ambitious and culturally responsive. Leaders are likely to be more effective when they adopt a critical perspective on the policies, practices, and procedures in their schools and develop a deep understanding of the cultures, norms, values, and expectations of the students’ families. The paper concludes with implications for practice and future research.
... Student voice work concerns the ways in which youth can participate in learning decisions that will shape their own lives and that of their peers (Fielding, 2001;Levin, 2000). Student voice has been nominated as a component of youth positive development (Perkins & Borden, 2006), to the extent that it helps students be more engaged and see themselves as knowledge creators (Mitra, 2018), improves classroom practice and academic performance (Conner & Slattery, 2014), and helps educators understand students' specific perspectives on learning issues (Mitra, 2018). Therefore, including student voice in decision-making concerning what and how to learn is increasingly recognized as important (Mitra, 2006(Mitra, , 2018. ...
... Student voice work concerns the ways in which youth can participate in learning decisions that will shape their own lives and that of their peers (Fielding, 2001;Levin, 2000). Student voice has been nominated as a component of youth positive development (Perkins & Borden, 2006), to the extent that it helps students be more engaged and see themselves as knowledge creators (Mitra, 2018), improves classroom practice and academic performance (Conner & Slattery, 2014), and helps educators understand students' specific perspectives on learning issues (Mitra, 2018). Therefore, including student voice in decision-making concerning what and how to learn is increasingly recognized as important (Mitra, 2006(Mitra, , 2018. ...
... Student voice has been nominated as a component of youth positive development (Perkins & Borden, 2006), to the extent that it helps students be more engaged and see themselves as knowledge creators (Mitra, 2018), improves classroom practice and academic performance (Conner & Slattery, 2014), and helps educators understand students' specific perspectives on learning issues (Mitra, 2018). Therefore, including student voice in decision-making concerning what and how to learn is increasingly recognized as important (Mitra, 2006(Mitra, , 2018. ...
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The recognized importance of including student voice in learning has grown. Youth leadership, which empowers young people to choose the learning topics that they are passionate about, may provide a context for exploring complex issues that demand interdisciplinary solutions. This study explored the extent to which youth chose to pursue interdisciplinary learning topics and why they chose certain learning topics (i.e., task values: “why do I do this”) when they were supported to lead their own learning. Through a content analysis of the application materials of 800 youth (Mage =16.59) participating in a 10-week self-driven learning program called GripTape, we found that 44% of learners chose interdisciplinary learning topics. Compared to those who chose single-subject topics, youth who chose interdisciplinary learning topics placed significantly greater prosocial value on learning but placed lower intrinsic or interest value. The selection of interdisciplinary learning topics was positively correlated with social science-relevant learning topics; social science-relevant learning topics were positively correlated with prosocial value. The results suggest that when youth voice is empowered in self-driven learning, youth may be willing to explore complex societal issues and pursue interdisciplinary knowledge.
... In order to shed light on student and school leadership, we firstly conceptually unpack the term student voice. Student voice includes a range of activities that extend from the mere quotation of students' views to their increasingly more active participation in consultation and collaboration (Sandoval and Messiou 2020;Mitra 2018), transforming students into co-makers of change, through their active involvement in the decisionmaking process, and thus school leadership. The range of students' participation has often been recorded in the literature through various typologies. ...
... In her own typology, Mitra (2018) refers to the pyramid of student voice which consists of three levels. At the low level, Mitra places listening as adults simply seek to quote students' views, which they attempt to interpret on their own. ...
... In conclusion, the findings of our analysis bear various implications for educational policy-making and research. Above all, however, listening to student voices and empowering them to take action through voluntary initiatives transforms students into 'agents of change' (Sandoval and Messiou 2020), and helps re-establish the hierarchical power relationships between adults and young people in schools, as teachers and students refrain from the formal dimensions defining their institutionalised roles (Mitra 2018). ...
Article
This article focuses on the importance of highlighting students’ role as informal leaders and their efforts to take on active roles in decision-making processes. Students’ involvement in such roles entails an imperative process for the development of school inclusion. Contemporary literature has repeatedly focused on the multiple roles student voices play in, and the ways they impact on, the processes of school change and improvement. However, the ways in which students themselves interpret their roles as informal leaders, through the initiatives they take on, have not been explored, especially in environments characterised by cultural pluralism. Our research examines the ways in which thirty-six students from four Greek secondary schools with a highly-diverse cultural profile undertake deliberate acts to develop into equal co-producers of a new pedagogical decision-making agenda reinforcing inclusion. The results of our research bear multiple implications for both the levels of educational policy and school practices.
... Capturing the need to promote the growth of students' agency, belonging and competence as three key assets to one's development, the concept of student voice positions students as active and essential agents who provide unique and valuable perspectives (Lac and Mansfield 2018); offering a glance into the different ways that students can be involved in educational settings. The idea upholds a range of ways that include students in shaping the education craft, from promoting basic initiatives that allow students to (a) share their basic opinions or being heard to (b) collaborating with educational leaders, and (c) to building their capacity for leadership (Mitra 2018). ...
... We argue that students' positioning within assessment needs to go beyond basic opportunities to share their views about the weighting of marks at the beginning of the semester. Such a process should allow for meaningful collaboration in the design of assessment instruments and the assessment process (Kilgour et al. 2020;Mitra 2018;Zhao, Zhou, and Dawson 2021), positioning students as active agents in the assessment process, allowing opportunities for self-regulation, self-efficacy and active learning (Zhao, Zhou, and Dawson 2021;Boud and Soler 2016). Therefore, this study reveals the tensions that exist as both teachers and students want to have more say and/or control in assessment practices. ...
... While research on academic freedom and/or teacher resistance is limited in contexts such as Indonesia, this study portrays how both students and teachers wish to be actively involved in the assessment process. Opportunities for teacher and student collaborations (Mitra 2018) might provide a space for teachers to be experts and students to have a voice in ways that might push back against institutional norms and traditions, such as exam culture, that neither teachers nor students view as allowing for effective teaching and encouraging student learning in vocational settings. Given that vocational institutions aim to equip individuals who can competently meet labour market demands, vocational students require skills such as problem-solving skills, teamwork, and critical skills which can be invoked through collaborative, process-oriented and authentic assessment practices (Ajjawi et al. 2020;Boud and Soler 2016;Tai et al. 2018). ...
Article
Ensuring teacher effectiveness within higher education contexts continues to shape institutional policy discourse and practice. However, there is limited research exploring how assessment practices correspond with teachers’ and students’ perceptions of teacher effectiveness, particularly in vocational higher education settings. Acknowledging the complexities of assessing vocational competence and the dearth of literature exploring teacher and student views on vocational assessment practices, this study interrogates the perceptions of 13 teachers and 15 students from five Indonesian vocational higher education institutions to better understand what constitutes fair assessment as an aspect of effective teaching. This study examines how teachers and students are positioned within the assessment process and the existing opportunities to make decisions regarding assessment design and processes. It shows (i) discrepancies in teachers’ and students’ perceptions of student positionality within assessment processes; (ii) blurry lines between ideas of ‘assessment contract’ and ‘assessment practice’; and (iii) contested views on student learning processes and attitudes as attributes of vocational competence. The study illuminates the tensions between students’ and teachers’ positionality within assessment practices, highlighting the need for increased student participation while maintaining teachers’ desire to make assessment decisions.
... Debates around the role of schools in preparing students for lifelong learning as well as combating inequity systematically, highlight the importance of an embedded careers and vocational identity approach (Ben-Porath, 2013;Lüftenegger et al., 2012). Additionally, there is growing recognition of the need to embed student voice(s) in designing curriculum and creating inclusive learning environments (McLeod, 2011;Mitra, 2018). By supporting the integration of student voice(s), educational practices not only support students' self-efficacy, confidence, and engagement, but can also better align to the needs and expectations of specific student cohorts (Mitra, 2018). ...
... Additionally, there is growing recognition of the need to embed student voice(s) in designing curriculum and creating inclusive learning environments (McLeod, 2011;Mitra, 2018). By supporting the integration of student voice(s), educational practices not only support students' self-efficacy, confidence, and engagement, but can also better align to the needs and expectations of specific student cohorts (Mitra, 2018). Without this direct consultation and input, there remains a risk that policy development-however well-intentioned or well-informed-is paternalistic, inappropriate and/or misdirected. ...
Article
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The vocational experiences and skills of young adolescents could be infused into formal education by identifying career competencies to be taught within the academic curriculum. Such curriculum practices that embed educational and career pathways must also include the perspectives of students and the community, particularly those from marginalised groups. Drawing on data from 111 teachers, principals, carers and students, this paper presents research undertaken to co-design career education lesson plans within an infused model of the curriculum for early Middle Year students from regional, rural, and remote Australia. The lesson plans and activities were designed to allow for meaningful self-reflection and goal-setting that could be seamlessly infused into the formal curriculum and help embed early-stage career education. The paper concludes by projecting opportunities and challenges for seamless curriculum integration, while pertinent to the Australian context, can also be read with broader relevance to other educational systems and schools.
... In this paper we refer to three reviews which provided important insight into the complexity of the research and discussion surrounding student participation. The first is the literature review of Mitra (2018) looking at the role of student voice in school reforms in high schools and how student voice can impact change. She placed a special focus on power relations between youth and adults. ...
... Power dynamics and change are also very prominent topics in the literature review about the role of student voice by Mitra (2018). She sees a "particular challenge of student voice work due to the re-shi ing of power balances and the inherent counternormative nature of youth-adult partnerships compared to traditional teaching settings" (Mitra, 2018, p. 481). ...
Article
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In current scientific literature a wide variety of definitions and terms are used to describe student participation and student voice. In particular, this article examines how the terms participation, student voice, and their synonyms are used in the current literature to provide a structured overview of how these terms are being used. A systematic literature review led to 325 articles. From this number we selected 126 articles according to the criteria of topic (student participation in school), age group (primary and secondary school) and language (English or German). The results showed that student participation was discussed across five contexts: democratic education, children’s rights, well-being, learning and school practice. After comparing similarities and differences between the five contexts, three characteristics which characterize student participation became apparent: considering others, power dynamics between students and teachers, and change that is inherently connected to participation. These five contexts and three characteristics of student participation serve as a possible structure for the discussion surrounding the varied terms and concepts used regarding student participation.
... Two of the three studies underpinned by youth empowerment theory demonstrated improved outcomes for PA (Aceves-Martins et al., 2017;Foley et al., 2017). Empowering youth is a relatively new phenomenon (Morton & Montgomery, 2013) and involves providing both leaders and participants with meaningful input into the development and running of interventions through gaining student voice (Mitra, 2018). Diffusion of innovations theory also showed promise for influencing behavior change through peer nomination of leaders to disseminate messages to their peers informally through encouragement, sharing knowledge, and co-participation (Rogers, 1983). ...
... This highlights that one size does not fit all when considering appropriate activities for mixed-gender schools and the need to implement-specific strategies to engage students (Gibbons & Naylor, 2007). Empowering young people in the design and implementation of interventions and facilitating student voice can be an efficient mechanism for identifying specific activity needs of students (Aceves-Martins et al., 2017;Mitra, 2018). Hulteen et al. (2019) suggested that future research should aim to identify appropriate BCTs to be employed in order to optimize PA behavior change in peer-led interventions. ...
Article
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Background. Low levels of physical activity (PA) in adolescents highlight the necessity for effective intervention. During adolescence, peer relationships can be a fundamental aspect of adopting and maintaining positive health behaviors. Aim. This review aims to determine peer-led strategies that showed promise to improve PA levels of adolescents. It will also identify patterns across these interventions, including training provided and the behavior change techniques (BCTs) employed. Method. Adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Scopus were searched using key concepts of peer, PA and adolescent for articles that examined interventions that had a peer-led component and reported on at least one PA outcome in 12- to 19-year-olds. Following title and abstract screening of 1,509 studies, and full text review stage, 18 progressed to data synthesis. Methodological quality was assessed using an adapted scale. Results. Quality assessment identified 11 studies as high quality. Half of the included studies (n = 9) reported improved PA outcomes in the school setting. The most prominent behavioral change techniques were social support, information about health consequences, and demonstration of the behavior. Older adolescents leading younger peers and younger adolescents leading those of the same age showed potential. Seldom have older adolescents been targeted. Gender-specific interventions showed the most promise. Conclusion. Peer leadership requires careful planning and in the school setting can be a resourceful way of promoting adolescent PA.
... In recent years, student voice has emerged as a promising strategy for engaging students in their education. Mitra (2018) defines student voice as the ways in which students influence or participate in educational decision-making. Student voice practices can include efforts by teachers or principals to seek feedback and ideas from students; partnerships between students and adults to design and implement reforms; or student-led campaigns to create school change. ...
... Research in Chicago Public Schools found that in schools that students rated as responsive to student voice, students had better grades and attendance than did their counterparts in schools rated as less responsive (Kahne et al., 2022). This important study, one of the first to link student voice to academic outcomes, left open the question of how responsiveness to student voice facilitates academic achievement; however, in qualitative studies, researchers have found that student voice practices can promote greater student engagement in learning (Baroutsis et al., 2016;Smyth, 2006;Mager & Nowalk, 2012;Mitra, 2018). Because a considerable body of research links engagement to academic outcomes, it stands to reason that student voice practices can generate desired academic outcomes by deepening student engagement. ...
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Drawing on student self-report survey data, this study examines student engagement across 67 urban high schools in the School District of Philadelphia. Results show that schools with higher rates of affective, behavioral, and cognitive engagement differ significantly from schools with other engagement profiles in students' average reports of teacher care and student voice. Path analyses lend support for self-determination theory and corroborate qualitative research that observes that student voice can improve student engagement. By highlighting the roles of teacher care and feelings of competence and belonging, this study identifies key means by which student voice influences student engagement. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11256-022-00637-2.
... The governance structures in secondary education institutions within the United Kingdom have instigated debate concerning the role of the student, and their lack of agency specifically, in decisionmaking processes (Mitra, 2006(Mitra, , 2018. In response, the past two decades have seen calls for reform to educational governance, largely due to students citing experiences of schools being a space in which they have little autonomy, respected voice, or influence (Cook-Sather, 2015; Earls, 2003;Heath & McLaughlin, 1993;Pope, 2001). ...
... The term 'student voice' encapsulates a range of processes in which youth may participate within the governance of their school (Mitra, 2018). This may be through having space to express their opinions, working with adults to address issues within their school, or taking a lead on seeking refined change The concept of the student voice has been central to much critical debate, with frameworks that allow for youth participation in decision-making being cited as ineffective (Alderson, 2000;Kilkelly et al., 2005;Ruddock & Fielding, 2006). ...
Article
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Debates surrounding youth participation in governance have permeated a range of fields in the last two decades. This commentary is predominately situated in education and civic participation domains, with sporting domains remaining largely under researched. Indeed, this research becomes sparser when considered in school physical education and sport. In this paper, we consider the position of the student within decision-making processes in the physical education curriculum in English secondary state-schools. The paper reports on survey data from 288 English secondary state-schools exploring students' involvement in decision-making related to the PE curriculum. Findings show considerable numbers of the schools reported no contribution from students to the physical education curriculum (n=54), and processes that were in place were problematic. Drawing on the legal framework of The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, we argue that the lack of student voice in the physical education curriculum presents a contemporary policy concern within the English education system that requires further investigation.
... Despite the theoretical support for student voice, many other researchers have noted a lack of attention on the voices of vulnerable students within the inclusive literature (for example Brasof and Mansfield 2018;Lundy and Cook-Sather 2016;Messiou 2017;Mitra 2018;Pazey 2020). They highlight that inclusion cannot be well understood without the representation of the views and experiences of these students (Lewis and Porter 2007), and base their argument on widely held principles of fairness and equity. ...
... Moreover, methodological approaches to student voice in education remain problematic. Firstly, there is the danger of representing voice uncritically, commonly referred to as the 'problem of authenticity' (Spyrou 2016) since adults often listen to learners in a tokenistic, symbolic, or even manipulative way (Messiou and Hope 2015;Mitra 2018). Others tend to represent students as a uniform and united entity, in an effort to identify a collective and single voice (Cook-Sather 2006). ...
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Despite a growing consensus within the inclusion literature on the power of student voice, the way it is currently positioned in educational processes and systems remains problematic. This article argues that attention to student voice within a systemic analysis can deepen our understanding of young people’s experience of educational systems. It draws on data from a field research study which explored in-depth the inclusive experiences of 12 students in 2 English and 2 Greek secondary schools. Using Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological theory and a critical framework for reflecting on student voice as analytical tools, it examines the interplay between individuals’ accounts of their experience on the one hand, and their characteristics, interactions and environmental systems on the other. It discusses the way these factors shape students’ experiences of a system which is explicitly aiming towards inclusion, by highlighting issues of power and identity as well as contradictions between student and staff perspectives. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that reflecting systematically and critically on student voice provides opportunities for a deeper understanding of the experiences of students in diverse settings.
... The findings of the study implies that students' leaders are inadequately involved in setting of school calendar system, autonomy of acquiring teaching and learning resources and they are not aware on the issue of in-service training programs for their teachers. This contract with the findings of the study done by Mitra (2018) that proclaimed that information sharing at institutional level is a cornerstone of implementing the process of sharing strategic vision to facilitate creativity culture among the educational stakeholders, that is teachers and students' leaders inclusively. The students' leaders' voice in the school strategic vision should not be underestimated as they have a special role to play towards the entire process of improving the quality of education. ...
Article
This study examined the influence of shared strategic vision in participative leadership style on improving the quality of education in public secondary schools in Arusha region, Tanzania. Correlation survey design under quantitative approach was adopted to establish the influence of shared strategic vision on improving the quality of education. Data was collected from 291 respondents, comprising district education officers, heads of schools, academic masters/mistresses, students’ leaders, and teachers. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis revealed that shared strategic vision is a vital approach of participative leadership style that enabled the involvement of teachers in preparing a detailed school calendar system to guide teaching and learning activities for facilitating students’ achievements, provides conducive environment for motivating teachers through timely rewards systems, facilitates the sustainable implementation of education goals by ensuring that teaching strategies are guided by clear objectives for improving quality education, facilitates effective monitoring and evaluation of teaching and learning process for ensuring regular and early report of students’ academic progress, increases teachers’ commitment and efficiency to the attainment of students’ performance especially in lesson preparation and syllabus completion. The study concluded that teacher and students’ leaders are mainly implementers of the strategic vision rather than designers and thus affect the provision of quality of education. The study recommended the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology to develop a clear policy and increase efforts in training and retraining headmasters/mistresses on the proper delegation of responsibility for improving the quality of education in public secondary schools.
... Τα ευρήματα της ανάλυσής μας, λοιπόν, δύνανται να έχουν ποικίλες επιπτώσεις για τους διαμορφωτές των εκπαιδευτικών πολιτικών αλλά και τους ερευνητές. Περισσότερο από όλα όμως η ακρόαση των φωνών των παιδιών και η ενδυνάμωσή τους να αναλάβουν δράση μέσα από αυτόβουλες πρωτοβουλίες, τους καθιστούν καταλύτες της αλλαγής (Sandoval & Messiou, 2020) αλλά και συμβάλλουν στο να τίθεται σε νέα βάση η εταιρική σχέση που πρέπει να αναπτύσσεται μεταξύ ενηλίκων και νέων, απομακρύνοντάς τους από τις τυπικές διαστάσεις που προσδιορίζουν οι θεσμοθετημένοι ρόλοι τους (Mitra, 2018). ...
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Η σύγχρονη βιβλιογραφία έχει επανειλημμένα εστιάσει στον ποικίλο ρόλο των μαθητικών φωνών και στον τρόπο επίδρασής τους στις διαδικασίες της αλλαγής και της σχολικής βελτίωσης. Ωστόσο, δεν έχουν διερευνηθεί οι τρόποι με τους οποίους τα ίδια τα παιδιά ερμηνεύουν τους ρόλους τους ως ηγέτες, ιδιαίτερα σε περιβάλλοντα που χαρακτηρίζονται από πολιτισμικό πλουραλισμό. Η έρευνα που παρουσιάζουμε επικεντρώνεται στον αυτόβουλο χαρακτήρα της ανάληψης ηγεσίας εκ μέρους των μαθητών και μαθητριών, ώστε να μετεξελιχθούν σε ισότιμους συμπαραγωγούς μιας νέας παιδαγωγικής ατζέντας λήψης αποφάσεων. Το δείγμα μας αποτελούνταν από 36 μαθητές και μαθήτριες που φοιτούσαν σε τέσσερα επαρχιακά σχολεία δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης του Νομού Φθιώτιδας. Για τη συλλογή των ερευνητικών δεδομένων αξιοποιήθηκε η ποιοτική μέθοδος με τη χρήση ημιδομημένων συνεντεύξεων. Από την επεξεργασία του ερευνητικού υλικού αναδύονται οι αυτόβουλες κοινωνικο-ακτιβιστικές πρωτοβουλίες και δράσεις που αναλαμβάνουν οι μαθητές και οι μαθήτριες, που προοιωνίζουν αφενός την επίτευξη ενός κοινωνικού και εκπαιδευτικού μετασχηματισμού και αφετέρου τη μετατροπή τους από «πολίτες σε αναμονή» σε αυθεντικούς συνδιαμορφωτές των σχολικών πολιτικών. Τα αποτελέσματα που καταγράφει η παρούσα έρευνα δύνανται να έχουν πολλαπλές επιπτώσεις τόσο στο πεδίο της εκπαιδευτικής πολιτικής όσο και σε αυτό των σχολικών πρακτικών. Modern literature has repeatedly focused on the diverse role of student voices and how they influence the processes of change and school improvement. However, the ways in which children themselves interpret their roles as leaders have not been explored, especially in environments characterized by cultural pluralism. The research we present focuses on the voluntary nature of leadership by students that allows them to become equal co-producers of a new pedagogical decision-making agenda. Our sample consisted of 36 students who attended four provincial secondary schools in the Prefecture of Fthiotida. The qualitative method was used to collect research data using semi-structured interviews. What emerged from the processing of the research material were spontaneous socio-activist initiatives and actions undertaken by the students which foreshadow on the one hand the achievement of a social and educational transformation, and on the other hand the transformation of students from "citizens-in-waiting" to authentic school coshapers. The results of the study can have multiple implications both in the field of educational policy and that of school practices.
... The ASF TY class were the class responsible for leading ASF among the student body through promoting and assisting in running events and programme tasks. This programme was underpinned by student voice with the aim of providing students with agency and being actively involved in change (Mitra, 2018). The long-term aim of the Irish DES is to achieve national roll out of the ASF in all the secondary level schools in Ireland. ...
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Whole-of-school programmes (WSPs) are recommended to promote physical activity for adolescents. The Active School Flag (ASF) programme for secondary-level schools is one such WSP. Due to the difficulties of incorporating WSPs into the complex school system, there is a risk of poor implementation. The monitoring of unanticipated influences can help to understand key implementation processes prior to scale-up. The aims of this study were to identify perceived facilitators and barriers to implementing the ASF and recommend evidence-based implementation strategies. Focus groups and interviews (N = 50) were conducted in three schools with stakeholders involved in programme implementation, i.e. school management (n = 5), ASF coordinator (n = 4), student-leaders (aged 15–16 years) (n = 64) and staff committee (n = 25). Transcripts were analysed using codebook thematic analysis and were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Implementation strategies were identified and were selected systematically to address contextual needs. Three themes surrounding the facilitators and barriers to implementation were generated: intervention design factors (e.g. capacity building and knowledge of implementers; and interest and buy-in for the programme), organizational factors (e.g. optimization of people and the busy school environment) and interpersonal factors (e.g. communication and collaboration). The examination of facilitators and barriers to implementation of the ASF has assisted with the identification of implementation strategies including (not limited to) a shared leadership programme for student leaders and a more flexible timeline for completion. These facilitative implementation strategies may assist in the effective implementation of the ASF.
... The ASF TY class were the class responsible for leading ASF among the student body through promoting and assisting in running events and programme tasks.. This SLASF programme is underpinned by student voice with the aim of providing students with agency and being actively involved in change (21). The long-term aim of the Irish DES is to achieve national roll out of the SLASF in all secondary level schools in Ireland (e.g. ...
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Background: Whole-of-school programmes (WSPs) are one of eight best investments to reduce physical inactivity. The 'Secondary Level Active School Flag' (SLASF) programme for students aged 12-19 years is one such WSP for physical activity. This student-led programme is guided by student voice, fun, inclusiveness and partnerships. Due to the complexities of the school system and the multi-component nature of WSPs, there is a risk of poor implementation. The monitoring of facilitators and barriers as unanticipated influences during feasibility studies is important to better understand the key implementation processes prior to scale-up. The aim of this study was to identify perceived facilitators and barriers to implementing the SLASF. Guided by the ERIC taxonomy, it also aimed to select and recommend evidence-based implementation strategies to overcome the barriers and leverage programme facilitators. Methods: Process evaluation focus groups (N=22) and interviews (N=27) were conducted in three schools with programme implementers i.e. school management (n=5), SLASF coordinator (n=4), student-leaders (ASF transition years aged 15-16 years) class (n=37), staff committee (n=23) and were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis and were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Implementation strategies were identified using the ERIC taxonomy and were selected systematically to address contextual needs. Results: Three themes were identified surrounding the facilitators and barriers to implementation: intervention design factors influencing implementation (e.g. capacity building and knowledge of implementers; interest and buy in for the programme and design and quality of the programme), organisational factors influencing implementation (e.g. optimisation of people; planning and execution; and the busy school environment) and interpersonal factors influencing implementation (e.g. relationships; communication; and collaboration). Conclusions: This study has identified drivers of implementation success or failure for future impact and extended roll out of SLASF. The examination of facilitators and barriers assisted with the identification of implementation strategies including (not limited to) a shared leadership programme for student leaders, a more flexible timeline for completion and an introductory year to assess readiness to engage. Through guidance on the identification of implementation strategies and in alignment with the ERIC taxonomy, we have provided recommendations that may assist in effective implementation of the SLASF.
... Keywords student voice, equity, representation, policy reform, education policy Incorporation of student voice into school improvement efforts is increasingly recognized as an important way to reduce students' alienation in school and deepen their emotional and relational investments in school life (Mitra, 2018). It appears that in addition to fostering students' sense of agency and competence, student voice groups give students increased civic capacity and engage them in issues of equity (Kirshner & Pozzobonni, 2011). ...
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Background/Context Increasingly, K–12 students are seeking to influence educational policies that directly affect their lives. As student intervention in policy increases, it is important to understand the composition of these groups and how they seek to exercise power and influence over policymakers. Purpose This study sought to examine how two state-level student voice groups for policy change sought equitable representation in their composition. As student voice groups expand beyond school, city, or district level groups to focus on state- and national-level advocacy, the character of their composition takes on additional importance as they claim to speak on behalf of larger numbers of students. Setting This study draws on interview, document analysis, and observation data from two student voice groups working to influence state-level legislative action on K–12 educational policy. Research Design: We combine secondary data analysis of data from state-level student voice groups with elements of duoethnography to explore how participants thought about, strived for, and fell short of equitable intra- group representation. Findings We found that the members of both groups were personally committed to equity both in terms of group composition and advocacy. Additionally, group members had structures and policies—such as remote access and low barriers to entry—that encourage equitable representation. Participants reported a relational climate of inclusion. Despite these assets, outcomes were mixed: the groups successfully achieved racial and ethnic proportionality with the state, but remained predominantly urban and able- bodied in their composition. Conclusion Despite the groups’ best efforts, group members’ challenges with distributed recruitment and emphasis on certain skills such as public speaking limited equitable outcomes in representation. This research makes clear that who is involved in the group at the outset and their network will shape representation. It also indicates that although technology can lower barriers to entry, it is not a panacea. Finally, this research reinforces the notion that students engage in self-policing of the group in order to gain greater legitimacy in the eyes of policymakers.
... Furthermore, while quantitative research provides a helpful overarching perspective of the topic, more qualitative data is needed to better understand nuanced experiences of these adolescents. Student voice can play an important role in creating change and reform, especially when others help to provide the appropriate platform for their message (D. Mitra, 2018;D. L. Mitra & Gross, 2009). ...
Article
The current study explored adolescents’ perceptions of what contributes to their experiences of success in a rural Title I school through interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Participants included adolescents who were enrolled at a rural Title I Middle/High School in the southern United States. The single campus school district serves approximately 185 students from Prekindergarten to grade 12. Approximately, 73% of the students are identified as At-Risk, 88% of the students are economically disadvantaged, and 100% of the students qualify for free or reduced lunch. Ten students from this school, with assent and parental consent, participated in the current study. Participants’ ages ranged from 13 to 18, and the students represented different genders (seven males, three females) and various racial and ethnic backgrounds (three Black/African American, four Latinx, two White, and one Biracial). Results from the current study suggest low-income adolescents in a rural Title I school perceived (a) school size, (b) family support, and (c) their own internal drive to succeed as contributing to their success at school. These themes, their corresponding subthemes, and representative participant statements are included. Implications for school administrators, teachers, and counselors along with directions for future research are discussed.
... uch as tokenism) emerge from these arrangements, co-leadership between educators and students may have important implications for the future of civic education (Brasof, 2015). With student voice, there is the opportunity to combine multiple imperatives, including civic education, youth development, and school improvement (e.g., Kramer et al., 2020;D. Mitra, 2018). ...
Article
In the United States, advances in information technology and globalization present new social and political terrain for citizens to navigate. Preparing well-rounded young adults who are ready to meet the demands of citizenship in the 21st century—thinking critically, communicating, collaborating, and creating—is an imperative function of education. Findings from this multiple case study of “positive outlier” schools, or those with better-than-expected graduation outcomes among youth with historically disparate rates, utilize practices that incorporate Positive Youth Development (PYD) and Deeper Learning (DL) strategies. PYD and DL facilitate students’ development of skills, abilities, and dispositions that define 21st century citizenship. Though the schools in this study were selected for their better college and career preparation as measured by graduation outcomes, educators in positive outlier schools, in contrast to typically performing schools, emphasized student preparation for citizenship along with college and career preparation. The unique features of positive outlier schools include: commitment to pluralism, ethic of shared sacrifice and responsibility, community-directed critical thinking, and democratic school governance. For these schools, the college, career, and civic readiness replaced the exclusive college and career readiness paradigm.
... Shier, 2001;Treseder, 1997). Mitra (2018) hat ein vereinfachtes Stufenmodell entwickelt, das die drei Stufen 'Listening', 'Collaboration' und 'Leadership' unterscheidet. Die Hauptaussage bleibt bei allen Stufenmodellen die gleiche: Schüler*innen und Lehrpersonen teilen sich die Verantwortung, wobei die Anteile je nach Stufe unterschiedlich sind. ...
... Shier, 2001;Treseder, 1997). Mitra (2018) hat ein vereinfachtes Stufenmodell entwickelt, das die drei Stufen 'Listening', 'Collaboration' und 'Leadership' unterscheidet. Die Hauptaussage bleibt bei allen Stufenmodellen die gleiche: Schüler*innen und Lehrpersonen teilen sich die Verantwortung, wobei die Anteile je nach Stufe unterschiedlich sind. ...
Thesis
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Studien zeigen, dass den Schüler*innen im Schulalltag nur beschränkt Möglichkeiten eingeräumt werden zu partizipieren. Gleichzeitig sehen die UN-Kinderrechtskonvention und lokale Schulgesetze Partizipationsmöglich-keiten für Schüler*innen vor. Daher beschäftigt sich diese Synopse mit der Partizipationssituation von Schü-ler*innen an fünf Volksschulen im Kanton Zürich. Grundlage für die Synopse bilden vier Beiträge, die aus meh-reren Perspektiven und mittels unterschiedlicher Methoden untersuchen, (1) wie Partizipation in der Fachliteratur verwendet wird und, daraus abgeleitet, wie sie fassbar gemacht werden kann, (2) wie sich die Partizipationssitua-tion in der Schule allgemein und (3) konkret im Unterricht darstellt und (4) welche Partizipationswünsche von Seiten der Schüler*innen und Lehrpersonen bestehen. Die Synthese aus den vier Beiträgen bringt drei beitrags-übergreifende Themen hervor: (1) eine begriffliche Differenzierung von Partizipation, (2) eine multiperspektivi-sche und multimethodische Darstellung der Partizipationssituation in den untersuchten Schulen sowie (3) Zu-sammenhangskomponenten von Partizipation. Die vier Beiträge sowie die drei Synthesethemen führen zu drei Thesen: (1) Die Schüler*innen sind zufrieden mit ihrer Partizipationssituation, weil sie sich ihrer Partizipations-möglichkeiten nicht bewusst sind, (2) Partizipation ist primär etwas für Musterschülerinnen und (3) Partizipation und Schule zeichnen sich durch gegenseitige Inkompatibilität aus. Für die Fachdiskussion, weitere Forschung und Schulpraxis lässt sich folgern, dass multiperspektivische und multimethodische Ansätze erforderlich sind, um Partizipation zu untersuchen, und dass das verwendete Partizipationsverständnis offengelegt werden sollte. Da Schüler*innenpartizipation in der Schule von Widersprüchen geprägt ist, braucht es in der Schulpraxis einen bewussten und transparenten Umgang mit dieser Thematik, der vermehrte Aufmerksamkeit der Forschung er-fordert, insbesondere um Partizipationsprozesse erklären und verstehen zu können.
... Student voice can involve students sharing their opinions of or addressing school problems (Mitra et al., 2012), which often relate to non-academic issues such as school facilities and uniforms, or it can concern academic matters and classroom practice via what have been coined 'classroom-level consultations' and 'management-level consultations' (Skerritt et al., 2021a). All types of student voice, from students having limited input to substantial leadership, are considerably different to the typical student roles of planning school dances and events (Mitra, 2018). ...
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This paper shows how the commitment of senior leadership teams to student voice is not necessarily shared by teachers. As part of a wider study, this paper presents qualitative data generated through interviews with school staff in one Irish post-primary school with a strong culture of student voice to illustrate the discrepancy that can exist between senior leaders and teachers in terms of how they embrace, enact, and experience student voice. Student voice customs can be rhetorical, perhaps even exaggerated by some, and peripheral to others, and positions on student voice are often determined by positions in the school hierarchy. As student voice remains considerably underdeveloped in Irish post-primary schools despite Irish education and most Irish schools becoming replete with student-centred discourses, this paper provides one possible way of making sense of the current state of play. More broadly, it points to how different actors work on and with student voice in different ways.
... Summary. One challenge in conceptualizing adults' role in student voice initiatives aimed at policy change is that most past inquires of how adults work with student in such initiatives focused on school-level projects, not projects aimed at policy change (Mitra, 2015(Mitra, , 2018. Consequently, the adults supporting these voices are often decision-makers themselves, or have relatively close access to decision-makers. ...
Article
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This study examines the role of adult facilitators in supporting student voice efforts for educational policy change. Using case study and Accidental Ethnography data, we explore the actions that adult facilitators take to support student voice efforts in policy spaces. Our findings include that adults (1) intentionally shift power to students, (2) help students understand the power of their voice, and (3) help students to resist and overcome tokenization. We discuss our findings in the context of power and helping historically unpowerful groups exercise policy voice.
... The singular purpose of testtaking as a neoliberal agenda transforms curriculum "into a collection of disconnected facts, operations, procedures, or data"-and students gain "knowledge associated with lower level thinking" (Au, 2011, p. 31) as "curriculum is reduced to statements about expected outcomes, content and methods" (Zepke, 2018, p. 440). Furthermore, "subject matter not covered by standardized tests becomes marginalized" (Um, 2019, p. 75) so that educators abandon curricula for democratic citizenship, civic engagement, and the holistic-moral, psychological, and physical-development of children and adolescents (Collins, Hess, & Lowery, 2019;Haslip & Gullo, 2018;Mitra, 2018) as learners are "imagined as empty vessels, first carved out, then refilled by curriculum standards, practices, and policies" (Sonu & Benson, 2016, p. 237). (2000) explains the importance of vision, the greater emphasis is on cultures of curriculum as a framework to instigate a process of inquiry, reflection, and curriculum development. ...
Article
The concept of cultures of curriculum is an iteration of the classification system known as curricular orientations. Intended as a framework for curriculum development and a heuristic for curriculum inquiry, a culture of curriculum is a philosophy-based curricular orientation supported by coherent practices. A curricular culture is characterized by a shared and unifying vision that guides articulation of goals, inspires consensus, and stimulates the desire for change. Diverse cultures of curriculum have existed historically and are enacted in contemporary schools and universities; they are not static. Societal change, scholarly discoveries, and political or ethical discourse influence educators’ knowledge and public beliefs about education. Essentially, this conceptual model involves perceiving curriculum through a cultural perspective, as a series of interwoven dynamics and not just as explicit content. Curriculum theorized as culture attends to continuing dialogue, values, metaphors, the environment in which education takes place, power relationships, and the norms that affect educators’ and stakeholders’ convictions about right or appropriate education. Subsequently, the cultures of curriculum framework for curriculum inquiry comprises both analysis of beliefs and ethnographic study of lived curriculum. This conceptual model also casts light on curriculum transformation, viewed through the cultural lens as reculturing curriculum. The process begins with inquiry through the cultures of curriculum framework to investigate the extant curriculum in classrooms and schools. Such examination may result in awareness of ad hoc curriculum featuring a multitude of contradictory purposes and activities or the realization that authorized curriculum work conflicts with educators’ philosophies and moral purposes. Concurrently, the study of curricular cultures may stimulate curriculum leadership as educators imagine ways to change their own curriculum work, initiate conversations with colleagues and stakeholders, and eventually commit energies and resources to reculturing curriculum. Rather than making partial modifications to school structures or trying out the latest instructional methods, curriculum transformation informed by the concept of curricular cultures embodies profound change to values, norms, and practices, as well as to classroom and school cultures.
... The opposing opinions of students and HOSs to those of teachers suggest that half of the secondary school teachers are less aware of the contribution of IGAs to students' getting hold of project planning skills. Mitra (2018) in the USA who revealed that students' voices and involvement in school activities can deepen implementation efforts and strengthen rapport with teachers and school authorities. This infers that students' involvement in IGAs highly inculcates project planning skills in the learners that may influence their attitude towards entrepreneurship. ...
Article
The study assessed the impetus of school-based income-generating activities on students’ entrepreneurship skills among public secondary schools in Kilimanjaro Region-Tanzania. Guided by Edifice Entrepreneurial Supply Theory, the study employed a convergent research design under a mixed research approach. Probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used to draw the sample of 834 respondents from the target population of 110,642. The categories of the sample involved District Education Officers (DEOs), Heads of Schools (HOSs), teachers, and students. The study used interview guides, questionnaires, observation guides, and document analysis guides. Quantitative data were descriptively analyzed through percentages and means, and presented in a table while qualitative data were thematically analyzed and presented in direct quotations. The study found out that stakeholders were highly influenced by active implementation of school-based income-generating activities as proved to impart various entrepreneurship skills. The study concluded that the establishment and operationalization of IGAs in secondary school cycles has a high impetus factor for students and acts as an important engine towards imparting learners’ entrepreneurial skills to them. Therefore, the study recommends that education stakeholders should stress on mandatory implementation of IGAs in public secondary schools to equip learners with vital entrepreneurial skills.
... Certainly, future work needs to take the perspectives of students seriously, as well as repositioning students as active agents who are part of shaping the community in meaningful ways (Mitra, 2004(Mitra, , 2009(Mitra, , 2018. Janhonen et al. (2016) have argued this is particularly essential in an adolescent-centered food and health education. ...
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We explore student lunchtime experiences as they relate to student sense of belonging. We use SPSS Two‐Step cluster analysis and logistic regression of data from a schoolwide survey (n = 830) in the United States. Stepwise modeling is used to determine the importance of clusters representing lunchtime activity preferences and love of lunch on belonging scores. Loving lunch significantly positively affects school belonging. Students naturally group into five distinct different activity profiles based on lunchtime preferences. These profiles are significantly related to a sense of belonging. Being active with peers during lunch was most strongly correlated with sense of belonging. Lunchtime warrants more attention for fostering a sense of belonging in the school community. Broadening lunchtime activity options, especially in schools where there are few available ways for socializing and being active, has the potential to support the diverse needs of students and increase belonging.
... Pearce and Wood (2019) show how student https: //doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2021.07.02.13 Corresponding Author: Antonida Lukina Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of the conference eISSN: 106 voices are driving the transformation of education policy in primary and secondary schools in a survey over the past 10 years. Mitra (2018) assesses the role of student voice in US high school reform and looks at ways to involve young people in these activities. It is shown that the real possibility of schoolchildren's influence on educational policy requires compliance with the conditions of dialog city and joint activity of representatives of different generations, the inclusion of young people, schoolchildren in various spheres of public life and educational activities, as well as the removal of boundaries between existing and new social spaces, which contributes to the transfer of samples future into their life. ...
... What does a state lose, for instance, by forbidding educators and/or students from joining an SBOE, much less being a voting member? Elevating expertise from those directly experiencing the system holds promise to improve the quality of decisions that SBOEs make (see Mitra, 2018). ...
Article
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State boards of education (SBOEs) are one of many governmental entities that reside within the larger educational policymaking sphere. With recent U.S. federal legislation devolving more authority over education to states, state-level governmental entities like SBOEs are in the spotlight perhaps now more than ever. Yet not much has been published about SBOE structures and functions, much less about their members and how they might influence educational policies and education broadly. Using critical policy analysis methods, this descriptive study focused on two areas: (a) the criteria and processes that states use to select SBOE members, and (b) the characteristics of today’s SBOE members (e.g., demographics) and the extent to which SBOEs are representative portraits of the states they serve. Findings report similarities and differences among members within and between the 47 U.S. states with SBOEs. We close by critically assessing our findings, especially whether SBOE member selection criteria and processes and SBOE members themselves are well-positioned to best represent their constituents.
... Perhaps more importantly, there is evidence that young leaders have the potential to be change agents who can make a positive impact on their schools, societies, and globally. By promoting 'student voice' through involving students in decision-making processes, schools can empower young people to contribute to their communities and lay the foundations for them to become civically engaged adults (Mitra, 2018; see also Putnam, 2016). ...
Technical Report
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The pioneering study breaks new ground in terms of understanding the potential of students worldwide to learn and exert leadership for a better world. The research involved online survey data collected from 6,760 students and 1,695 teachers at Round Square schools across 34 countries. This data informed the framing, collection, and analysis of interview data from 93 students and 21 teachers at 12 Round Square schools worldwide. It provides new insights into (i) what leadership means to young people, (ii) the most effective experiences for building leadership skills, and (iii) the potential impact of student leadership. The findings underline the value of practical leadership experience, the leadership potential of young people, and young people's capacity to drive positive change. They also point to the importance of schools providing opportunities for all students to experience leadership for their personal development and to empower them to contribute to schools, societies, and globally.
... Furthermore, little is known about Irish post-primary students' perceptions of CBEs as an assessment format, and consequently, their readiness for this transition. This seems like a missed opportunity, particularly in light of the well-documented potential of 'student-voice' to positively impact change (see Mitra, 2018). ...
Article
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In line with the widespread proliferation of digital technology in everyday life, many countries are now beginning to use computer-based exams (CBEs) in their post-primary education systems. To ensure that these CBEs are delivered in a manner that preserves their fairness, validity, utility and credibility, several factors pertaining to their design and development will need to be considered. This research study investigated the extent to which the design of different types of test items (e.g. inclusion of multimedia stimuli) in a CBE can affect test-takers’ engagement and behaviour. Qualitative data from a cued-Retrospective Think Aloud (c-RTA) protocol were gathered from 12 participants who had participated in a previous eye-tracking study. Participants watched a replay of their eye movements and were asked to state out loud what they were thinking at different points of the replay. Thematic analysis of the responses from these cognitive interviews captured the nature of students’ interactions with online testing environments under three main themes: Familiarisation, Sense-making and Making Decisions. Students also provided their opinions of and recommendations for the future of Irish online assessments. These findings can offer guidelines to all stakeholders considering the use of CBEs in post-primary contexts.
... Fielding (2011) offers six ways that researchers can work with younger participants to give them a voice, ranging in the nature of collaboration from just using them as data sources to engaging in learning together. Educational research has found that when students have voice, there are multifold benefits including increased engagement and educational outcomes (Mitra, 2018;Quinn and Owen, 2014;Rubin, 2003). Student voice initiatives can also develop connections between students and fulfil their human rights, encouraging democratic participation (Bourke, 2017;Mayes et al., 2019; United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1577 C.F.R., 1989). ...
Article
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Words and stories have the power to resonate with people. Composite narratives can be constructed using multiple participant accounts, representing their experiences while also capturing the properties and categories of qualitative research findings. The ability of composite narratives to represent the multiple facets of theory construction through a singular narrative point-of-view is unique and provides a concise and credible method to present research findings. This paper explains how composite narratives can be constructed to present the research data that findings are built upon through an illustrative example of the process. The example of a composite narrative presented in this article is one of a larger set from a grounded theory study about a substantive group of Australian students’ experiences of their interactions in the classroom that communicate their teachers’ expectations of them. Narratives have the power to affect change in society by enhancing the transferability of research findings, presenting research findings with impact because they are engaging and memorable for readers. Qualitative researchers who are interested in composing composite narratives to reflect multiple participants’ different experiences, through interview data, will benefit from the justification and example of the technique, which provides a model for future research.
... The final research question is founded on the idea that if classes are to improve, the student voice must be listened to by educators (Hart, 2000;Mitra, 2018). Also, this question enables a useful bridging from the informal to the formal, with its focus on pupil insights into two aspects of their L2 English school subject. ...
Thesis
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The digital age has re-shaped the landscape of creative writing. One example of the changes that have taken place is the way in which millions of young people, globally, now write and share stories as online fanfiction. This is an out-of-school leisure pastime that can also help improve language skills (Aragon & Davis, 2019; Black, 2008). English taught as a second language (i.e. L2) in schools can be less authentic, less motivational and engaging than English used in free-time situations (extramural English, Sundqvist, 2009); thus, there is a need to “bridge the gap” between the English taught in the formal setting of school and the English encountered in informal settings (Swedish Schools Inspectorate, 2011). This licentiate thesis focuses on extramural English creative writing and aims to raise understanding about the ways it can motivate and engage. Also, the issue of L2 English is addressed in relation to pupils’ perspectives of their informal learning as well as their insights into creative writing and challenge in the school subject of English. The participants in the study were thirteen teenage pupils of Swedish secondary and upper-secondary schools who write creatively in English in their free time. Their writing included stories, comics, poems and songs, and some of this work was published online. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, and it was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings confirm that writing can be closely related to reading, as participants were motivated by stories they wished to imitate and adapt. Also, the results show how teenage creative writers were able to use networked communication to access a large global readership. There was a strong motivation to write for pleasure – for oneself – and this writing, and enjoyment, could subsequently be shared with others. The free-time writing activity was fun, playful and imaginative, and also aided understanding of the participants’ own experiences and emotions. The state of flow (Csíkszentmihályi, 1990) was an aspect of the pupils’ engagement with creative writing as well. The activity was rewarding as it brought praise, enabled role-play, involved social contacts, and opened the way to new affiliations and friendships. Moreover, the pupils considered that their language learning was enriched through their free-time creative writing. Finally, the participants offered valuable insights into aspects of English as a school subject: there was some creative writing in English lessons, but there was a need for both more creative writing and more challenge.
... The information gathered typically produces no meaningful policy changes and is not used to co-create optimal learning environments most conducive to students' needs (Taines, 2014). There is also an untapped opportunity to use student voice in the classroom to provide students with the necessary language, leadership, and advocacy skills to deconstruct power relations and oppressive structures in society (Mitra, 2018;Zion, 2020;Holquist & Walls, 2021). ...
... Healey, 2018), both in HE contexts and beyond where student representation also exists (e.g., Mitra, 2018;Alexander et al., 2019). ...
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An industrial revolution based on digital technologies and data is rapidly transforming most human activities. In the case of higher education, research on learning analytics has experienced significant expansion and evolution in only a few years. However, there is still a dearth of literature on analytics tools designed to support student representatives, which could generate growing informational and technological asymmetries in higher education. To address this critical gap, this study explored the potential key data required by student representatives for their effective participation as partners in educational improvement and the main benefits that associated analytics tools could offer. To do this, this study used a micro design ethnography and a dialogic approach with participants from a Scottish university. Findings suggest that access to data and analytics could influence the participation of the student body as egalitarian partners. These results reinforce the need for further research.
... Shared leadership practices should involve the youth at all levels of decision making, thus incorporating a removal of the typical top-down hierarchy seen in institutions. Student voice practices are supported by truly democratic relationships [70]. In these relationships, the youth are able to actively speak about their experience, share their opinion, and play an active role in the decisions made around their own treatment and the environment within which they exist. ...
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Identity formation is a developmental milestone for adolescents, and their identities are constructed and re-constructed through their interactions with others and contextual factors in their environment. When considering adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD), often this developmental milestone is misappropriated, misunderstood, and misrepresented. The purpose of this article was to explore how adolescents with substance use disorders form identity and construct a sense of self. Firstly, we explored the identity formation and reconstruction of 20 female adolescents with SUDs based on an in-depth grounded theory methodology (GTM) which included a situational analysis (SA). Secondly, we offered a theoretical model to explain identity construction and reconstruction of adolescents with SUDs that emerged from this research. We conclude this article with practical implications for treatment, and care of adolescents with SUDs.
... Muchos autores han contribuido a esclarecer y clasificar la participación de los estudiantes en los contextos escolares (Fielding, 2001(Fielding, , 2012Mitra 2018). En este sentido, una de las aportaciones más conocidas es la de Fielding (2001), que propone una tipología cuádruple dependiendo del papel de los estudiantes y los propósitos de su participación: "Los estudiantes como fuente de datos", "Los estudiantes como encuestados", "Los estudiantes como co-investigadores" y "Los estudiantes como investigadores". ...
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El trabajo que se presenta forma parte del proyecto europeo (Respuestas inclusivas a la diversidad a través del diálogo alumnado-profesorado", Erasmus+, 2017-2020) cuyo objetivo es mejorar las prácticas docentes creando espacios de diálogo entre el alumnado y el profesorado. Se buscaba articular con mayor equidad el aprendizaje y la participación de todo el alumnado en las lecciones impartidas por docentes de sus centros escolares. Se trata de un proyecto de investigación-acción colaborativo con docentes y estudiantes, en el que estos últimos ejercen el rol de investigadores en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, siendo corresponsables de la planificación y evaluación de las lecciones junto con los docentes. Se ha contado con la participación de tres centros educativos de educación Primaria españoles (6-12 años). Los resultados muestran que incluir a los estudiantes en el diseño de las lecciones puede llegar a cambiar algunos aspectos didácticos y metodológicos de sus docentes y constituir una vía válida de desarrollo profesional docente. Palabras clave: desarrollo profesional docente; educación inclusiva; participación; participación estudiantil.
... Reflecting trends in education and societies more broadly (Gonzalez et al., 2017;Cook-Sather, 2018;Mitra, 2018;Mills et al., 2021), the last decade has seen considerable scaling up of research and advocacy for enacting youth/student voice within and across physical education (PE), physical activity, and youth sport settings Iannucci and Parker, 2021). Encouragingly, such work is increasingly exploring the enactment of youth/student voice pedagogies (SVP) with historically disengaged, underserved, and marginalized youth also. ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore learners' experiences enacting youth/student voice pedagogies (SVP) to promote Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) and meaningful physical education (MPE) in an alternative education setting. Drawing on social constructivist learning theory in understanding and implementing a MPE approach, and a systemic framework for SEL, two research questions guided the research process: (1) How did students interpret and enact these pedagogies? (2) What contribution did the enactment of these pedagogies have in promoting SEL and MPE? This study implemented a qualitative case study design framed by a participatory action research (PAR) approach spanning 12 weeks from February to May 2021. Participants in this study included 16 ninth grade alternative high school students (eight girls/eight boys) aged 14–15 who had just returned to face-to-face learning in January 2021 for the first time following COVID-19. A range of traditional and innovative participatory qualitative research methods including focus group interviews, students' personal biographies, timelines, digital and written reflections, photovoice, and class artifacts were utilized. The Miles, Huberman, and Saldana Framework for Qualitative Data Analysis was implemented involving both deductive and inductive combinations of comparative and thematic analysis. The following themes were constructed: Making responsible decisions; unearthing and sharing mixed emotions; picturing physical activity beyond the classroom; recognizing the role of relationships; considering challenge and competence; and, pursuing meaning . Findings demonstrate how enacting SVP can lead to the development of students' SEL and MPE experiences complimenting multiple learning domains. We call for further embedding of SVP capturing students' physical activity and movement experiences inside and outside of PE in teacher education and professional development that helps teachers and their students make sense of, shape, influence, and enact more MPE and physical activity learning experiences.
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Offering the overlooked but essential viewpoint of young people from low-income communities of color and their public schools, Planning Cities With Young People and Schools offers an urgently needed set of best-practice recommendations for urban planners to change the status quo and reimagine the future of our cities for and with young people. Working with more than 10,000 students over two decades from the San Francisco Bay Area, to New York, to Tohoku, Japan, this work produces a wealth of insights on issues ranging from environmental planning, housing, transportation, regional planning, and urban education. Part I presents a theory of change for planning more equitable, youth-friendly cities by cultivating intergenerational communities of practice where young people work alongside city planners and adult professionals. Part II explores youth engagement in resilience, housing, and transportation planning through an analysis of literature and international examples of engaging children and youth in city planning. Part III speaks directly to practitioners, scholars, and students alike, presenting "Six Essentials for Planning Just and Joyful Cities" as necessary precursors to effective city planning with and for our most marginalized, children, youth, and public schools. For academics, policy makers, and practitioners, this book raises the importance of education systems and young people as critical to urban planning and the future of our cities.
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In this paper, we set out to examine children’s voices on inclusion through a systematic review of empirical studies carried out in Cyprus over the past 20 years. Specifically, it focuses on research related to this field and investigates the ways in which these studies illustrate the importance of children’s perspectives as a means for promoting inclusion and challenging segregational practices. The aim of such analysis is to bring to the surface the diverse ways and methodological tools in which children may be actively involved and have their voices heard. Moreover, our analysis seeks to point out the major issues raised by children with regards to areas of concern or suggestions for inclusion. In this context, the originality of this study lies in integrating findings and perspectives from the available empirical studies as well as in synthesising research findings to depict evidence on a meta-level and reveal areas in which more research is needed and to sum up suggestions for further policy-making.
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During the past thirty years, student (or pupil) voice has gained attention in education policy especially in many Western countries, accelerated by both the acceptance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1990 and an emphasis on accountability in schools. Multifaceted and complex, student voice in schools incorporates a wide variety of practices associated with children expressing their views about their education. This article traces the evolution of the concept of student voice in schools over the past three decades, exploring how various understandings have impacted on practice. Using this historical perspective as a springboard, the article suggests a different approach to the practice of student voice in schools: as interwoven with, and integral to practice. Neither an accountability measure, nor a tokenistic rehearsal of democratic processes, the lens of critical pragmatism is utilised to argue that student voice can only be given meaning as an integral part of everyday critically reflexive practice.
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As interest in student voice has grown over the past two decades, questions have emerged about how teachers conceive of and engage with student voice, the extent to which they do so, and how these practices vary across different school and district policy contexts. This study explores these questions, using survey data collected from U.S. teachers in two urban and two suburban districts. The findings reveal that while many educators see student voice as synonymous with students’ input into classroom or school decision-making, a comparable number equate student voice with student opinions in general. This difference highlights the need for shared understanding so that educators, administrators, policymakers, and researchers can unite around a common conception and set of practices and so that the field can become more cohesive. The study also finds that those educators who define student voice as students’ input into school or classroom decision-making use a range of techniques for soliciting student voice in order to inform their instruction, empower students, and build strong student-teacher relationships. Implications for further research, teacher training, professional development, and policy are discussed.
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Computer Science education (CSed) often aims to position youth as designers, creators, and those with a voice in their world. But do youth have opportunities to design, create, and have voice around the shape of their CSed learning experiences? In this study, we explore ways that school districts engage youth to contribute to the shaping and enactment of their CS instructional systems, efforts districts make to have these leadership roles create impact within these systems, and the tensions associated with these processes. Through in depth analysis of five district case studies, our findings highlight variance around the nature of leadership roles , how access to leadership roles is structured, student autonomy within and ownership over leadership roles, how roles reach into and index differential power over instructional systems , and how district processes of scaffolding and infrastructuring mediate the ultimate impact that students in these roles are able to have on CS instructional systems. Findings also surfaced ways that district actors dealt with a number of tensions associated with student leadership within CS instructional systems. This study provides educators, administrators, and researchers with an expansive view of the potential for students to play legitimate roles within the context of system-wide instructional efforts around CS, and aims to expand conceptions of ‘equitable computer science’—up to this point largely conceived of through the lenses of access to, participation in, and experiences of CS learning—to focus on equity as also being about who has ‘a seat at the table’ when it comes to CS.
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Student voice and agency are important topics in education, but related initiatives remain under-investigated. This study investigates the link between student voice and perception of student agency through the introduction of a student-led committee using a longitudinal mixed-method approach in an independent secondary school in Scotland. Paired-samples t-tests were conducted for the students’ (n = 95) responses showing an increase in mean effect (p = 0.025) of the introduction of the committee on student perception of student consultation and decision making in the school. Committee members reported a reduction in their sense of agency (n = 5, p = 0.045). Qualitative data is presented to support the discussion of results which suggest student-led committees affect the perception of student agency and wider school ethos is important.
Chapter
The chapter looks into student perspectives on the implementation of emergency remote teaching in a leading Ukrainian university and addresses the need to amplify student voice to provide quality education during COVID-19 and beyond. Based on a sample of 549 students who major in foreign languages and literatures, the present study investigates students’ readiness to move to e-learning and their opinions about online course design, delivery, and assessment. A mixed-methods approach is used to collect quantitative and qualitative data via online surveys, interviews, course feedback, reports, and an authentic task. The study results show that most students recognize the benefits of learning with technologies and are ready to work online. At the same time, the students highlight some problems to be solved, including a bad internet connection, time-consuming home assignments, and the need to further develop personal competencies.
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Current studies on group work illustrate the importance of student collaboration for enhancing conceptual understanding and participation in science. Research also documents the roles students adopt within group work, with some studies illustrating the underlying power relations. This study sought to expand on prior research literature to understand power relations in group and technology settings in a chemistry context. Using a power relations framework, this observation study investigates the discourse between high school students learning about gas laws in an instructional sequence starting with unstructured group work, group work with assigned roles, and technology-supported group work with assigned roles. Three observations were completed for each approach across three groups of four students (n = 12; 9 observations total). Audio transcripts were analyzed by two coders and interrater agreement was determined. The findings show that students discuss science concepts more when in unstructured groups and ask more questions when in groups with assigned roles, with or without supporting technology. Most of the questions asked in the groups with assigned roles are about the logistics of the assignments or group roles, as students require scaffolding from the teacher before engaging in science concepts compared to being in unstructured groups. These findings illustrate the potential setbacks to conceptual discussions for classroom activities when shifting student power relations with new roles and/or technology, and point to important implications for science education.
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This paper explores how students can be positioned as contributors to leading practices that shape the nature of their schooling experiences. Student voice and agency agendas have grown in popularity over recent years but understanding the possibilities and boundaries of the ways that students can contribute to their educational experiences requires continued exploration. This paper presents a case study of an alternative learning setting where previously disenfranchised learners were productively contributing to leading practices that shaped their school experience. Using the theory of practice architectures, the relational arrangements that supported students to shape the practices that influenced their re-engagement with schooling are examined. Through the prioritisation of authentic connections between educators and students, practices of leading were established that disrupted normative experiences of schooling and positioned students as empowered agents in their own education.
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This study explores the ways that youth make sense of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and how context informs the scope and nature of youth-led local civic action. Using an embedded case study approach, this study focuses on the Cultivating Pathways to Sustainability project, which engages scores of young people in the state of Vermont, U.S.A. Data for this study was drawn from observations and interviews of middle and high school students and teachers from 18 participating schools. The study’s findings show the value of intermediaries as catalysts for civic action, demonstrate ways of linking global policy with local civic action, and show how a youth-adult partnership model can deepen the meaning and implementation of civic action.
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This article considers the perspectives of five college students who have all obtained the label of dyslexia. As the topic of student voice is important in educational research, the objective was to listen to what students had to say about issues that directly impacted them. A focus group was conducted and the findings pointed to overall satisfaction with the label, access to college supports and strategies which could be used to facilitate learning and well‐being. The insights provided by the students signify the imperative of listening to young people whose ‘expert’ views should be included in discussions to improve practice.
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For this qualitative case study, I centered voice to discover the points of view of 33 students with an identified disability who attended two different Texas high schools. The purpose of the study was to capture the personal meanings these students attributed to their learning experiences and bring their perspectives to the fore. Drawing from my personal and professional experiences as a special education teacher, high school administrator, and inclusive researcher, I illustrate how listening to the stories of the students with disabilities whom I served motivated me to engage their voices and the voices of their friends to interrogate my own practice and stay true to a commitment I made to my students nearly 30 years ago to tell their story. To set the stage and the importance of honoring the voices and perspectives of students with disabilities, I provide a brief account of the international legislative priorities related to student voice and various arguments that have been advanced to recognize and honor the voices of every student. Next, I present the international legislation and recommendations that support the participation rights of persons with disabilities in making decisions that directly affect their lives as well as the research literature related to inclusion, student voice, and students with disabilities. An explanation of the research design and approach, including an explanation of the level at which students who participated in this study were involved, is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings. A call for the adoption of a differentiated approach to student voice research and practice that incorporates the voices of students with disabilities serves as the conclusion.
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The VicSRC Executive, working with funding from the Victorian DET, commissioned this study. This study focuses on the highest priority voted by students at the VicSRC Congress in 2015: School Leadership and Governance. This study was undertaken with the following purposes: • To gather the views of students and principals across a range of Victorian schools on the issue of student representation on school governance councils. • To collect and create resources to support schools to initiate or extend meaningful student representation on school governance councils. This report primarily considers the experiences, views, and ideas of secondary school students at Victorian schools and principals of secondary and Preparatory to Year 12 government schools.
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This article conceptualizes the materialities of school governance council meetings. A concern for the material a/effects of spatial positioning emerged during a participatory action research project concerned with secondary school students’ sense of the benefits and challenges of student representation on school councils. Attending to affective, spatial and material dimensions of power with the conceptual resources of new materialisms, I question representational logics in policy, research and practice related to school councils. In particular, I interrogate whether the presence of human bodies representing interest groups necessarily promotes more democratic relations, and whether questions of power are best explored through discursive analysis alone. School council meetings are understood to be events where the political philosoph(ies) of a school materialize in concrete relations between bodies, and where subjects form, re-form (and de-form) in and through material-discursive practices.
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Motivated by the addition of a curriculum standard for active citizenship into New Jersey's social studies standards a group of educators and researchers set out to integrate an action research curriculum, based on a youth participatory action research (YPAR) model, into social studies classrooms. Adapting YPAR, with its promising blend of critical thinking, civic engagement, and democratization, for use as in the classroom is appealing to those seeking to use education as a means of social change. But activism does not always translate neatly to the classroom; melding multiple purposes into one approach, particularly amidst the current push for standardization and accountability measures, is complex. This analysis considers three challenges to navigate when reshaping YPAR into a curriculum for classroom use - preserving authenticity, conflicting aims, and tensions around authority. Drawing upon qualitative data from the social studies classrooms of two public high schools, this article engages directly with the difficulties inherent in adapting a methodology premised on action, authenticity, and youth empowerment to the adult driven, extrinsically oriented, skills and content-focused world of the classroom. Understanding this shift, and the epistemological tensions underlying it, is essential for those wishing to integrate action research with youth into social studies classrooms.
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The Every Student Succeeds Act redefines the priorities of our nation’s education system. Prior to its passage, turnaround strategies advanced solutions for low-performing schools. Research literature examining how these reforms impacted the schooling experiences of students attending these schools is lacking. We present the results of a qualitative case study of a reconstituted urban school in the Southwest United States, providing the perspectives of 10 students with dis/abilities and the effects accountability reform efforts had on their high school experience. Three expressed needs and desires were identified: (a) a positive school identity, (b) stability, and (c) to be recognized and heard.
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ABSTRACT One of the aims of participatory action research (PAR) is to bring realities of lives closer together through dialogue and ‘conscientization’, raising critical awareness among participants from all backgrounds. Promoting participation often assumes a power shift from the decision-makers to the majority of society, who can be the end-receivers of decisions made. Once some kind of awareness is achieved, the participants should be able to challenge the causes of their perceived oppression, or resolve the suffering that is endured, if that is what they hope to achieve. However, the situation is more complex in many contemporary societies, in which there are not only differing cultural beliefs related to religion, but different ontologies about being and living in the world. There is much contemporary debate about the possibilities of critique that take on board divergent sociomaterial realities within the same classroom. Practical and structural differences can pose challenges to conducting PAR research. In this article, we address the distinctive nature of PAR in relation to a culturally diverse group of participants. We argue that research using a PAR framework can result in subtle ethical challenges, which also provide insights for opportunities and strategies. Drawing from the authors’ experiences in multicultural education and working with culturally diverse youth and postgraduate students, opportunities and challenges of applying a PAR approach are discussed. We conclude with the suggestion that PAR remains consistent with its original transformative goals, but also remain open to further explorations of activism that address pressing contemporary concerns within culturally complex societies.
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This study describes the phenomenon of framed participation, which constrains children’s participation frameworks within a confined area of decision-making. It draws on interviews and focus groups with 32 children who participated in eight Israeli municipal youth councils, ranging in age from 13 to 18. In addition, five interviews were conducted with adult leaders of youth councils. The study showed that council activities remained confined to the particular municipal department responsible for them and comprised mostly the organization of leisure activities, such as parties, performances, and group trips for youth. Yet, almost all the children participating in the study perceived the organization of leisure activities as “meaningful” participation, which “succeeds,” “empowers,” and “leads.” The adult leaders acknowledged the framed participation and, while critical of it, preferred to remain within the comfort zone of their professional responsibility. We argue that when framed participation entails the organization of popular activities, in which the municipality invests considerable resources, the ensuing positive experiences may frame the children’s rights consciousness and critical thinking. We also discuss the institutional conditions that may shape framed participation, and the role of human rights education in building children’s capacity to mobilize their participation rights.
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This article reports findings from qualitative case studies of three youth-led community arts hubs, a program that is rooted in, and utilizes a self-determined learning approach. Qualitative case studies of three program sites sought generate meaningful data that could lead to rapid ongoing program development and inform the development and delivery of new program sites. Multiple lines of inquiry were utilized, including observations, and focus groups at all three program sites were designed to gather outcomes and demographic data from participating youth, as well as interviews with program staff. Findings indicate that the program is more successful engaging youth when using primarily self-directed and youth-led approaches to learning and program delivery when compared to adult-driven and more structured activities. The findings of these qualitative case studies also hint at the program having a positive impact on participating youth, helping them build confidence, and strengthening their artisti...
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This article explores how two elementary school students responded to their teacher’s invitation in a civic classroom to make a difference to the world. We consider how the teacher framed the construct of civic efficacy and how the students refracted these ideas in their navigation of a civic education project. Closely analyzing these students’ experiences and responses, we question what differences are made when students are encouraged to think of themselves as citizens who can make a difference. Noting dissonances and ambivalences in the students’ responses, the conceptual resources of “figured worlds” enable an analysis of the interplay of discourses, interactions, sensory experiences, and material artifacts as civic identities are constituted. The two students’ differing responses are analyzed in relation to other figured worlds that students and teachers daily negotiate: of compliant citizenship, productive citizenship, and consumer citizenship. The overlaps, dissonances, and/or divergences in discourses and artifacts from various figured worlds of citizenship render some students more recognizable as civically “engaged” and “efficacious” than others.
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Past practices shape and limit the design imagination of teachers, pupils, parents, governors and others concerned with designing modern schools. Bringing histories of education to the table in the participatory design process of new school buildings and curricula is necessary. Schools having an extraordinary past have the potential to draw from that prefigurative practice. This paper reports a case study on how the Kees Boeke School in The Netherlands recently has returned to its own history in addressing the needs of its current and future learners in a redesign project. Through addressing the question of how the redesign might reflect a reconnection with the original vision of education espoused by Boeke - learning in relative freedom, with awareness of responsibilities for own and community's well-being - the school management, architects, teachers and students took part in a participatory design process. That process and the resulting school design is discussed. From this case study we argue that past adventures in education can inspire current redesign. Past experiences as well as concerns and beliefs about the future are an inevitable influence on initiatives to realise schools for the future, both for schools with experimental and traditional histories.
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Building democracies in K-8 schools is a promising approach to increasing young people and educators’ civic knowledge, skills and dispositions. The Rendell Center for Civics and Civics Engagement leveraged strategies and concepts from the fields of civic education, student voice, and distributed leadership to build a youth-adult school governance system and schoolwide civic literacy curriculum at Edwin M. Stanton Elementary School in the School District of Philadelphia. Their yearlong effort to build schoolwide civic learning illustrates how civics can be an effective conduit for connecting curriculum and leadership practices: School improvement becomes both a collective endeavor and a means for teaching active citizenship.
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Although most individuals pass through adolescence without excessively high levels of "storm and stress," many do experience difficulty. Why? Is there something unique about this developmental period that puts adolescents at risk for difficulty? This article focuses on this question and advances the hypothesis that some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environments. It provides examples of how this mismatch develops in the school and in the home and how it is linked to negative age-related changes in early adolescents' motivation and self-perceptions. Ways in which more developmentally appropriate social environments can be created are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper discusses a case study in teacher education in Sweden, focusing on creating spaces for student engagement through co-creating curriculum. It highlights democratic values and a multidimensional learning view as underpinning such endeavors. The main findings are that co-creating curriculum is an ambiguous process entailing unpredictable, thought-provoking, motivational, collaborative, and transformative aspects. The conclusion points to the importance of challenging traditional roles of students and teachers as well as organizational structures and regulations, and argues that academic developers have a vital role in supporting teachers in creating spaces for larger-scale student engagement initiatives.
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Administrators and teachers face changes prompted by the shift to Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) offers a promising approach to supporting students in mastering new content standards, while also offering experiences that promote their sociopolitical development and civic agency. In YPAR, students work with a teacher or other adult ally to critically reflect upon the social and political forces influencing their lives, identify a pressing problem or school need, study it through systematic research, and then develop an action plan to raise awareness or change a policy. Because of its emphasis on educational relevance, critical consciousness, and social justice, YPAR is an especially promising strategy with young people who experience racism or other forms of marginalization in school. In this article we describe the YPAR cycle, make an argument for how it creates opportunities for academic learning, sociopolitical development, and youth leadership, and provide examples of what this might look like in practice. YPAR offers a curricular approach that addresses academic objectives while also supporting democratic education and the sociopolitical development of students.
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This article is based on a pedagogical action research initiative carried out in a Finnish primary school. Twenty-four 5th grade pupils and their teacher participated in the study. The research initiative was guided by two questions: (1) How do pupils experience their classroom practices? (2) How can pupils participate in the process of developing classroom practices through diamond ranking? Photographs, diamond ranking and written narratives functioned as mediating tools between the pupils’ experiences and the narratives of their classroom experiences. Drama lessons were the experiences that were most appreciated by the pupils. The pupils ranked experiential learning, learning games and group work activities as medium-level experiences in the learning projects. They ranked activities that were strictly structured, such as tasks from a book or notebook exercises, at the bottom of the diamond. In sum, the study reveals that diamond ranking, together with written narratives, worked well as a tool to capture the pupils’ experiences of classroom pedagogy. The activity gave each pupil the opportunity to participate in the process of gathering and analysing data, and to acquire agency in evaluating and developing classroom practices.
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This article explores the power of student voice, in recognition of the child's right to be treated as a capable, competent social actor involved in the education process. In this study, student voice is considered in the light of improving students' engagement and personal and social development at the primary school level. It emphasizes the importance of soliciting and respecting students' voice through their involvement as individuals in collective decision-making and governance as part of a “Students' Parliament.” The aim is to understand how children view their roles and opportunities to be involved in making decisions about their own learning and about the wider school community. The study has significant implications for educators about ways of effectively and respectfully engaging students in matters that are important to them, which in turn has a positive impact on students' engagement, motivation, and individual development.
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Over the last decade, there has been a resurgence of interest within the higher education sector in students becoming producers, partners and co-creators of their own learning (Bovill, Cook-Sather, & Felten, 2011; Little, 2011; Neary & Winn, 2009; Werder & Otis, 2010). Individual academic staff and some institutions are creating exciting ways of engaging students more meaningfully in curriculum design. This chapter explores the literature and examples of practice and analyses whether students and staff co-creating curricula can be considered as good practice. I present background literature and an overview of some of the rationales given by staff to explain why they are interested in providing opportunities for students to co-create curricula. I also briefly outline some of the benefits resulting from the processes and outcomes of co-created curricula. I then summarise a range of examples to illustrate ways in which students and staff are working together to co-create curricula. Finally, using Chickering and Gamson's (1987) seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education, I analyse whether students and staff co-creating curricula demonstrates any of these seven principles of good practice.
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Sexuality education in African contexts is riddled with socio-cultural complexity, tension and taboo. Such tensions are compounded when the focus of intervention is primary school children who are presumed ‘innocent’. However, sub-Saharan Africa remains the region of the world most severely impacted upon by the human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, thus heightening the need to talk to children about sex and sexuality. This paper explores the role of consulting pupils, participation and dialogue as methodological innovations that have the potential to enable new ways of thinking about sex and sexuality and the transcendence of ‘dead end debates’ about what should and should not be taught. The paper is based on data from an action research project in Kenya, Ghana and Swaziland. The data show that the desire to create a space characterised by consultation, listening and dialogue in which adults and children could participate ‘as if’ they were social equals was inevitably not straightforward or ever fully realised. Nevertheless, pupils were able to make their voices heard at many points in these spaces and powerful moments of dialogue did exist with some of the adults undergoing significant changes of opinion throughout the process.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the nationwide historic trend of elementary social studies marginalization compared to math, science, and language arts. Incorporating 17 years of data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors conducted comparative analyses to investigate differences in instructional time between elementary social studies and other core subject areas. In addition, variance of social studies instructional time was examined across grade levels and survey years. The results indicate that social studies instruction has remained a subsidiary part of K-5 curriculum over the last two decades. Moreover, between grade-level analyses shows a trend toward greater attention to social studies in intermediate grades (3–5) compared to primary grades (K-2). A significant decline in social studies instruction coincided with educational policy that places greater importance on mathematics and language arts. The authors conclude that while No Child Left Behind legislation has magnified trends in decreased instructional time for social studies, this federal mandate is not the sole reason for the decline of social studies within elementary curriculum. They argue that the marginalization of social studies is an enduring trend over the last two decades, a byproduct of an educational policy shift toward national standardization.
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The United Nations Convention and the Swedish curriculum for pre-school clearly state the right of children to express their views in all matters of concern to them. It is imperative, therefore, that an evaluation of the quality of early childhood education includes the voices of children. Without these, an essential part of how children experience quality within various childcare settings as well as an overall understanding of quality in early childhood education is missing. In a study carried out in a small community in Sweden, the quality of various pre-school settings was evaluated both by an external evaluator and by self-evaluations. From the results of the external evaluations, three pre-school units evaluated to be of low quality and three of good quality were selected for in-depth studies. Thirty-nine 5 year-old children from these pre-school units were interviewed about their conceptions of decision-making and how they experienced the opportunities for them to exercise influence in their pre-school setting. The results show that it is vital for the children to participate in decision-making and the meanings given by the children to the concept 'to decide', have been grouped into five qualitatively different categories.
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The authors report on a telephone poll with a nationally representative sample of 1,425 U.S. adults in which they investigated how parental status and age of child might affect patterns of adult engagement with children and youth outside their own families. Compared to nonparents, parents considered 12 of 20 ways of being involved with young people to be significantly more important for all adults to do. This result suggests that fears of negative parent reaction about other adults’ involvement may be exaggerated. Parents and nonparents alike rated it more important for unrelated adults to engage with children than with adolescents, and adults, in general, actually engaged more with those younger children than with adolescents. Community efforts that raise explicit awareness of how supportive parents are of such relationships may help create new social norms in which positive engagement with other people’s children and especially adolescents is expected and supported.
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This article explores some of the theoretical underpinnings of radical approaches to student voice and examines a number of practical issues we need to address if we wish to move towards a more transformative future. The framework within which the notion of voice is explored and critiqued falls primarily into two categories. The first, Deconstructing the presumptions of the present, explores the largely ignored problematic of much student voice work. (1) ‘Problems of speaking about others’, (2) ‘Problems of speaking for others’, and problems of (3) ‘Getting heard’ reveal a range of issues that need to be better understood and acknowledged. The second, On the necessity of dialogue, attempts a resolution, exploring the possibility of (4) ‘Speaking about/for others in supportive ways’ before offering the preferred (5) ‘Dialogic alternative: speaking with rather than for’ and further developing that line of enquiry through (6) ‘Students as co/researchers’. Finally, (7) ‘Recalcitrant realities, new opportunities’ offers some ambivalent, but still hopeful thoughts about current ­realities and future possibilities.
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This paper reviews research on students’ concepts and theories of fair and effective educational practices and casts them as insightful critics of schooling who should be included in the negotiation of academic practices. Formal interviews show that students consider the goal or definition of the situation when evaluating the fairness of practices, and that conceptions of fairness develop differently for each type of situation. Students also hold different theories about how school should be defined and which situations should predominate. Moral education programmes could encourage students and teachers to negotiate fair classroom practices, creating a community of scholars who collaborate to build more fair and effective schools.
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Realising Innovative Partnerships in Educational Research examines the underlying principles and actions that support the development of and engagement in partnerships in educational research. With social justice at its core, the work in this book represents various architectures of innovation, whereby new ways of thinking about partnership research are proposed and practices of teaching and learning are reconciled (or not) with existing education contexts and practices. With contributions from educational researchers and practitioners from New Zealand, and international commentaries provided by established scholars in the field, the book draws together key experiences and insights from students, teachers, community members and researchers in tertiary, community, school, and early childhood settings. The research in this book seeks to address a gap in our understanding, extending knowledge beyond simply the benefits of partnership work, to examine how successful partnerships can be initiated, enacted, and sustained over time. This book invites reflection on the following provocations: Why engage in partnerships for educational research? How has this happened in the past and what needs to happen for the future? What is unique about the New Zealand context and what might researchers in other countries learn from our collaborative and culturally responsive research methodologies? What could be some of the underlying principles that support the development of and engagement in collaborative research? How do we evaluate the effectiveness of research partnerships in education to shift the focus to the future?
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•Youth-led participatory budgeting is one mechanism for engaging youth in governmental decision-making.•Youth desired on-going training and support from adult allies throughout the participatory budgeting process.•Through participatory budgeting, youth learned about the inner workings of city government and experienced a sense of legitimacy in decision-making.•Youth-led participatory budgeting has potential for engaging diverse youth constituencies in community decision-making.
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An act of respect when researching with indigenous children is recognising the community’s code of ethics, its intellectual and environmental property, and acknowledging its right to self-determination. Within India, the indigenous communities constitute over 84 million people, but their voice has been marginalised particularly in the context of education. This paper foregrounds ethical considerations when researching with indigenous groups, specifically outlining dilemmas that arose from working alongside Sabar children of Jharkhand, India. It identifies how ethnomethodological methods and participatory tools have empowered this marginalised voice, enabling multinodal expressions and access to data that other methods may not have elicited. Findings highlight children as legitimate meaning-makers of their world, as ‘beings’, and not merely ‘becomings’. The paper discusses the ethical strategies adopted in consideration of its indigenous participants that have enabled generation of data beyond barriers of language, power and privilege. It navigates the nature and practice of ethics examined in the context of indigeneity through acknowledgement of ‘paradigmatic’ and ‘situated’ ethics, and an ethic of reciprocity. It concludes the relevance of ethics of difference in postcolonial education and research.
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Research with children involving their use of digital and mobile technologies either as a methodological tool or in relation to their learning foregrounds emerging ethical issues and practices. This paper explores some of the ethical and practical challenges we faced in studies involving the recruitment of young children as research participants, and where the integrity of these research collaborations was critical. We propose an ethical framework to foreground these challenges that is shaped by a view of children as social actors and experts on their own lives, information and communication technologies as ubiquitous in children’s lives, and ethics as a situated and multifaceted responsibility. This framework has three aspects: access, authenticity and advocacy. We draw on examples from different research projects and use ethically important moments to illustrate how notions of access, authenticity and advocacy can foreground the ethical challenges in teaching–learning research contexts to better consider and offer children greater agency in research collaborations.
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This article discusses ethical issues involved in facilitating the research of young people on controversial issues. This article considers the potential ethical dilemmas of teachers facilitating a particular form of activism – youth participatory action research (YPAR). We consider how teachers foster school-wide conversations on difficult issues and support students who wish to take a critical stand on issues of race, class and gender. The article also discusses how to scaffold the exploration of topics that require emotional maturity and might lead to shifts in beliefs that run counter to the values of one’s family.
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Understanding and working with ethical issues when including young children in educational research is critical to ensuring their involvement is meaningful. Increasingly, different methodological approaches have been used to address some of these issues, and the use of visual methods is showing particular potential for its age appropriateness. This paper will specifically focus on three examples of drawing based visual method used with samples of children across compulsory school age from the Learning to Learn in Schools project: Pupil View Templates (n = 263, age range 4–12 years), cartoon storyboards (n = 210, age range 4– 16 years) and fortune lines (n = 69, 4–14 years). The discussion of each method will be framed from a pragmatic perspective and will particularly focus on the ethics of process and output, how the method was used and the data that were analysed. Questions will be asked about the considerations that need to be made when including young children in data sets with other older school-aged children and dilemmas identified: the affordances and constraints of visual approaches for all participants, the role of the visual as mediator, the role and positioning of the adult support and the impact this has on the nature of the data elicited.
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This study explored the development of foster youths' voices in one state youth advisory board (YAB) from the perspective of program staff and child welfare liaisons and administrators (referred to as ‘facilitators’). Our aim was to understand how youth voice is defined and activated on a foster youth advisory board. In-depth interviews with 13 facilitators of a YAB in a Mid-western state were conducted between August 2013 and June 2014. These interviews were a part of a larger study that investigated what 33 current and former elected officers of a YAB learned from participation. Each interview lasted between 1 and 1/2 to 2 h. A grounded dimensional analysis was used to investigate facilitators' perceptions of the impact of participation on the development of advocacy for self and others. Findings indicated that the belief system of facilitators, provision of social support, opportunities to try new roles, and state agency leadership contributed to the cultivation of foster youths' voices through two parallel processes: personalization and professionalization. Suggestions for practice and program development are made to enhance sustainability and decrease tokenization of foster youths' voices in child welfare systems.
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The exploration of social networking sites (SNS) in promoting social change efforts offers great potential within the field of community psychology. Online communities on SNS provide opportunities for bridging across groups, thus fostering the exchange of novel ideas and practices. Currently, there have only been limited efforts to examine SNS within the context of youth-led efforts. To explore the potential of SNS to facilitate the diffusion of social justice efforts between distinct youth groups, we linked three school-based youth-led participatory action research projects involving 54 high school students through a SNS. This study offers an innovative methodological approach and framework, utilizing social network analysis and strategic sampling of key student informants to investigate what individual behaviors and online network features predict student adoption of social change efforts. Findings highlight prospective facilitators and barriers to diffusion processes within a youth-led online network, as well as key constructs that may inform future research. We conclude by providing suggestions for scholars and practitioners interested in examining how SNS can be used to enhance the diffusion of social justice strategies, youth-led engagement efforts, and large-scale civic organizing.
Chapter
Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise—at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development.
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This chapter focuses on student voice in the school evaluation process. The New York City Department of Education conducts annual Quality Reviews of K-12 public schools to evaluate their effectiveness. Throughout the two-or three-day school visit, reviewers meet with school leaders, teachers, students, and parents and observe classrooms. The review results in a final score and a report, which are both shared with the public. In 2012, as members of the Student Voice Collaborative (SVC), we were given the opportunity to participate in Quality Reviews as the first student shadows ever. This initiative was part of SVC's yearlong effort to answer the question, "What is student voice?" through first-hand research. In this chapter, we explain how we used the results of our research to design a student voice rubric to help guide our collaborative school improvement work. We share how our rubric informed and was informed by our shadowing experiences, and we detail the ways in which our involvement in SVC has impacted us, our schools, and the school system, particularly as we recommended changes to the Quality Review process.
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Youth organizing groups combine strategies from the fields of youth development and community organizing in order to mobilize young people to take collective action. Significantly, organizing work acknowledges that youth are commonly blamed for social problems that are beyond their control and repositions these youth as agents of positive social change. This approach complicates policy scholarship, which understands stakeholders as targets of policy initiatives. In a seminal work on public policy, Schneider and Ingram identify four quadrants in which target populations can be placed by policy formulations: advantaged (those with high power and a positive valence), contenders (those with high power and a negative valence), dependents (those with low power and a positive valence) and deviants (those with low power and a negative valence). Schneider and Ingram point out that young people are generally positioned as dependents. However, this chapter draws on empirical data from one youth organizing group to demonstrate how youth assert themselves as powerful stakeholders in important decisionmaking processes, contradicting policymakers' construction of them as passive and weak.
Book
This book offers an innovative look at the pre- and post-migration educational experiences of immigrant young adults with a particular focus on members of the Latino community. Combining quantitative data with original interviews, this book provides an engaging and nuanced look at a population that is both ubiquitous and overlooked, challenging existing assumptions about those categorized as ‘dropouts’ and closely examining the historical contexts for educational interruption in the chosen subgroup. The combination of accessible prose and compelling new statistical data appeals to a wide audience, particularly academic professionals, education practitioners and policy-makers.
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For the most part, discussions about developing strategies to solve educational problems lack the perspectives of one of the very groups they most affect — students, especially those students who are categorized as "problems" and are most oppressed by traditional educational structures and procedures. In this article, Sonia Nieto uses interviews to develop case studies of young people from a wide variety of ethnic, racial, linguistics, and social-class backgrounds who at the time interviewed were attending and successfully completing junior or senior high school. By focusing on students' thoughts about a number of school policies and practices and on the effects of racism and other forms of discrimination on their education, Nieto explores what characteristics of these students' specific experiences helped them remain and succeed in school, despite the obstacles. In essence, these are lessons from students, and Nieto believes that in order to reflect critically on school reform, students need to be includ...
Article
In this article, Vivian Chavez and Elisabeth Soep explore the collaboration among youth and adult participants at Youth Radio, a broadcast-training program in the San Francisco Bay Area. At Youth Radio, participants transcend the conventional relationship between adult "teachers" and youth "learners" to coproduce media products. Chavez and Soep introduce the concept of "pedagogy of collegiality" to describe this process. Using two case studies, they demonstrate the four features of this pedagogy: joint framing, youth-led inquiry, mediated intervention, and distributed accountability. Chavez and Soep articulate a framework that recognizes the asymmetrical relationships among adults and disenfranchised youth while presenting a nuanced alternative. Their work contributes to the growing literature illuminating the role of youth media as a tool for expanding democratic participation.