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CALL Principles and Practices

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... We know from the literature of SLA that language learners need multiple forms of comprehensible input, which is slightly (i+1) above their current linguistic repertoire (Krashen, 1985) and within their ZPD (Vygotsky, 1978), at the right balance of challenge and skill (Csikszentmihályi, 2014). Furthermore, for learners to take up the input, they need to be given opportunities to express themselves (comprehensible output) and interact with other (NES and NNES) interlocutors, where they can receive feedback and scaffolding (Gabarre, Gabarre, Din, Shah, & Karim, 2016) and notice the forms (Egbert & Shahrokni, 2018;Ellis, 2008). Moreover, research shows that students learn better from authentic materials, those which are interesting and meaningful to them (Flowerday & Shell, 2015). ...
... This study showed that the dynamics in MMOGs can help language learners develop and/or improve linguistic skills (Black, 2005(Black, , 2006Lam, 2004). Group participation and collaboration, negotiations of actions, feedback and scaffolds, authenticity and connection, and balanced challenges are required to make an engaging learning experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Levy & Stockwell, 2006;Egbert & Shahrokni, 2018;Zheng et al., 2009). The success story of Brown Eagle, among other factors, was about the interaction of these elements, which formed close bonds and shared learning experiences for all members. ...
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This ethnographic case study aims to examine second language socialization (SLS) in a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) called Stronghold Kingdoms (SK). To explore the affordances of this community for SLS, the social dynamics in a faction community during 4 life-time periods, namely, war, post-war peace and life in exile, end of the world, and immigration to a new world were investigated using three methods: observation, analysis of records (in-game forum exchanges), and interview. The results suggested that the norms of the faction community, that is, communication, collaboration, skills, support, rules, closeness, trust, status, and shared experiences provided a supportive environment for SLS. Moreover, the results of an interview conducted with one of the faction non-native English speakers (NNES) revealed that the affordances of SK were important in the development and improvement of second language skills. This study offers important implications for second language pedagogy and research.
... Undoubtedly, assessment is one of the most important aspects of foreign language teaching and learning. In educational institutions, assessment in foreign language teaching has two main purposes: (i) to measure the extent to which learners have achieved the goals or the outcomes of a particular programme of learning, i.e., to make summative evaluations and (ii) to provide instructional feedback to help learners progress (Egbert & Shahrokni, 2018). ...
Article
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Editorial: Future perspectives and challenges of ESP/EAP. In honor of Helen Basturkmen’s contribution to ESP/EAP research
... This study showed that the dynamics in MMOGs can help language learners develop and/or improve linguistic skills (Black, 2005(Black, , 2006Lam, 2004). Group participation and collaboration, negotiations of actions, feedback and scaffolds, authenticity and connection, and balanced challenges are required to make an engaging learning experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Levy & Stockwell, 2006;Egbert & Shahrokni, 2018;Zheng et al., 2009). The story of Brown Eagle and its consistent perseverance through adversity, among other factors, was about the interaction of these elements, which formed close bonds and shared learning experiences for all members. ...
Article
Full-text available
This ethnographic case study aims to examine second language socialization (SLS) in a massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) called Stronghold Kingdoms (SK). To explore the affordances of this community for SLS, the social dynamics in a Faction community during 4 lifetime periods, namely, war, postwar peace and life in exile, end of the world, and immigration to a new world were investigated using three methods: observation, analysis of records (in-game forum exchanges), and interview. The results suggested that the norms of the Faction community, that is, communication, collaboration, skills, support, rules, closeness, trust, status, and shared experiences provided a supportive environment for SLS. Moreover, the results of an in-depth interview conducted with one of the Faction non-native English speakers (NNES) revealed that the affordances of SK were important in the development and improvement of second language skills. Therefore, this study offers implications for second language pedagogy and research.
Article
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This study employs an explanatory, convergent parallel, mixed methods design to investigate the perceived self-efficacy of 145 Saudi teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) when engaging in technology-assisted language learning (TALL). These teachers were evaluated on their technological knowledge on four subdimensions, on their pedagogical technology skills on five subcategories, and on five subdimensions related to their self-perceived ability to integrate TALL into English-language classrooms. The triangulated data were recursively collected in three consecutive phases. Self-efficacy was assessed using data obtained from a 48-item TALL survey and from classroom observations and interviews. Participants completed questionnaires on their self-perceived technological self-efficacy, 13 of whom were observed while teaching and subsequently participated in one-on-one interviews. The data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics of means and standard deviations and inferential statistics through one-way repeated-measures analysis of variances (RM ANOVA), along with some statistical tests and Stepwise regression. The data from the observed lessons were subjected to scrupulous and meticulous analysis, and the data from the interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and categorized. The findings culled from the survey, lesson observations, and interviews all revealed that Saudi EFL teachers have low self-efficacy in terms of language-learning technological knowledge, language-learning pedagogical technology skills, and ability to effectively integrate technology into EFL instruction. The implications emerging from this study center on the need to develop EFL teachers' self-efficacy with technology to ensure that language-related digital tools in EFL instruction are used in the most effective pedagogical manner and to their full potential.
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The paper presents a case study of an ESP course illustrating the implementation of formative assessment to increase students' participation and motivation. Formative assessment is an ongoing process teachers and students engage in while focusing on the learning goals and taking action to achieve them. It refers to monitoring students' learning and the in-process evaluation of student performance by the teacher and by peers providing ongoing feedback to both the teacher and the students. The Business English for Engineers course, designed for graduate students of mechanical engineering, focuses on developing the presentation skills of future mechanical engineers. The students enrolled on the course prepare presentations on engineering topics planned by the syllabus, thus taking direct responsibility for learning. The presentations are followed by questions and group discussions on the presented topics and are subsequently assessed by the rest of the students, the presenters themselves and the teacher. Apart from presentations, students are also assigned smaller tasks to do in class in pairs or groups. A grade in the form of points is attached to the delivered presentations and completed tasks, contributing to the student's final grade. The results of the questionnaire completed by the students at the end of the course show that such formative activities and assessment increased the students' motivation and participation in class.
Article
Challenge: Language task engagement can support student learning in spite of distractions that learners may experience in school. How can language teachers focus on task engagement when they are no longer face to face with their students? To answer that question, this article provides an evidence-based model and suggestions for teachers. Abstract: This article demonstrates how, at a time when learners may be experiencing fear and chaos in other aspects of their lives, a focus on language task engagement is essential across both on-and offline language learning contexts. It presents a model of language task engagement and describes why and how teachers can use it to support learner achievement during the current crisis and in the future. In the rush to arrange instruction for language students who are temporarily homebound due to the coronavirus pandemic, it may be easier for teachers to focus on providing access to content rather than to worry about how well the content is designed and delivered. It is certainly understandable if language instruction, at least temporarily, relies more on teacher-based instructional resources such as drill-and-practice worksheets or multiple choice responses; these are relatively simple to package and students may be able to complete them with less (or no)
Chapter
The body of research on CALL tasks and topics grows daily; however, a number of areas remain under-represented in the literature. While there are many gaps in the CALL research to address, this chapter updates an earlier focus on 8 gaps, chosen because of their perceived importance in language teaching and learning. In presenting the gaps, each section in this chapter: 1) provides a rationale for exploring the topic, 2) briefly reviews studies that typify the extant research in the focal area, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. This chapter encourages all stakeholders in CALL to join in the rigorous and multi-perspective exploration of these and other under-addressed areas and strengthen the use of CALL for language learning and teaching.
Chapter
The body of research on CALL tasks and topics grows daily; however, there are still a number of areas that are underrepresented in the literature. While there are many gaps in the CALL research to address, this article specifically focuses on eight gaps, chosen because of their perceived importance in improving CALL evidence and research practices and, by extension, language teaching and learning. In presenting the gaps, each section in this article: 1) provides a rationale for exploring the topic, 2) briefly reviews studies that typify the extant research in the focal area, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. The purpose of this article is to encourage all stakeholders in CALL to join in the rigorous and multi-perspective exploration of these under-addressed areas and strengthen the use of CALL for language learning and teaching.
Chapter
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The integration of content and language learning in English as an international language (EIL) is addressed by discussing approaches to content-centered learning in a second language. These approaches include bilingual education, immersion, content-based instruction (CBI), content-based language teaching (CBLT), content and language integrated learning (CLIL), and English medium instruction (EMI). The multiplicity of terms can cause confusion, and indeed debate continues as to what the distinctions are between them. While all of these approaches encompass a shared endeavor of fostering additive bilingualism through a dual focus on both content and language learning, they also raise a number of questions regarding the implications of EIL for content-integrated approaches. Each approach is presented in turn, taking into consideration the perspective of EIL, in addition to English as a lingua franca (ELF). Current research indicates it is important to be critical of integrating content and language learning, particularly in EMI programs.
Article
Background/Context In this paper, the authors discuss the concept of culturally relevant pedagogy 20 years after its introduction to the professional literature. Purpose/Focus The authors discuss key tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy, examine empirical examples of it, and make recommendations on how the concept may inform and influence the outcomes of culturally diverse students.
Article
This article provides a narrative overview of research on online fan practices for language and literacy learning, use, and identity work. I begin with an introduction to online fan communities and common fan practices found in these online affinity spaces, the best known of which is fan fiction, fictional writing that reinterprets and remixes the events, characters, and settings found in popular media. I then look to other online fan practices that have been explored in language and literacy learning research such as fan-subbing and scanlation, amateur subtitling and translation of popular media carried out by individual or teams of fans. Finally, this article concludes by looking to research that has begun to explore the integration of fan practices found in the digital wilds into the language classroom as a way to illuminate how our growing understanding of online fan practices can motivate the design of computermediated tasks or the integration of social media into formal language teaching.
Book
Book Description An introduction to the field of second language learning for students without a substantial background in linguistics, this book became an instant success when it was first published in 1998, and was immediately hailed by the academic community as one of the clearest expositions of current theory in the field of second language learning. Written by an educationalist specialising in the teaching of a second language, and a linguist specialising in second language acquisition, this new edition of 'Second Language Learning Theories' provides an up-to-date introductory survey of the most active and significant theoretical perspectives on the subject. Synopsis Second Language Learning Theories is an introduction to the field of second language learning for students without a substantial background in linguistics. Drawing on the expertise of both a specialist in the teaching of second languages and a linguist specializing in second language acquisition, this textbook provides an up-to-date introductory survey of the most active and significant perspectives on the subject. In this new edition, the authors have revised and updated the text throughout to reflect the substantial developments that have taken place in the field in recent years. New studies have been incorporated as examples and there is more material on work in L2 phonology and lexis, as well as syntax. The evaluation sections in each chapter have been expanded and generally the book is rebalanced in favour of newer material. The first edition quickly established itself as the textbook of choice for students new to second language learning. The updates and revisions in this new edition ensure that the book remains as fresh, engaging and useful as the day it was first published.