ArticleLiterature Review

Frailty indexes in perioperative and critical care: A systematic review

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Abstract

Background/objectives: Frail patients are increasingly presenting for both perioperative and intensive care, highlighting the need for simple, valid and scaleable frailty measurement. Frailty indexes comprehensively assess a range of deficits in health, and can incorporate routinely collected data. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of frailty indexes on surgical and intensive care risk stratification and patient outcomes (mortality, complications, length of stay, and discharge location). Methods: A prospectively registered systematic review was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched to identify studies enrolling adult surgical or intensive care patients which used a frailty index. Included studies were those published subsequent to 1990, of any study design, which utilised a frailty index consisting of ≥30 health deficits. Primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were complications, length of stay (LOS) and discharge location. Study and frailty index quality were critically appraised by three independent reviewers, with findings narratively described. Results: 2026 articles were screened, from which nine prospective and four retrospective cohort studies (enrolling 2539 patients) were included. Frailty prevalence ranged between 19-62%; frailty indexes identified patients at risk of increased death [mortality rates ranging between 1.9-73.1%; reported odds ratios (ORs) for death ranging between 1.76-3.09 for frail vs. non-frail patients], surgical complications (ORs = 1.67-4.4), increased LOS, and discharge to residential care (ORs = 1.9-3.64). The term "frailty index" was found to be applied to a number of alternative measurement scales. Conclusion: Frail patients are at significantly increased risk in critical illness and the perioperative period. Better standardisation of frailty indexes is recommended.

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... 25,26 In a systematic review of 13 studies of older people aged ≥65 years hospitalized for surgery and critical illness, the prevalence of frailty as defined by a phenotype model ranged from 19% to 62%. 27 The effect of frailty on outcomes after elective surgery is increasingly described in hospital-based 24,25,28-31 and population-based studies. 32,33 Outcomes such as increased mortality 31 especially after emergency surgery, 34 greater intensive care unit readmission rates, 26 longer hospital length of stay, 24,27,35 hospital readmission rates, 36 increased postoperative delirium 30 and other complications 35,36 occur more frequently in frail people undergoing surgery. ...
... 27 The effect of frailty on outcomes after elective surgery is increasingly described in hospital-based 24,25,28-31 and population-based studies. 32,33 Outcomes such as increased mortality 31 especially after emergency surgery, 34 greater intensive care unit readmission rates, 26 longer hospital length of stay, 24,27,35 hospital readmission rates, 36 increased postoperative delirium 30 and other complications 35,36 occur more frequently in frail people undergoing surgery. A recent systematic review of nine observational studies of post-operative general surgical patients (n = 2241) identified higher 30-day mortality in frail group when compared to pre-frail group (8% versus 1%). ...
... 36 Moreover, such people have a lower chance of returning home with functional independence and have poorer quality of life if they survive the surgery and its complications. 5,24,26,27,[36][37][38][39][40][41] The 1-year costs of care for such people were higher compared with costs for those who were not frail. 34 This association of frailty with poor surgical outcomes appears to be independent of critical illness severity, 26,42 suggesting that opportunities may exist to modify preoperative frailty and improve post-operative outcomes. ...
Article
Background: The ageing of our society has led to increasing numbers of older people requiring elective surgical procedures. Preoperative frailty is a strong predictor of adverse post-operative outcomes. This review aims to summarize the evidence for interventions aimed at improving outcomes in frail older people who may undergo elective surgery. Methods: Articles published on perioperative management of frailty between 1 January 1970 and 31 May 2019 were searched using PubMed and EMBASE. Results: We identified very few studies investigating such interventions, such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, prehabilitation (alone or as a multicomponent strategy) and other multicomponent interventions. Administration of a comprehensive geriatric assessment was shown to be associated with reduced mortality, fewer complications and shorter length of hospital stay, and may be best targeted towards those who are identified as frail for resource efficiency. Multicomponent interventions including prehabilitation may be associated with improved outcomes, but the evidence base for these needs to be strengthened. Conclusion: Establishing multidisciplinary collaborative services to provide person-centred models of care should be considered for older people presenting for elective surgery, particularly in those with greater preoperative frailty. Further large-scale studies should focus on implementing and evaluating such multicomponent models of care.
... 25,26 In a systematic review of 13 studies of older people aged ≥65 years hospitalized for surgery and critical illness, the prevalence of frailty as defined by a phenotype model ranged from 19% to 62%. 27 The effect of frailty on outcomes after elective surgery is increasingly described in hospital-based 24,25,28-31 and population-based studies. 32,33 Outcomes such as increased mortality 31 especially after emergency surgery, 34 greater intensive care unit readmission rates, 26 longer hospital length of stay, 24,27,35 hospital readmission rates, 36 increased postoperative delirium 30 and other complications 35,36 occur more frequently in frail people undergoing surgery. ...
... 27 The effect of frailty on outcomes after elective surgery is increasingly described in hospital-based 24,25,28-31 and population-based studies. 32,33 Outcomes such as increased mortality 31 especially after emergency surgery, 34 greater intensive care unit readmission rates, 26 longer hospital length of stay, 24,27,35 hospital readmission rates, 36 increased postoperative delirium 30 and other complications 35,36 occur more frequently in frail people undergoing surgery. A recent systematic review of nine observational studies of post-operative general surgical patients (n = 2241) identified higher 30-day mortality in frail group when compared to pre-frail group (8% versus 1%). ...
... 36 Moreover, such people have a lower chance of returning home with functional independence and have poorer quality of life if they survive the surgery and its complications. 5,24,26,27,[36][37][38][39][40][41] The 1-year costs of care for such people were higher compared with costs for those who were not frail. 34 This association of frailty with poor surgical outcomes appears to be independent of critical illness severity, 26,42 suggesting that opportunities may exist to modify preoperative frailty and improve post-operative outcomes. ...
Article
Background: The ageing of our society has led to increasing numbers of older people requiring elective surgical procedures. Preoperative frailty is a strong predictor of adverse post-operative outcomes. This review aims to summarize the evidence for interventions aimed at improving outcomes in frail older people who may undergo elective surgery. Methods: Articles published on perioperative management of frailty between 1 January 1970 and 31 May 2019 were searched using PubMed and EMBASE. Results: We identified very few studies investigating such interventions, such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, prehabilitation (alone or as a multicomponent strategy) and other multicomponent interventions. Administration of a comprehensive geriatric assessment was shown to be associated with reduced mortality, fewer complications and shorter length of hospital stay, and may be best targeted towards those who are identified as frail for resource efficiency. Multicomponent interventions including prehabilitation may be associated with improved outcomes, but the evidence base for these needs to be strengthened. Conclusion: Establishing multidisciplinary collaborative services to provide person-centred models of care should be considered for older people presenting for elective surgery, particularly in those with greater preoperative frailty. Further large-scale studies should focus on implementing and evaluating such multicomponent models of care.
... Sarcopenia can be divided into two categories: primary and secondary sarcopenia. Primary sarcopenia is associated with age and does not have any other causes; whereas secondary sarcopenia is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), acute coronary syndrome, and cardiac surgery [1,2,4]. One of the earliest studies on muscle wasting in patients with cardiac disease, by Fulster et al. in 2013, found that muscle wasting (defined as a muscle mass values less than -2 SD below the mean of a healthy young reference group of adults aged 18-40 years) was noticed in 19.5% in chronic heart failure [5]. ...
... In addition, the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients during the first year after cardiac surgery was 27.7% [8]. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of sarcopenia post-cardiac surgery; however, only a few have studied the association of sarcopenia with open-heart surgery (OHS), which is influenced by length of hospital stay, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and complications after cardiac surgery [2,4]. Moreover, no studies have examined the incidence and prevalence of sarcopenia in Thailand. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance. It has been reported that cardiac surgery causes systemic inflammatory response, which leads to sarcopenia. In addition, open-heart surgery (OHS) has been associated with length of hospital stay, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and postoperative pulmonary complications. However, very few studies have explored the association of sarcopenia with OHS. Thus, this study explores the prevalence of sarcopenia in OHS patients as well as their relationship. Methods This cohort study included 160 patients; it was designed to assess sarcopenia during preoperative OHS and before patient discharge from the hospital. Sarcopenia was defined according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria as low muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or slow gait speed. Participants were requested to perform exercises to test their handgrip strength, gait speed, and bioelectrical impedance. In addition, their medical history (e.g., duration of hospitalization and mechanical ventilation) was recorded. Results The prevalence of sarcopenia during preoperative OHS was 26.9%, with affected men comprising 11.9% and affected women comprising 15% of the total sample. Participants with sarcopenia had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than those without. Further, patients who had longer stays in the hospital and prolonged mechanical ventilation time showed significantly higher rates of developing sarcopenia. During postoperative OHS, the incidence of sarcopenia rose by 20.92%, increasing the total prevalence of sarcopenia to 46.41%. Moreover, advanced age emerged as one of the most significant risk factors of sarcopenia. Participants in the age group >55 years had an increased risk of sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR]: 3.90). It was also found that patients with a low BMI (<23 kg∗m⁻²) and a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) had an increased risk of sarcopenia (ORs: 2.11 and 1.47, respectively). Moreover, longer hospital stays and mechanical ventilation times were important risk factors (ORs: 1.58 and 2.07, respectively). Conclusion The prevalence of sarcopenia was observed to be high during postoperative OHS. Participants with sarcopenia who underwent OHS had a history of DM, longer length of hospital stays, and prolonged mechanical ventilation times, compared with patients without sarcopenia. Clinical trial registration number TCTR20190509003.
... A recent study found that frailty within 6 months of a heart transplant was independently associated with increased mortality post-transplantation. 56 A more recent systematic review of perioperative and critical care patients demonstrated that frailty status correlated with mortality, postoperative complications, ICU and hospital LOS, and discharge to a healthcare facility. 57 However, as a metaanalysis was not conducted the strength or significance of the correlation was not quantified. 57 Given our findings, it is essential to individualise perioperative pathways for patients requiring postoperative ICU management, including a multidisciplinary shared decisionmaking conference to ascertain deficits, risks, and therapy goals. ...
... 57 However, as a metaanalysis was not conducted the strength or significance of the correlation was not quantified. 57 Given our findings, it is essential to individualise perioperative pathways for patients requiring postoperative ICU management, including a multidisciplinary shared decisionmaking conference to ascertain deficits, risks, and therapy goals. 58 Recently, the importance of considering patient frailty as a factor predicting outcomes in the perioperative setting has been recognised. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Preoperative frailty may be a strong predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes. We investigated the association between frailty and clinical outcomes in surgical patients admitted to the ICU. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Ovid MEDLINE were searched for relevant articles. We included full-text original English articles that used any frailty measure, reporting results of surgical adult patients (≥18 yr old) admitted to ICUs with mortality as the main outcome. Data on mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay, and discharge destination were extracted. The quality of included studies and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Data were synthesised according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Results Thirteen observational studies met inclusion criteria. In total, 58 757 patients were included; 22 793 (39.4%) were frail. Frailty was associated with an increased risk of short-term (risk ratio [RR]=2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.99–3.56) and long-term mortality (RR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.32–5.37). Frail patients had longer ICU length of stay (mean difference [MD]=1.5 days; 95% CI: 0.8–2.2) and hospital length of stay (MD=3.9 days; 95% CI: 1.4–6.5). Duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in frail patients (MD=22 h; 95% CI: 1.7–42.3) and they were more likely to be discharged to a healthcare facility (RR=2.34; 95% CI: 1.36–4.01). Conclusion Patients with frailty requiring postoperative ICU admission for elective and non-elective surgeries had increased risk of mortality, lengthier admissions, and increased likelihood of non-home discharge. Preoperative frailty assessments and risk stratification are essential in patient and clinician planning, and critical care resource utilisation. Clinical trial registration PROSPERO CRD42020210121.
... acute and chronic environmental and pathological stressors, as opposed to "chronological age, " which is simply the passage of time, has become central to this paradigm [1,2]. The frailty index, which attempts to operationalize this increasing state of vulnerability by adding up a variety of pathological "deficits" across multiple biological and physiological systems [3], has been shown not only to fulfill theoretical assumptions on how damage within a complex biological network might accumulate [4], but also to reliably predict numerous age-related outcomes such as cardiovascular disease risk [5], depression [6], post-operative recovery [7] and death [8,9]. However, the frailty index has also been criticized with regard to the length of time required to implement, the vast number of deficits required to achieve a reliable score, the use of inherently biased self-reported data and how deficits are treated when deriving a score (i.e., unweighted and often dichotomously) [10]. ...
... The primary goal of the current study was to evaluate a series of conceptually diverse epigenetic clock measures with regard to their association to frailty and its change over 3 years. While the frailty index is an excellent predictor of adverse health outcomes in a variety of settings [5][6][7][8][9], it has also been criticized for being cumbersome and inherently biased [10]; hence, identifying standardized molecular measures that are indicative of its change, especially over relatively short intervals, would be of certain value. In our sample of the CLSA, the change in frailty over 3 years was normally distributed, on average increasing about 20% (i.e., 0.006) of what has been previously described as a clinically meaningful difference (i.e., 0.03) [34,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The trajectory of frailty in older adults is important to public health; therefore, markers that may help predict this and other important outcomes could be beneficial. Epigenetic clocks have been developed and are associated with various health-related outcomes and sociodemographic factors, but associations with frailty are poorly described. Further, it is uncertain whether newer generations of epigenetic clocks, trained on variables other than chronological age, would be more strongly associated with frailty than earlier developed clocks. Using data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), we tested the hypothesis that clocks trained on phenotypic markers of health or mortality (i.e., Dunedin PoAm, GrimAge, PhenoAge and Zhang in Nat Commun 8:14617, 2017) would best predict changes in a 76-item frailty index (FI) over a 3-year interval, as compared to clocks trained on chronological age (i.e., Hannum in Mol Cell 49:359–367, 2013, Horvath in Genome Biol 14:R115, 2013, Lin in Aging 8:394–401, 2016, and Yang Genome Biol 17:205, 2016). Results We show that in 1446 participants, phenotype/mortality-trained clocks outperformed age-trained clocks with regard to the association with baseline frailty (mean = 0.141, SD = 0.075), the greatest of which is GrimAge, where a 1-SD increase in ΔGrimAge (i.e., the difference from chronological age) was associated with a 0.020 increase in frailty (95% CI 0.016, 0.024), or ~ 27% relative to the SD in frailty. Only GrimAge and Hannum (Mol Cell 49:359–367, 2013) were significantly associated with change in frailty over time, where a 1-SD increase in ΔGrimAge and ΔHannum 2013 was associated with a 0.0030 (95% CI 0.0007, 0.0050) and 0.0028 (95% CI 0.0007, 0.0050) increase over 3 years, respectively, or ~ 7% relative to the SD in frailty change. Conclusion Both prevalence and change in frailty are associated with increased epigenetic age. However, not all clocks are equally sensitive to these outcomes and depend on their underlying relationship with chronological age, healthspan and lifespan. Certain clocks were significantly associated with relatively short-term changes in frailty, thereby supporting their utility in initiatives and interventions to promote healthy aging.
... The first is the relative lack of literature informing associations between frailty and patient-centred outcomes after surgery, as distinct from the now commonly studied endpoints of postoperative complications and mortality. 2,5 The second, perhaps greater, challenge surrounds selecting frailty measures in perioperative care and research, to ensure that patient frailty (rather than, say, comorbidity) is specifically measured. Unfortunately, this challenge has been made more difficult by the plethora of frailty assessment scales in use: more than 50 different measurement tools have been described. ...
... 7 A slightly alternative methodology in frailty index construction is the use of granular patient-level data obtained from the hospital admission process, as distinct from administrative databases. 5,16 The advantage of this approach is better coverage of non-comorbidity specific health variables, with promising initial validation work in surgical cohorts, 16 however, further research is required to see whether this approach is feasible to deploy in the measurement of frailty at the population scales seen in this study. ...
... Importantly, frailty is a predictor of morbidity and mortality after major surgery. [17][18][19][20][21] Frailty is also linked to malnutrition, 22 sedentary behaviors, 23 hearing disability, 24 hypertension, 25 and is associated with social factors. 26 In summary, the increase in the number of frail elderly people in this aging society is becoming a major problem: about 11% of community-dwelling older persons are frail and another 42% are prefrail. ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing number of frail elderly people in our aging society is becoming problematic: about 11% of community‐dwelling older persons are frail and another 42% are pre‐frail. Consequently, a major challenge in the coming years will be to test people over the age of 60 years to detect pre‐frailty at the earliest stage and to return them to robustness using the targeted interventions that are becoming increasingly available. This challenge requires individual longitudinal monitoring (ILM) or follow‐up of community‐dwelling older persons using quantitative approaches. This paper briefly describes an effort to tackle this challenge. Extending the detection of the pre‐frail stages to other population groups is also suggested. Appropriate algorithms have been used to begin the tracing of faint physiological signals in order to detect transitions from robustness to pre‐frailty states and from pre‐frailty to frailty states. It is hoped that these studies will allow older adults to receive preventive treatment at the correct institutions and by the appropriate professionals as early as possible, which will prevent loss of autonomy. Altogether, ILM is conceived as an emerging property of databases (“digital twins”) and not the reverse. Furthermore, ILM should facilitate a coordinated set of actions by the caregivers, which is a complex challenge in itself. This approach should be gradually extended to all ages, because frailty has no age, as is testified by overwork, burnout, and post‐traumatic syndrome.
... Another limitation is the difficulty of collecting at least 30 variables in routine care to construct an FI [34]. However, when routine hospital/administrative data are available, it becomes more feasible to use an FI, even in critical care [35]. It is always challenging to minimise participant drop-out in addition to addressing missing data, which is an important consideration when calculating an FI. ...
Article
Background physical activity reduces frailty in community-dwelling older adults. How exercise influences frailty in hospitalised older adults requires additional investigation. Objectives (i) to examine the impact of an exercise intervention on frailty in older adults admitted to an acute care ward, and (ii) to determine the impact of baseline frailty on the effectiveness of this intervention. Setting/participants this is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled clinical trial that tested an intensive exercise intervention in ≥75-year-old adults admitted to an acute care ward. Methods the intervention included two daily sessions of moderate-intensity exercises (control received usual care). A 63-item Frailty Index (FI) was constructed, and three groups were formed: <0.2, 0.2–0.29 and ≥0.3. Other outcomes included Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Barthel Index (BI). Results a total of 323 individuals were included. The mean age was 87.1 years (± 4.8 standard deviation [SD]) and 56.3% were females. The intervention group improved FI from 0.26 (± 0.10 SD) to 0.20 (± 0.10 SD), whereas the control group FI worsened from 0.25 (± 0.1 SD) to 0.27 (± 0.10 SD). After stratifying by baseline FI, SPPB and depression improved in the intervention group across all levels of frailty; FI, BI and quality of life only improved in individuals with a baseline FI ≥ 0.2. Conclusions frailty improves with an intensive individualised exercise intervention, especially in those with high baseline levels of frailty. In addition, frailty is a useful outcome when examining the impact of an intervention of hospitalised older adults.
... Finally, the choice of the FI-LAB cutoff used to define frailty refers to the study from Harvey et al, 10 in which the frailty index is constructed based on comprehensive geriatric assessments. Nonetheless, the cutoffs for the frailty index are controversial now 10,31,32 and regardless of the FI-LAB cutoffs, the risk of mortality also increased by per 0.01 or per SD in FI-LAB, demonstrating its ability to predict long-term mortality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To assess the role of a pre-chemotherapy frailty index based on routine laboratory data in predicting mortality and chemotherapy adverse reactions among older patients with primary lung cancer. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: West China Hospital, Chengdu, China. Participants: We included patients aged ≥60 years with primary lung cancer receiving the first course of chemotherapy. Measurements: Data were collected from medical records, local government death databases or telephone interviews. Outcomes included chemotherapy adverse reactions and all-cause mortality. We constructed a frailty index based on 44 laboratory variables (FI-LAB) before chemotherapy, and chose the following cutoff points: robust (0.0-0.2), pre-frail (0.2-0.35) and frail (≥0.35). Results: We included 1,020 patients (71.4% male; median age: 65 years old). Both pre-frailty and frailty was associated with any chemotherapy adverse reactions and infections during chemotherapy (OR=3.48, 95%CI: 1.77-6.87; OR=3.58, 95%CI: 1.55-8.26, respectively). Frail patients had a shorter median overall survival rate compared to robust patients (18.05 months vs 38.89 months, log-rank p<0.001). After adjusting for some potential confounding variables, the risk of all-cause mortality was dramatically increased in frail patients (HR:2.13, 95% CI:1.51-3.00) with an average follow-up of 3.9 years. Each 0.01 or per standard deviation (SD) increase in the FI-LAB value significantly increased the HR of death by 2.0% (HR:1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) and 23.0% (HR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.13-1.34), respectively. Conclusions: Frailty assessed by routine laboratory data indicates increased risks of chemotherapy adverse reactions and death in older patients with primary lung cancer receiving the first course of chemotherapy.
... Similar reviews assessing the clinimetric properties and applicability of frailty tools have been completed in different contexts 16,18,71,72 . To our knowledge, this review is the rst to evaluate the objectivity, feasibility, applicability, and sensitivity of frailty tools reported in the surgical spine literature. ...
Preprint
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Background: Frailty is associated with an increased risk of postoperative adverse events (AEs) within the surgical spine population. Multiple frailty tools have been reported in the surgical spine literature. However, the applicability of these tools remains unclear. The primary objective of this systematic review is to appraise the construct, feasibility, objectivity, and clinimetric properties of frailty tools reported in the surgical spine literature. Secondary objectives included determining the applicability and the most sensitive surgical spine population for each tool. Methods: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42019109045. Publications from January 1950 to December 2020 were identified by a comprehensive search of PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane, supplemented by manual screening. Studies reporting and validating a frailty tool in the surgical spine population with a measurable outcome were included. Each tool and its respective clinimetric properties were evaluated using validated criteria and definitions. The applicability of each tool and its most sensitive surgical spine population was determined by panel consensus. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results: 47 studies were included in the final qualitative analysis. A total of 14 separate frailty tools were identified, in which nine tools assessed frailty according to the cumulative deficit definition, while four instruments utilized phenotypic or weighted frailty models. One instrument assessed frailty according to the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) model. Twelve measures were validated as risk stratification tools for predicting postoperative AEs, while one tool investigated the effect of spine surgery on postoperative frailty trajectory. The modified frailty index (mFI), 5-item mFI, adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI), FRAIL Scale, and CGA had the most positive ratings for clinimetric properties assessed. Conclusions: The assessment of frailty is important in the surgical decision-making process. Cumulative deficit and weighted frailty instruments are appropriate risk stratification tools. Phenotypic tools are sensitive for capturing the relationship between spinal pathology, spine surgery, and prehabilitation on frailty trajectory. CGA instruments are appropriate screening tools for identifying health deficits susceptible to improvement and guiding optimization strategies. Studies are needed to determine whether spine surgery and prehabilitation are effective interventions to reverse frailty.
... Trotz der starken Korrelation zwischen Gebrechlichkeit und dem perioperativen Risiko existieren bislang keine in der klinischen Praxis etablierten Screeningmethoden. Verfahren wie der Frailty-Phänotyp nach Fried, der ausführliche Frailty-Index nach Rockwood oder die Edmonton Frail Scale sind zwar wissenschaftlich gut erprobt, für ein routinemäßiges präoperatives Screening jedoch (noch) zu aufwendig [29,30]. ...
Article
With patient safety being anesthesiologists' top priority, the focus of preoperative assessment must be to reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality of each patient entrusted to us. Perioperative risk is multifactorial and depends on the extent of surgery and the preoperative condition of the patient.The three main causes of unexpected perioperative death are cardiac arrest, hypoxemia and acute bleeding. Therefore, cardiac and pulmonary risk assessment should cover pre-existing conditions, patient's functional capacity and risk factors associated with the surgical procedure. Specific assessment tools have been developed, are easily accessible and have proven effective in every day clinical practice. Regarding the risk of bleeding, taking a detailed patients' history (including medication) seems to be more suitable to detect mild bleeding disorders than laboratory screening.Functional capacity, defined as the patient's ability to cope with everyday life, gains importance in preoperative risk assessment, as do further factors like deficiencies in nutrition, anaemia, physical capacity, the metabolic status or frailty in the elderly. Prehabilitation strategies reduce perioperative mortality and morbidity by improving functional capacity. These include preoperative nutrition supplementation, physical exercise, correction of iron deficiency and optimized treatment of hyperglycemia.A combination of thorough risk stratification and prehabilitation strategies can improve preoperative conditions and reduce complications in the postoperative period.
Article
Older patients undergoing surgery have reduced physiologic reserve caused by the combined impact of physiologic age-related changes and the increased burden of comorbid conditions. The preoperative assessment of older patients is directed at evaluating the patient's functional reserve and identifying opportunities to minimize any potential for complications. In addition to a standard preoperative evaluation that includes cardiac risk and a systematic review of systems, the evaluation should be supplemented with a review of geriatric syndromes. Age-based laboratory testing protocols can lead to unnecessary testing, and all testing should be requested if indicated by underlying disease and surgical risk.
Article
Purpose: The identification of healthy persons more susceptible to dry eye (DED) symptoms developing after surgery remains an unmet need. We performed this study to build a new Ocular Surface Frailty Index (OSFI) and assess its predictive value for DED symptom onset after cataract surgery. Design: Single-center, observational, longitudinal study. Participants: We screened 405 consecutive patients scheduled for phacoemulsification for age-related cataract. Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 284 patients without preoperative DED symptoms who underwent uneventful cataract surgery were included in the analysis. Methods: We built a tool to assess ocular surface frailty. Starting from a preliminary list of 19 potential items, the final OSFI, including 10 deficits in ocular surface health, factors potentially able to affect it, or both, was developed by a stepwise approach. Preoperative OSFI results were calculated for each enrolled patient and diagnostic tests for DED were performed at the screening visit and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. We evaluated the ability of OSFI to predict the presence of DED symptoms at 1 month or 3 months after surgery, or both. Main outcome measures: The rate of ocular surface symptoms at 1 month or 3 months after surgery, or both. Results: Our patients' OSFI scores ranged from 0 to 0.666, with a median value of 0.200. The percentage of patients with postsurgical ocular surface symptoms was 17%. Using an OSFI cutoff of 0.300, we identified a small group (19% of the asymptomatic patients) with frail ocular surfaces who showed a significantly higher risk of postsurgical DED symptoms develop (50.0% vs. 9.6%; P < 0.001, chi-square test). Logistic regression analysis showed that OSFI results of 0.3 or more (but not age, gender, or any preoperative sign) was a good predictor of ocular surface symptom onset (odds ratio, 9.45; 95% confidence interval, 4.74-18.82). Regression remained significant when performed on 200 bootstrapped samples. Conclusions: The OSFI can be calculated easily and quickly using noninvasive and low-tech procedures, and it proved to be predictive of postoperative DED symptoms onset. This novel tool may allow cataract surgeons to perform a useful preoperative personalized risk assessment.
Article
Background : Serious mental illnesses may be characterized by accelerated biological aging, and over the last years the research on the topic has been stimulated by studies exploring the molecular underpinnings of senescence. Methods : In the present manuscript we propose that measuring frailty, a general product of organismal ageing, through the “Frailty Index” (FI), a recently-emerged macroscopic indicator of functional status and biological age, adds an important marker to the measurements currently implemented in the study of accelerated biological age in psychiatric illnesses. Results : The FI quantifies functional negative health attributes and measures their cumulative effect, thus providing a useful estimate of the individual's biological age and risk profile. Recent studies in older adults have observed significant associations between FI and molecular measures of aging. Limitations : High FI values can be driven by causes different from aging per se, so FI may be a sensitive but not specific measure of biological aging. Conclusions: FI, which is extensively used in geriatrics and gerontology but it has rarely been used in relation to mental health, may be of relevance in the evaluation of age-related phenomena associated with psychiatric diseases.
Article
Background: Frailty strongly predicts adverse outcomes in a variety of clinical settings; however, frailty-related trauma outcomes have not been systematically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized. Our objective was to systematically review and meta-analyze the association between frailty and outcomes (mortality-primary; complications, health resource use, and patient experience-secondary) after multisystem trauma. Methods: After registration (CRD42018104116), we applied a peer-reviewed search strategy to MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Comprehensive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from inception to May 22, 2019, to identify studies that described: (1) multisystem trauma; (2) participants ≥18 years of age; (3) explicit frailty instrument application; and (4) relevant outcomes. Excluded studies included those that: (1) lacked a comparator group; (2) reported isolated injuries; and (3) reported mixed trauma and nontrauma populations. Criteria were applied independently, in duplicate to title/abstract and full-text articles. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias in Nonrandomized Studies-of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. Effect measures (adjusted for prespecified confounders) were pooled using random-effects models; otherwise, narrative synthesis was used. Results: Sixteen studies were included that represented 5198 participants; 9.9% of people with frailty died compared to 4.2% of people without frailty. Frailty was associated with increased mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.71), complications (adjusted OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.72-3.15), and adverse discharge (adjusted OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.29-2.45). Patient function, experience, and resource use outcomes were rarely reported. Conclusions: The presence of frailty is significantly associated with mortality, complications, and adverse discharge disposition after multisystem trauma. This provides important prognostic information to inform discussions with patients and families and highlights the need for trauma system optimization to meet the complex needs of older patients.
Article
Resumen Introducción El grado de fragilidad puede influir más que la edad o la gravedad en el pronóstico de pacientes mayores de 70 años intervenidos de cirugía del aparato digestivo que precisan control postoperatorio inmediato en UCI. Métodos Estudio prospectivo y observacional de pacientes mayores de 70 años que ingresaron en UCI quirúrgica de un hospital de tercer nivel inmediatamente después de una intervención quirúrgica electiva o urgente sobre el aparato digestivo desde el 1 de junio de 2018 hasta el 1 de junio de 2019. Se registraron al ingreso las variables edad, fragilidad (Clinical Frailty Scale, CFS, y Modified Frailty Index, mFI), gravedad (APACHE II), tipo de cirugía y entidad quirúrgica. Se realizó un análisis bivariante para evaluar la influencia de la fragilidad y gravedad en la morbimortalidad hospitalaria y situación basal del paciente (en cuanto a dependencia) a 6 meses. Resultados Fueron seleccionados 90 pacientes, de los que el 54,4% fueron reintervenidos; el 74,4% fueron dados de alta inicialmente en UCI, con un reingreso del 28,4% y con relación directa con la fragilidad (CFS y mFI: p < 0,01). La mortalidad global a los 6 meses fue 44,5%, con CFS (OR = 64,3; p < 0,05; IC 95%: 12,3-333,9) y APACHE II (OR = 1,17; p < 0,05; IC 95%: 1,04-1,32) fueron las covariables que mejor se relacionaron. Conclusiones La estimación de la fragilidad mediante CSF y mFI tiene relación directa con la morbilidad quirúrgica y el reingreso de pacientes graves de edad avanzada ingresados en UCI. Además, CFS y mFI han resultado eficientes como predictores de mortalidad a los 6 meses.
Article
The geriatric population is growing and is the largest utilizer of emergency and critical care services; the emergency clinician should be comfortable in the management of the acutely ill geriatric patient. There are important physiologic changes in geriatric patients, which alters their clinical presentation and management. Age alone should not determine the prognosis for elderly patients. Premorbid functional status, frailty, and severity of illness should be considered carefully for the geriatric population. Emergency clinicians should have honest conversations about goals of care based not only a patient's clinical presentation but also the patient's values.
Article
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Frailty is common in surgical and intensive care unit (ICU) populations, yet it is not routinely measured. Frailty indices are able to quantify this condition across a range of health deficits. We aimed to develop a frailty index (FI) from routinely collected hospital data in a surgical and ICU population. DESIGN Prospective observational single‐center cohort study. SETTING Tertiary referral metropolitan Australian hospital. PARTICIPANTS A total of 336 individuals aged 65 and older undergoing surgery or aged 50 and older admitted to the ICU. MEASUREMENTS Routine admission health data were used to derive an FI comprising 36 health deficits. We examined the FI correlation with existing frailty tools (Clinical Frailty Scale [CFS] and Edmonton Frail Scale [EFS]) and assessed its predictive ability for negative outcomes including 30‐day mortality. RESULTS Median FI was .17 (interquartile range [IQR]) = .10–.24) for ICU patients and .17 (IQR = .11–.25) for surgical patients; maximum FI was .58, and 25% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.4–29.6) of patients overall were diagnosed with frailty (FI score ≥.25). Correlation was strong between the FI and the EFS: ρ = .76 (95% CI = .70–.83) for ICU patients and .71 (95% CI = .64–.78) for surgical patients, and the CFS was .77 (95% CI = .70–.84) for ICU patients and .72 (95% CI = .65–.79) for surgical patients. The FI had good discriminative ability for prediction of 30‐day mortality in ICU patients (multivariate odds ratio for each increase in FI of .1 = 2.04 [95% CI = 1.19–3.48]), comparable with the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score (ICU patients) and the Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity score (surgical patients). CONCLUSION It is feasible to construct an FI from hospital admission data in a cohort of critically ill and surgical patients.
Article
Background Context Frailty is associated with an increased risk of postoperative adverse events (AEs) within the surgical spine population. Multiple frailty tools have been reported in the surgical spine literature. However, the applicability of these tools remains unclear. Purpose Primary objective is to appraise the construct, feasibility, objectivity, and clinimetric properties of frailty tools reported in the surgical spine literature. Secondary objectives included determining the applicability and the most sensitive surgical spine population for each tool. Study Design Systematic Review. Patient Sample Studies reporting the use of a clinical frailty tool with a defined methodology in the adult surgical population (age ≥ 18 years). Outcome Measures Postoperative adverse events (AEs) including mortality, major and minor morbidity, length of stay (LOS), unplanned readmission and reoperation, admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and adverse discharge disposition; postoperative patient-reported outcomes (health-related quality of life (HRQoL), functional, cognitive, and symptomatic); radiographic outcomes; and postoperative frailty trajectory. Methods This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42019109045. Publications from January 1950 to December 2020 were identified by a comprehensive search of PubMed, Ovid, and Embase, supplemented by manual screening. Studies reporting and validating a frailty tool in the surgical spine population with a measurable outcome were included. Each tool and its clinimetric properties were evaluated using validated criteria and definitions. The applicability of each tool and its most sensitive surgical spine population was determined by panel consensus. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results 47 studies were included in the final qualitative analysis. A total of 14 separate frailty tools were identified, in which nine tools assessed frailty according to the cumulative deficit definition, while four instruments utilized phenotypic or weighted frailty models. One instrument assessed frailty according to the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) model. Twelve measures were validated as risk stratification tools for predicting postoperative AEs, while one tool investigated the effect of spine surgery on postoperative frailty trajectory. The modified frailty index (mFI), 5-item mFI, adult spinal deformity frailty index (ASD-FI), FRAIL Scale, and CGA had the most positive ratings for clinimetric properties assessed. Conclusions The assessment of frailty is important in the surgical decision-making process. Cumulative deficit and weighted frailty instruments are appropriate risk stratification tools. Phenotypic tools are sensitive for capturing the relationship between spinal pathology, spine surgery, and prehabilitation on frailty trajectory. CGA instruments are appropriate screening tools for identifying health deficits susceptible to improvement and guiding optimization strategies. Studies are needed to determine whether spine surgery and prehabilitation are effective interventions to reverse frailty.
Article
Introduction Frailty degree can influence more than age or severity in the outcome of patients older than 70 years undergoing surgery of the digestive system that require immediate postoperative control in the ICU. Methods A prospective and observational study of patients over 70 years of age who were admitted to the surgical ICU of a third level hospital immediately after an elective or emergent surgical intervention on the digestive system from June 1, 2018 until June 1, 2019. The variables age, frailty Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), and modified Frailty Index (mFI), severity (APACHE II), type of surgery, surgical pathology were recorded upon admission. A bivariate analysis was performed to assess the influence of frailty and severity on hospital morbidity and mortality and baseline situation of the patient (in terms of dependence) at 6 months. Results A total of 90 patients were recruited, 54.4% of whom were reoperated; 74.4% were initially discharged from the ICU, with 28.4% of readmission and directly associated to frailty (CFS and mFI: P < 0.01). The overall mortality at 6 months was 44.5% being CFS (OR = 64.3; P < 0.05, 95% CI: 12.3–333.9) and APACHE II (OR = 1.17; P < 0.05; 95% CI: 1.04–1.32) the covariates that best related. Conclusions The estimation of frailty by CSF and mFI is directly associated to the surgical morbidity and readmission of elderly and severe patients admitted to the ICU. In addition, CFS and mFI has been efficient as a predictive of mortality at 6 months.
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The elderly population typically referred to individuals over the age of 65 represent a relatively small percentage of the overall population but a large portion of hospitalized patients. Several scoring systems have been developed to help objectify criteria for admission to the intensive care unit as well as predict outcomes. Physiologic and anatomic changes that occur in the elderly virtually affect every organ system in the geriatric patient and it is important that the intensivist understand and navigate these for successful outcomes. Communication with patients families, often in multi disciplinary manor is key to establish trust and will help educate families during these difficult times. Several tools have been developed to help family cope and understand decisions they will be faced with during the ICU admission of their elderly loved ones.
Article
Background: There is increasing evidence supporting the association between frailty and adverse outcomes after surgery. There is, however, no consensus on how frailty should be assessed and used to inform treatment. In this review, we aimed to synthesize the current literature on the use of frailty as a predictor of adverse outcomes following orthopaedic surgery by (1) identifying the frailty instruments used and (2) evaluating the strength of the association between frailty and adverse outcomes after orthopaedic surgery. Methods: A systematic review was performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to identify articles that reported on outcomes after orthopaedic surgery within frail populations. Only studies that defined frail patients using a frailty instrument were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Study demographic information, frailty instrument information (e.g., number of items, domains included), and clinical outcome measures (including mortality, readmissions, and length of stay) were collected and reported. Results: The initial search yielded 630 articles. Of these, 177 articles underwent full-text review; 82 articles were ultimately included and analyzed. The modified frailty index (mFI) was the most commonly used frailty instrument (38% of the studies used the mFI-11 [11-item mFI], and 24% of the studies used the mFI-5 [5-item mFI]), although a large variety of instruments were used (24 different instruments identified). Total joint arthroplasty (22%), hip fracture management (17%), and adult spinal deformity management (15%) were the most frequently studied procedures. Complications (71%) and mortality (51%) were the most frequently reported outcomes; 17% of studies reported on a functional outcome. Conclusions: There is no consensus on the best approach to defining frailty among orthopaedic surgery patients, although instruments based on the accumulation-of-deficits model (such as the mFI) were the most common. Frailty was highly associated with adverse outcomes, but the majority of the studies were retrospective and did not identify frailty prospectively in a prediction model. Although many outcomes were described (complications and mortality being the most common), there was a considerable amount of heterogeneity in measurement strategy and subsequent strength of association. Future investigations evaluating the association between frailty and orthopaedic surgical outcomes should focus on prospective study designs, long-term outcomes, and assessments of patient-reported outcomes and/or functional recovery scores. Clinical relevance: Preoperatively identifying high-risk orthopaedic surgery patients through frailty instruments has the potential to improve patient outcomes. Frailty screenings can create opportunities for targeted intervention efforts and guide patient-provider decision-making.
Chapter
Older adults have a disproportionately higher rate of postoperative complications and are more likely to lose functional abilities after surgery. The age‐related changes in the pulmonary system are largely due to loss in elasticity, just as in the vascular system. Preoperative assessment can be performed by the primary care provider, cardiologist, anaesthesiologist, or any provider who would be able to evaluate risk factors and provide comprehensive recommendations. Perioperative neurological complications are common in elderly surgical patients and include cerebral vascular accident or transient ischemic attack, delirium, and neurocognitive disorder. Older adults have a variety of health concerns that typically require more support than younger patients. Postoperative assessment and management will differ based on the system in which the provider is working. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the successful implementation of risk‐reduction strategies in older surgical patients. Geriatricians can play an important role in the management of polypharmacy and high‐risk medication use perioperatively.
Article
Background: While advances in healthcare mean people are living longer, increasing frailty is a potential consequence of this. The relationship between frailty among older surgical patients and hospital acquired adverse events has not been extensively explored. We sought to describe the relationship between increasing frailty among older surgical patients and the risk of hospital acquired adverse events. Methods: We included consecutive surgical admissions among patients aged 70 years or more across the SWSLHD between January 2010 and December 2020. This study used routinely collected ICD-10-AM data, obtained from the government maintained Admitted Patient Data Collection. The relationships between cumulative frailty deficit items and risk of hospital acquired adverse events were assessed using Poisson regression modelling. This study followed the RECORD/STROBE guidelines. Results: During the study period, 44,721 (57% women) older adults were admitted, and 41% (25,306) were planned surgical admissions. The risk of all adverse events increased with increasing number of frailty deficit items, the highest deficit items group (4-12 deficit items) compared with the lowest deficit items group (0 or 1 deficit item): falls adjusted rate ratio (adj RR) = 15.3, (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.1, 19.42); pressure injury adj RR = 21.3 (95% CI 12.53, 36.16); delirium adj RR = 40.9 (95% CI 31.21, 53.55); pneumonia adj RR = 16.5 (95% CI 12.74, 21.27); thromboembolism adj RR = 17.3 (95% CI 4.4, 11.92); and hospital mortality adj RR = 6.2 (95% CI 5.18, 7.37). Conclusion: The increase in number of cumulative frailty deficit items among older surgical patients was associated with a higher risk of adverse hospital events. The link offers an opportunity to clinical nursing professionals in the surgical setting, to develop and implement targeted models of care and ensure the best outcomes for frail older adults and their families.
Article
Understanding geriatric physiology is critical for successful perioperative management of older surgical patients. The frailty syndrome is evolving as an important, potentially modifiable process capturing a patient's biologic age and is more predictive of adverse perioperative outcomes than chronologic age. Use of frailty in risk stratification and perioperative decision-making allows providers to effectively diagnose, risk stratify, and treat patients in the perioperative setting. Further study is needed to develop a universal definition of frailty, to identify comprehensive yet feasible screening tools that allow for accurate detection of frailty in the perioperative setting, and to refine treatment programs for frail surgical patients.
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Background: Elective surgeries can be associated with significant harm to older adults. The present study aimed to identify the prognostic factors associated with the development of postoperative complications among older adults undergoing elective surgery. Methods: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and AgeLine were searched for articles published between inception and April 21, 2016. Prospective studies reporting prognostic factors associated with postoperative complications (composite outcome of medical and surgical complications), functional decline, mortality, post-hospitalization discharge destination, and prolonged hospitalization among older adults undergoing elective surgery were included. Study characteristics and prognostic factors associated with the outcomes of interest were extracted independently by two reviewers. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to derive pooled effect estimates for prognostic factors and incidences of adverse outcomes. Results: Of the 5692 titles and abstracts that were screened for inclusion, 44 studies (12,281 patients) reported on the following adverse postoperative outcomes: postoperative complications (n =28), postoperative mortality (n = 11), length of hospitalization (n = 21), functional decline (n = 6), and destination at discharge from hospital (n = 13). The pooled incidence of postoperative complications was 25.17% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.03-33.98%, number needed to follow = 4). The geriatric syndromes of frailty (odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95% CI 1.29-3.62) and cognitive impairment (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.44-2.81) were associated with developing postoperative complications; however, there was no association with traditionally assessed prognostic factors such as age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14) or American Society of Anesthesiologists status (OR 2.62, 95% CI 0.78-8.79). Besides frailty, other potentially modifiable prognostic factors, including depressive symptoms (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.22-2.56) and smoking (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.32-4.46), were also associated with developing postoperative complications. Conclusion: Geriatric syndromes are important prognostic factors for postoperative complications. We identified potentially modifiable prognostic factors (e.g., frailty, depressive symptoms, and smoking) associated with developing postoperative complications that can be targeted preoperatively to optimize care.
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Purpose: Functional status and chronic health status are important baseline characteristics of critically ill patients. The assessment of frailty on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may provide objective, prognostic information on baseline health. To determine the impact of frailty on the outcome of critically ill patients, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing clinical outcomes in frail and non-frail patients admitted to ICU. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, and Clinicaltrials.gov. All study designs with the exception of narrative reviews, case reports, and editorials were included. Included studies assessed frailty in patients greater than 18 years of age admitted to an ICU and compared outcomes between fit and frail patients. Two reviewers independently applied eligibility criteria, assessed quality, and extracted data. The primary outcomes were hospital and long-term mortality. We also determined the prevalence of frailty, the impact on other patient-centered outcomes such as discharge disposition, and health service utilization such as length of stay. Results: Ten observational studies enrolling a total of 3030 patients (927 frail and 2103 fit patients) were included. The overall quality of studies was moderate. Frailty was associated with higher hospital mortality [relative risk (RR) 1.71; 95% CI 1.43, 2.05; p < 0.00001; I (2) = 32%] and long-term mortality (RR 1.53; 95% CI 1.40, 1.68; p < 0.00001; I (2) = 0%). The pooled prevalence of frailty was 30% (95% CI 29-32%). Frail patients were less likely to be discharged home than fit patients (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.49, 0.71; p < 0.00001; I (2) = 12%). Conclusions: Frailty is common in patients admitted to ICU and is associated with worsened outcomes. Identification of this previously unrecognized and vulnerable ICU population should act as the impetus for investigating and implementing appropriate care plans for critically ill frail patients. Registration: PROSPERO (ID: CRD42016053910).
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Background: Increasing numbers of older patients are undergoing vascular surgery. Inadequate preoperative assessment and optimization may contribute to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Methods: Patients aged at least 65 years scheduled for elective aortic aneurysm repair or lower-limb arterial surgery were enrolled in an RCT of standard preoperative assessment or preoperative comprehensive geriatric assessment and optimization. Randomization was stratified by sex and surgical site (aorta/lower limb). Primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcome measures included new medical co-morbidities, postoperative medical or surgical complications, discharge to a higher level of dependency and 30-day readmission rate. Results: A total of 176 patients were included in the final analysis (control 91, intervention 85). Geometric mean length of stay was 5·53 days in the control group and 3·32 days in the intervention group (ratio of geometric means 0·60, 95 per cent c.i. 0·46 to 0·79; P < 0·001). There was a lower incidence of delirium (11 versus 24 per cent; P = 0·018), cardiac complications (8 versus 27 per cent; P = 0·001) and bladder/bowel complications (33 versus 55 per cent; P = 0·003) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Patients in the intervention group were less likely to require discharge to a higher level of dependency (4 of 85 versus 12 of 91; P = 0·051). Conclusion: In this study of patients aged 65 years or older undergoing vascular surgery, preoperative comprehensive geriatric assessment was associated with a shorter length of hospital stay. Patients undergoing assessment and optimization had a lower incidence of complications and were less likely to be discharged to a higher level of dependency. Registration number: ISRCTN23142588 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com).
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Background As the population ages, increasing numbers of older adults are undergoing surgery. Frailty is prevalent in older adults and may be a better predictor of post-operative morbidity and mortality than chronological age. The aim of this review was to examine the impact of frailty on adverse outcomes in the ‘older old’ and ‘oldest old’ surgical patients. MethodsA systematic review was undertaken. Electronic databases from 2010 to 2015 were searched to identify articles which evaluated the relationship between frailty and post-operative outcomes in surgical populations with a mean age of 75 and older. Articles were excluded if they were in non-English languages or if frailty was measured using a single marker only. Demographic data, type of surgery performed, frailty measure and impact of frailty on adverse outcomes were extracted from the selected studies. Quality of the studies and risk of bias was assessed by the Epidemiological Appraisal Instrument. ResultsTwenty-three studies were selected for the review and they were assessed as medium to high quality. The mean age ranged from 75 to 87 years, and included patients undergoing cardiac, oncological, general, vascular and hip fracture surgeries. There were 21 different instruments used to measure frailty. Regardless of how frailty was measured, the strongest evidence in terms of numbers of studies, consistency of results and study quality was for associations between frailty and increased mortality at 30 days, 90 days and one year follow-up, post-operative complications and length of stay. A small number of studies reported on discharge to institutional care, functional decline and lower quality of life after surgery, and also found a significant association with frailty. Conclusion There was strong evidence that frailty in older-old and oldest-old surgical patients predicts post-operative mortality, complications, and prolonged length of stay. Frailty assessment may be a valuable tool in peri-operative assessment. It is possible that different frailty tools are best suited for different acuity and type of surgical patients. The association between frailty and return to pre-morbid function, discharge destination, and quality of life after surgery warrants further research.
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Aim: The study aimed to investigate the effects of frailty on clinical outcomes of patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: In this prospective study, 122 patients (59 frail, 37 pre-frail and 26 robust) were included. A frailty index (FI) derived from comprehensive geriatric assessment parameters was used for the evaluation. The FI score of ≤0.25 was considered as robust, 0.25–0.40 as pre-frail and >0.40 as frail. The prognostic effects of FI were investigated and FI and APACHE II and SOFA scores, the prognostic scores using in ICU, were compared. Results: Median age of the patients was 71 years old and 50.8 % were male. ICU mortality rate and median length of stay (LOS) were 51.6 % and 8 days (min–max: 1–148), respectively. ICU mortality was higher (69.2, 56.8 and 40.7 %, respectively, p = 0.040) and median overall survival was lower in frail group compared to pre-frail and robust subjects (23, 31 and 140 days, p = 0.013, respectively). Long term mortality over 3 and 6 months in frail patients were 80.8 and 84.6 %, respectively and significantly higher than others. Multivariate analysis showed that LOS in ICU (HR 1.067, 95 % CI 1.021–1.114), SOFA score (HR 1.272, 95 % CI 1.096–1.476) and FI (HR 39.019, 95 % CI 1.235–1232.537) were the independent correlates for ICU mortality (p = 0.004, p = 0.002 and 0.038, respectively). There was a weak but statistically significant positive correlation between APACHE II and FI scores (r = 0.190, p = 0.036). Conclusions: FI may be used as a predictor for the evaluation of elderly patients’ clinical outcomes in ICUs.
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Background The aging population of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is growing. In the general aging population, frailty is commonly used to predict adverse health outcomes, including hospital use, death, and admission to long-term care. However, existing frailty measures are less appropriate for aging persons with IDD, given their pre-existing conditions and limitations. An accumulation of deficits approach, which is now widely used to describe frailty in the general population, may be more suitable for persons with IDD. Frailty measures specific to persons with IDD have not been widely studied. Methods Using pre-determined criteria, a frailty index (FI) specific to persons with IDD was developed based on items in the Resident Assessment Instrument - Home Care (RAI-HC), and using the assessments of 7,863 individuals with IDD in Ontario (aged 18–99 years) admitted to home care between April 1st, 2006 and March 31st, 2014. FI scores were derived by dividing deficits present by deficits measured, and categorized into meaningful strata using stratum-specific likelihood ratios. A multinomial logistic regression model identified associations between frailty and individual characteristics. Results The resulting FI is comprised of 42 deficits across five domains (physiological, psychological, cognitive, social and service use). The mean FI score was 0.22 (SD = 0.13), equivalent to 9 deficits. Over half of the cohort was non-frail (FI score < 0.21), while the remaining were either pre-frail (21 %, FI score between 0.21 and 0.30) or frail (27 %, FI score > 0.30). Controlling for individual characteristics, women were more likely to be frail compared to men (OR = 1.39, 95 % CI: 1.23–1.56). Individuals who were frail were significantly more likely to have a caregiver who was unable to continuing caring (OR = 1.86, 95 % CI: 1.55–2.22) or feeling distressed (OR = 1.54, 95 % CI: 1.30–1.83). Living with a family members was significantly protective of frailty (OR = 0.35, 95 % CI: 0.29–0.41), compared to living alone. Conclusions Using the FI to identify frailty in adults with IDD is feasible and can be incorporated into existing home care assessments. This could offer case managers assistance in identifying at-risk individuals. Future analyses should evaluate this measure’s ability to predict future adverse outcomes.
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Background: In older adults admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), frailty influences prognosis. We examined the relationship between the frailty index (FI) based on deficit accumulation and early and late survival. Methods: Older patients (≥65 years) admitted to a specialized geriatric ICU at the Liuhuaqiao Hospital, Guangzhou, China between July-December 2011 (n = 155; age 82.7±7.1 y; 87.1% men) were followed for 300 days. The FI was calculated as the proportion present of 52 health deficits. FI performance was compared with that of several prognostic scores. Results: The 90-day death rate was 38.7% (n = 60; 27 died within 30 days). The FI score was correlated with the Glasgow Coma Scale, Karnofsky Scale, Palliative Performance Scale, Acute Physiology Score-APACHE II and APACHE IV (r (2) = 0.52 to 0.72, p < 0.001). Patients who died within 30 days had higher mean FI scores (0.41±0.11) than those who survived to 300 days (0.22±0.11; F = 38.91, p < 0.001). Each 1% increase in the FI from the previous level was associated with an 11% increase in the 30-day mortality risk (95% CI: 7%-15%) adjusting for age, sex, and the prognostic scores. The FI discriminated patients who died in 30 days from those who survived with moderately high accuracy (AUC = 0.89±0.03). No one with an FI score >0.46 survived past 90 days. Conclusion: ICU survival was strongly associated with the level of frailty at admission. An FI based on health deficit accumulation may help improve critical care outcome prediction in older adults.
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A better understanding of the health status of older inpatients could underpin the delivery of more individualised, appropriate health care. 1418 patients aged ≥ 70 years admitted to 11 hospitals in Australia were evaluated at admission using the interRAI assessment system for Acute Care. This instrument surveys a large number of domains, including cognition, communication, mood and behaviour, activities of daily living, continence, nutrition, skin condition, falls, and medical diagnosis. Variables across multiple domains were selected as health deficits. Dichotomous data were coded as symptom absent (0 deficit) or present (1 deficit). Ordinal scales were recoded as 0, 0.5 or 1 deficit based on face validity and the distribution of data. Individual deficit scores were summed and divided by the total number considered (56) to yield a Frailty index (FI-AC) with theoretical range 0–1. The index was normally distributed, with a mean score of 0.32 (±0.14), interquartile range 0.22 to 0.41. The 99% limit to deficit accumulation was 0.69, below the theoretical maximum of 1.0. In logistic regression analysis including age, gender and FI-AC as covariates, each 0.1 increase in the FI-AC increased the likelihood of inpatient mortality twofold (OR: 2.05 [95% CI 1.70 – 2.48]). Quantification of frailty status at hospital admission can be incorporated into an existing assessment system, which serves other clinical and administrative purposes. This could optimise clinical utility and minimise costs. The variables used to derive the FI-AC are common to all interRAI instruments, and could be used to precisely measure frailty across the spectrum of health care.
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Frailty has no single universally accepted definition or method for assessment. It is commonly defined from a physiological perspective as a disruption of homeostatic mechanisms ultimately leading to a vulnerable state. Numerous scoring indices and assessments exist to assist clinicians in determining the frailty status of a patient. The purpose of this review is to discuss the relationship between frailty and perioperative outcomes in surgical patients. We performed a review to determine the association of frailty with perioperative outcomes in patients undergoing a wide variety of surgical procedures. A scoping literature search was performed to capture studies from MEDLINE(®), EMBASE™, and CENTRAL (Cochrane), which resulted in locating 175 studies across the three electronic databases. After an article screening process, 19 studies were found that examined frailty and perioperative outcomes. The studies used a range of assessments to determine frailty status and included patients in a variety of surgical fields. Regardless of surgical population and method of frailty assessment, a relationship existed between adverse perioperative outcomes and frailty status. Frail patients undergoing surgical procedures had a higher likelihood than non-frail patients of experiencing mortality, morbidity, complications, increased hospital length of stay, and discharge to an institution. Patients undergoing surgery who are deemed frail, regardless of the scoring assessment used, have a higher likelihood of experiencing adverse perioperative outcomes. With the lack of a unified definition for frailty, further research is needed to address which assessment method is most predictive of adverse postoperative outcomes.
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Importance: The number of geriatric patients who undergo surgery has been increasing, but there are insufficient tools to predict postoperative outcomes in the elderly. Objective: To design a predictive model for adverse outcomes in older surgical patients. Design, setting, and participants: From October 19, 2011, to July 31, 2012, a single tertiary care center enrolled 275 consecutive elderly patients (aged ≥65 years) undergoing intermediate-risk or high-risk elective operations in the Department of Surgery. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was the 1-year all-cause mortality rate. The secondary outcomes were postoperative complications (eg, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, delirium, acute pulmonary thromboembolism, and unplanned intensive care unit admission), length of hospital stay, and discharge to nursing facility. Results: Twenty-five patients (9.1%) died during the follow-up period (median [interquartile range], 13.3 [11.5-16.1] months), including 4 in-hospital deaths after surgery. Twenty-nine patients (10.5%) experienced at least 1 complication after surgery and 24 (8.7%) were discharged to nursing facilities. Malignant disease and low serum albumin levels were more common in the patients who died. Among the geriatric assessment domains, Charlson Comorbidity Index, dependence in activities of daily living, dependence in instrumental activities of daily living, dementia, risk of delirium, short midarm circumference, and malnutrition were associated with increased mortality rates. A multidimensional frailty score model composed of the above items predicted all-cause mortality rates more accurately than the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.821 vs 0.647; P = .01). The sensitivity and specificity for predicting all-cause mortality rates were 84.0% and 69.2%, respectively, according to the model's cutoff point (>5 vs ≤5). High-risk patients (multidimensional frailty score >5) showed increased postoperative mortality risk (hazard ratio, 9.01; 95% CI, 2.15-37.78; P = .003) and longer hospital stays after surgery (median [interquartile range], 9 [5-15] vs 6 [3-9] days; P < .001). Conclusions and relevance: The multidimensional frailty score based on comprehensive geriatric assessment is more useful than conventional methods for predicting outcomes in geriatric patients undergoing surgery.
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Frailty is a recent concept used for evaluating elderly individuals. Our study determined the prevalence of frailty in intensive care unit (ICU) patients and its impact on the rate of mortality. A multicenter, prospective, observational study performed in four ICUs in France included 196 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized for >24 h during a 6-month study period. Frailty was determined using the frailty phenotype (FP) and the clinical frailty score (CFS). The patients were separated as follows: FP score <3 or ≥3 and CFS <5 or ≥5. Frailty was observed in 41 and 23 % of patients on the basis of an FP score ≥3 and a CFS ≥5, respectively. At admission to the ICU, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores did not differ between the frail and nonfrail patients. In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for ICU mortality were FP score ≥3 [hazard ratio (HR), 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.6-6.6; p < 0.001], male gender (HR, 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.1-5.3; p = 0.026), cardiac arrest before admission (HR, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.1-7.4; p = 0.036), SAPS II score ≥46 (HR, 2.6; 95 % CI, 1.2-5.3; p = 0.011), and brain injury before admission (HR, 3.5; 95 % CI, 1.6-7.7; p = 0.002). The risk factors for 6-month mortality were a CFS ≥5 (HR, 2.4; 95 % CI, 1.49-3.87; p < 0.001) and a SOFA score ≥7 (HR, 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.35-3.64; p = 0.002). An increased CFS was associated with significant incremental hospital and 6-month mortalities. Frailty is a frequent occurrence and is independently associated with increased ICU and 6-month mortalities. Notably, the CFS predicts outcomes more effectively than the commonly used ICU illness scores.
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Background: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome characterized by loss of physiologic and cognitive reserves that confers vulnerability to adverse outcomes. We determined the prevalence, correlates and outcomes associated with frailty among adults admitted to intensive care. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 421 critically ill adults aged 50 or more at 6 hospitals across the province of Alberta. The primary exposure was frailty, defined by a score greater than 4 on the Clinical Frailty Scale. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included adverse events, 1-year mortality and quality of life. Results: The prevalence of frailty was 32.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.3%-37.5%). Frail patients were older, were more likely to be female, and had more comorbidities and greater functional dependence than those who were not frail. In-hospital mortality was higher among frail patients than among non-frail patients (32% v. 16%; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-3.01) and remained higher at 1 year (48% v. 25%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.82, 95% CI 1.28-2.60). Major adverse events were more common among frail patients (39% v. 29%; OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.01-2.37). Compared with nonfrail survivors, frail survivors were more likely to become functionally dependent (71% v. 52%; OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.03-4.89), had significantly lower quality of life and were more often readmitted to hospital (56% v. 39%; OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.22-3.23) in the 12 months following enrolment. Interpretation: Frailty was common among critically ill adults aged 50 and older and identified a population at increased risk of adverse events, morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of frailty could improve prognostication and identify a vulnerable population that might benefit from follow-up and intervention.
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Introduction: hip fracture is expensive in terms of mortality, hospital length of stay (LOS) and consequences for independence. Poor outcome reflects the vulnerability of patients who typically sustain this injury, but the impact of different comorbidities and impairments is complex to understand. We consider this in a prospective cohort study designed to examine how a patients' frailty index (FI) predicts outcome.Methodology: consecutive patients with low trauma hip fracture were assessed, excluding only those unfit for surgery. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) findings were used to derive a FI for each patient, which was examined alongside other assessment and outcome data from our National Hip Fracture Database (NHFD) submission for these individuals. we describe 178 patients; mean age 81 years, 73.5% female. The mean FI was 0.34 (SD = 0.16), and logistic regression identified abbreviated mental test score and FI as the strongest predictors of poor outcome. When patients were stratified by FI, 56 (31.5%) were in the low-frailty group (FI ≤0.25), 58 (32.5%) in intermediate (FI >0.25-0.4), and 64 (36%) in the high-FI group (FI >0.4). All the patients in the low-FI group returned to their original residence within a mean of 21.6 days. The mean LOS for the intermediate group was 36.3 days compared with 67.8 days in the high-FI group (P < 0.01) while 30-day mortality was 3.4% for the intermediate group compared with 17.2% for the high-FI group (P < 0.001). individual CGA findings proved disappointing as outcome predictors, while FI turned out to be a better predictor of mortality, 30-day residence and length of inpatient stay.
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All the current frailty measures count deficits. They differ chiefly in which items, and how many, they consider. These differences are related: if a measure considers only a few items, to define broad risks those items need to integrate across several systems (e.g. mobility or function). If many items are included, the cumulative effect of small deficits can be considered. Even so, it is not clear just how small deficits can be. To better understand how the scale of deficit accumulation might impact frailty measurement, we consider how age-related, subcellular deficits might become macroscopically visible and so give rise to frailty. Cellular deficits occur when subcellular damage has neither been repaired nor cleared. With greater cellular deficit accumulation, detection becomes more likely. Deficit detection can be done by either subclinical (e.g. laboratory, imaging, electrodiagnostic) or clinical methods. Not all clinically evident deficits need cross a disease threshold. The extent to which cellular deficit accumulation compromises organ function can reflect not just what is happening in that organ system, but deficit accumulation in other organ systems too. In general, frailty arises in relation to the number of organ systems in which deficits accumulate. This understanding of how subcellular deficits might scale has implications for understanding frailty as a vulnerability state. Considering the cumulative effects of many small deficits appears to allow important aspects of the behaviour of systems close to failure to be observed. It also suggests the potential to detect frailty with less reliance on clinical observation than current methods employ.
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Prediction of postoperative complications has been based on assessing comorbidities. However, the evaluation of these comorbidities has not consistently identified those at higher risk of complications, primarily due to the inability to assess how these comorbidities affect functional status. We hypothesized that preoperative functional measures of patients' health status can predict postoperative complications. A sample of patients undergoing general surgical operations were reviewed for age, gender, diagnosis (for severity), operations (for complexity), number of comorbidities, preoperative frailty (as determined by the Canadian Study of Health and Ageing Frailty Index), preoperative quality of life (as determined by the SF-36), occurrence of postoperative complications, number of postoperative complications, and severity of complications. Data were analyzed by linear and multiple logistic regression analyses, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Two hundred and twenty-six patients were evaluated, average age 61 ± 13 years, 47% male patients. Frailty Index (FI) correlated with number of comorbidities (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), and all of the domains of the SF-36. Patients who had postoperative complications had higher median preoperative FI than those would did not [0.075 (IQR 0.046-0.118) vs. 0.059 (IQR 0.045-0.089), P = 0.007]. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that operation complexity, FI, and the role-emotional domain were associated with and increased risk of postoperative complications, whereas the bodily pain domain was associated with a lower risk of postoperative complications. This study demonstrates that preoperative functional status as measured by FI and SF-36 may help identify patients at higher risk of postoperative complications. In our ageing population, use of such measures may help in better patient selection.
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Preoperative risk assessment is important yet inexact in older patients because physiologic reserves are difficult to measure. Frailty is thought to estimate physiologic reserves, although its use has not been evaluated in surgical patients. We designed a study to determine if frailty predicts surgical complications and enhances current perioperative risk models. We prospectively measured frailty in 594 patients (age 65 years or older) presenting to a university hospital for elective surgery between July 2005 and July 2006. Frailty was classified using a validated scale (0 to 5) that included weakness, weight loss, exhaustion, low physical activity, and slowed walking speed. Patients scoring 4 to 5 were classified as frail, 2 to 3 were intermediately frail, and 0 to 1 were nonfrail. Main outcomes measures were 30-day surgical complications, length of stay, and discharge disposition. Multiple logistic regression (complications and discharge) and negative binomial regression (length of stay) were done to analyze frailty and postoperative outcomes associations. Preoperative frailty was associated with an increased risk for postoperative complications (intermediately frail: odds ratio [OR] 2.06; 95% CI 1.18-3.60; frail: OR 2.54; 95% CI 1.12-5.77), length of stay (intermediately frail: incidence rate ratio 1.49; 95% CI 1.24-1.80; frail: incidence rate ratio 1.69; 95% CI 1.28-2.23), and discharge to a skilled or assisted-living facility after previously living at home (intermediately frail: OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.0-9.99; frail: OR 20.48; 95% CI 5.54-75.68). Frailty improved predictive power (p < 0.01) of each risk index (ie, American Society of Anesthesiologists, Lee, and Eagle scores). Frailty independently predicts postoperative complications, length of stay, and discharge to a skilled or assisted-living facility in older surgical patients and enhances conventional risk models. Assessing frailty using a standardized definition can help patients and physicians make more informed decisions.
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Predicting future demand for intensive care is vital to planning the allocation of resources. Mathematical modelling using the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) was applied to intensive care data from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Core Database and population projections from the Australian Bureau of Statistics to forecast future demand in Australian intensive care. The model forecasts an increase in ICU demand of over 50% by 2020, with current total ICU bed-days (in 2007) of 471 358, predicted to increase to 643 160 by 2020. An increased rate of ICU use by patients older than 80 years was also noted, with the average bed-days per 10 000 population for this group increasing from 396 in 2006 to 741 in 2007. An increase in demand of the forecast magnitude could not be accommodated within current ICU capacity. Significant action will be required.
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Frailty can be measured in relation to the accumulation of deficits using a frailty index. A frailty index can be developed from most ageing databases. Our objective is to systematically describe a standard procedure for constructing a frailty index. This is a secondary analysis of the Yale Precipitating Events Project cohort study, based in New Haven CT. Non-disabled people aged 70 years or older (n = 754) were enrolled and re-contacted every 18 months. The database includes variables on function, cognition, co-morbidity, health attitudes and practices and physical performance measures. Data came from the baseline cohort and those available at the first 18-month follow-up assessment. Procedures for selecting health variables as candidate deficits were applied to yield 40 deficits. Recoding procedures were applied for categorical, ordinal and interval variables such that they could be mapped to the interval 0-1, where 0 = absence of a deficit, and 1= full expression of the deficit. These individual deficit scores were combined in an index, where 0= no deficit present, and 1= all 40 deficits present. The values of the index were well fit by a gamma distribution. Between the baseline and follow-up cohorts, the age-related slope of deficit accumulation increased from 0.020 (95% confidence interval, 0.014-0.026) to 0.026 (0.020-0.032). The 99% limit to deficit accumulation was 0.6 in the baseline cohort and 0.7 in the follow-up cohort. Multivariate Cox analysis showed the frailty index, age and sex to be significant predictors of mortality. A systematic process for creating a frailty index, which relates deficit accumulation to the individual risk of death, showed reproducible properties in the Yale Precipitating Events Project cohort study. This method of quantifying frailty can aid our understanding of frailty-related health characteristics in older adults.
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Frailty is considered highly prevalent in old age and to confer high risk for falls, disability, hospitalization, and mortality. Frailty has been considered synonymous with disability, comorbidity, and other characteristics, but it is recognized that it may have a biologic basis and be a distinct clinical syndrome. A standardized definition has not yet been established. To develop and operationalize a phenotype of frailty in older adults and assess concurrent and predictive validity, the study used data from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Participants were 5,317 men and women 65 years and older (4,735 from an original cohort recruited in 1989-90 and 582 from an African American cohort recruited in 1992-93). Both cohorts received almost identical baseline evaluations and 7 and 4 years of follow-up, respectively, with annual examinations and surveillance for outcomes including incident disease, hospitalization, falls, disability, and mortality. Frailty was defined as a clinical syndrome in which three or more of the following criteria were present: unintentional weight loss (10 lbs in past year), self-reported exhaustion, weakness (grip strength), slow walking speed, and low physical activity. The overall prevalence of frailty in this community-dwelling population was 6.9%; it increased with age and was greater in women than men. Four-year incidence was 7.2%. Frailty was associated with being African American, having lower education and income, poorer health, and having higher rates of comorbid chronic diseases and disability. There was overlap, but not concordance, in the cooccurrence of frailty, comorbidity, and disability. This frailty phenotype was independently predictive (over 3 years) of incident falls, worsening mobility or ADL disability, hospitalization, and death, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.82 to 4.46, unadjusted, and 1.29-2.24, adjusted for a number of health, disease, and social characteristics predictive of 5-year mortality. Intermediate frailty status, as indicated by the presence of one or two criteria, showed intermediate risk of these outcomes as well as increased risk of becoming frail over 3-4 years of follow-up (odds ratios for incident frailty = 4.51 unadjusted and 2.63 adjusted for covariates, compared to those with no frailty criteria at baseline). This study provides a potential standardized definition for frailty in community-dwelling older adults and offers concurrent and predictive validity for the definition. It also finds that there is an intermediate stage identifying those at high risk of frailty. Finally, it provides evidence that frailty is not synonymous with either comorbidity or disability, but comorbidity is an etiologic risk factor for, and disability is an outcome of, frailty. This provides a potential basis for clinical assessment for those who are frail or at risk, and for future research to develop interventions for frailty based on a standardized ascertainment of frailty.
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There is no single generally accepted clinical definition of frailty. Previously developed tools to assess frailty that have been shown to be predictive of death or need for entry into an institutional facility have not gained acceptance among practising clinicians. We aimed to develop a tool that would be both predictive and easy to use. We developed the 7-point Clinical Frailty Scale and applied it and other established tools that measure frailty to 2305 elderly patients who participated in the second stage of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). We followed this cohort prospectively; after 5 years, we determined the ability of the Clinical Frailty Scale to predict death or need for institutional care, and correlated the results with those obtained from other established tools. The CSHA Clinical Frailty Scale was highly correlated (r = 0.80) with the Frailty Index. Each 1-category increment of our scale significantly increased the medium-term risks of death (21.2% within about 70 mo, 95% confidence interval [CI] 12.5%-30.6%) and entry into an institution (23.9%, 95% CI 8.8%-41.2%) in multivariable models that adjusted for age, sex and education. Analyses of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that our Clinical Frailty Scale performed better than measures of cognition, function or comorbidity in assessing risk for death (area under the curve 0.77 for 18-month and 0.70 for 70-month mortality). Frailty is a valid and clinically important construct that is recognizable by physicians. Clinical judgments about frailty can yield useful predictive information.
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In recent years, ergonomics practices have increasingly relied upon the knowledge derived from epidemiological studies. In this regard, there is limited research devoted to the exclusive evaluation of the methodological qualities of ergonomics epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to develop and test a general purpose 'epidemiological appraisal instrument' (EAI) for evaluating the methodological quality of existing or new ergonomic epidemiological studies using a critical appraisal system rooted in epidemiological principles. A pilot EAI version was developed and tested by a team of epidemiologists/physicians/biostatisticians, with the team leader being both epidemiologist and ergonomist. The pilot version was further tested with regard to other raters with/without a background in epidemiology, biostatistics and ergonomics. A revised version was evaluated for criterion validity and reliability. An assessor with a basic background in epidemiology and biostatistics would be able to correctly respond on four out of five questions, provided that subject matter expertise is obtained on specific items. This may improve with the article's quality. Training may have an effect upon assessors with virtually no background in epidemiology/biostatistics, but with a background in ergonomics. In this latter case, the inter-rater degree of agreement is largely above 90% and assessors can resolve their differences in a subsequent round. The EAI proved to be a valid and reliable appraisal instrument that may be used in various applications, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
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This review article summarizes how frailty can be considered in relation to deficit accumulation. Recalling that frailty is an age-associated, nonspecific vulnerability, we consider symptoms, signs, diseases, and disabilities as deficits, which are combined in a frailty index. An individual's frailty index score reflects the proportion of potential deficits present in that person, and indicates the likelihood that frailty is present. Although based on a simple count, the frailty index shows several interesting properties, including a characteristic rate of accumulation, a submaximal limit, and characteristic changes with age in its distribution. The frailty index, as a state variable, is able to quantitatively summarize vulnerability. Future studies include the application of network analyses and stochastic analytical techniques to the evaluation of the frailty index and the description of other state variables in relation to frailty.
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This study aimed to examine the feasibility of using a frailty index (FI) based on comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), to assess the level of frailty in older surgical patients preoperatively and to evaluate the association of FI-CGA with poorer postoperative outcomes. Two hundred and forty-six patients aged ≥70 years undergoing intermediate- to high-risk surgery in a tertiary hospital were recruited. Frailty was assessed using a 57-item FI-CGA form, with fit, intermediate frail, and frail patients defined as FI ≤0.25, >0.25 to 0.4, and >0.4, respectively. Adverse outcomes were ascertained at 30 days and 12 months post-surgery. Logistic regression models assessed the relationship between FI and adverse outcomes, adjusting for age, gender and acuity of surgery. The mean age of the participants was 79 years (standard deviation [SD] 6.5%), 52% were female, 91% were admitted from the community, 43% underwent acute surgery, and 19% were assessed as frail. The FI-CGA form was reported as being easy to apply, with a low patient refusal rate (2.2%). The majority of items were easy to rate, although inter-rater reliability was not tested. In relation to outcomes, greater frailty was associated with increased 12-month mortality (6.4%, 15.6%, and 23% for fit, intermediate frail, and frail patients respectively, P =0.01) and 12-month hospital readmissions (33.9%, 48.9%, and 60% respectively, P =0.004). There were no statistically significant differences between fit, intermediate frail, and frail groups in perioperative adverse events (17.4%, 23.3%, and 19.1% respectively, P =0.577) or 30-day postoperative complications (35.8%, 47.8%, and 46.8% respectively, P =0.183). Our findings suggest that it is feasible to use the FI-CGA to assess frailty preoperatively, and that using the FI-CGA may identify patients at high risk of adverse long-term outcomes.
Article
Objective: To determine the value of a novel adult cervical deformity frailty index (CD-FI) in preoperative risk stratification. Methods: We reviewed a prospective, multicenter database of adults with cervical spine deformity. We selected 40 variables to construct the CD-FI using a validated method. Patients were categorized as not frail (NF) (<0.2), frail (0.2-0.4), or severely frail (SF) (>0.4) based on CD-FI score. We performed multivariate logistic regression to determine the relationships between CD-FI score and incidence of complications, length of hospital stay, and discharge disposition. Results: Of 61 patients enrolled from 2009 to 2015 with at least 1 year of follow-up, the mean CD-FI score was 0.26 (range 0.25-0.59). Seventeen patients were categorized as NF, 34 as frail, and 10 as SF. The incidence of major complications increased with greater frailty, with a gamma correlation coefficient of 0.25 (asymptotic standard error (ASE), 0.22). The odds of having a major complication were higher for frail patients (OR 4.4; 95% CI, 0.6-32) and SF patients (OR 43; 95% CI, 2.7-684) compared with NF patients. Greater frailty was associated with a higher incidence of medical complications and had a gamma correlation coefficient of 0.30 (ASE, 0.26). Surgical complications, discharge disposition, and length of hospital stay did not significantly correlate with frailty. Conclusions: Greater frailty was associated with greater risk of major complications for patients undergoing cervical spine deformity surgery. The CD-FI may be used to improve the accuracy of preoperative risk stratification and allow for adequate patient counseling.
Article
Objectives: To apply the Frailty Phenotype (FP) and Frailty Index (FI) before major elective orthopedic surgery to categorize frailty status and assess associations with postoperative outcomes. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Two tertiary hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Participants: Individuals aged 70 and older undergoing scheduled orthopedic surgery enrolled in the Successful Aging after Elective Surgery (SAGES) Study (N = 415). Measurements: Preoperative evaluation included assessment of frailty using the FP and FI. The weighted kappa statistic was used to determine concordance between the two frailty measures and multivariable modeling to determine associations between each measure and postoperative complications, postoperative length of stay (LOS) of longer than 5 days, discharge to postacute institutional care (PAC), and 300 day readmission. Results: Frailty was highly prevalent (FP, 35%; FI, 41%). There was moderate concordance between the FP and FI (κ = 0.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36-0.49). When using the FP, being prefrail predicted greater risk of complications (relative risk (RR) = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1) and discharge to PAC (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9) than being robust, and being frail predicted more complications (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), LOS longer than 5 days (RR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.1-8.8), and discharge to PAC (RR = 2.3 95% CI = 1.4-3.7). When using FI, being prefrail predicted LOS longer than 5 days (RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.0-4.8) and discharge to PAC (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1), as did being frail (RR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.5; RR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-6.8, respectively). The other outcomes were not significantly associated with frailty status. Conclusion: FP and FI predict postoperative outcomes after major elective orthopedic surgery and should be considered for preoperative risk stratification.
Article
This study aimed to derive measures of baseline vulnerability and inpatient frailty in elderly surgical patients and to study their association with adverse post-operative outcomes. Data from comprehensive geriatric assessment of 208 general surgical and orthopaedic patients aged 70 and over admitted to four acute hospitals in Queensland, Australia, were analysed to derive a baseline and inpatient Frailty Index (FI). The association of these indices with adverse outcomes was examined in logistic regression. The mean (SD) baseline FI was 0.19 (0.09) compared to 0.26 (0.12) on admission, with a predominant increase in domains related to functional status. Both baseline and inpatient FI were significant predictors of one year mortality, inpatient delirium, and a composite adverse outcome, after adjusting for age, sex and acuity of surgery. In summary, detecting baseline frailty pre-hospitalisation may be useful to trigger the implementation of supportive and preventative measures in hospital.
Article
Background: Frailty is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. However, its trajectory after coronary artery disease treatment is unknown. Methods and results: Three hundred seventy-four patients undergoing nonemergent cardiac catheterization followed by treatment (ie, 128 coronary artery bypass graft [CABG], 150 percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], 96 medical therapy only) were observed for 30 months. A frailty index (FI) score was calculated at baseline (before initial treatment) and 6, 12, and 30 months after treatment. Random-effects models compared FI score trajectories by sex, age, and treatment group. Mean baseline FI scores were 0.170, 0.154, and 0.154 for CABG, PCI, and medical therapy only, respectively. FI scores decreased (improved) 6 months after initial treatment, then increased (worsened) at 12 and 30 months (P<0.001 for differences over time). Women had nonsignificantly higher FI scores than men (P=0.097) but followed the same trajectory (P=0.352 for differences over time). In patients aged ≥75 years, FI scores increased postbaseline for CABG and medical therapy only and after 6 months for PCI patients. Patients <75 years assigned to PCI and CABG experienced a sustained frailty reduction, whereas those assigned to medical therapy only showed stable frailty over the 30-month follow-up period (P value for differences over time by age and treatment group=0.041). Conclusions: With coronary artery disease treatment, frailty generally follows a U-shaped trajectory, but the pattern may differ by age and treatment. Further investigation is needed to confirm these observations and determine whether patients might benefit from consideration of frailty status.
Article
Background: Frailty is a condition of increased vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. Although frailty is an important prognostic factor for many conditions, the effect of frailty on mortality in lung transplantation is unknown. Our objective was to assess the association of frailty with survival after lung transplantation. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all adult lung transplant recipients at our institution between 2002 and 2013. Frailty was assessed using the frailty deficit index, a validated instrument that assesses cumulative deficits for up to 32 impairments and measures the proportion of deficits present (with frailty defined as >0.25). We examined the association between frailty and survival, adjusting for age, sex, and bilateral (vs single) lung transplant using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: Among 144 lung transplant patients, 102 (71%) completed self-reported questionnaires necessary to assess the frailty deficit index within 1 year before lung transplantation. Frail patients (n = 46) had an increased risk of death, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-4.19; p = 0.0089). Frailty was not associated with an increased duration of mechanical ventilation (median, 2 vs 2 days; p = 0.26), intensive care unit length of stay (median, 7.5 vs 6 days; p = 0.36) or hospital length of stay after transplantation (median, 14 vs 10.5 days; p = 0.26). Conclusions: Pre-transplant frailty was independently associated with decreased survival after lung transplantation. Pre-transplant frailty may represent an important area for intervention to improve candidate selection and lung transplant outcomes.
Article
Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome characterized by loss of physiologic reserve that gives rise to vulnerability to poor outcomes. We aimed to examine the association between frailty and long-term health-related quality-of-life among survivors of critical illness. Prospective multicenter observational cohort study. ICUs in six hospitals from across Alberta, Canada. Four hundred twenty-one critically ill patients who were 50 years or older. None. Frailty was operationalized by a score of more than 4 on the Clinical Frailty Scale. Health-related quality-of-life was measured by the EuroQol Health Questionnaire and Short-Form 12 Physical and Mental Component Scores at 6 and 12 months. Multiple logistic and linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to explore the association between frailty and health-related quality-of-life. In total, frailty was diagnosed in 33% (95% CI, 28-38). Frail patients were older, had more comorbidities, and higher illness severity. EuroQol-visual analogue scale scores were lower for frail compared with not frail patients at 6 months (52.2 ± 22.5 vs 64.6 ± 19.4; p < 0.001) and 12 months (54.4 ± 23.1 vs 68.0 ± 17.8; p < 0.001). Frail patients reported greater problems with mobility (71% vs 45%; odds ratio, 3.1 [1.6-6.1]; p = 0.001), self-care (49% vs 15%; odds ratio, 5.8 [2.9-11.7]; p < 0.001), usual activities (80% vs 52%; odds ratio, 3.9 [1.8-8.2]; p < 0.001), pain/discomfort (68% vs 47%; odds ratio, 2.0 [1.1-3.8]; p = 0.03), and anxiety/depression (51% vs 27%; odds ratio, 2.8 [1.5-5.3]; p = 0.001) compared with not frail patients. Frail patients described lower health-related quality-of-life on both physical component score (34.7 ± 7.8 vs 37.8 ± 6.7; p = 0.012) and mental component score (33.8 ± 7.0 vs 38.6 ± 7.7; p < 0.001) at 12 months. Frail survivors of critical illness experienced greater impairment in health-related quality-of-life, functional dependence, and disability compared with those not frail. The systematic assessment of frailty may assist in better informing patients and families on the complexities of survivorship and recovery.
Article
For most surgeons and many anaesthetists, patient frailty is currently the ‘elephant in the (operating) room’: it is easy to spot, but is often ignored. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to the measurement of frailty and review the evidence regarding the effect of frailty on peri-operative outcomes. We explore the limitations of ‘eyeballing’ patients to quantify frailty, and consider why the frail older patient, challenged by seemingly minor insults in the postoperative period, may suffer falls or delirium. Frailty represents a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and older inpatients are exposed to multiple stressors in the peri-operative setting. Quantifying frailty is likely to increase the precision of peri-operative risk assessment. The Frailty Index derived from Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is a simple and robust way to quantify frailty, but is yet to be systematically investigated in the pre-operative setting. Furthermore, the optimal care for frail patients and the reversibility of frailty with prehabilitation are fertile areas for future research.
Article
Frailty is recognized as a major prognostic indicator in heart failure. There has been interest in understanding whether pre-operative frailty is associated with worse outcomes after implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) as destination therapy. Patients undergoing LVAD implantation as destination therapy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from February 2007 to June 2012, were included in this study. Frailty was assessed using the deficit index (31 impairments, disabilities and comorbidities) and defined as the proportion of deficits present. We divided patients based on tertiles of the deficit index (>0.32 = frail, 0.23 to 0.32 = intermediate frail, <0.23 = not frail). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the association between frailty and death. Patients were censored at death or last follow-up through October 2013. Among 99 patients (mean age 65 years, 18% female, 55% with ischemic heart failure), the deficit index ranged from 0.10 to 0.65 (mean 0.29). After a mean follow-up of 1.9 ± 1.6 years, 79% of the patients had been rehospitalized (range 0 to 17 hospitalizations, median 1 per person) and 45% had died. Compared with those who were not frail, patients who were intermediate frail (adjusted HR 1.70, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.31) and frail (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.48) were at increased risk for death (p for trend = 0.004). The mean (SD) number of days alive out of hospital the first year after LVAD was 293 (107) for not frail, 266 (134) for intermediate frail and 250 (132) for frail patients. Frailty before destination LVAD implantation is associated with increased risk of death and may represent a significant patient selection consideration.
Article
The integration of frailty measures in clinical practice is crucial for the development of interventions against disabling conditions in older persons. The frailty phenotype (proposed and validated by Fried and colleagues in the Cardiovascular Health Study) and the Frailty Index (proposed and validated by Rockwood and colleagues in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging) represent the most known operational definitions of frailty in older persons. Unfortunately, they are often wrongly considered as alternatives and/or substitutables. These two instruments are indeed very different and should rather be considered as complementary. In the present paper, we discuss about the designs and rationals of the two instruments, proposing the correct ways for having them implemented in the clinical setting.
Article
Background: Although there is no strict definition of frailty, it is generally accepted as a state of high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes at older age. Associations between frailty and mortality, dependence, and hospitalization have been shown. We measured the frailty level of older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Furthermore variation in gender, age, and level of ID were identified. Results were compared to a frailty study in the general European population. Methods: This research elaborates on a large cross-sectional study: Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disability (HA-ID). Nine hundred-eighty-two men and women (≥ 50 yr) with ID were included. Based on the collected data, we developed a frailty index with 51 health-related deficits, and calculated a frailty index score between 0 and 1 for each individual. Deficits included physical, social and psychological problems. Results: The mean frailty index score was 0.27 (standard deviation .13). Frailty was positively correlated with age (r=0.297, p<.001). More severe ID was associated with higher frailty scores (β=0.440, p<001). The upper limit of the FI was 0.69, which was consistent for all age categories. Conclusion: As people with ID are getting older, the question whether additional years are spent in good health becomes salient. Here, people with ID over age 50 had frailty scores similar to most elderly people over 75 y. Future research is needed to confirm if frail elderly people with ID have an increased risk of adverse health outcomes.
The association between physical fitness and outcome following major surgery is well described - less fit patients having a higher incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. This has led to the idea of physical training (exercise training) as a perioperative intervention with the aim of improving postoperative outcome. Studies have started to explore both preoperative training (prehabilitation) and postoperative training (rehabilitation). We have reviewed the current literature regarding the use of prehabilitation and rehabilitation in relation to major surgery in elderly patients. We have focussed particularly on randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. There is currently a paucity of high-quality clinical trials in this area, and the evidence base in elderly patients is particularly limited. The review indicated that prehabilitation can improve objectively measured fitness in the short time available prior to major surgery. Furthermore, for several general surgical procedures, prehabilitation using inspiratory muscle training may reduce the risk of some specific complications (e.g., pulmonary complications and predominately atelectasis), but it is unclear whether this translates into an improvement in overall surgical outcome. There is clear evidence that rehabilitation is of benefit to patients following cancer diagnoses, in terms of physical activity, fatigue and health-related quality of life. However, it is uncertain whether this improved physical function translates into increased survival and delayed disease recurrence. Prehabilitation using continuous or interval training has been shown to improve fitness but the impact on surgical outcomes remains ill defined. Taken together, these findings are encouraging and support the notion that pre- and postoperative exercise training may be of benefit to patients. There is an urgent need for adequately powered randomised control studies addressing appropriate clinical outcomes in this field.
Article
A high birth rate during the first two decades following World War II has increased the proportion of elderly people in present-day society and, consequently, the demand for health-care services. The impact on intensive care services may become dramatic because the age distribution of critically ill patients is skewed towards the elderly. We have used registry data and population statistics to forecast the demand for intensive care services in Norway up until the year 2025. Data collected by the Norwegian intensive care registry (NIR), showing the age distribution in Norwegian intensive care units (ICU) during the years 2006 and 2007, were used with three different Norwegian prognostic models of population growth for the years 2008-2025 to compute the expected increase in intensive care unit bed-days (ICU bed-days). The elderly were overrepresented in Norwegian ICUs in 2006-2007, with patients from 60 to 79 years of age occupying 44% of ICU bed-days. Population growth from 2008 to 2025 was estimated to be from 11.1 to 26.4%, depending on the model used. Growth will be much larger in the age group 60-79 years. Other factors kept unchanged, this will result in an increase in the need for intensive care (ICU bed-days) of between 26.1 and 36.9%. The demand for intensive care beds will increase markedly in Norwegian hospitals in the near future. This will have serious implications for the planning of infrastructure, education of health care personnel, as well as financing of our health care system.
Article
The aging baby boomers are expected to have a significant impact on the healthcare system. Mechanical ventilation is an age-dependent, costly, and relatively nondiscretionary medical service that may be particularly affected by the aging population. We forecast the future incidence of mechanical ventilation to the year 2026 to understand the impact of aging baby boomers on critical care resources. Population-based, sex-specific, and age-specific mechanical ventilation incidences for adults for the year 2000 were directly standardized to population projections to estimate the incidence of mechanical ventilation, in 5-yr intervals, from 2006 to 2026. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying population projections and mechanical ventilation incidence for the elderly. Province of Ontario, Canada. Noncardiac surgery, mechanically ventilated adults. None. The projected number of ventilated patients in 2026 was 34,478, representing an 80% increase from 2000. The crude incidence increased 31%, from 222 to 291 per 100,000 adults. The annually compounded projected growth rate during this 26-yr period was 2.3%, similar to the actual growth rate experienced in the 1990s. The projected incidence was relatively insensitive to changes in assumptions, with estimates for 2026 ranging from 31,473 to 36,313 ventilated adults. The incidence of mechanical ventilation projected to the year 2026 will steadily increase and outpace population growth as occurred in the 1990s. In the current environment in which intensive care unit resources are limited and ventilated patients already use a significant proportion of acute care resources, planning for this continued growth is necessary. Existing evidence-based strategies that improve both the efficiency and efficacy of critical care services should be carefully evaluated for widespread implementation.
Article
To investigate the relationship between accumulated health-related problems (deficits), which define a frailty index in older adults, and mortality in population-based and clinical/institutional-based samples. Cross-sectional and cohort studies. Seven population-based and four clinical/institutional surveys in four developed countries. Thirty-six thousand four hundred twenty-four people (58.5% women) aged 65 and older. A frailty index was constructed as a proportion of all potential deficits (symptoms, signs, laboratory abnormalities, disabilities) expressed in a given individual. Relative frailty is defined as a proportion of deficits greater than average for age. Measures of deficits differed across the countries but included common elements. In each country, community-dwelling elderly people accumulated deficits at about 3% per year. By contrast, people from clinical/institutional samples showed no relationship between frailty and age. Relative fitness/frailty in both sexes was highly correlated (correlation coefficient >0.95, P<.001) with mortality, although women, at any given age, were frailer and had lower mortality. On average, each unit increase in deficits increased by 4% the hazard rate for mortality (95% confidence interval=0.02-0.06). Relative fitness and frailty can be defined in relation to deficit accumulation. In population studies from developed countries, deficit accumulation is robustly associated with mortality and with age. In samples (e.g., clinical/institutional) in which most people are frail, there is no relationship with age, suggesting that there are maximal values of deficit accumulation beyond which survival is unlikely.
Article
The ageing of the population will increase the demand for health care resources. The aim of this study was to determine how age affects resource consumption and outcome of intensive care in Finland. Data on 79,361 admissions to 26 Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during the years 1998-2004 were analysed. The severity of illness was measured using Simplified Acute Physiology II scores and the intensity of care using Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System scores. The median age was 62 years; 8.9% of patients were aged 80 years or over. The hospital mortality rate was 16.2% in the overall patient population, but 28.4% in patients aged 80 years or over. Old age was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality. The mean intensity of care was at its highest in the age groups 60-69, 70-74 and 75-79 years. It was notably lower for patients aged 80 years or over. If the need for intensive care remains unchanged in each age group, the change in the age distribution of the Finnish population will increase the demand for ICU beds by 19% by the year 2020 and by 25% by the year 2030. The hospital mortality rate increases with increasing age. The mean intensity of care is lower for the oldest patients than for patients aged less than 80 years. The ageing of the population will probably cause a remarkable increase in the need for intensive care in the near future.
Article
To describe the accumulation of aging-associated health disorders using a cumulative measure known as a frailty index (FI) and to evaluate its ability to differentiate long- and short-life phenotypes as well as the FI's connection to aging-associated processes in older people. Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The National Long-Term Care Survey (NLTCS) data that assessed health and functioning of U.S. older individuals (> or =65) in 1982, 1984, 1989, 1994, and 1999 were analyzed. The NLTCS sample in each survey represents a mixture of longitudinal and cross-sectional components. Approximately 5,000 individuals in each survey. A cumulative index of health and well-being deficiencies (disabilities, signs, diseases) was calculated as a count of deficits observed in an individual divided by the total number of all considered deficits. Men and women who died before the age of 75 and those who died after the age of 85 exhibited remarkably similar FI frequency patterns despite the 10-year age difference between age profiles in these samples. Long life is consistently characterized in longitudinal analyses by lower FIs. FI dynamics are found to be strongly sex sensitive. The FI appears to be a sensitive age-independent indicator of sex-specific physiological decline in aging individuals and a sex-specific discriminator of survival chances. The FI is a promising characteristic suitable for improving sex-sensitive forecasts of risks of adverse health outcomes in older people.
Peri-operative care of the elderly 2014: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland
  • R Griffiths
  • F Beech
  • A Brown
Griffiths, R., Beech, F., Brown, A., et al. (2014). Peri-operative care of the elderly 2014: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Anaesthesia, 69(Suppl. 1), 81-98.