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Abstract

Burnout has been considered important to understanding the well-being of social workers and the quality of the services they render. Despite the ample international usage of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, its psychometric properties have come into question and alternative models of measuring the inventory have been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the applicability of a Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) in an incidental sample of 947 social workers. Three alternative models of the MBI-HSS were tested for the purpose of identifying the most suitable model for measuring burnout in Spain. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the theory that the model of three correlated factors was superior to alternative models of one and two factors. The structure of three factors (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) and 19 items showed the best adjustment and a suitable internal consistency of the dimensions of the MBI-HSS. These findings demonstrate that the MBI-HSS has validity and reliability acceptable for measuring burnout in social workers, providing valuable information to the managers of social services in order to reduce burnout among social workers. The limitations of the study and recommendations for future investigation are emphasized.

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... Our figures were very similar to the internal consistency [4] (0.90 for EE, 0.79 for DP, and 0.71 for PA). Similar results were also found in other studies [16,[33][34][35][36], even in those carried-out in other countries [14,15,17,[37][38][39][40][41][42], indicating that the scale maintains its validity despite crosscultural differences [12,15]. ...
... Apart from items 12 and 16, similar problems have also been observed with other items, such as 6 and 22, which did not load on the expected factor or did not load on any factor [12]. Despite confirming the three-factor structure, our findings from CFA were more in line with studies that suggested that the initial three-factor structure could better fit the data if several items were excluded [14,36,[39][40][41]. ...
... Although some items are known to be ambiguous [13,14], there is no consensus on the items that may be excluded from the scale. In this sense, and given that factorial loads of the items could be related to the sample characteristics or the cultural factors [12,15], different studies have shown that some items end up being removed [14,36,39,40]. ...
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Background The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is an instrument commonly used to evaluate burnout syndrome. The goal of the present study was to assess the internal reliability and the performance of the items and the subscales of the MBI-HSS (the version for professionals working in human services) by validating its factorial structure in Spanish urgency healthcare personnel. Methods Cross-sectional study including 259 healthcare emergency professionals (physicians and nurses) in the Spanish health region of Lleida and the Pyrenees. Burnout was measured using the Spanish validated version of the MBI-HSS. Internal reliability was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The sampling adequacy was assessed using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure along with the Bartlett’s test of sphericity. A principal axis exploratory factor analysis with an oblique transformation of the solution and a confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood estimation were performed. Goodness-of-fit was assessed by means of the chi-square ratio by the degrees of freedom, the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR), the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the comparative fit index (CFI). Results The three subscales showed good internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients exceeding the critical value of 0.7. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1. Nevertheless, confirmatory factor analysis showed a relatively satisfactory fit of the three-factor structure (χ²/df = 2.6, SRMR = 0.07, RMSEA = 0.08, TLI = 0.87, CFI = 0.89), which was improved when several items were removed (χ²/df = 1.7, SRMR = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.05, TLI = 0.97, CFI = 0.98). Conclusions Although it is necessary exploring new samples to get to more consistent conclusions, the MBI-HSS is a reliable and factorially valid instrument to evaluate burnout syndrome in health professionals from the Spanish emergency services.
... This questionnaire was validated by Maslach and Jackson and the final version was published in 1986. A validated and translated version of the original was used, which has already been used in numerous studies in Spain with positive results [60,[100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107]. This is a 22-item questionnaire with 7 answer options (Likert scale from 0 to 6) which comprehends the following subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), understood as the subject's feeling of being emotionally saturated by work; depersonalization (DP), which implies a cold and impersonal response to patients; and personal accomplishment (PA), which encompasses feelings of competence and efficiency at work. ...
... In other words, health professionals who do not perceive the need for these treatments, in the face of the adverse health crisis situation, are what may need them most in the future since their emotional exhaustion is increasing without obtaining any compensatory mechanism for the situation of stress and emotional anxiety. Studies such as that previously cited by Chen et al. [106] found similar data; at the first stage of the illness, health professionals were reluctant to participate in the group or individual psychological interventions provided to them for various reasons: becoming infected was not the main concern when they began to work; they were more concerned about the possibility of their relatives worrying about them and about the possibility of bringing the virus home; and finally, the health workers did not know how to act with patients who did not want to be quarantined in the hospital, sometimes because of the panic that ignorance of the disease caused and they did not collaborate with the medical measures. ...
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Background: The health profession is a burnout producer due to the continuous contact with pain and suffering. In addition, excessive workloads can generate stress and psychological distress. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of burnout and its main triggers in health professionals in Spain at the most critical period of the COVID-19 emergency. Method: A quantitative research was developed through a simple random sampling in different Spanish hospitals through the period of greatest impact of the pandemic (N = 157). Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire from Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) containing 22 items, which measures three subscales: emotional burnout, depersonalization, and self-fulfillment. Results: depersonalization values reached 38.9%. A total of 90.4% of the health professionals considered that psychological care should be provided from the work centers. Furthermore, 43.3% of the health professionals estimated that they might need psychological treatment in the future. Finally, 85.4% stated that the lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) generated an increase in stress and anxiety. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the need to consider specific mental health care services and training in crises to avoid possible psychological disorders. The information obtained is also valuable for the development of future prevention protocols and training of health personnel to face pandemics of these characteristics or emergency scenarios. Having the necessary physical means for their protection, as well to updated regular and accurate information, is essential to avoid feelings of fear and uncertainty. This would promote the health of these professionals.
... Participants responded to the 22 items of the MBI using a 7-point Likert scale that ranged from 0 (Never) to 6 (Every day). While there has been a debate about the factor structure of the MBI, there has also been strong support for the proposed three-factor structure in dif-ferent contexts (e.g., Colombia [25]; Spain [26]). In addition, Schaufelli and colleagues [27] confirmed the validity of the three-factor structure of the MBI and found that the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions were able to distinguish between burned out and non-burned out workers. ...
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The current study focuses on the interrelationship between fear of COVID-19, sense of coherence, and burnout. Participants (n = 355) were school teachers from across all provinces in South Africa who completed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. It was hypothesized that the dimensions of sense of coherence would be directly associated with burnout and would also mediate or moderate the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and burnout. The results of the path and moderation analyses conducted confirmed this hypothesis. In particular, the health-sustaining role of sense of coherence was demonstrated through the significant direct associations between comprehensibility and manageability on one hand and emotional exhaustion, as well as depersonalization, on the other hand. In addition, meaningfulness had significant direct associations with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Meaningfulness mediated the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and all burnout subscales, while comprehensibility and manageability only mediated the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. However, comprehensibility and manageability played a moderating role in the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and personal accomplishment. These findings confirm the crucial role of protective factors, such as sense of coherence, and highlights the need for interventions that could strengthen these resources within teachers.
... We conclude the analysis by noting that the neoliberal management of the crisis has had a personal cost for Spanish social workers, especially the older workers: pessimism affected 27 percent in 2012, which increased to 38 percent in 2013, and expanded in 2018 to 46 percent of those interviewed. The results express a growing trend towards discouragement, demoralisation, professional exhaustion and stressful working conditions for 76.1 percent of the social workers, coinciding with other studies in Spain (Pelegrí et al., 2015;García-Domingo and Sotomayor-Morales, 2017;Gó mez et al., 2019;Caravaca et al., 2019;Gonzá lez-Rodríguez et al., 2020;Senreich et al., 2020;Verde-Diego et al., 2021). ...
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The article presents a longitudinal analysis of the Social Services in Spain during the period characterised by neoliberal policies (2012–2018), as well as the situation and reactions of the professional social workers. The quantitative results of three surveys promoted by the General Council of Social Work from Spain on data from 2012, 2013 and 2018 were compared. The sample allows extrapolating the results to all the social workers in Spain. There is a loss of effectiveness and a worsening of the quality of care of the social services. However, social workers do not attribute the deterioration of the system to the increased demand, but to the cuts, privatisation and outsourcing of resources. The professional discourse is critical: it departs from the narrative of punitive neoliberalism and denounces the violation of citizens’ rights. Professional practice reveals the ethical–political commitment in the system and the public militancy of social workers in Spain.
... In general, behavioral health issues for IMA-US represent a public health concern, because the demands for specialty healthcare services exceed the available resources available to this population (Satcher 2000). Moreover, the number of qualified health care providers is also lagging (Gómez García et al. 2019). The works cited here discusses the dynamics that may play a role in health care disparities for IMA-US, mistrust in social welfare agencies and SUDs (Carvajal and Young 2009;Estrada 2009;Hanna et al. 2017;Stevens et al. 2015;Talebreza-May 2015), these are discussed in the next section. ...
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Recently, Black, Indigenous, and other People of Color (BIPOC) have encountered an escalation in adverse social conditions and trauma events in the United States. For individuals of Mexican ancestry in the United States (IMA-US), these recent events represent the latest chapter in their history of adversity: a history that can help us understand their social and health disparities. This paper utilized a scoping review to provide a historical and interdisciplinary perspective on discussions of mental health and substance use disorders relevant to IMA-US. The scoping review process yielded 16 peer reviewed sources from various disciplines, published from 1998 through 2018. Major themes included historically traumatic events, inter-generational responses to historical trauma, and vehicles of transmission of trauma narratives. Recommendations for healing from historical and contemporary oppression are discussed. This review expands the clinical baseline knowledge relevant to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of contemporary traumatic exposures for IMA-US.
... Burnout symptoms were assessed with the MBI for Educators (Dion and Tessier, 1994;Maslach et al., 2016;Gómez García et al., 2019). The MBI consists of 22 items covering the emotional exhaustion (e.g., "I feel emotionally drained from my work"), depersonalization (e.g., "I feel I treat some students as if they were impersonal objects"), and (diminished) personal accomplishment (e.g., "I deal very effectively with the problems of my students") components of the syndrome. ...
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It has often been asserted that burnout is primarily linked to occupational-context factors, and only secondarily to individual-level (e.g., personality) and non-work (or general) factors. We evaluated the validity of this view by examining the links between burnout and an array of 22 work-situated (effort-reward imbalance, unreasonable work tasks, unnecessary work tasks, weekly working hours, job autonomy, skill development, performance feedback, and support in work life), work-unrelated (sentimental accomplishment, familial accomplishment, number of child[ren], leisure activities, residential satisfaction, environmental quality, security in daily life, and support in personal life), dispositional (neuroticism, sex, age, and physical condition), and intersecting (work-non-work conflict and non-work-work conflict) variables. The study involved schoolteachers from three different countries: France (N = 4,395), Spain (N = 611), and Switzerland (N = 514). Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators. Most of our predictors were assessed based on widely used measures (e.g., neuroticism was assessed with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory). In order to assess sentimental accomplishment and familial accomplishment, we created two self-reported measures, namely, the Sentimental Accomplishment Inventory (SAI; 9 items) and the Familial Accomplishment Inventory (FAI; 9 items). The SAI and the FAI both showed strong reliability and high factorial validity. Exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis and Mokken scaling suggested that both instruments could be considered essentially unidimensional. The study results showed that neuroticism, job strain, skill development, security in daily life, and work-non-work conflict were consistently associated with burnout across the three samples. Sample-specific predictors of burnout included sex, age, unreasonable work tasks, weekly working hours, job autonomy, support in work life, sentimental accomplishment, leisure activities, support in personal life, and non-work-work conflict. Relative weight analysis indicated that neuroticism was the best predictor of burnout in each sample. Our findings suggest that burnout's nomological network may not be primarily job-related. We conclude that the tendency to de-emphasize individual-level and non-work factors in burnout research is unwise. This tendency may constitute a roadblock in the development of effective interventional strategies. The implications of our findings for burnout's conceptual status are discussed. The neuroticism-burnout link should be further examined in longitudinal studies.
... The items of burnout measured the degree to which the respondents felt emotional fatigue in varying forms [28] (from 1 = Not at all to 5 = Very much so). An EFA of 12 items produced unidimensionality with one factor. ...
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Emergency workers are frequently exposed to hazardous situations and such life patterns can influence their wellbeing. This study examined the relationships among South Korean emergency workers’ precedents and consequences of positive emotion, engagement, relationship, meaning, and achievement (PERMA), a wellbeing concept, and offered solutions. A total of 597 emergency workers in Daegu, South Korea, participated in a survey. This study measured post-traumatic stress disorder syndrome, burnout, depression, PERMA, quality of life, life satisfaction, and sleep quality to test the relationships. Results demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder syndrome and burnout predicted distracting sleep behavior and sleep health. Depression was significantly related to PERMA. The better the emergency workers’ PERMA was, the better their quality of life and life satisfaction were. PERMA significantly predicted sleep behavior, a portion of sleep quality. Depression had an indirect influence on quality of life mediated by PERMA. Post-traumatic stress disorder syndrome, burnout, and PERMA were significant predictors of low sleep health and sleep behavior. The results indicate that South Korean emergency workers struggle with depression and sleep quality. As the data were collected during the coronavirus disease 19 pandemic, individual efforts and relevant programs to improve South Korean emergency workers’ PERMA and sleep quality in a crisis are recommended. Possible solutions to improve the wellbeing of South Korean emergency workers are suggested.
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Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are essential health care workers (HCWs). Although they play an extraordinary role during the COVID-19 pandemic, they are mostly exposed to various occupational health and safety risks that have significantly impacted their mental health, giving rise to symptoms, such as stress and burnout.Aim This study aimed to assess the perceived levels of stress and burnout amongst EMTs in relation to their socio-demographic characteristics and to explore the associations between their stress and burnout levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods This work is an observational cross-sectional design study conducted between 29 March and 30 April 2021, with a convenience sample of 280 Spanish EMTs yielding a response rate of 28%. The online survey had 42 items that aimed to determine participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI).Results The results showed that more than half of the EMTs (53%) perceived a moderate stress level, 37% perceived moderate levels of emotional exhaustion (EE) and 40% had moderate levels of depersonalization (DP). Furthermore, 48% had low levels of personal accomplishment (PA). Gender, age, having personal protective equipment (PPE) and experiencing fear of infection were statistically significant areas where participants experienced greater stress (p
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Although the number of studies on burnout in social work has increased in recent years, research is still scarce. A similar situation occurs in the area of studies on the effects of mindfulness in this profession, although the research topic has increased exponentially. Based on a quantitative analysis, our study proposes a structural equation model that relates the constructs of burnout, areas of worklife, and dispositional mindfulness among social workers. Results suggest that high levels of mindfulness as well as consistency in the areas of worklife have predictive and preventive effects on the incidence of burnout in social work.
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Background This study aimed to validate the Persian version of Maslach Burnout Inventory for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSS-MP); an instrument developed to capture burnout for health professionals. The specific aims were to psychometrically assess the Persian MBI-HSS-MP in relation to its structure, test-retest reliability, and item properties. Methods The study setting was all eight hospitals in Qazvin province, Iran (study period from 10 September to 16 November 2020). Health professionals of physicians (n=106) and nurses (n=200) participated in the study. The psychometric properties of the 22-item MBI-HSS-MP was then examined for its factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch models, test-retest reliability, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF). Results The MBI-HSS-MP was verified as having a three-factor structure and each item was embedded well in its belonging construct (comparative fit index=0.941, Tucker-Lewis index=0.929 derived from CFA results; infit and outfit MnSq=0.71 to 1.38 derived from Rasch models). Test-retest reliability of each MBI-HSS-MP item was satisfactory and no substantial DIF items were displayed across gender or across health professionals. Conclusion The MBI-HSS-MP has good psychometric properties to assess burnout accurately among healthcare professionals in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization.
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Background Despite its popularity, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS)’s factorial structure has been subject to considerable debate, and its measurement invariance (MI) is seldomly examined. This cross-sectional study aims at reassessing the most popularly suggested structures of this instrument, namely the 20- and 22-item three-factor model on Vietnamese healthcare professionals. It also examines the MI of MBI-HSS across genders, occupations, and mental health conditions. Method Self-administered questionnaires were sent out to 1500 doctors and nurses working at 15 hospitals in big cities in Vietnam in September and October 2020, and 1162 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire consists of three sets of questions covering (1) demographic information of participants; (2) MBI-HSS questionnaire; and (3) The 21-item version of the Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale. MBI-HSS scale was validated on Vietnamese sample for the first time; therefore, we used the repeated forward–backward procedure to translate this scale into Vietnamese. To examine which model best fits the data, a series of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test the model fit of correlated three-factor model, second-order hierarchical model, and bi-factor model. The reliability of the MBI-HSS was assessed using Cronbach’s α coefficients. Then, multiple-group CFA (MGCFA) was applied to determine whether the MBI-HSS has a similar structure between groups different in gender, occupation, and mental health condition. Results Our findings confirmed that the 22-item MBI-HSS best fit the data, and this scale measures three distinct but related aspects of burnout, including Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment. The MI of MBI-HSS across genders and occupations was also confirmed. However, data did not fit well with group at risk for common mental health disorders. It can be concluded that the Vietnamese version of MBI-HSS is a valid measure to assess burnout level of healthcare professionals in Vietnam who are not at risk for mental health disorders.
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Examinations of the current state of the physician workforce, in the United States and globally, indicate a declining overall well-being, and specifically increasing levels of burnout. The consequences of these effects include early retirements or exits from the medical profession, difficulties improving the patient experience, and low levels of provider engagement with clinic-level and system-level initiatives. Such consequences affect physicians, healthcare organizations, and patients. While most research has focused on identifying burnout, cataloging its effects, and creating a case for attending to its impact, relatively few studies have focused on exploring the antecedents of burnout for physicians. The goal of this study was to test an etiological model, the Areas of Worklife Scale (AWS), for practicing primary care physicians. Using the AWS and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the study used a longitudinal survey research design method to query primary care physicians employed at a large integrated delivery system in the United States. Data collected successfully fit the AWS model for burnout among primary care physicians, supporting our theory that workplace drivers are responsible for burnout. Workload, control, and values congruence are the largest drivers of burnout for practicing primary care physicians. The AWS model provides key insights into the domains of work that cause stress and ultimately burnout for physicians, and these domains can guide physicians and managers to develop interventions to fight the rising incidence of burnout.
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Background: The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is the mainstream measure for burnout. However, its psychometric properties have been questioned, and alternative measurement models of the inventory have been suggested. Aims: Different models for the number of items and factors of the MBI-HSS, the version of the Inventory for the Human Service sector, were tested in order to identify the most appropriate model for measuring burnout in Italy. Methods: The study dataset consisted of a sample of 925 nurses. Ten alternative models of burnout were compared using confirmatory factor analysis. The psychometric properties of items and reliability of the MBI-HSS subscales were evaluated. Results: Item malfunctioning may confound the MBI-HSS factor structure. The analysis confirmed the factorial structure of the MBI-HSS with a three-dimensional, 20-item assessment. Conclusions: The factorial structure underlying the MBI-HSS follows Maslach’s definition when items are reduced from the original 22 to a 20-item set. Alternative models, either with fewer items or with an increased number of latent dimensions in the burnout structure, do not yield better results to justify redefining the item set or theoretically revising the syndrome construct.
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Previous research has shown that social workers are a profession at risk of suffering a high incidence of so-called burnout syndrome. Burnout is in turn related to psychological distress. Social support from informal sources is a factor with potential to reduce the psychological distress caused by burnout. However, the previous research has not considered informal social support in sufficient detail. This article, using a cross-sectional study, analyses the relationship between burnout, informal social support and psychological distress in a sample of social workers in Spain (n = 189). The results show a high incidence of psychological distress and burnout, above all in terms of Emotional Exhaustion (EE). The results of the hierarchical regression analysis confirm the importance of informal social support as a variable negatively related to distress, even in the presence of burnout. Surprisingly, organisational variables were not associated with distress. Longitudinal and qualitative research is necessary to examine the nature of this relationship in detail.
Book
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Burnout is a common metaphor for a state of extreme psychophysical exhaustion, usually work-related. This book provides an overview of the burnout syndrome from its earliest recorded occurrences to current empirical studies. It reviews perceptions that burnout is particularly prevalent among certain professional groups - police officers, social workers, teachers, financial traders - and introduces individual inter- personal, workload, occupational, organizational, social and cultural factors. Burnout deals with occurrence, measurement, assessment as well as intervention and treatment programmes.; This textbook should prove useful to occupational and organizational health and safety researchers and practitioners around the world. It should also be a valuable resource for human resources professional and related management professionals.
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This study provides a summary of 45 exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic studies that examined the internal structure of scores obtained from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). It highlights characteristics of the studies that account for differences in reporting of the MBI factor structure. This approach includes an examination of the various sample characteristics, forms of the instrument, factor-analytic methods, and the reported factor structure across studies that have attempted to examine the dimensionality of the MBI. This study also investigates the dimensionality of MBI scale scores using meta-analysis. Both descriptive and empirical analysis supported a three-factor model. The pattern of reported dimensions across validation studies should enhance understanding of the structural dimensions that the MBI measures as well as provide a more meaningful interpretation of its test scores.
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The factorial structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach and Jackson 1986) was investigated in a sample of 220 Greek teachers and was found to be similar to that reported by Maslach and Jackson. A job satisfaction measure was employed for the investigation of the discriminant validity of the burnout measure. Correlations between job satisfaction and the three burnout dimensions were found to be low to moderate. It is suggested that the relationship and the degree of overlap between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction require further examination. Greek teachers reported lower levels of burnout on the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scales than teachers in other countries. Finally, younger teachers experienced more emotional exhaustion than older ones and primary education teachers experienced more personal accomplishment and less depersonalization than their counterparts in secondary education.
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A national sample of 1,200 social workers, categorized by the National Association of Social Workers as being in clinical practice, participated in a study to find out whether social work clinicians decline in hope or have increasing burnout over the course of their careers. In the final sample of 676 respondents, social workers' self-reported burnout was negatively associated with social worker age. Practice setting (i.e., either public or private practice) moderated the relation between perceived burnout and years in social work. Burnout seemed to decline with increasing years in private practice, but not in public practice. The results also suggest that social worker hope is higher in public practice than in private practice. However, for older social workers, hope in these two settings is about equal. Implications for social work managers and administrators are discussed.
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INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of burnout, and of associated factors, amongst family doctors (FDs) in European countries. Methodology. A cross-sectional survey of FDs was conducted using a custom-designed and validated questionnaire which incorporated the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) as well as questions about demographic factors, working experience, health, lifestyle and job satisfaction. MBI-HSS scores were analysed in the three dimensions of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). RESULTS: Almost 3500 questionnaires were distributed in 12 European countries, and 1393 were returned to give a response rate of 41%. In terms of burnout, 43% of respondents scored high for EE burnout, 35% for DP and 32% for PA, with 12% scoring high burnout in all three dimensions. Just over one-third of doctors did not score high for burnout in any dimension. High burnout was found to be strongly associated with several of the variables under study, especially those relative to respondents' country of residence and European region, job satisfaction, intention to change job, sick leave utilization, the (ab)use of alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication, younger age and male sex. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout seems to be a common problem in FDs across Europe and is associated with personal and workload indicators, and especially job satisfaction, intention to change job and the (ab)use of alcohol, tobacco and medication. The study questionnaire appears to be a valid tool to measure burnout in FDs. Recommendations for employment conditions of FDs and future research are made, and suggestions for improving the instrument are listed.
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The decision of how many factors to retain is a critical component of exploratory factor analysis. Evidence is presented that parallel analysis is one of the most accurate factor retention methods while also being one of the most underutilized in management and organizational research. Therefore, a step-by-step guide to performing parallel analysis is described, and an example is provided using data from the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Recommendations for making factor retention decisions are discussed.
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Al plantearme concretar una serie de reflexiones sobre el cansancio y el malestar de las organizaciones o de los profesionales, me pregunté si era casual que en los últimos meses me hubieran propuesto impartir otro seminario-conferencia sobre este tema. Efectivamente, creo que no es casual, sino que más bien se explica en la disponibilidad y en el interés que los responsables de los servicios, los responsables políticos y, en general, los trabajadores de base de la acción social muestran al reflexionar sobre aquellos elementos que explicarían el malestar evidente que sufren los profesionales. Mi opinión es que principalmente hay un factor que promueve interés en esta cuestión, que es la importancia creciente que los servicios dirigidos a la persona han adquirido como contribuyentes al desarrollo del bienestar social y colectivo, porque el factor humano es básico en aquellas tareas y funciones donde el establecimiento de un vínculo es imprescindible y porque la herramienta, el recurso clave para desarrollar la labor de mejorar la calidad de vida y combatir el malestar de las personas, es el propio profesional. Él es el recurso.
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Structural equation modelling with LISREL was used to investigate the factor structure of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Emotional exhaustion was the most robust of the MBI's three factors, followed by depersonalization, while the personal accomplishment factor performed weakly. A new measurement model was developed in a sample of 197 nurses consisting of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions, which were measured with five and two empirical MBI indicators, respectively. A test of invariance of the two-factor model across three samples (i.e. one calibration sample of nurses, and two validation samples consisting of hospital laboratory technicians and hospital managers with an effective sample size of 445) produced a good fit for the proposed two-factor model. Assessment of psychometric properties of the two-factor model produced (1) internal consistencies comparable to those reported in the literature for the MBI's originally specified emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scales, and (2) correlations with criterion variables that were all in the expected direction and magnitude, comparable to those produced by the originally specified scales. Theoretical implications for the use of the two-factor model in burnout research are discussed.
Article
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The present study tested the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) among 694 participants from 4 different occupational groups. Confirmatory factor analyses of the total sample, as well as multigroup analyses and analyses of each of the 4 occupational groups separately, indicated that the original 3-factor model of the MBI-GS provided a good fit to the data. Internal consistencies of the subscales of the MBI-GS were acceptable, and test-retest reliability indicated relative stability of scores over a 6-month interval. These results indicate that the proposed 3-factor structure of the MBI-GS, based on 16 items, can be replicated in the total sample as well as across different occupational groups in Norway. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Staff burnout is increasingly viewed as a concern in the mental health field. In this article we first examine the extent to which burnout is a problem for mental health services in terms of two critical issues: its prevalence and its association with a range of undesirable outcomes for staff, organizations, and consumers. We subsequently provide a comprehensive review of the limited research attempting to remediate burnout among mental health staff. We conclude with recommendations for the development and rigorous testing of intervention approaches to address this critical area.
Article
Burnout is considered a long term stress reaction which is seen primarily among professionals who work face-to-face with other people. Socio-demographic characteristics have been suggested as risk factors to its development, although empirical studies have yield contradictory results. The objective of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of four socio-demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, and number of children) that may be correlated to the Maslach Burnout Inventory dimensions (emotion-al exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) in police officers. These professionals have been considered a high-risk occupational group to suffer burnout due to specific characteristics of their job. We collected 43 empirical studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 23 on age, 32 on sex, 9 on marital status, and 4 on number of children. The bivariate correlation coefficient was used as the effect size measure. The results show that all the average effect were small, and the majority of them were not statistically significant. We can conclude that sex and age are factors to discard in the development of the burnout in police officers. We found that many studies did not report enough statistical information to estimate effect sizes. This systematic lack of information is likely to contribute finding contradictory results.
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Child and family social workers are consistently found to have high levels of stress, and this has often been linked to burnout and retention problems in the profession. Local authorities in the UK have recently been under pressure to reform services, and one focus has been exploring how different organizational structures might reduce stress and increase well-being of workers. This paper presents data on 193 social workers from five local authorities in England. We examine the effects of different ways of organizing Children's Services on workers' well-being, with particular focus on the underlying relationship between organizational elements, workplace opportunities, and practitioners' work satisfaction. The primary outcome measure is the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, Goldberg, 1978), a widely validated measure of stress. This data is presented alongside information exploring aspects of organizational structure and functioning. Results indicated significantly different levels of reported stress and general well-being in practitioners working in different local authorities. Implications for how local authorities might support staff to work productively in the stressful and challenging environment of child and family social work are discussed.
Article
There are long-standing concerns in many developed countries about high workforce turnover within social work and the associated negative impact on service users and agencies. While much research has focused on establishing the antecedents to turnover and retention, less attention has been given to establishing the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce undesirable turnover. A systematic review of research in social work, teaching and nursing identified and appraised the evidence. Of the 699 unique references identified, fifteen studies were included in this review (all but one from the USA); the lack of consistency in definitions and outcome measurement precluded meta-analysis, but twelve studies were deemed to be of sufficient quality for narrative synthesis. In general, interventions addressing organisational and administrative factors (rather than individual employee factors) produced stronger effects, reinforcing current policies in England and previous research into the determinants of turnover.
Article
Burnout is a stress-related syndrome that often affects professionals working in emotionally loaded and highly interpersonal environments. Mental health professionals (MHPs) are long known to be at high risk to develop the burnout syndrome, but this has rarely been investigated in professionals in an early phase of career. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of the burnout syndrome and of depressive symptoms among early career psychiatrists and ‘non-medical’ MHPs. One hundred MHPs (including 50 psychiatrists and 50 non-medical MHPs) were screened for the presence of burnout and depression, with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory – revised, respectively. The relationships of burnout with socio-demographical and professional characteristics were also explored. We confirmed the presence of burnout among both groups of early career MHPs, but psychiatrists had a significantly higher degree of emotional exhaustion and a lower sense of personal accomplishment, while non-medical MHPs adopted more frequently depersonalization as a coping strategy and had higher scores for depression, which is associated with higher level of burnout. The risk of developing burnout should be properly addressed in training curricula and strategies to overcome it should be systematically taught, in order to promote personal well-being and efficient team work in mental health settings.
Book
The psychological concept of burnout refers to long-term exhaustion from, and diminished interest in, the work we do. It’s a phenomenon that most of us have some understanding of, even if we haven’t always been affected directly. Many people start their working lives full of energy and enthusiasm, but far fewer are able to maintain that level of engagement. Burnout at Work: A Psychological Perspective provides a comprehensive overview of how the concept of burnout has been conceived over recent decades, as well as discussing the challenges and possible interventions that can help confront this pervasive issue. Including contributions from the most eminent researchers in this field, the book examines a range of topics including: The links between burnout and health How our individual relationships at work can affect levels of burnout The role of leadership in mediating or causing burnout The strategies that individuals can pursue to avoid burnout, as well as wider interventions. The book will be required reading for anyone studying organizational or occupational psychology, and will also interest students of business and management, and health psychology. © 2014 Michael P. Leiter, Arnold B. Bakker and Christina Maslach.
Article
This article presents an evaluation of the construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The authors base this critique on previously published findings and data collected through five studies carried out during an eight-year period, for which 328 social workers acted as respondents. Factor analyses and correlational studies designed to test predictions provided fairly consistent evidence for the utility of the MBI subscale measures of emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. Additional analyses supported a reconceptualization of burnout and the MBI, one that regards exhaustion as the essence of burnout and treats accomplishment and depersonalization as related variables, but not as elements of burnout.
Article
As measurement specialists, we have done a disservice to both ourselves and our profession by habitually referring to “the reliability of the test,” or saying that “the test is reliable.” This has created a mind-set implying that reliability, once proven, is immutable. More important, practitioners and scholars need not know measurement theories if they may simply rely on the reliability purportedly intrinsic within all uses of established measures. The present study investigated empirically exactly how dissimilar in both composition and variability samples inducting reliability coefficients from prior studies were from the cited prior samples from which coefficients were generalized.
Article
For a sample of 150 middle school teachers (101 females and 49 males) from a suburban California community, the major purpose of this investigation was to ascertain whether the factor structure of the 22-item Educators Survey (ES) comprising three subscales reflecting three dimensions of burnout-Emotional Exhaustion (9 items), Depersonalization (5 items), and Personal Accomplishment (8 items)-would be more interpretable within a framework of either a two-factor or a three-factor conceptualization of its underlying constructs. In a comprehensive reanalysis of the factor structure of the correlation matrices of item scores from six studies using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, from which the parallel form of the ES was derived for use with educators rather than with other professional groups, Walkey and Green expressed a preference for a two-factor structure comprising a fusion of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization factors into one factor named Core of Burnout and for a second factor identified as Personal Accomplishment. Use of oblique and orthogonal exploratory factor analyses revealed a high degree of simple structure for either a two-factor or three-factor solution. Evaluation of a one-factor (a general dimension) model and of two- and three-dimensional orthogonal and oblique models through application of confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analyses indicated that the three-factor oblique model accounted for the greatest amount of covariation among the 22 items of the ES, but that the two-factor oblique model afforded nearly as close a degree of fit as that afforded by the three-factor oblique model as well as a meaningful alternative conceptualization of the factor structure of the ES.
Article
A sample of 72 university students was administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Item responses were intercorrelated and subjected to a principal factors analysis followed by a varimax rotation of the factors. In each of the rotated factor matrices, empirical support was obtained for the presence of the three hypothesized factors of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment.
Article
Objective: The study examined the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) for social work research and practice. Method: Factor structure and longitudinal invariance of the MBI were tested using structural equation modeling techniques with a random sample of 475 state-registered social workers in California. Results: The original three-factor model was superior over other competing factor models. Investigation of the second-order factor model supported the presence of the common burnout factor and indicated depersonalization and emotional exhaustion were core components of burnout. Longitudinal factorial invariance was not achieved for personal accomplishment. Conclusion: The findings suggest the applicability of the MBI in a longitudinal research with careful inference regarding personal accomplishment and highlight the importance of depersonalization in social worker burnout.
Article
This investigation examined the influence of sample size on different goodness-of-fit indices used in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The first two data sets were derived from large normative samples of responses to a multidimensional self-concept instrument and to a multidimensional instrument used to assess students' evaluations of teaching effectiveness. In the third set, data were simulated and generated according to the model to be tested. In the fourth, data were simulated and generated according to a three-factor model that did not have a simple structure. Twelve fit indicators were used to assess goodness-of-fit in all CFAs. All analyses were conducted with the LISREL V package. One-way ANOVAs and a visual inspection of graphs were used to assess the sample size effect on each index for the four data sets. Despite the inconsistency of the findings with previous claims, the results are consistent with the observation that the amount of random, unexplained variance varies inversely with sample size. Appendices include a set of computed statements, an explanation and listing of the 12 goodness-of-fit indicators, a bibliography, a table of results, and figures showing sample size effect. (Author/LMO)
Article
Previous research has suggested that high levels of burnout lead to impaired functioning on the job. However, as this research has usually relied on self-reported performance, it is imperative to examine whether this association is also confirmed when using “objective” performance data (e.g., supervisor reports). This study reviewed previous research on the associations between burnout (exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment) and various types of objective performance. A systematic literature search identified 16 studies dealing with the burnout–performance relationship. These studies showed the wide variety of approaches that are used to study burnout and objective performance. Using data from these 16 studies, a meta-analysis was conducted to obtain mean correlations. The meta-analytical correlations between exhaustion and in-role behaviour (based on five studies), organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB; five studies), and customer satisfaction (two studies) were −.22, −.19, and −.55, respectively, underlining the practical relevance of burnout research for organizational performance. The evidence for the relationships between depersonalization, personal accomplishment, and performance was inconclusive. Future research should focus on valid indicators of job performance, should more often employ longitudinal designs and large samples, and should consider the theoretical basis for the study expectations more extensively.
Article
The purposes of this study were (1) to test for the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), for 543 teachers at the intermediate, secondary, and university levels, and (2) to test for the equivalence of factorial measurements and structure across groups. Confirmatory factor analysis of the hypothesized 3-factor structure yielded a malfitting model for each group of educators. To improve the MBI for use with educators, subsequent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the deletion of 4 scale items. Tests for invariance revealed the equivalency of remaining items across the 163 intermediate and 162 secondary teachers, and items measuring emotional exhaustion and depersonalization across all 3 groups; the structure of burnout was only partially invariant across educators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Used A. Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy model to examine the role of perceived personal control and competence in the reports of job satisfaction and burnout of 1,534 married social workers in private practice and public agency settings. In general, private practitioners report greater job satisfaction, less burnout, and greater feelings of competence than their agency counterparts. Autonomy appears to be a more important and consistent predictor than competence in explaining job satisfaction and burnout for workers in both settings. Additional analyses examine possible gender differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Burnout has become a serious matter in workplace health, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is today the most widely used instrument for assessing the construct empirically. The present study examined the construct validity of a Swedish translation of the instrument for human service employees (MBI-HSS). Data from two samples of health care workers (N = 448 and N = 462) were used to test six propositions concerning dimensionality, internal consistency, measurement model stability, and relationships with predictors and outcomes. Support for the postulated three-factor model of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and (reduced) personal accomplishment as well as for adequate reliabilities of the dimensions was found. A post hoc modification of the MBI was suggested in order to improve model fit. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated stability of measurement model parameters across organizational settings. Moreover, the propositions about the association between the burnout dimensions, and predictors and outcomes were partly supported. Taken together, these tests provide strong support for the construct validity of the Swedish translation of the MBI-HSS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposed a test for the factorial validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) separately for elementary ( N = 1,159), intermediate ( N = 388), and secondary ( N = 1,384) teachers. If the model fit was inadequate, the study planned to propose and test an alternative factorial structure; to cross-validate this structure across an independent sample for each teacher group; and to test for the equivalence of item measurements and theoretical structure across these 3 teaching panels. Although confirmatory and exploratory factor analytic findings supported a 3-factor structure, the deletion of 2 items yielded a better fitting model that was, for the most part, psychometrically and structurally invariant across groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews 18 studies that reported findings on burnout in social workers, with regard to 3 questions: whether social workers are burned out; factors associated with burnout in social workers; and what should be done about burnout in social workers. Literature indicates that social workers suffer less burnout than comparable occupational groups. Many studies have identified factors associated with burnout and ways to prevent burnout in social work. Correlates to burnout are primarily related to the job-situation and to different aspects of the work organization, and not to individual personality factors or type of clients. The methodological quality of the studies is analyzed and recommendations for improving research on burnout in social work are made. It is argued that the demand-control-support model of job stress should integrate the concept of burnout as a complementary outcome variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The purpose of this study was to test the factor structure of an Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Human Service employees. In addition we examined the reliability and construct validity of the scale. There is increasing evidence that nurses are at risk of experiencing burnout. Despite the vast international use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey, its factor structure and reliability are not beyond question. In a sample of nurses (N = 1613) six alternative factor models of the instrument were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, we examined the invariance of the pattern of factor loadings of the model that better fitted the data across gender groups. To test construct validity, participants completed four subscales of Symptoms Check List 90-R. Internal consistency was evaluated computing Cronbach's alpha estimates of the scales. The study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 in Italy. The factor analysis provided support for a 20-item version identifying the three original dimensions. The model was found to be factorially invariant between men and women. Correlations between the latent MBI-HSS dimensions and distress variables were in line with theoretical predictions. Reliability was supported by acceptable Cronbach's alpha indexes. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey has acceptable validity and reliability for measuring burnout among nurses, and can help healthcare managers to offer interventions to reduce burnout among nurses. Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are highlighted.