Model-free and learning-free grasping
by Local Contact Moment matching
Maxime Adjigble1, Naresh Marturi1, Valerio Ortenzi2, Vijaykumar Rajasekaran1,
Peter Corke2, and Rustam Stolkin1
Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of grasping arbi-
trarily shaped objects, observed as partial point-clouds, without
requiring: models of the objects, physics parameters, training
data, or other a-priori knowledge. A grasp metric is proposed
based on Local Contact Moment (LoCoMo). LoCoMo combines
zero-moment shift features, of both hand and object surface
patches, to determine local similarity. This metric is then used
to search for a set of feasible grasp poses with associated grasp
likelihoods. LoCoMo overcomes some limitations of both classical
grasp planners and learning-based approaches. Unlike force-
closure analysis, LoCoMo does not require knowledge of physical
parameters such as friction coefﬁcients, and avoids assumptions
about ﬁngertip contacts, instead enabling robust contacts of large
areas of hand and object surface. Unlike more recent learning-
based approaches, LoCoMo does not require training data, and
does not need any prototype grasp conﬁgurations to be taught
by kinesthetic demonstration. We present results of real-robot
experiments grasping 21 different objects, observed by a wrist-
mounted depth camera. All objects are grasped successfully when
presented to the robot individually. The robot also successfully
clears cluttered heaps of objects by sequentially grasping and
lifting objects until none remain.
Robots have been routinely and reliably grasping a vast
variety of objects in manufacturing environments for several
decades. This is based on simple pre-programmed actions, on
exactly pre-deﬁned objects, in highly structured environments.
However, autonomous, vision-guided grasping, in unstructured
environments, remains an open research problem. In this paper,
we assume that the robot has a model of itself, but does not
have any models or prior knowledge of the objects that it is
tasked with grasping. These objects may take arbitrary shape
and appear amidst clutter, observed as noisy partial point-
clouds. Our main contribution is to show how this problem
can be approached without needing either classical physics
analysis, or any learning from training data.
Classical grasping methods based on physics analysis ,
 typically require the robot to have detailed knowledge of
the grasped object’s shape, mass and mass distribution, and
friction coefﬁcients between object surfaces and hand parts. It
is common to assume point or ﬁngertip contacts, with contacts
of large surface areas of the hand becoming analytically
intractable. More recent work has investigated a variety of
machine learning approaches to grasping –. Learning
1M.Adjigble, N. Marturi, V. Rajasekaran and R. Stolkin are with the
Extreme Robotics Laboratory, School of Metallurgy and Materials, University
of Birmingham, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
2V. Ortenzi and P. Corke are with the ARC Centre of Excellence for
Robotic Vision, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane QLD 4001,
Figure 1. (Top-left) Point cloud of the object. (Top-right) Contact moment
features for a single ﬁnger with planar surface. Red, yellow and green
respectively encodes increasing values of the metric in this order computed
using (3). (Bottom-left) Generated grasp with the highest contact probability.
(Bottom-right) Grasp executed on the robot.
approaches seek to encode a more direct link between the
geometry of a scene (typically observed as a point-cloud) and
grasp hypotheses. Such methods have signiﬁcantly contributed
to overcoming limitations of classical methods. However,
all of these methods require training data (some more and
some less). Most of these methods also require prototypical
grasps (pinch-grasp, power-grasp, edge-grasp etc.) to be taught
by kinesthetic demonstration or pre-progamming, albeit that
learning-based methods can often adapt these pre-taught hand
conﬁgurations to new object shapes (generalisation) with some
In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for computing
robust grasp hypotheses on arbitrarily shaped objects. The
overall grasping pipeline is depicted in Fig. 1. Given a point-
cloud view of a surface, and the kinematics of the robot’s
arm and hand, our algorithm outputs a variety of feasible
grasp poses for the hand, and evaluates each according to a
novel grasp likelihood metric. A collision-free reach-to-grasp
trajectory is then sought, and the highest-likelihood reachable
grasp is executed. Like recent learning-based methods, our
method also maps observed surface shapes directly to grasp
hypotheses. However, this mapping is not achieved by learn-
ing, does not require any training data, nor does it require any
kinesthetic teaching or pre-programming of prototypical grasp
conﬁgurations. Instead, we propose a novel grasp likelihood
metric, the local contact moment probability function, which
evaluates the shape compatibility between local parts of hand
or ﬁnger surface, and local parts of an observed point-cloud.
Local contact moment (LoCoMo) is based on computing
zero-moment shift features for local parts of the observed point
cloud, and also parts of the robot’s hand. First described in the
computer graphics literature , zero moment shift features
represent the characteristics of limited regions of surfaces,
and are especially good at encoding information about surface
curvature, Fig. 2, which is particularly important for matching
hand parts to a grasped object. These features represent the
surface characteristics of a limited region of the point cloud,
hence they are “local” features. Also, they are computed on
the point cloud without the need of any a-priori knowledge of
the object (i.e., model-free).
Using LoCoMo as a ﬁtness function, a point-cloud surface
can be efﬁciently searched for good matches to ﬁnger surface
geometry. Kinematic analysis then yields a set of feasible
grasps, with each grasp associated with a grasp likelihood.
The motion-space of the arm is then explored to ﬁnd collision-
free reach-to-grasp trajectories to the highest likelihood grasp
The main contributions of this work are:
•We propose the use of zero moment shift features  for
•We propose a new metric, the local contact moment
probability function, for evaluating compatibility between
the surface geometries of local parts of both object and
gripper. This metric is model-free, and does not need to
be learned from training data.
•Exploitation of the kinematics of the robot to select a
subset of the graspable points, ﬁrst identiﬁed by LoCoMo,
that are kinematically reachable and feasible for the arm
and hand system.
The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section
II highlights the novelties of this work with respect to related
literature. Section III describes the technical details of our
proposed method. Section IV shows the results of a number
of experiments conducted using a Schunk industrial two-ﬁnger
hand mounted on a KUKA LBR iiwa manipulator arm. Section
V provides concluding remarks.
II. RE LATE D WOR K
Classical approaches to grasping predominantly use
physics-based analysis to compute force-closure –.
Most of these approaches rely on a large amount of a-
priori knowledge. They typically assume that an accurate and
complete 3D model of the object is known, as well as its mass,
mass distribution and also coefﬁcients of friction between the
object’s surfaces and parts of the robot hand. In contrast, in
many real applications, a robot may be required to grasp a
previously unknown object of arbitrary shape, observed as a
partial point-cloud view, for which friction coefﬁcients and
mass distribution are generally unknown. Many of these classi-
cal force-closure approaches are also restricted to assumptions
of ﬁngertip contacts only. Physics-based analysis becomes
problematic when large patches of hand surface come into
contact with the object (unlike many human grasps such as the
“power grasp” where large surfaces of the hand are wrapped
around the object).
More recent approaches have explored various forms of
learning, , –. Learning-based methods overcome
some of the limitations of classical methods, and have shown
potential for generalising to grasping novel object shapes. 
achieved moderately successful grasping, by learning a direct
mapping between visual stimuli and motor outputs. Learning
was achieved via robots making exploratory motions coupled
with reinforcement. The system was able to synthesize novel
grasping policies, but relied on enormous amounts of training
data, involving large numbers of robots performing exploratory
actions over a long period of time.  minimised the amount
of reinforcement learning needed, by initiating learning from
close-to-good grasp poses by kinesthetic demonstration using
a data glove. In contrast,  showed signiﬁcant ability to
generalise grasping to novel objects, achieved by “one-shot”
learning, i.e., the robot was taught a single grasp on a single
object, and was then able to plan successful grasps on new
shapes.  learned “local” models of relationships between
hand-parts and the curvatures of object surface patches. How-
ever, these must be combined with a “global” model of hand
shape, corresponding to a grasp prototype (pinch grasp, power
grasp, etc.) which is taught by demonstration. The method
therefore remains unable to synthesize novel grasp prototypes
that have not been taught.
Like the above learning approaches, our method also does
not rely on object models or physics knowledge. Like  it
exploits local descriptors of ﬁnger contacts (but a different
kind). However, our method requires no training data, and
can synthesize its own grasp hypotheses without any need of
We present a method to address robotic grasping based on
the LoCoMo metric between the object and the gripper. This
similarity metric between the features on the object and the
features on the gripper is used to select viable ﬁnger poses on
the surface of the object which are then combined with the
kinematics of the gripper to form a grasp. In the following,
we assume a model of the gripper, in this case a parallel jaw
The algorithm is given a (partial) point cloud of an object,
and ﬁrst computes the zero-moment shift features on the point
cloud. The same features are extracted on the point cloud
of the gripper model. These features of object and gripper
are then used together to compute a local shape similarity
metric between object and gripper. The main idea is to ﬁnd the
points that maximise the contact surface and to use only areas
of the object that match the surface curvature of the ﬁngers
of the gripper for the grasp. Finally, a feasibility analysis is
performed to select the subset of pairs of points which are
Figure 2. Local surface classiﬁcation base on the zero moment shift of the
Stanford Bunny. The colors Red, Yellow, Green and Blue encode in increasing
order the magnitude of the L1 norm of the zero-moment shift vector. High
values (Blue) incurs on the ears with high curvatures and low values (Red)
on surfaces with low curvatures. Left: ρ= 0.008, right:ρ= 0.016.
returned from the previous action and which are kinematically
feasible for the gripper.
A. Features Extraction and Matching Metric
Over the years, various local visual features have been
presented in the literature and were previously used for tasks
such as 2D/3D object recognition and pose estimation, –
. In this work we propose the use of zero-moment shift
features for grasping arbitrarily shaped objects.
Let Bρ(X)represent the Euclidean sphere of radius ρ
centered at a point X∈R3. Given a set of points Xin R3,
the zero-moment shift nρof the set of points ξ=X ∩Bρ(X),
belonging to the sphere Bρ(X), can be expressed as
ρ(ξ) = 1
ρ(ξ)represents the zero moment (or centroid) of the
set of points ξbelonging to the sphere Bρ(X).Xiis a point
sampled from ξand Nthe total number of points in ξ.
The L1 norm |nρ|of the zero-moment shift is a good
indicator of the characteristics of the underlying surface of the
set of points, as shown in Fig. 2. It can be used in conjunction
with a classiﬁer to robustly distinguish smooth surfaces from
edges, and also be used in conjunction with the ﬁrst-moment
of the set of points to provide a robust surface classiﬁcation for
noisy point cloud or mesh models as presented in . In this
work, we focus on the use of the zero-moment shift to compute
a similarity metric between two arbitrary surfaces. We assume
that the set of point is already preprocessed and ﬁltered of
outliers. Comparing two local surfaces is then reduced to
comparing the zero-moment shift of the two surfaces. To
this end, we introduce the LoCoMo probability function Cϵ
between two surfaces
Cρ= 1 −max(x, ϕ(x,
ϕrepresents the multivariate Gaussian density function
ϕ(X, µ, Σ) = 1
where X, µ ∈Rn,Σis the covariance matrix and nthe space
0is the null vector of R3,εthe error between the
two zero-moment shift vectors deﬁned as
ρare expressed in the same reference frame.
max(x, ϕ(x, ...)) is the maximum value of the function
ϕ(x, ...)for all x∈R3. The zero-moment shift vectors can be
projected on the axis of the normal and the axis orthogonal to
the normal of the surface to obtain a new set of coordinates
(n∥, n⊥,0) which can be used for the computation of (5).
This LoCoMo metric based on zero-moment shift features is
extremely useful for grasping, as it provides a clear indication
of the local contact between the surfaces of a gripper and an
B. Grasp Selection and Ranking
Selecting stable grasps is crucial to guarantee the success
of a grasp. Several analytic methods use force closure, such as
 and . Force closure guarantees a static equilibrium be-
tween the contact forces. Furthermore, the interaction between
two surfaces in contact can be reduced to one or multiple
contact points as described in . These assumptions are
necessary conditions for a stable grasp selection, however they
are not sufﬁcient conditions for a stable grasp, as mentioned
The problem of generating grasp candidates can be formu-
lated as sampling ﬁnger poses on the surface of the object,
and combining them using the kinematics of the gripper to
form a grasp as described in . Our method computes the
contact probability Cias given by (7) for each ﬁnger and uses
the kinematics of the gripper to select a set of ﬁnger poses to
form a grasp. The local contact probability Cρis computed
for an inﬁnitesimal surface in a sphere of radius ρ. In order
to account for the entire shape of a ﬁnger, Cρneeds to be
integrated over its entire surface. We also introduce R, the
ranking metric (given by (6)), to rank the grasps by computing
the weighted product of the contact probability for each ﬁnger.
where, kis a normalizing term, wiare weights satisfying
i=1 wi= 1,nfthe number of ﬁngers, Cithe contact
probability for a ﬁnger deﬁned in (7), nthe number of points in
the vicinity of the ﬁnger, Nsa normalizing term representing
the maximum number of points in the vicinity of the ﬁnger,
ρthe local contact moment probability between a point on
the point cloud and its orthogonal projection on the surface of
the gripper. More information on how to combine probability
Algorithm 1: Grasp generation and ranking.
Data: Point Cloud X, Fingers’ 3D model, Sphere
Result: Top-k grasps
1Compute the surface normal at each point X∈ X
2for ∀X∈ X do
3Select the set of points ξin Bρ(X)
4Compute nρwith (1)
6for each ﬁnger do
7for ∀X∈ X do
8Sample several ﬁnger poses Pfaround X
9for p∈ Pfdo
10 Select the set of points Xswithin a
distance dfrom the surface of the ﬁnger
11 for Xs∈ Xsdo
12 Project Xson the ﬁnger’s surface
13 Compute Cs,Xs
15 Compute Ciwith (7)
16 Append Pfto P
20 Find F, the set of ﬁnger poses in Psatisfying the
kinematic constraints of the gripper
21 for ∀f∈ F do
22 Compute Rwith (6)
24 Order Fby decreasing order of R
25 Sample gripper pose from F
26 return the Top-k grasp poses
distributions can be found in . A summary of the method
can be found in Alg. 1.
IV. EXP ER IM EN TAL RESULTS
A. Experimental setup
Our experimental setup (shown in Fig. 3) comprises a 7
degrees of freedom KUKA LBR iiwa arm whose end-effector
is mounted with a Schunk PG70 parallel jaw gripper with
ﬂat ﬁngers. The maximum stroke of the gripper is 68 mm.
The developed method neither require any prior knowledge
of the scene nor use any object models. However, for each
grasping trial, the robot workspace containing test objects
is observed by moving a robot wrist-mounted Ensenso N35
depth camera to six different locations. Resulting partial point
clouds from all viewpoints are stitched together, in robot base
coordinate frame, to form a point cloud of the work scene.
After segmenting the ground plane, the resulting cloud is then
used by our method to generate grasp hypotheses. Hand-eye
calibration has been performed beforehand to transform the
KUKA 7 DoF robot
Figure 3. Hardware setup used to validate the proposed grasping method.
Figure 4. 21 objects used for the experiments. (left-column) spring clamp,
aluminum proﬁle, multi-head screwdriver, screwdriver, plastic strawberry, golf
ball; (middle) racquetball, plastic lemon , plastic nectarine, wood block, potted
meat can, electric hand drill, plastic bottle, gray pipe, white pipe; (right-
column) blue cup, hammer, bleach cleanser, gas knob, bamboo bowl, mustard
camera-acquired point cloud data to robot’s coordinate system
as well as to simplify the computations.
The proposed grasping method has been tested on 21
objects, as shown in Fig.4, comprising a wide variety of
shapes, masses, materials, and textures. 13 of them are from
the YCB object set . The objects are selected such that
they are small enough to be physically graspable by the used
Two sets of experiments were conducted. Firstly, we tested
the robot’s ability to grasp and lift individual objects from
SET OF OBJECTS USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT.
Object Success Rate 1st Grasp (5 Trials)
bleach cleanser 80% (4/5)
racquetball 100% (5/5
blue cup 80% (4/5)
aluminium proﬁle 100% (5/5)
plastic bottle 100% (5/5)
bamboo bowl 100% (5/5)
spring clamp 100% (5/5)
electric hand drill 80% (4/5)
gas knob 100% (5/5)
golf ball 100% (5/5)
hammer 100% (5/5)
plastic lemon 80% (4/5)
mustard container 100% (5/5)
plastic nectarine 100% (5/5)
gray pipe 100% (5/5)
potted meat can 40% (2/5)
screwdriver 100% (5/5)
plastic strawberry 100% (5/5)
multi-head screwdriver 100% (5/5)
white pipe 60% (3/5)
wood block 100% (5/5)
Success Rate 91.43% (96/105)
the surface of a table. Second set of tests were performed
to analyse the robot’s ability to clear randomly piled heaps of
objects, by grasping and lifting objects successively, until none
remained. During trials, running on an Intel Core i7-4790K
CPU @ 4.00GHz and 16 GB RAM, our method took 13.53
seconds (on an average) to generate 1500 grasp hypotheses
for a point cloud with 31183 data points corresponding to
a clutter scene of 13 Objects. This computational time is
distributed as follows. The local contact moment computation
is performed in 1.26 seconds (9.3%), the selection of ﬁnger
pairs with feasible gripper kinematics is done in 6.29 seconds
(46.5%), and the robot’s end effector pose sample and inverse
kinematics check takes up to 5.98 seconds (44.2%).
B. Grasping individual objects
Our ﬁrst experiment evaluates the robot’s ability to grasp
and lift individual objects off a ﬂat table surface. 21 objects
were used, with ﬁve grasping trials performed on each object.
For each of the ﬁve trials, we randomly placed each object
on the table with different orientations and positions. After
capturing and registering partial point-clouds from multiple
views, points belonging to the table surface are ﬁltered out and
the resulting object point cloud is then used to generate grasp
hypotheses, as described in Alg.1. The grasps are ranked, and
the grasp with the highest likelihood, Eq. (6), is executed. A
grasp is recorded as successful if the robot manages to grasp
and lift the object to a post-grasp position 20 cm above the
table, and hold the object for more than 10 seconds without
Table I shows the results of our algorithm when grasping
objects that are individually placed on a table. Fig.5 shows
images of successful grasps. The overall success rate for all
ﬁve trials on all 21 objects is 91.43% (96 successful grasps
Planned grasp Pre-grasp Grasp Post-grasp
Figure 5. Successful grasps for various objects. In each row, from left to
right, the ﬁrst image shows the point cloud of the object with the contact
moment probability and the highest ranked grasp; the second image shows
the pre-grasp position of the gripper; the third image shows the grasp; ﬁnally,
the fourth image shows the post-grasp position with the object grasped.
out of 105). In 97.14% (102/105), the LoCoMo algorithm
suggested viable grasps, but objects were dropped for other
reasons. For example the object was heavy, and the selected
grasp was far from the centre of mass, placing a large torque
on the gripper jaws, causing the object to twist loose. In the
case of the potted meat can, the success rate was only 40%
(2/5). This was due to shiny surfaces which caused a very
noisy point cloud.
In safety-critical, high-consequence industries, such as nu-
clear waste handling or other extreme environments, au-
tonomous robotics methods are likely to be introduced as
“operator-assistance technologies”, i.e., human-supervised au-
tonomy. In such cases, a human operator might select between
Figure 6. Three different cluttered scenes generated for validating our
several grasps that have been suggested by an autonomous
grasp planner. As a small step towards exploring such a
system, we repeated the ﬁrst experiment, however in each
attempt we allowed a human to choose one of the best ﬁve
grasp candidates suggested by the LoCoMo algorithm. In this
case, grasp success rose to 98%. This suggests that improved
performance might be obtained by combining LoCoMo with
other kinds of information, e.g., selecting grasps which result
in minimal torques.
C. Grasping objects from a cluttered heap
The second set of experiments was performed on cluttered,
self-occluding heaps of objects. For each heap, at least 6
objects were placed in a random pile. Three different heaps
were used, Fig. 6. The robot is tasked with clearing the
heap, by successively grasping and lifting objects until none
remain. No ground plane segmentation was performed in this
second experiment. However, the LoCoMo algorithm was able
to automatically label the ﬂat table surface as ungraspable,
i.e., excluding ﬂat surfaces, and focusing attention on objects,
appears to be an inherent behaviour of the algorithm.
At each iteration, grasps are generated, and the highest
ranked grasp is executed. Each object is removed without
replacement if the grasp is successful, and the experiment
is repeated until all the objects are grasped or the algorithm
reports that it cannot identify any more feasible grasps. The
success of each grasp attempt is determined in the same way
as in the ﬁrst experiment.
Table II shows the results for the heap-picking experiments.
We report the results of three different heaps containing at least
six objects each. For the ﬁrst heap, 100% of the objects were
grasped successfully from the table, one after the other. Only
the gas knob required two trials to be successfully grasped,
with all other objects grasped on the ﬁrst attempt.
For the second heap, all objects were grasped at the ﬁrst
attempt, and the success rate was 100%. During its third
grasp, the robot chose to grasp and lift the bowl object, while
the bowl still held three other objects inside it (multi-head
screwdriver, plastic bottle and nectarine). In order to continue
CLU TTE RE D SCE NE EX PE RIM EN T RES ULTS .
Scene Attempt Object Success / Failure
1 blue cup success
2 golf ball success
3 white pipe success
4 electric hand drill success
5 gas knob failure
6 wood block success
7 gas knob success
8 plastic nectarine success
1 gray pipe success
2 aluminum proﬁle success
3 bamboo bowl success
4 multi-head screwdriver success
5 plastic bottle success
6 plastic nectarine success
1 mustard container success
2 plastic bottle success
3 spring clamp failed
4 plastic lemon success
5 spring clamp success
6 hammer failed
7 hammer success
8 plastic strawberry rolled off table
the experiment, these objects were placed back on the table
and then successfully grasped, needing only one attempt each.
For the third heap, 83% of the objects (5 out of 6) were
successfully grasped. The spring clamp and hammer proved
to be difﬁcult, due to sparse point clouds. However, only two
attempts were required to grasp these objects. The system did
not fail to plan a grasp for the ﬁnal object (plastic strawberry).
Unfortunately, lifting the hammer caused the strawberry to roll
off the table so that this ﬁnal object of the heap could not be
Fig. 7 shows the generated grasps in the cluttered scene 1.
The robot was able to clear all three heaps successfully, the
only exception being the ﬁnal object of the third heap, which
was pushed off the table during lifting of one of the other
Overall, results suggest that the LoCoMo algorithm is very
promising. For lifting individual objects, a success rate of
91.43%was obtained over ﬁve different trials on 21 dif-
ferent objects, featuring a very wide variety of shapes and
appearances. This result is remarkable considering that the
system did not have any model or other a-priori knowledge
of the objects being grasped. Additionally, no training data
was required, and no learning was involved to obtain these
results. Moreover, in the heap-picking experiments, featuring
extreme clutter conditions, LoCoMo was able to grasp most
of the objects at the ﬁrst attempt (15 out of 19 objects) and
was able to successfully grasp all objects, of all heaps, with
the exception of the ﬁnal object of the ﬁnal heap (plastic
strawberry) which rolled off the table during earlier activity.
Aside from a small number of unusual incidents, the pro-
posed algorithm appears to have planned robust grasps almost
A�empt 1 A�empt 2 A�empt 3 A�empt 4 A�empt 5 A�empt 6 A�empt 7 A�empt 8
Figure 7. Results of grasp execution in cluttered scenes. First row: images of point cloud of the scene and the gripper. Second row: pre-grasp position of
the gripper with respect to the cluttered scene. Third row: execution of the grasp. Fourth row: post-grasp position of the gripper. Chronological sequence is
from left to right, i.e. ﬁrst column shows the grasping of the ﬁrst object, second column the grasping of the second object and so on. Detailed results can be
found in the provided supplementary video.
100% of the time. However, we believe that we can improve
robustness in several ways. We noted earlier that the set of
ﬁve highest-ranked grasps occasionally contains a grasp that
performs better than the highest ranked grasp. This is because
LoCoMo selects grasps based purely on the geometry of
surfaces. Combining LoCoMo’s robust selection of graspable
geometrical features, with other kinds of information such
as mass distribution , may enable more robust perfor-
mance. Additionally, combining multiple grasp hypotheses
with human-supervised autonomy, appears to outperform pure
autonomy based on LoCoMo alone.
In this paper, we proposed a novel grasp generation method,
based on the LoCoMo metric which searches for similarities
between the shape of ﬁnger surfaces, and the local shape
of an object, observed as a partial point-cloud. The metric
is based on zero-moment shift visual features, which encode
useful information about local surface curvature. Our method
does not rely on any a-priori knowledge about objects or
their physical parameters, and also does not require learning
from any kind of training data. Grasps are planned from
point-cloud images of objects, viewed from a depth-camera
mounted on the robot’s wrist. Experimental trials, with a real
robot and wide variety of objects, suggest that our method
generalises well to many shapes. We also demonstrated very
robust performance in extremely cluttered scenes. Moreover,
the algorithm is also capable of classifying certain objects
(e.g., ﬂat table surfaces) as not graspable.
Our future work will focus on improving the performance
of the method in terms of speed and extending it to perform
multi-ﬁnger grasping. We will also focus on accomplishing
complex manipulations in challenging scenarios, e.g., nuclear,
automotive etc. by integrating it with our previous state
estimation and control methodologies , .
VI. ACK NOWLEDGEMENTS
This work forms part of the UK National Centre for
Nuclear Robotics initiative, funded by EPSRC EP/R02572X/1.
It is also supported by H2020 RoMaNS 645582, and EP-
SRC EP/P017487/1, EP/P01366X/1. Stolkin is supported by
a Royal Society Industry Fellowship. Ortenzi and Corke are
supported by the Australian Research Council Centre of Ex-
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