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Objectives Previous studies on coeliac disease suggest that attitudes towards the gluten-free diet may contribute to the development of disordered eating. This study describes the development and validation of the Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours scale (CD-FAB) to measure these behaviours in coeliac disease. Research Methods and Procedures Focus groups were used to develop 33 potential questionnaire items. These items were reviewed by service users and then distributed online to 157 adults with coeliac disease. Items were removed based on ceiling/floor effects, high interitem correlations (>0.7) and factor analysis. 11 items were retained. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted. The psychometric properties of the final version of the CD-FAB were assessed via using an online platform. Results The CD-FAB had 11 items distributed across one factor assessing attitudes and behaviours towards food. These factors explained 44.1% of the variance in responding. The CD-FAB and its subscales had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.7) and psychometric validation indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. High scores on the CD-FAB are associated with psychological distress and an impaired quality of life. Conclusions The CD-FAB is a reliable and valid measure of food attitudes and behaviours in coeliac disease. As a new disease-specific instrument, it may be a useful tool for evaluating food concerns in individuals with coeliac disease in a clinical setting and for further exploring the development of disordered eating patterns in coeliac disease. Further research is required to assess the full potential of the CD-FAB.
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Research Article
Development and Validation of the Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes
and Behaviours Scale
Rose-Marie Satherley ,
Ruth Howard,
and Suzanne Higgs
School of Populations Sciences and Health Services Research, Guys Campus, Kings College London, 5th Floor Addison House,
London SE1 1UL, UK
School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, 52 Pritchatts Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2SB, UK
Correspondence should be addressed to Rose-Marie Satherley;
Received 20 April 2018; Accepted 1 August 2018; Published 19 August 2018
Academic Editor: Luca Elli
Copyright © 2018 Rose-Marie Satherley et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
work is properly cited.
Objectives. Previous studies on coeliac disease suggest that attitudes towards the gluten-free diet may contribute to the development
of disordered eating. This study describes the development and validation of the Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours
scale (CD-FAB) to measure these behaviours in coeliac disease. Research Methods and Procedures. Focus groups were used to
develop 33 potential questionnaire items. These items were reviewed by service users and then distributed online to 157 adults
with coeliac disease. Items were removed based on ceiling/oor eects, high interitem correlations (>0.7) and factor analysis. 11
items were retained. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted. The psychometric properties of the nal version of the
CD-FAB were assessed via using an online platform. Results. The CD-FAB had 11 items distributed across one factor assessing
attitudes and behaviours towards food. These factors explained 44.1% of the variance in responding. The CD-FAB and its
subscales had high internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha >0.7) and psychometric validation indicated good convergent and
discriminant validity. High scores on the CD-FAB are associated with psychological distress and an impaired quality of life.
Conclusions. The CD-FAB is a reliable and valid measure of food attitudes and behaviours in coeliac disease. As a new disease-
specic instrument, it may be a useful tool for evaluating food concerns in individuals with coeliac disease in a clinical setting
and for further exploring the development of disordered eating patterns in coeliac disease. Further research is required to assess
the full potential of the CD-FAB.
1. Introduction
Coeliac disease (CD) is managed by a strict, life-long gluten-
free diet (GFD), which leads to improvement in the majority
of CD-related symptoms [1]. However, following the GFD
may harm some individualsrelationship with food, increas-
ing the risk of disordered eating [2]. Disordered eating
describes a spectrum of eating behaviours, ranging from clin-
ical eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa
[3], to skipping meals and restricting certain foods [4].
A two-pathway model of disordered eating has been used
to understand disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in
CD [2]. The rst pathway describes those who experience
distress around weight change associated with diagnosis that
triggers disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. The sec-
ond pathway describes a hypervigilance around food that
triggers disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Case
studies of comorbid CD and disordered eating, although lim-
ited by small sample sizes, are concordant with systematic
studies suggesting that 2229% of individuals with CD score
above clinical cut-os for disordered eating [57]. However,
evidence for clinically diagnosed eating disorders is mixed.
Evidence from Sweden and the UK had demonstrated an
increased risk of anorexia nervosa in CD [8, 9], whereas
Babio et al. [10] found no greater risk for eating disorder in
individuals with CD when compared to healthy controls.
Following the GFD requires vigilance around food and
knowledge of food preparation and so current disordered
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2018, Article ID 6930269, 9 pages
eating measures may incorrectly classify behaviours essential
for the management of CD as disordered. The binge eating
scale (BES) [11] and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26)
[12] have been used to identify disordered eating CD [6].
However, some individuals with CD who score below the
clinical cut-oon these measures describe apparent disor-
dered eating attitudes and behaviours, with a cognitive focus
on fears about cross-contamination and food safety [13].
Although control around food is essential for those follow-
ing a GFD, these beliefs about food may result in disordered
eating attitudes and behaviours [13]. To better understand
how these beliefs develop from adaptive coping mecha-
nisms to disordered attitudes and behaviours, they must
be measureable in CD.
This article reports the development of a CD Food Atti-
tudes and Behaviours Scale (CD-FAB) to identify disordered
eating attitudes and behaviours resulting from beliefs around
cross-contamination and food safety, including the psycho-
metric properties comprising subscale structure, reliability
and validity, and psychosocial correlates.
2. Methods
A mixed methods approach using three studies was used to
develop the CD-FAB (Figure 1).
3. Study 1: Item Generation
Online focus groups, moderated by the rst author, were
used to generate CD-FAB items. Individuals with a self-
reported, biopsy-conrmed diagnosis of CD (1869 years)
were recruited from online forums. Individuals reporting
CD diagnosis via blood test, physician report, or self-report,
without intestinal biopsy, were excluded from the analyses.
Interested individuals emailed the rst author to complete
a screening questionnaire and to conrm focus group
attendance. Verbal consent, over the phone, and online
consent was provided before attending the focus group.
Participants experiencing other dietary-controlled condi-
tions (e.g., cystic brosis and diabetes mellitus) or food
allergies were excluded.
Eight open-ended questions were designed to answer the
key questions of the study: (1) the construct of food attitudes
in CD and (2) the everyday interactions with food in CD. The
ve stages in the two-pathway model of disordered eating in
gastrointestinal disease (diagnosis of CD, adaptation to diag-
nosis, illness beliefs, dietary management, and eating pat-
terns) were used to frame questions [2]. Closure of the
focus group was based on data saturation, by repeatedly com-
paring data across participants, which occurred when no new
information was obtained from the focus group.
3.1. Data Analysis. Thematic analysis identied key themes
related to food attitudes, concerns, and eating behaviours
[14]. The rst author (experienced in qualitative analysis
and under the supervision of experienced academics) read
through the transcripts noting initial thoughts; transcripts
were reread allowing data immersion. Subsequently, the cod-
ing phase began. Codes identied characteristics related to
food attitudes, concerns, and eating behaviours; similar codes
were grouped, creating themes. Emerging themes were used
to develop items for the CD-FAB. Each item was transformed
into a 7-point Likert scale (strongly agree to strongly dis-
agree). Questions were phrased so that higher scores indi-
cated greater food concerns; four items were reverse scored
to minimise response bias. Individuals from the focus group
rated the 33 pilot items on clarity, adequacy, and relevance to
the focus group discussion. Three service users with CD,
recruited via email from the Birmingham Coeliac UK com-
mittee who did not take part in the focus groups, commented
on the clarity, adequacy, and relevance of the questions.
These questions were rated on a 5-point scale (1: strongly
agree to 5: strongly disagree); those items that consistently
scored low were removed.
4. Results of Item Generation
Twelve individuals took part in the focus group (10 females,
mean age = 29.1 years, SD = 8.16; mean time since diagno-
sis = 6.2 years, SD = 4.69). Three had a CD diagnosis for over
10 years (see Table 1).
4.1. Thematic Analysis. Four themes were identied: handling
of food,trust,risk-taking, and food safety. Handling of food
refers to feelings around gluten-containing products, includ-
ing preparing gluten-containing food for others, having glu-
ten in the home, and touching gluten-containing foods.
Some participants said that they would prepare gluten-
containing foods for others and had no concerns being
around gluten, as long as they did not consume gluten.
Other participants described a fear around food that was
attributed to their need to be vigilant about food content;
gluten was not allowed in the home and feelings of anxiety
increased when they were in close proximity to gluten. I
get concerned in supermarkets when the gluten-free bread is
next to the normal bread. I know theyre all wrapped up but
it scares me(Ashley).
The second theme, trust, described the need for control
during food preparation, especially where others were
involved. Concerns stemmed from the belief that others
may not be vigilant around cross-contamination. To reduce
concerns around eating food prepared by others, trust in
the individual preparing food was needed. I dont let him
prepare my food. I like to be in control of my food, I cant trust
others to do itCharlie). Clem described the impact of trust
on the ability to eat outside the home Going out for a meal
I always have to double check. If they (the restaurant) sound
unsure I wont go. I need to trust them(Clem).
Risk-taking reects the ability to consume foods in new
environments. Twelve participants indicated that an element
of risk was necessary to live a normal life. A lack of risk-
taking led to isolation from events involving food. I have
to take small risks if I want to have a normal life!(Jamie).
Food safety describes the eating strategies employed to
manage food concerns. Although most participants were
willing to try new gluten-free foods, some viewed food as
the enemy. These individuals experienced anxiety around
food and felt safer not eating. A limited range of food was
2 Gastroenterology Research and Practice
consumed, or long periods of food restriction to promote
safety and prevent gastrointestinal symptoms were reported.
I cope with my fear of getting glutened by not eating.(Ash-
ley). These attitudes were related to the participants ability
to recall their symptoms and adverse food experiences prior
to diagnosis. I dont go to restaurants. They remind me of
being ill. I didnt like that, so I dont eat much(Alex).
4.2. Item Development. The identied themes were used to
generate 33 items for the CD-FAB. After the review, 13 items
were reworded and 3 items were removed to create the 30
items in the pilot CD-FAB to be used in study two.
5. Study 2: Item Analysis and Exploratory
Factor Analysis
Study two identied items for the nal scale. The pilot CD-
FAB was distributed to a new sample of people with CD
recruited from our research database (NovemberDecember
2015). This database consists of 157 adults (1869 years) with
self-reported biopsy conrmed diagnosis of CD, recruited
from online forums, who had previously volunteered to take
part in research. As in study 1, individuals reporting CD
diagnosis via blood test, physician report, or self-report,
without intestinal biopsy, were excluded from the analyses.
All 157 individuals were approached and directed to an
online questionnaire, which included demographic informa-
tion (age and years with diagnosis) and the pilot CD-FAB.
5.1. Data Analysis. Only items that contributed to the ques-
tionnaires explanatory power were retained (see Table 2
for removal criteria) [15]. One theoretically relevant item
was retained due to its salience during the focus group,
I am afraid to touch gluten-containing foods,despite the
removal criteria.
Principle component analysis with orthogonal rotation
was used to identify loading patterns within the CD-FAB.
The scree plot and factor eigenvalues >1 identied the most
appropriate factor solution.
6. Results of Item Analysis and Exploratory
Factor Analysis
One hundred and two individuals (96 females) completed the
pilot stage (mean age = 8.6 years; SD = 16.73; 9.6 years with
Phase 1: 12 participants
recruited for online focus
Interim phase: items developed
from focus group data and
reviewed by service users
Phase 2: pilot CD-FAB
distributed to 157 individuals
with CD; item analysis and
exploratory factor analysis
Phase 3 (time 1): CD-FAB and
validating measures completed
by 203 individuals with CD;
psychometrics and
conrmatory factor analysis
(CD-FAB 11 items)
Phase 3 (time 2): CD-FAB
completed by 67individuals
with CD; test-retest reliability,
predictive validity, and
psychosocial correlates
(CD-FAB 11 items)
Pilot CD-FAB (33 items)
CD-FAB (13 items)
Figure 1: Flow chart of the CD-FAB development and validation process.
Table 1: Participant characteristics for focus groups (study 1: item
Pseudonym Gender Age (years) Years since diagnosis
Alex Male 36 1
Ari Female 23 4
Ashley Female 19 2
Charlie Female 26 3
Clem Female 47 2
Eddie Female 28 3
Frances Female 24 13
Jamie Female 31 12
Sam Female 29 4
Sean Female 27 7
Tyler Male 20 9
Wren Female 39 14
3Gastroenterology Research and Practice
CD diagnosis; SD = 18.24; response rate = 65%). Twelve were
excluded, as they did not report a biopsy-conrmed diagno-
sis of CD.
6.1. Content and Internal Reliability. The CD-FAB was
reduced from 30 to 13 items based on the criteria described
in Table 1. The Cronbachs alpha for the overall scale was
acceptable (0.89).
6.2. Exploratory Factor Analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin
and Bartletts test of sphericity assumptions were met. A
three-factor solution was extracted. Given the high intercor-
relations among the three factors, a stricter eigenvalue of 2
was used, producing a one-factor solution explaining 44.1%
of the variance (Table 3).
7. Study 3: Confirmatory Factor Analysis,
Psychometrics, and Psychosocial Correlates
Study three assessed the feasibility, reliability, and psycho-
metric properties of the CD-FAB and validated the
underlying factor structure. The psychosocial correlates of
the CD-FAB were also explored (see Table 4 for CD-FAB).
Recruitment posters in food outlets across the University
of Birmingham, UK, directed interested individuals to an
online survey (JanuaryMarch 2016). Individuals were asked
not to complete the questionnaire if they had completed
study one. All participants who completed the questionnaire
(time 1) were invited to complete the CD-FAB and items
assessing predictive validity four weeks later (time 2). Online
questionnaires to assess the psychosocial correlates were
distributed at time 2 with the CD-FAB. Two hundred
individuals with self-reported, biopsy-conrmed CD were
targeted, as this is a sucient sample size for conrmatory
factor analysis (CFA) [16]. The inclusion/exclusion criteria
were as described in study one.
7.1. Data Analysis. Floor and ceiling eects determined feasi-
bility of the CD-FAB score; these were considered when
more than 15% of respondents achieved the lowest/highest
possible score.
Table 2: Removal criteria for CD-FAB items.
Spread of responses across options
High endorsement of a single item suggests poor discriminatory power.
Items were considered for removal if >80% or <20% were an agree-type
statement or a disagree-type statement
16 removed
Internal consistency Items with a corrected item-domain total correlation <0.3 or in a domain
with a poor Cronbachs alpha <0.7 were considered for removal 1 removed
Timing of administration of questionnaire
Needs to be applicable to people from the point of coeliac disease
diagnosis onwards, so all individuals with coeliac disease can
complete the scale
2 reworded
Clarity and relevance of items Dicult to understand items were reworded or considered for removal 13 reworded
Items deemed theoretically important These items were retained despite meeting the above criteria because
they were deemed theoretically important 1 retained
Table 3: Factor loadings for CD-FAB items.
Cronbachs alpha for scale
I am afraid to eat outside my home 2 0.78
I am comfortable eating gluten-free food from other peoples kitchens11 0.77
I am afraid to touch gluten-containing foods 3 0.75
I get concerned being near others when they are eating gluten 1 0.73
My concerns about cross-contamination prevent me from going to social events involving food 8 0.71
I get worried when eating with strangers 5 0.70
I enjoy going out for meals as much as I did before my diagnosis10 0.69
Being contaminated by gluten in the past has not stopped me from enjoying restaurants12 0.69
I will only eat food that I have prepared myself 7 0.65
If I ask questions, I can normally nd gluten-free food to eat13 0.64
I will happily prepare gluten for others 9 0.58
Ind it hard to eat gluten-free foods that look like the gluten-containing foods that have made me ill in the past 6 0.45
I have a lack of variety in my diet 4 0.35
represents items that are reverse scored. Numerical values represent factor loadings.
4 Gastroenterology Research and Practice
CFA was used to conrm the one factor model found in
study two, based on the goodness t and assessed using sev-
eral indices: the comparative t index (CFI; >0.95 indicates
acceptable t), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI; >0.95 indicates
acceptable t), and root mean square errors of approxima-
tion (RMSEA; <0.08 indicates acceptable t) [17]. Modica-
tion indices determined changes made to improve model t.
CD-FAB scores were calculated by summing the responses
on each item. CD-FAB scores ranged between 13 and 91,
with higher scores indicating greater CD-related food con-
cerns and compensatory behaviours.
Correlation coecients were used to assess test-retest
reliability of the CD-FAB scores; for 50 participants, a corre-
lation coecient >0.7 is indicative of strong reliability [18].
Psychosocial correlates were explored by applying a tertiary
split to CD-FAB scores, dividing individuals into high,
medium, and low scorers basedonthe33rdand66thpercen-
tiles. Analysis of variance was used to compare psychosocial
outcomes across the three groups, and t-tests were used to com-
pare the means across the low and high scorers on the CD-FAB.
7.2. Measures
7.2.1. Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) [19]. Convergent validity
was assessed using the FNS, as this has previously been used
to assess food anxieties in CD
. The FNS measures willing-
ness to try new food, with lower scores indicating a greater
willingness to try new foods. The scale consists of 10 items
and is the standard measure of food nephobia [19]. Correla-
tions were sought to determine the degree to which the
CD-FAB score reected a fear of trying new foods. We
anticipated a moderately positive relationship between total
CD-FAB score and FNS scores, as individuals with high
CD-FAB scores may also be fearful of trying new foods.
7.2.2. Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) [20].
The Anxiety subscale from the DASS-21 was used to assess
convergent validity. This subscale measures behavioural feel-
ings of anxiety over the last four weeks with higher scores
indicating greater anxiety. The DASS-21 has strong psycho-
metric properties; with higher scores indicating greater anxi-
ety [21]. To demonstrate convergent validity, total scores on
the CD-FAB should correlate with scores on the Anxiety sub-
scale. At time 2, all subscales of the DASS-21 were distributed
to explore the relationship between CD-FAB scores, depres-
sion, anxiety, and stress.
7.2.3. CD Quality of Life Scale (CD-QoL) [22]. The Treatment
subscale was used to assess discriminative validity. This sub-
scale assesses satisfaction with ones treatment (the GFD). No
relationship between these scores was anticipated. At time 2,
all subscales of the CD-QoL were distributed to explore the
relationship between CD-FAB scores and quality of life.
Table 4: The Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours scale (CD-FAB). Instructions: this questionnaire is designed to explore food
attitudes and beliefs in coeliac disease. Some questions may not apply to you; this is because we are trying to assess a range of beliefs about
coeliac disease and managing the gluten-free diet. Please ll out the form below as accurately, honestly, and completely as possible. There
are no right or wrong answers. All of your responses are condential. Please tick the box that best describes your response to the question.
agree (7)
agree (5)
Neither agree
nor disagree (4)
disagree (3)
disagree (1)
Because of my coeliac disease
I get concerned being near others when they
are eating gluten
I am afraid to eat outside my home
I am afraid to touch gluten-containing foods
I get worried when eating with strangers
Ind it hard to eat gluten-free foods that
look like the gluten-containing foods that
have made me ill in the past
I will only eat food that I have prepared myself
My concerns about cross-contamination prevent
me from going to social events involving food
Despite having coeliac disease
I enjoy going out for meals as much as I did
before my diagnosis
I am comfortable eating gluten-free food from
other peoples kitchens
Being contaminated by gluten in the past has
not stopped me from enjoying restaurants
If I ask questions, I can normally nd
gluten-free food to eat
Reverse items with and add all scores to make total score.
5Gastroenterology Research and Practice
7.2.4. Behavioural Item. Known groups discriminant validity
was assessed using the behavioural item, Do you consider
yourself to be anxious around food?This item was rated
yes/no. A further behavioural item How many times have
you eaten outside the home over the last month?was assessed
at time 2, to assess predictive validity. We anticipated that
individuals scoring high on the total CD-FAB score at time
1 would eat outside the home less than those with lower
CD-FAB scores at time 2.
7.2.5. Gluten-Free Management. Gluten-free dietary man-
agement was rated on a 5-point Likert scale, in response
to the question In general, how strictly do you maintain
a gluten-free diet?ranging from 1) All of the time;
2) Most of the time;3)Some of the time;4)Now and
then;5)Not at all[23].
8. Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis
and Psychometrics
8.1. Participants at Time 1. 203 (35 males, 2 other) partici-
pants took part in the validation stage with a mean age of 30.9
years (SD = 11.4) and 6.2 years with CD diagnosis (SD = 8.4).
Nineteen participants were excluded as they reported a
self-diagnosis and not a biopsy-proven diagnosis of CD.
This sample was older than the participants recruited for
study two (t (1, 285) = 4.21, p<0 001). No dierence was
found in years since the diagnosis across the two samples
(t (1, 286) = 1.81, p=0 072). 56.1% of participants with
CD reported following their GFD all of the time.Of the
remainder, 1% were completely nonadherent, and 42.9%
were partially adherent to the GFD.
8.2. Participants at Time 2. 112 of those recruited at time
1 consented to be contacted at time 2; of these, 67 completed
the second questionnaire (54 females; mean age = 32.8,
SD = 16.51; mean years with diagnosis = 7.5, SD = 11.42;
response rate = 60%).
When comparing participant contact details to those
recruited in study one, there was a 3% overlap across the
samples. These individuals were removed from the analysis.
8.2.1. Reliability and Feasibility. Floor and ceiling eects
ranged between 0.5 and 1%. The CD-FAB total score showed
good internal consistency (Cronbachs alpha = 0.89).
8.2.2. Conrmatory Factor Analysis. All items loaded onto
the total CD-FAB score (Figure 2). Figure 2 shows the struc-
tural equation model containing the standardised path esti-
mates between the items and factors for the nal model.
Items 4 (I have a lack of variety in my diet) and 9 (I will hap-
pily prepare gluten for others) were removed from the model
due to low factor loadings and improved model t after
removal. Despite item 6 (Ind it hard to eat gluten-free foods
that look like the gluten-containing-foods that have made me
ill in the past) having a low factor loading (0.56), this item
was retained, as removal did not improve model t. Model
t could be improved by covarying the errors on items 1
and 3, 1 and 5, 7 and 8, and 10 and 12. The resulting model
t was acceptable (TLI = 0.95; CFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.08).
The resulting CD-FAB contained 11 items with total scores
ranging from 11 to 77 (Cronbachs alpha for 11-item
CD-FAB remained at 0.89). These calculations were used
in subsequent analyses.
8.3. Convergent Validity. Total CD-FAB positively correlated
with the FNS (r=274,p<0001) and the Anxiety subscale of
the DASS-21 (r=0188,p=0016). Correlation coecients
were <0.7, indicating a weak relationship.
8.4. Discriminant Validity. Beliefs about the eectiveness of
the GFD were not related to CD-FAB scores (r=0002,
p=098), indicating good discriminant validity.
8.5. Known Groups Validity. 37.2% of participants consid-
ered themselves to feel anxious around food. These individ-
uals had signicantly higher CD-FAB scores (m=482,
SD = 6.3) than those who were not anxious around food
(m=406, SD = 7.5, p<0 001)
8.5.1. Predictive Validity. CD-FAB scores taken at time 1
were associated with responses to the item How many times
have you eaten outside the home over the last month?taken
at time 2 (r=037,p=0048),
8.5.2. Test-Retest Reliability. Test-retest correlation coe-
cients between the total CD-FAB scores at time 1 and time
2 were strong (r=092,p<0001).
8.5.3. Psychosocial Correlates. The top third of CD-FAB
scores were associated with increased psychological distress
and a more impaired quality of life when compared to low
scores (p<001). No signicant dierences were found
between medium and high scorers (Table 5).
Low CD-FAB scorers were in the normalranges for
DASS-21, whereas the medium and high scorers were within
the mildand moderateranges [20]. No dierences were
found across age and BMI for CD-FAB scores.
9. General Discussion
The recent research has highlighted the association between
disordered eating and CD [59]. Qualitative studies suggest
that existing measures of disordered eating do not identify
all atypical eating patterns reported in CD [13]. Beliefs
around cross-contamination and food safety have been
implicated in the development of disordered eating attitudes
and behaviours in CD [13], but there are no tools to measure
these factors. We developed and validated a self-report food
attitudes and behaviours measure for adults with CD.
The CD-FAB set out to measure the four themes identi-
ed in focus groups, which explored underlying food atti-
tudes, concerns, and eating behaviour themes (i.e., handling
of food,trust,risk-taking,and food safety). One factor
emerged but items targeting each of the themes were retained
within this factor. This factor explained 44.1% of the variance
in scores. High scores described greater concerns around
food alongside avoidance and changes in the diet to cope
with these concerns.
The CD-FAB has a high Cronbachs alpha (0.89), indi-
cating strong psychometric properties and good predictive
6 Gastroenterology Research and Practice
validity. Test-retest reliability over 4 weeks was excellent.
This may indicate that CD food attitudes and behaviours
are a stable trait, supporting previous literature highlighting
this issue [24]. Additionally, the CD-FAB has good discrim-
inant validity, showing no correlation with the CD-QoL
Treatment subscale. The direction and magnitude of the
correlations between the CD-FAB and the FNS and Anxiety
subscale of the DASS-21 were weak, indicating limited con-
vergent validity. However, the use of the DASS-21 to assess
trait anxiety may be problematic if the CD-FAB assessed
situational concerns, future research should explore the
use of a state measure of anxiety alongside the CD-FAB
to further explore convergent validity claims of the CD-
FAB. Individuals with high CD-FAB scores felt more
socially limited and concerned about their CD and its
health consequences compared to low scorers, suggesting
high scores on the CD-FAB indicate impaired psychosocial
A strength of this study lies in the use of participant
involvement to create the CD-FAB. This information along-
side a priori themes, including a framework developed by
Satherley, Howard, and Higgs [2], was used to make these
items relevant to participant experiences. Constructs
identied by respondents related to social settings, gastroin-
testinal symptoms, and eating behaviours are measured for
the rst time by the CD-FAB. Pertinent examples of this
are that eating at social events is less enjoyable after a CD
diagnosis as the GFD can lead to feelings of embarrassment,
isolation, and a fear of gastrointestinal symptoms, [24] for
some, this fear of symptoms and anxiety around food may
lead to disordered eating attitudes and behaviours [13].
Despite the strengths of the current study, future research
needs to examine long-term changes in CD-FAB scores,
particularly during the rst year of diagnosis, to explore
typical and atypical adaptation to CD and the GFD. The
high dropout rate between time 1 and time 2 completion
of the CD-FAB is a further limitation of this study. Given
this high dropout, future investigations should consider
recruiting a larger subject population for follow-up analy-
ses. Furthermore, participants in the developmental stages
of the CD-FAB were predominantly female, which reects
the higher prevalence of both eating concerns and CD in
females [25, 26]. However, further validation of the CD-
FAB should reect a better balance between males and
females. Additionally, despite the exclusion of participants
who did not report a biopsy conrmation of their CD
Tot al sc ore
2.50 0.57
Figure 2: Conrmatory factor analysis with standardised item loadings onto the one CD-FAB factor. The numbers shown on the diagram
from right to left are (1) covariance of the errors, (2) error terms (E), and (3) path coecients of indicators.
7Gastroenterology Research and Practice
diagnosis throughout the procedures, self-report is not suf-
cient to ensure CD diagnosis. Given the confusion
among CD diagnosis and symptomatic overlap with non-
coeliac gluten sensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome, it
is possible that individuals without a biopsy-conrmed
diagnosis of CD could have been included in these studies.
Given this limitation, further validation is needed in a
sample of biopsy-conrmed individuals with CD recruited
from clinical settings.
Measurement of symptom severity needs to be conducted
alongside further assessment of the CD-FAB to control for
impact of symptom severity on associated behaviours, aect,
and cognition. In addition, a more thorough assessment of
GFD adherence and an exploration of eating disorder history
would aid in further understanding scores on the CD-FAB.
Finally, expert review was not used to assess content validity,
but the involvement of service users with CD in generating
the items and providing feedback on the overall CD-FAB
provides evidence for content validity.
These limitations do not detract from the clinical util-
ity of the CD-FAB. The instrument may be used as an
outcome measure in clinical research, enabling a greater
understanding of CD-related eating patterns that are not
currently captured by current tools. There is a need to
establish clinical cut-opoints; further guidance regarding
the interpretation of CD-FAB scores (e.g., referral to dieti-
cian, clinical psychologist, or specialist eating disorder ser-
vice) can be given following the identication of population
norms and health implications.
The CD-FAB is a brief, self-report questionnaire that
shows good reliability and validity in measuring disordered
eating attitudes and behaviours in CD. The measure may be
a useful tool to help understand eating attitudes and behav-
iours in adults with CD.
BES: Binge eating scale
CD: Coeliac disease
CD-FAB: Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours
CD-QoL: Coeliac disease quality of life scale
CFI: Comparative t index
DASS-21: Depression anxiety stress scale
EAT-26: Eating attitudes test
FNS: Food Neophobia Scale
GFD: Gluten-free diet
RMSEA: Root mean square of errors approximation
TLI: Tucker-Lewis index.
Data Availability
The data used to support the ndings of this study are
available from the corresponding author upon request.
Ethical Approval
The Psychology Research Ethics Committee, University
of Birmingham, UK, granted ethical approval (ERN_15-
0370A). All work was conducted in accordance with the
Declaration of Helsinki (1964), with individualsunderstand-
ing and consent.
Conflicts of Interest
Rose-Marie Satherley is an employee at Kings College
London; Ruth Howard and Suzanne Higgs are employees at
the University of Birmingham. There are no conicts of
interest to report.
Rose-Marie Satherley collected and analysed data and wrote
the initial draft. Suzanne Higgs and Ruth Howard reviewed
analyses, advised on interpretation, and contributed to the
nal version of this article. Rose-Marie Satherley is the guar-
antor of this paper. All authors approved the nal version of
the manuscript.
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9Gastroenterology Research and Practice
... Two studies examined QoL in relation to food-related attitudes and behaviours [42,43]. Research by Sainsbury et al. [42] examining GFD adherence in relation to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) found QoL to be significantly correlated with a more favourable outcome evaluation (i.e., of GFD adherence), greater perceived GFD behavioural control, and greater control beliefs (i.e., greater belief in the presence of factors that facilitate GFD adherence). ...
... Satherley et al. [43] examined the relationship between coeliacrelated food concerns (i.e., concerns around food handling, trust, risktaking, and food safety; Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours [CD-FAB]) and QoL scores measured on the CD-QOL. The sample was split into 'low', 'medium', and 'high' tertiles based on a split at the 33rd and 66th percentiles. ...
... Several findings supported the relationship between food/GFDrelated attitudes/behaviours and QoL [34,42,43]. Poorer QoL was associated with greater coeliac-related food concerns (i.e., concerns regarding food handling, trust, risk-taking, and food safety), reduced self-regulatory/concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and several theory of planned behaviour variables related to GFD adherence. ...
Background Individuals living with coeliac disease generally experience a remission of symptoms after adopting the gluten-free diet, but often report substantial treatment burden and ongoing quality of life issues. Psychosocial factors have been suggested to play a significant role in post-diagnosis quality of life but have yet to be systematically reviewed. Aim To review the evidence for psychosocial factors associated with quality of life in adult coeliac disease cohorts. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of eight databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Emcare, PsycINFO, Ovid Nursing, CINAHL, Informit Health Collection, Cochrane Library) in May 2019. Results Fourteen studies were included involving 3372 participants (80.1% female, mean age = 46.3 years). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were the most examined psychosocial factors across all studies. Quality of life was differentially associated with psychological distress, illness perceptions, coping, and attitudes/behaviours regarding food and the gluten-free diet. Conclusion Several psychosocial factors are associated with quality of life in adults living with coeliac disease. Current evidence suggests these factors are interrelated and may influence QoL directly, via reduced psychological well-being, and indirectly, via reduced adherence to the gluten-free diet. Future research is needed to examine these processes concurrently, with the aim of elucidating the psychosocial mechanisms underlying post-diagnosis well-being and identifying potential targets for psychosocial intervention.
... The survey included a Dating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire (CD-specific dating attitudes/behaviors), a Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ) [7], a CD-specific QOL instrument (CD-QOL) [8], and a CD Food Attitudes and Behaviors scale (CD-FAB) [9] (Fig. 1). ...
... The overall score can range from 11 to 77 and it was calculated by summing the response values for each item. Those with a higher CD-FAB score have less adaptive attitudes and behaviors related to CD and the GFD [9]. ...
Full-text available
Background/Aims When seeking a romantic partner, individuals with celiac disease (CD) must navigate challenging social situations. We aimed to investigate dating-related behaviors in adults with CD. Methods A total of 11,884 affiliates of the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University were invited to participate in an online survey. Adults (≥ 18 years) with biopsy-diagnosed CD were included. Among the 5,249 who opened the email, 538 fully completed the survey (10.2%). The survey included a CD-specific dating attitudes/behaviors questionnaire, a Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SAQ), a CD-specific quality of life instrument (CD-QOL), and a CD Food Attitudes and Behaviors scale (CD-FAB). Results Respondents were primarily female (86.8%) and the plurality (24.4%) was in the 23–35 year age range. 44.3% had dated with CD, and among them, 68.4% reported that CD had a major/moderate impact on their dating life. A major/moderate impact was more commonly reported among females (69.3%, p < 0.001), 23–35-year-olds (77.7%, p = 0.015), those with a household income < $50 K (81.7%, p = 0.019), and those with a lower CD-QOL score (50.5 vs. 73.4, p = 0.002). While on dates, 39.3% were uncomfortable explaining precautions to waiters, 28.2% engaged in riskier eating behaviors, and 7.5% intentionally consumed gluten. 39.0% of all participants were hesitant to kiss their partner because of CD; females more so than males (41.1% vs. 22.7%, p = 0.005). Conclusions The majority of participants felt that CD had a major/moderate impact on their dating life. This impact may result in hesitation toward dating and kissing, decreased QOL, greater social anxiety, and less adaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. CD and the need to adhere to a gluten free diet have a major impact on dating and intimacy.
... Items are based on a 7-point Likert scale. Scores range from 11 to 77, with a higher score suggesting more maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors [20]. ...
... The exact cutoff for maladaptive eating patterns has yet to be firmly established with the CDFAB. Based on Satherly's paper [20], the range (11-77) and median score (33) were used to establish a cutoff (over 49.5) to indicate groups that may be trending toward maladaptive eating behaviors. The only demographic categories that scored beyond this cutoff and were classified as having maladaptive eating behaviors included participants with an income less than USD 20,000 or those who only received a high school education. ...
Full-text available
A gluten-free diet (GFD), which is the only treatment for celiac disease (CeD), is challenging and associated with higher levels of anxiety, disordered eating, and lower quality of life (QOL). We examined various demographic and health factors associated with social anxiety, eating attitudes and behaviors, and QOL. Demographics and health characteristics, QOL, eating attitudes and behaviors, and social anxiety of adults with CeD were acquired using validated measures. The mean scores for QOL, SAQ, and CDFAB were compared across various demographic groups using the Z statistical test. The mean QOL score was 57.8, which is in the moderate range. The social anxiety mean scores were high: 78.82, with 9% meeting the clinical cutoff for social anxiety disorder. Those on a GFD for a short duration had significantly higher SAQ scores (worse anxiety), higher CDFAB scores (worse eating attitudes and behavior), and lower QOL scores. Those aged 23–35 years had lower QOL scores (p < 0.003) and higher SAQ scores (p < 0.003). Being single (p < 0.001) and female (p = 0.026) were associated with higher SAQ scores. These findings suggest that the development of targeted interventions to maximize QOL and healthy eating behaviors as well as to minimize anxiety is imperative for some adults with CeD.
... Prevalence for disordered eating is suggested to occur in 22% to 29% of individuals with celiac disease. 39 Further, in a recent study assessing the frequency of EDs in patients with chronic constipation (79% women), revealed that 19% had clinically significant ED pathology. ED was associated with higher general anxiety scores, as well as greater GIspecific anxiety (a cognitive, affective, and behavioral response that results from fear of GI symptoms and the circumstances in which these visceral symptoms occur). ...
... High scores are associated with psychological distress and impaired quality of life. 39 Careful assessment about eating behaviors in patients with organic GI disease should be routine in clinic visits. For example, food preoccupation, dietary restriction, and laxative use, purging are documented ED behaviors in celiac disease. ...
... Encouraging family participation in care, including joining in person CD support groups, may help (48)(49)(50) . Consideration may be given to CD specific tools (51) . Parents, physicians and dietitians can all play a role in supporting positive eating behaviours and attitudes (12,18,19,46,(48)(49)(50)52) (Table 3). ...
... Personality traits, parental psychosocial difficulties, including anxiety and depression, perceptions of costs and knowledge, as well as a diagnosable feeding or eating disorder, may also play a role in the relationship between eating behaviours and QOL, but were not Table 3 Considerations for prevention of eating difficulties in adolescents with coeliac disease Promote regular gastroenterologist visits and ongoing involvement of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) specialised in coeliac disease (CD), beyond the initial diagnosis (48,49) Through conversations over time, practitioners should promote increased gluten-free diet (GFD) adherence/reduce inadvertent gluten exposures, correct any nutritional deficits, promote normal growth and development, and monitor for continued or new symptoms, including other digestive-related morbidities (48,49) Upon diagnosis, patients should be encouraged to join a CD support groups (48)(49)(50) particularly in-person if possible (50) Encourage family members involvement as part of the ongoing support team (48,49) RDNs should assess whether a patient's approach to GFD adherence may interfere with daily activities and quality of life CD specific tools may be useful in assessments. The newly developed the coeliac disease food attitudes and beliefs scale, validated in adults, may help in assessing CD-Specific food-related behaviours, although its utility with adolescents and for clinical practice is unknown (51) A nonpunitive approach to dietary counselling should be adopted (24,25) If the treatment team has concerns about a patient's eating approach that is not resolving, the patient should be referred to an eating disorder specialist (psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker) for further evaluation Psychiatric co-morbidities such as anxiety or depression should be identified, and appropriate referral undertaken measured in this study (21,52) . Despite these limitations, to our knowledge, this is the first mixed methods analysis that describes the approach towards maintaining a GFD, highlighting the need for additional eating behaviour research among adolescents with CD. ...
Background Certain approaches to managing a strict gluten‐free diet (GFD) for coeliac disease (CD) may lead to impaired psychosocial well‐being, a diminished quality of life (QOL) and disordered eating. The present study aimed to understand adolescents’ approaches to managing a GFD and the association with QOL. Methods Thirty adolescents with CD (13–17 years old) following the GFD for at least 1 year completed the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test (CDAT) and QOL survey. Their approaches to GFD management were explored using a semi‐structured interview, where key themes were developed using an iterative process, and further analysed using a psychosocial rubric to classify management strategies and QOL. CDAT ratings were compared across groups. Results Gluten‐free diet management strategies were classified on a four‐point scale. Adaptive eating behaviours were characterised by greater flexibility (versus rigidity), trust (versus avoidance), confidence (versus controlling behaviour) and awareness (versus preoccupation) with respect to maintaining a GFD. Approximately half the sample (53.3%) expressed more maladaptive approaches to maintaining a GFD and those who did so were older with lower CD‐Specific Pediatric Quality of Life (CDPQOL) scores, mean subscale differences ranging from 15.0 points for Isolation (t = 2.4, P = 0.03, d.f. = 28) to 23.4 points for Limitations (t = 3.0, P = 0.01, d.f. = 28). Conclusions Adolescents with CD who manage a GFD with maladaptive eating behaviours similar to known risk factors for feeding and eating disorders experience diminished QOL. In accordance with CD management recommendations, we recommend ongoing follow‐up with gastroenterologists and dietitians and psychosocial support referrals, as needed.
... As shown in the study by Sutherley et al. a useful tool for assessing food concerns in people with celiac disease in a clinical setting may be the Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours (CD-FAB). Cronbach's alpha for CD-FAB was at a good level of 0.7, suggesting that it may be a reliable tool for measuring specific eating behaviors in celiac disease [54]. ...
Full-text available
Evidence points to a link between celiac disease and eating disorders. Although with the current limited knowledge, orthorexia cannot be formally recognized as an eating disorder, some features are similar. This study is the first to examine individuals with celiac disease in terms of the prevalence of risk of orthorexia. Participants were 123 females diagnosed with celiac disease. The standardized ORTO-15 questionnaire was used to assess the risk of orthorexia. In this study, eating habits and physical activity were assessed. The effect of celiac disease on diet was self-assessed on a 5-point scale. Taking a score of 40 on the ORTO-15 test as the cut-off point, a risk of orthorexia was found in 71% of individuals with celiac disease, but only in 32% when the cut-off point was set at 35. There was a positive correlation between age and ORTO-15 test scores (rho = 0.30). In the group with orthorexia risk, meals were more often self-prepared (94%) compared to those without risk of orthorexia (78%) (p = 0.006). Individuals at risk for orthorexia were less likely to pay attention to the caloric content of food (46%) relative to those without risk of orthorexia (69%) (p = 0.001). For 64% of those at risk for orthorexia vs. 8% without risk had the thought of food that worried them (p = 0.001). Given the survey instrument for assessing the prevalence of orthorexia and the overlap between eating behaviors in celiac disease and orthorexia, the prevalence of orthorexia in celiac disease cannot be clearly established. Therefore, future research should focus on using other research tools to confirm the presence of orthorexia in celiac disease.
... Using the EQ-5D and CLDQ simultaneously is the most promising approach to evaluate the HRQOL of patients with HCV infection in the present study. Compared to the generic scale, the disease specificity scale can more accurately express the specific clinical symptoms of patients [16]. We found that the HRQOL in patients with HCV infection was significantly impaired in all domains compared to that of HSs, signifying that chronic viral hepatitis is more commonly seen in the rural areas than the urban areas of China and that the chronic sequelae of chronic viral hepatitis, such as cirrhosis and HCC, may have greatly affected patients' health. ...
Full-text available
Background: Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have extrahepatic manifestations and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of CLD, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study is aimed at assessing HRQOL in patients with HCV infection in the rural areas and identifying factors associated with impairment of HRQOL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a county of Liaoning Province in northeast China. HRQOL of patients with HCV infection was assessed using the chronic liver disease questionnaire (CLDQ) and EuroQol-5 dimensions (EQ-5D). Data were transformed to score comparisons of six major CLDQ domains, EQ index, and visual analog scale (VAS). Results: A total of 397 (93.4%) subjects, including 67 healthy subjects (HSs), 314 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and 16 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) completed the study. The overall quartile CLDQ scores for HSs, patients with CHC, and patients with LC were 6.4 (6.0, 6.7), 5.8 (4.6, 6.4), and 4.1 (3.0, 6.0), respectively. The quartile scores of EQ index for the three groups were 1.0 (1.0, 1.0), 1.0 (0.8, 1.0), and 0.9 (0.6, 1.0), respectively. The median scores of EQ VAS for the three groups were 85.0, 60.0, and 60.0, respectively. Female sex, patients with family history of hepatitis, other comorbid chronic diseases, drinking, and disease duration ≥ 10 years were associated with significant improvement in overall CLDQ scores, and family history of hepatitis and other comorbid chronic diseases were considered predictive factors for EQ index and VAS, respectively. Conclusions: Compared with HSs, HCV infection had a greater negative impact on HRQOL in patients with CHC and LC. The significant factors associated with HRQOL include female sex, patients with a family history of hepatitis, other comorbid chronic diseases, drinking, and disease duration ≥ 10 years. Patients with HCV infection in the rural areas should be paid careful attention regarding their HRQOL with proper health education and disease management.
... While comparing the obtained results with those of Satherley et al. [25], which also assessed FNS scores of CD individuals, it must be emphasized that they did not calculate the proportion of individuals showing low, medium, and high FNS scores, owing to the fact that the aim of their study was to develop a CD Food Attitudes and Behaviours Scale (CD-FAB), to identify disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, but not presentation of the FNS scores of participants. Despite the fact, that CD-FAB is brief, self-report questionnaire that shows good reliability and validity in measuring disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in CD patients, it covers a lot of themes exploring food attitudes, concerns, and eating behaviors (i.e., handling of food, trust, risk-taking, and food safety), whereas the FNS is focused only on one narrow aspect. ...
Full-text available
The only treatment currently available to combat celiac disease (CD) is strict adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD), but there may be various determinants of its adherence, including food neophobia (FN), that is associated with sensory aversions, or fears of negative consequences of eating specific food products, that may be crucial for CD patients following a GFD. The aim of the present study was to analyze food neophobia levels and its determinants in CD patients in comparison with other individuals who follow a GFD based on their own decision. The study was conducted in two independent groups of individuals following a GFD: those diagnosed with CD (n = 101) and those following a GFD based on their own decision (n = 124). Each group was recruited with cooperation from the local CD and GFD societies located in Poland. The FN was assessed using the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) and compared between groups, as well as the influence of gender, age, body mass index, educational level, place of residence and employment status was assessed. It was stated, that for the individuals following a GFD, CD was the major determinant of FN. The FNS score values were higher (indicating higher food neophobia) for CD individuals (39.4 ± 9.2), than for those following a GFD based on their own decision (33.6 ± 8.7; p < 0.0001) and it was observed both for general group and for subgroups stratified by assessed variables. Moreover, the indicated variables did not influence the FNS in any of the analyzed groups. The influence of CD with no influence of other variables was confirmed in the regression analysis. It may be concluded that CD is a major contributor to FN, which can be attributed to fear of developing adverse reactions to gluten-contaminated food products, which is more pronounced in CD patients compared to non-CD patients following a GFD based on their own decision.
Purpose Coeliac disease (CD) is a lifelong autoimmune disorder and is managed with a strict gluten-free (GF) diet. At diagnosis, an individual's nutritional status is affected by how long CD has been active, their dietary intake, intestinal inflammation and degree of malabsorption. This study explores if age and time since diagnosis affect nutritional knowledge, eating habits and emotional wellbeing of participants. Design/methodology/approach An online survey using Qualtrics was conducted. The survey consists of 4 sections exploring (1) demographics, (2) nutritional knowledge, (3) eating habits and (4) quality of life (QoL). A total of 162 valid questionnaires were completed. Findings Those who'd been diagnosed for more than 5 years demonstrated better knowledge about GF or gluten containing products. Social interactions are limited by concerns about becoming ill, unwanted attention and increased financial costs. Eight-eight % of participants would go hungry at social events. Those aged between 40–59 and above 60 years felt more financially restricted compared to younger adults ( χ ² (4) = 10.73, p = 0.01). Strong emotions were experienced by participants since diagnosed with CD. Anxiety, feelings of concern, sadness, depression and fear have declined and happiness, confidence and being accepting of CD have increased since diagnosis across all years. Originality/value This study is one of the first few studies to investigate time since diagnosis and age-related differences in nutritional knowledge, eating habits and QoL of adults diagnosed with CD. Over time, negative emotions could potentially be alleviated with improved knowledge and experience.
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Background and objective: Previous research suggests an association of celiac disease (CD) with anorexia nervosa (AN), but data are mostly limited to case reports. We aimed to determine whether CD is associated with the diagnosis of AN. Methods: Register-based cohort and case-control study including women with CD (n = 17 959) and sex- and age-matched population-based controls (n = 89 379). CD (villous atrophy) was identified through the histopathology records of Sweden's 28 pathology departments. Inpatient and hospital-based outpatient records were used to identify AN. Hazard ratios for incident AN diagnosis were estimated by using stratified Cox regression with CD diagnosis as a time-dependent exposure variable. In the secondary analyses, we used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for being diagnosed with AN before CD. Results: Median age of CD diagnosis was 28 years. During 1 174 401 person-years of follow-up, 54 patients with CD were diagnosed with AN (27/100 000 person-years) compared with 180 matched controls (18/100 000 person-years). The hazard ratio for later AN was 1.46 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.98) and 1.31 beyond the first year after CD diagnosis (95% CI, 0.95-1.81). A previous AN diagnosis was also associated with CD (odds ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.45-3.29). Estimates remained largely unchanged when adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics and type 1 diabetes. Conclusions: The bidirectional association between AN diagnosis and CD warrants attention in the initial assessment and follow-up of these conditions because underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of these disorders likely cause protracted and unnecessary morbidity.
Background & aims: Celiac disease is a major public health problem worldwide. Although initially it was reported from countries with predominant Caucasian populations, it now has been reported from other parts of the world. The exact global prevalence of celiac disease is not known. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of celiac disease. Methods: We searched Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE for the keywords celiac disease, celiac, celiac disease, tissue transglutaminase antibody, anti-endomysium antibody, endomysial antibody, and prevalence for studies published from January 1991 through March 2016. Each article was cross-referenced with the words Asia, Europe, Africa, South America, North America, and Australia. The diagnosis of celiac disease was based on European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines. Of 3843 articles, 96 articles were included in the final analysis. Results: The pooled global prevalence of celiac disease was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 1.1%-1.7%) in 275,818 individuals, based on positive results from tests for anti-tissue transglutaminase and/or anti-endomysial antibodies (called seroprevalence). The pooled global prevalence of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease was 0.7% (95% confidence interval, 0.5%-0.9%) in 138,792 individuals. The prevalence values for celiac disease were 0.4% in South America, 0.5% in Africa and North America, 0.6% in Asia, and 0.8% in Europe and Oceania; the prevalence was higher in female vs male individuals (0.6% vs 0.4%; P < .001). The prevalence of celiac disease was significantly greater in children than adults (0.9% vs 0.5%; P < .001). Conclusions: In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found celiac disease to be reported worldwide. The prevalence of celiac disease based on serologic test results is 1.4% and based on biopsy results is 0.7%. The prevalence of celiac disease varies with sex, age, and location. There is a need for population-based prevalence studies in many countries.
Objectives: Several cases of eating disorders (EDs) have been reported in patients with celiac disease (CD), suggesting that ED could be a comorbidity associated with CD. However, few epidemiological studies have assessed this potential association. We aimed to evaluate the risk of EDs in individuals diagnosed with CD in comparison to healthy controls. Methods: A total of 98 cases and 98 controls matched for gender, age and body mass index between 10 and 23 years-old were studied. A questionnaire was completed on medical history, and sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics. Various ED screening self-reported tests were administered. Results: A total of 61.2% of the study population were girls with a mean age of 15.3 ± 3.7 years-old. Patients with CD scored non-significantly higher on all the ED screening tests than control participants. No differences were observed between study groups in terms of the frequency of individuals who exceeded the clinical cutoff identifying those at risk of ED. Patients with CD above 13 years-old were associated with a 2.15 point increase in the Eating Attitude Test (EAT) score compared to controls [βcoefficient = 2.15 SE 1.04; P = 0.04] after adjusting for various confounders. Conclusions: Although being a patient with CD was associated with a significantly higher EAT score in individuals above 13 years old, no clear differences were observed between individuals with CD and controls in terms of risk of ED when other screening tests were used. More studies with larger samples and prospective designs are warranted to confirm these findings.
Objective: The need for dietary-management in coeliac disease may lead to the development of disordered eating patterns. A theoretical model of disordered eating has been proposed to explain disordered eating in coeliac disease. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of typical and disordered eating in coeliac disease to gain a greater understanding of these processes and explore specific pathways within this model. Methods: We interviewed 21 individuals with coeliac disease, recruited from a previous database, about their experiences with food and food environments. Information about disordered eating status was assessed via questionnaire. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using Framework analysis, which was underpinned by the theoretical model of disordered eating in coeliac disease. Results: Experiences differed between participants scoring high on measures of disordered eating and those who scored low (typical eaters). Participants scoring high on measures of disordered eating were concerned about the consequences of their gluten-free diet on body image and they described eating patterns similar to binge/restrict cycles. Typical eaters reported being able to integrate their dietary self-management into their daily lives; however, general concerns around food and cross-contamination were associated with a restriction in food intake. Conclusions: Coeliac disease has a varied impact on eating patterns. The need to follow a gluten-free diet and to be vigilant around food has to be balanced with concerns around food availability and cross-contamination which have the potential to contribute towards disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. The findings suggest that the theoretical model of disordered eating provides an adequate explanation of disordered eating patterns in coeliac disease.
Objective: Recent research indicates that eating disorders (ED) are associated with type 1 diabetes and Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether, in a hospitalized population, a range of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) occurred more often than expected in people with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and whether AIDs elevated the risk of ED. Method: Retrospective, record-linkage cohort study using national administrative statistical data on hospital care and mortality in England, 1999-2011. In people admitted when aged 10-44, cohorts of 8,700 females and 651 males with AN, and 4,783 females and 330 males with BN were constructed, along with a control cohort with the same age range. Results were expressed as risk ratios comparing each ED cohort with the control cohort. Results: The overall rate ratio for an AID after admission for AN was 2.04 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.28) in females, and 1.14 (0.37-2.67) in males; and, for BN, 1.83 (1.56-2.14) in females, and 4.41 (2.11-8.10) in males. Rate ratios for AN after admission for an AID were 3.34 (2.94-3.79) in females, 3.76 (2.06-6.53) in males; and those for BN were 2.57 (2.22-2.97) in females, and 3.10 (1.50-5.90) in males. There were significant associations between ED and several specific individual AIDs. Discussion: Strong associations between ED and specific AIDs exist, although it is not possible from this study to determine if these are causal. Clinicians should be aware of the co-occurrence of these conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016).