Technical Report

Bridging the Gap: Recruitment and Retention to Improve International Student Experiences

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  • DrEducation
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Abstract

This research investigated the reasons undergraduate international students in the United States may leave their institution of first enrollment before completing their degree as well as to identify a set of good practices for retaining these students. Attracting international students is a costly undertaking and poor retention not only leads to financial loss for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) but may also harm their reputation and adversely impact future recruitment potential. Despite the importance of the issue, research on the subject is limited, particularly in its application for HEIs. This project endeavors to address the research needs by: 1. Examining the gap between institutional and student perspectives; and 2. Taking into consideration differences among institutional types. The comprehensive three-phase research involved a nationwide survey of undergraduate international students and one of international education professionals at HEIs. The findings of the research would help in setting clearer and transparent expectations with international students and improving the retention and success of undergraduate international students by bridging the gap between recruitment and retention practices.

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... As a larger, more diverse population of students seek opportunities for higher education, an ever-expanding and innovative programming and support model is needed. These programs and services are generally offered by the International Student Services (ISS) office to assist international students with visa and immigration issues, support their academic, social, and cultural success, and engage them with domestic students, faculty, and staff (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
... Jones, 2017), several studies have pointed to their unique experience on university and college campuses (Smith & Khawaja, 2011;Sherry & Chui, 2010;Hayes & Lin, 1994). International students face a number of distinct challenges as they transition to the U.S. and throughout their studies ranging from the administrative burden of visa compliance, language barriers, and work constraints to a reduced sense of belonging and inclusiveness (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014;Smith & Demjanenko, 2011). While all students must adjust to a new life in college, international students tend to have greater difficulty in doing so (Kaczmarek, Matlock, Merta, Ames, & Ross, 1994). ...
... Cultivating a strong social network, whether that includes primarily U.S. students or other international students, appears to be a key factor to adjusting to U.S. institutions more quickly and effectively (Al-Sharideh & Goe, 1998;Boyer & Sedlacek, 1988;Moores & Popadiuk, 2011;Schram & Lauver, 1988;Zhao et al., 2005). Along with friendships, international students have also reported that access to jobs or internships, affordability, and availability of scholarships are all significant components to their satisfaction at U.S. institutions (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). Understanding international students' experiences at U.S. institutions is essential to facilitating their holistic wellness within their new living and learning environment. ...
... When examining international students' financial wellness, these results suggest that international students hold positive attitudes and engage in helpful behaviors around budgeting, saving, and managing their finances in order to achieve realistic goals. This is an encouraging outcome as previous research illustrates that 64.0% of international students who left a U.S. institution before graduation report doing so because of financial reasons (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
Article
This quantitative study examines differences between the holistic wellness of international students in the United States (n = 244) and a random sub-sample of their domestic U.S. peers (n = 244) using wellness assessment data. Findings suggest international students have significantly better wellness profiles than domestic students, specifically within the emotional, financial, and physical wellness dimensions. As U.S. universities work to attract and retain international students, a better understanding of international students’ holistic wellness is critical.
... There exists a vast body of knowledge about student engagement and adaptation (Astin 1999;Glass, Buus, and Braskamp 2013;Wolf-Wendel, Ward, and Kinzie 2009;Lizzio 2006;Tinto 2006). However, although we have made strides in identifying the needs of domestic majority students within their first year of studies (Andrade 2006;Lizzio 2006;Mori 2000), there is comparatively little research focused on undergraduate international student adjustment and retention (Choudaha and Schulmann 2014). ...
... In consideration of increasing diversity, international students also contribute to the internationalization efforts of higher education institutions (Andrade 2006). As more U.S. universities and colleges compete to recruit international students, institutions are reporting challenges and concerns related to how to best serve and support this unique population (Andrade 2005;Beatty et al. 2012;Choudaha and Schulmann 2014;Gu, Schweisfurth, and Day 2010;Tas 2013). According to Choudaha and Schulman (2014), lead researchers 136 assessing whether enough support and services are being offered to international students. ...
Article
This quantitative study aims to determine whether a growing undergraduate enrollment of international students contributes to the growth of net tuition revenue among different types of U.S. colleges and universities. A fixed effects panel analysis was performed using data from the Integrated Postsecondary Data System for the period spanning the 2003–04 to 2016–17 academic years. The analysis of a sample of U.S. baccalaureate-granting institutions reveals that a 1 percent increase in the number of first-time international undergraduate students predicted a 0.004 percent increase in net tuition revenue. Further analysis of the subsamples shows the relationship between international undergraduate enrollment and net tuition revenue varies by sector and by Carnegie classification. The strongest relationship between variables of interest was at public research universities. The findings suggest that master’s and baccalaureate institutions are unable to generate additional revenue through international student enrollment. These results show a need to further develop international student enrollment strategies.
... more diverse population of students seek opportunities for higher education, an ever-expanding and innovative programming and support model is needed. These programs and services are generally offered by the International Student Services (ISS) office to assist international students with visa and immigration issues, support their academic, social, and cultural success, and engage them with domestic students, faculty, and staff (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
... Jones, 2017), several studies have pointed to their unique experience on university and college campuses (Smith & Khawaja, 2011;Sherry & Chui, 2010;Lee & Rice, 2007;Hayes & Lin, 1994). International students face a number of distinct challenges as they transition to the U.S. and throughout their studies ranging from the administrative burden of visa compliance, language barriers, and work constraints to a reduced sense of belonging and inclusiveness (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014;Smith & Demjanenko, 2011). While all students must adjust to a new life in college, international students tend to have greater difficulty in doing so (Kaczmarek, Matlock, Merta, Ames, & Ross, 1994). ...
Article
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This quantitative study examines the communications preferences of degree-seeking international students enrolled in a mid-size U.S. university. It specifically investigates students’ preferred methods of communication, patterns and frequency in sending and receiving messages, and the types of information they prefer to be informed of. The survey also looks across a number of communication media including email, social media, print communications, and face-to-face interactions to better understand how resources may be directed to individual channels. The authors argue that the most impactful engagement model requires an accompanying, analytics-driven communications strategy to support international students during their stay on campus.
... In prestigious flagship public universities (Association of American Universities [AAU] members), international students are reported to be less satisfied with their overall social experience, less sure about the value of their U.S. education, and less likely to choose the same university if given the chance again compared to their domestic peers (Zhao & Douglass, 2012). If this gap continues to persist, U.S. institutions will likely suffer losses in international student enrollments and in the benefits that accrue from international student participation in U.S. institutions (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this research is to find evidence regarding the success of efforts higher education institutions have made to integrate international students generally, and specifically those efforts that foster engagement with domestic students. Institutions were selected for review based on a value-added regression analysis on higher education institutions’ average level of perceived campus support among international undergraduate students using as predictors exogenous factors beyond the institution’s direct control. A set of 12 outlier institutions (six negative and six positive), were identified based on the difference between predicted and actual values of the Supporting Campus Environment indicator from the National Survey for Student Engagement. A blind assessment of campus web pages was then conducted to assess the robustness of international student support programs. A stronger association was discovered between the value-added measure (regression residual) and the web scan ratings (r = .35) than between the predicted level of perceived support and the web scan ratings (r = -.11). This analysis demonstrates that the value-added approach for assessing institutional effectiveness provides a somewhat valid measure of effectiveness, although there was sufficient divergence between the value-added measure, and the qualitative assessment of international student services to warrant further research and careful consideration of using this method to assess institutional effectiveness.
... These reasons include: using international students as a means to mitigate leaks in the STEM talent pipeline; to finance U.S. colleges and universities experiencing reduced state and federal appropriations; to promote state and federal goals for foreign relations and economic development; and to foster a global mission (Douglass & Edelstein, 2009;George Mwangi, 2013;Scott, 2006). However, while both research and practice reflect college access and recruitment of international students, it is only recently that U.S. higher education is emphasizing the retention and success of these students (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014;Lee, 2010). The lack of national strategy to recruit international students, coupled with the minimal resources dedicated to their persistence creates challenges for international students in adapting to and navigating their U.S. college experiences. ...
Chapter
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This qualitative study draws upon self-determination theory and neo-racism to examine the academic experiences of international students of color in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) as they engage in U.S. college classrooms. The authors discuss how these students a) describe their academic motivation to achieve and b) perceive their own academic preparedness in relation to U.S. academic expectations. Findings demonstrate students were academically motivated most by their family, home country, and self-confidence in academic abilities. However, students also faced challenges in adjusting to the U.S. classroom climate and culture, specifically perceiving pressure that they needed to prove their academic ability to U.S. classmates.
... International students need, deserve, and want more in terms of academic and career support. For example, mismatch in expectations of career advancement prior to enrollment and their actual experience on campus is one of the key reasons mentioned by international students regarding their dissatisfaction on American campuses (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
Article
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Global financial recession of 2007/08 contributed to the skewed growth of international student enrollment at American higher education institutions. The recession compelled many institutions, including some of the top-ranked institutions, to aggressively recruit international students. This dramatic and skewed growth has implications for international student success. It has exposed the lack of readiness of many campuses to engage and support international students. It’s high time to stop treating international students as cash cows and embrace the values which institutions expect their students to manifest. To build a sustainable and an inclusive model of enrolling and integrating international students with local students and campus communities, institutions of higher education must invest in campus readiness.
... Higher education practice and research often emphasize the college recruitment of international students and it is only in recent years that U.S. higher education is turning to a focus on the retention and success of these students (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014;Lee, 2010). Yet, even within this research, much of it centers on predominantly White institutions (PWIs) and international students of Asian descent (George Mwangi, Peralta, Fries-Britt & Daoud, 2016;Lee & Rice, 2007;Olivas & Li, 2006). ...
Article
This study elucidates the experiences of HBCU (historically Black colleges and universities) students who are racially Black, but differ in nativity and nationality from their Black American peers. The purpose is to examine Black HBCU international students’ sense of belonging on campus. This study engages qualitative individual interviews with ten Black international HBCU students and utilizes the constant comparative analytic process. Findings revealed Black international HBCU students’ perceptions of race and nativity shape their university experiences as they sought to maintain national identity while adjusting to the HBCU environment and engaging in cross-cultural interactions with Black Americans. Recommendations include embracing a heterogeneous perspective when developing services, programs, and research studies related to the experiences of Black students.
... Poor retention rates have prompted institutions to prioritize investments to improve retention and success (Choudaha and Schulmann 2014), as well as prompted researchers to examine the factors that increase retention and success, such as international students' sense of community (Glass 2012;Glass and Westmont-Campbell 2014). Research has identified key factors that increase the retention and success of international students, including positive support from faculty members out-of-class (Cole and Griffin 2013;Kim and Sax 2009), engagement with cultural variation inclass (Mellon 2013), interest in cross-cultural interaction (Yakunina et al. 2012), engagement in campus life (Pike and Kuh 2005), and sense of community (Glass and Westmont-Campbell 2014;Glass, Wongtrirat, and Buus 2015). ...
Article
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The proportion of first-generation international students at US institutions ranges from one-tenth to one-half of the total international student body. First-generation status is an underexplored, and potentially significant, demographic factor in international students’ adaptation to college. Researchers used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine how faculty interaction out-of-class, engagement with cultural variation in-class, and students’ interest in cross-cultural interaction relates to sense of community and co-curricular engagement among first-generation (n = 508) and non-first-generation (n = 955) international students’, respectively. The primary contribution of this study is providing evidence for the importance of interactions with professors out-of-class and engagement with cultural variation in-class on international students’ sense of community and co-curricular engagement, especially first generation students. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... Increasing competition from new destinations, like Singapore and the Middle East, shifting student preference for regional rather than international destinations, changing visa policies, and rapid feedback to home networks about institution quality are some of the reasons for the decline in proportion (Clotfelter 2010;Garrett 2014;Fischer 2015). In addition to the decline in the proportion of enrollment in worldwide international students, many tertiary institutions in a traditional destination country like the USA are facing retention issues arising from increased recruitment of students with less academic preparation and lower TOEFL scores, student transfers to more prestigious institutions, and unwelcoming campus environments, among other reasons (Choudaha and Schulmann 2014). Choudaha and Schulmann also suggested that the dramatic increase in international student enrollment worldwide without corresponding increase in investment in programs and services by many universities as a reason for retention issues. ...
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As international student mobility worldwide reach new heights, there have been increasing conversations around how tertiary institutions need to rethink how they relate to and support international students for success. This study asks mainland Chinese students, the largest proportion of international students worldwide, to voice their desires about how their USA institutional communities can support their college experience. Through 3 interviews and 4 journals with 18 first and second year students, it was found that Chinese internationals wanted their professors and host peers to be cognizant of and curious about their backgrounds, as well as to show care and initiative in approaching them. They also asked for improved international student services and more academic support to decode implicit norms of the academy. Findings stress the imperative for institutions to include international students in voicing ways to enhance their college experience so that all institutional members can benefit from the internationalization of higher education.
... It is important for institutions to recognize that retention relates to campus-wide experiences and that it is critical for multiple stakeholders to be involved in campus internationalization efforts that support the integration of international students into university life (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). As trained educators and mentors of students, student affairs professionals have the necessary skills and technical knowhow to develop and coordinate programs that enhance inclusiveness, diversity, and culturally-rich learning environments on their campuses. ...
Article
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Increasing international student enrollment has been a key priority for many institutions of higher education in the United States. Such recruitment efforts, however, are often carried out without much consideration for providing sufficient support services to these students once they arrive to campus. This article proposes a model for structuring an international student support office to be successful at serving the academic, social and cultural needs of international students through a collaborative programming and outreach model with student affairs and other support service units on campus.
... With the continuous increase of international student enrollments at institutions of higher education across the world, the question of how well prepared campuses are to ensure the acculturation, integration and success of that population has become important. There is often a mismatch between international student expectations prior to enrollment and their actual campus experiences (Choudaha and Schulmann 2014). Recognizing the impact of the student experience on recruitment, retention, and ultimately, student success, some institutions are becoming more intentional with resources and staffing to serve the complex needs of international students (Ward 2016). ...
... A growing body of literature over the years has been dedicated to exploring the experiences of international students, and many of these studies have highlighted the importance of a strong support system in both the curricular and co-curricular settings to ensure the retention and success of these students (Akanwa, 2015;Choudaha, 2016). Yet, it is somewhat surprising that little attention has been drawn to specifically understanding the impact of international students' learning experiences on the propensity to recommend their institution, given the significant implications it has on admissions and enrollment efforts (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014;Roy, Lu, & Loo, 2016). The university experience not only influences students' overall satisfaction with the university but also the recommendation of their institution to prospective applicants (Ammigan, 2019;Lee, 2010). ...
Article
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Insights into how student learning experiences impact university recommendation can be critical for higher education institutions as they seek to optimize enrollment and retention efforts in an increasingly competitive and highly unpredictable global market. This comparative study examines the extent to which satisfaction with various aspects of the academic environment influences recommendation for over 23,000 international undergraduate students at universities in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Five key implications for the quality of teaching and learning, English language support, career development and readiness, access to information and communication technologies, and assessment and benchmarking are discussed. Results from a factor analysis reveal an underlying structure to the learning variables used in this research and provide empirical support for its application in future investigations of the academic experiences of international students in higher education.
... However, those support services are not always there for them. These findings support previous studies which found that international students' needs in terms of support services, are not adequately been met by their institutions of higher learning (Choudaha, 2016;Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
Article
As the international student population continues to increase in the United States’ higher education institutions, the need to explore the significance of socialization as a necessary predictor to academic success has become inevitable. While most studies on students’ socialization had investigated socialization experiences of students in general, there has been a paucity of research that specifically explored the socialization experiences of first-year international master’s degree students from non-Western countries. This study’s findings revealed respondents’ varying perspectives on adjustment, group support, social experiences, making friends, among other constructs, and implicated the need for more support services as well as the need for international students to take ownership of their socialization, determination, and persistence.
... International students are often overwhelmed by financial considerations. The main sources of dissatisfaction for international undergraduate students at U.S. institutions relate to finances (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). Key among their concerns is access to internships, affordability, and availability of scholarships and need-based financial aid followed by meal plans and housing quality. ...
Chapter
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This chapter calls for rethinking education across borders by examining the North American international student academic experience with particular focus on enhancing student satisfaction and promising teaching practices, and increasing the faculty role in campus internationalization. To meet our goals of achieving diversity, inclusivity, and internationalization within an increasingly challenged political and socio-economic context, we must turn our attention to enhancing the international student academic experience. An important first step involves paying more attention to the international student success factors along with satisfaction of international students within the classroom and across the student experience. Additional institutional actions for enhancing the international student academic experience institutions are suggested.
... Some of the academic challenges international students encounter include language challenges (Zhang, & Zhou, 2010), exclusion from group discussions (Yates & Thi QuynhTrang, 2012), cultural-related learning differences (Koul & Fisher, 2005), academic support issues (Zhang & Zhou, 2010), and adjustment to new educational systems (Hofstede, 1997). They also face several non-academic challenges, including cultural adjustment (Zhang & Zhou, 2010), social issues (Fritz, Chin, & DeMarini, 2008;Zhang & Goodson, 2011), and finances (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). While international students engage more in educationally purposeful activities than their domestic student colleagues (Zhao, Kuh, & Carini, 2005), they report greater academic challenges, more interactions with instructors, more engagement in diversity-related activities, and greater gains in personal and social development, practical competence, and general education. ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores promising teaching practices for teaching linguistically and culturally diverse international students by identifying the teaching practices that have high levels of international student satisfaction and student perceptions of learning for science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM international students. Research was conducted by an international, student-learning community, with guidance from a faculty-led research team. Data was collected through a qualitative research design that included focus groups and individual interviews conducted at a mid-sized Canadian comprehensive university. A total of 28 students participated (14 STEM students and 14 non-STEM students). Researchers examined differences between STEM and non-STEM students on 22 promising teaching practices regarding student satisfaction and students' perceptions of learning. Recommendations for professional practice are discussed, along with potential areas for further research.
... Nevertheless, studying abroad may prove to be challenging as many problems may occur due to the differences that they have to face between their home country and their international study destination. As previous studies have investigated (e.g., Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014;Gebhard, 2012;McClure, 2007;Robertson et al., 2000;Sawir, 2005;Sawir et al., 2008), the differences include languages, socio-cultural background, economic challenges, and methods of teaching and learning. ...
Article
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Without sufficient English-speaking skills, international students, including those from Indonesia, will face fundamental issues in their studies, especially in classroom discussions. A descriptive study was conducted to describe the issues faced by Indonesian students during classroom discussions in a mid-western US university. These issues were viewed from the perspective of internal factors such as linguistic knowledge, motivation, anxiety , and topic knowledge. Specifically, this study employed a convergent mixed-methods design. The 20 international students participating in this study were majoring in different disciplines and were selected using a pur-posive sampling technique. This study collected data using online questionnaires, consisting of 23 close-ended items, followed by semi-structured interviews with five willing participants. The quantitative data (online questionnaires) were put through a descriptive statistics analysis, while the qualitative data (semi-structured interviews) were studied using the content analysis technique. The findings showed that, in general, these Indonesian students had issues regarding correct grammar use and proper vocabulary choice during classroom discussions. They also experienced anxiety when participating in classroom discussions. Nevertheless, they did not have such issues in pronunciation, motivation, and topic knowledge. Based on the results mentioned above, possible implications for ESL/EFL are also discussed in this study.
... Some of the academic challenges international students face in their educational journey include language challenges (Zhang & Zhou, 2010), exclusion from group discussions (Yates & Thi Quynnh Trang, 2012), culturally related learning differences (Koul & Fisher, 2005), academic support issues (Zhang & Zhou, 2010) and adjustments to new educational systems (Hofstede, 1997). They also experience several non-academic challenges, including cultural adjustment (Zhang & Zhou, 2010), social issues (Fritz, Chin, & DeMarini, 2008;Zhang & Goodson, 2011) and finances (Choudaha & Schulmann, 2014). ...
Chapter
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This chapter explores the impact of cultural adjustment on international student recruitment and first-year success. The research design consists of a full-year cohort follow-up qualitative methodology study using both undergraduate and graduate students, as well as a two-part interview process and survey of both faculty and service providers, which included 100 research participants. Researchers identified factors associated with international student recruitment and success and how they are being addressed by the research site institution. Recommendations for professional practice are discussed, along with potential areas for further research.
... Loneliness and racism are cited as two factors in international student dissatisfaction in Australia (Andrew, 2020;Florez, 2020;Marginson et al. 2010;Ward, Bochner, and Furnham 2001). According to Choudaha and Schulmann (2014) many institutions are facing retention issues due to poor academic preparation of students, student transfer to prestigious institutions, and unwelcoming campus environment. Students from Europe report higher rates of satisfaction and willingness to recommend the institution as compared to their peers from Asia (Redden, 2014;Glass et al. 2015). ...
Article
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International higher education is the third largest export industry in Australia. Student attrition is an area of concern in higher education institutions. Most research undertaken so far has focused on domestic student attrition in Australia and globally. This study focuses on an Australian university to examine the causes of international students' attrition after their first year of study. It reveals that since 2018, growing numbers of international students have withdrawn from the subject university at the metropolitan campus to enrol in private colleges attracted by lower tuition fees for similar degree qualifications. The paper raises questions about the role of education agents in such student mobility and risks related to academic standards and quality in private colleges. The paper also raises questions about risks to quality and competitiveness in universities that have not sufficiently considered the academic and personal needs of international students.
... Lacking the ability to measure the effectiveness of recruitment strategies can have another unintended consequence in the form of poor retention of international students. NAFSA-commissioned research (Choudaha and Schulmann 2014) identified that "Poor retention is symptomatic of the mismatch between expectations of students prior to enrollment and their actual experience once they are on campus." ...
Chapter
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Many higher education institutions are under pressure to increase revenue and reduce cost are driving momentum for doing more with less in higher education. If these pressures were not strong enough, the emergence of new services offered by a range of third-party providers has made it even more difficult to assess, implement, and evaluate the outcomes of the services. Lacking the ability to measure the effectiveness of recruitment strategies can have another unintended consequence in the form of poor retention of international students. Given the challenges many institutions face in applying ROI, an alternative tool for measuring the effectiveness of international student recruitment is assessment—a measurement that is already deeply embedded in institutions from the lens of accreditation and learning outcomes. This chapter provides an overview as to how to assess the effectiveness of international student recruitment with an overarching objective of achieving strategic goals.
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Whether or not sexual minorities in the Philippines higher education system are socially acceptable is not clear. This article specifically investigates the acceptance of gay and lesbian university students in the Philippines and implications for international gay or lesbian students’ sociocultural transition. We sampled opinions of both local and international students in all the academic departments of a private university in the province of Cavite. The participants were selected using a proportionate stratified convenience sampling technique according to which they were grouped by academic department and chosen based on their availability, proximity, and convenience. We administered surveys to 368 registered students in 2011. Of the 368 questionnaires distributed, 358 responses were received, which constitutes a 97.3% response rate. Using transition theory, the article argues that the attitude toward sexual orientation had some negative implications for gay and lesbian international students transitioning into the sociocultural environment of the Philippines.
Technical Report
The goal of this national research was to understand the landscape of third-party pathway programs for international student recruitment in the U.S. higher education. This research is one of the first efforts conducted in the United States to understand the scope and viewpoints of international educators on third-party pathway partnerships. The questions we sought to answer were: How many institutions are in these partnerships? What types of institutions are they? What questions and concerns do international educators voice about these programs? The research informing this report was collected in two phases. Phase One included a review of scholarly and media coverage of pathways and third-party pathway providers. The purpose of Phase One was to explore the definitions and types of third-party pathway providers and identify characteristics of partnering institutions. Phase Two focused on the development and fielding of a survey of NAFSA members that was designed to examine the reasons individuals cite for embracing or rejecting partnerships with third-party pathway providers. The survey yielded a total 347 valid, completed responses from 261 institutions, generating a response rate of 14.7 percent. The findings indicate the complex and evolving nature of the third-party partnerships and diverse implications and considerations for international education professionals.
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Diversity, pluralism, equity, access, multiculturalism, regardless of how they have been named, have been on the agenda of colleges and universities for nearly 50 years. The oft-cited demographic transformations in the United States remain a primary fuel for this focus. More than 1 in 5 undergraduates are students of color which includes African American, Asian American, Latino/a American, and Native American (American Council on Education [ACE] & American Association of University Professors [AAUP], 2000; Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac, 2008), and those numbers are only expected to grow in the future (El-Khawas, 2003; Murdock & Hoque, 1999). Further, other populations at U.S. campuses, such as international students, returning adult students, and students with disabilities, have also increased significantly (Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac; Kennedy & Ishler, 2008). Other groups such as students of different faiths, veterans, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students, may or may not have actually increased numerically; nonetheless, these and other diverse student groups are a clear presence on campus. Despite the sustained attention, multicultural issues continue to be one of the most hotly debated and unresolved conversations on campus today (Anderson, 2008; Levine & Cureton, 1998). The protracted focus on diversity is coupled with its pervasive territory. These conversations have included such areas as the curriculum, admission, attrition and retention, tenure, programs and services, personnel issues; truth be told, few areas of university life remain untouched by these issues. Within higher education, student affairs professionals have always played an important role in addressing multicultural issues. Although the design and implementation of these responses have varied over the years, typical examples include: cultural centers, women's centers, diversity workshops, and multicultural fraternities and sororities. This involvement is consistent with the traditional and historical expectations and responsibility of student affairs practitioners to address the needs of students outside the classroom (Hood & Arceneaux, 1990). Despite the significant role that student affairs has assumed for multicultural issues, the literature supporting and guiding these efforts has been, arguably, rather scant. Initially the literature simply underscored the belief that increasing racial diversity was a noble and appropriate goal for higher education (as racial diversity was the primary focus in earlier times). Although, over time, the body of literature increased and became more inclusive, sophisticated, and complex, the degree to which it supports and guides student affairs practice, particularly around multicultural issues, remains unclear. Given the 50th anniversary of the Journal of College Student Development, the timing is ideal to reflect on the growth and development of the multicultural literature. The purpose of this article is to review the extant student affairs diversity literature to better understand the trends and development that have occurred over time. By assessing the trends, scope, and direction of the multicultural literature, perhaps student affairs professionals will be better able to capitalize deliberately on the important findings of research and address inadequacies and limitations in future scholarship. We also hope that the broader community of higher education scholars and practitioners can benefit from the insight and suggestions gained from this review. Higher education, like many institutions in society, seeks to increase and cultivate diversity. However, higher education pursues an even more ambitious goal "by its mission, values and dedication to learning, to foster and nourish the habits of the heart and mind that Americans need to make diversity work in daily life" (Association of American Colleges and Universities [AACU], 1995b, p. ix). Multicultural scholarship produced by student affairs practitioners and scholars has contributed to the profession's understanding of the challenging and complex interactions between individuals, groups, history, campus environments, and culture. In this brief review of the history of higher education with respect to diversity and inclusion, we are setting a context for the trends and lessons of multicultural research in student affairs. Several seminal documents produced by the AACU (1995a, 1995b, 1999) provide a rich and detailed history of access, inclusion, and equity in the United States and are summarized below. Though many events, individuals, acts of legislation, judicial decisions, and programs have contributed to growing diversity of undergraduate students in higher education, certain milestones stand out among them. Starting with the women's colleges such as Wesleyan...
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Proposes to develop a service quality model, based on test of a sample of business executives, which describes how the quality of services is perceived by customers. Looks at its marketing implications, in which functional quality is seen to be a very important dimension of a perceived service. Concludes that quality dimensions are interrelated and that the importance of image should be recognised.
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Journal of International Students is an academic interdisciplinary journal which publishes original and quality research, conceptual papers, and book reviews related to international student affairs, teaching and learning, or cross-cultural understanding written by students, teachers, and staff.
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This paper focused on issues of retention and the individual needs of international students at a southern university through videotaped group interviews with six students from Africa, China, India, Japan, Jordan, and Nepal. Students were asked questions concerning their first experiences at the university, experiences out in the community, academic issues and concerns, and other needs. Asking for and paying attention to the details that support international students in their quest to receive an American education will support the students where they need it and also provide an atmosphere that will encourage more international students to follow.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the link between service quality dimensions and knowledge sharing. Data were collected through a survey in a faculty of business of a private university in Malaysia. The SERVQUAL model was used to evaluate the service quality dimensions in association of knowledge sharing in which the study conducted with data gathered from 300 students which constitute an overall response rate of 83.33%. The study shows students' evaluations regarding service quality does affect knowledge sharing activities. It was found that the assurance and the reliability dimensions of service quality are the two most important dimensions and have significant positive relationship with knowledge sharing.
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SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality A. PARASURAMAN Foley's/Federated Professor of Retailing and Marketing Studies Texas A & M University College Station, Texas VALARIE A. ZEITHAML Associate Professor of Marketing Duke University Raleigh-Durham, N. Carolina LEONARD L. BERRY Foley's/Federated Professor of Retailing and Marketing Studies Texas A & M University College Station, Texas This paper describes the development of a 22-item instrument (called SERVQUAL) for assessing customer perceptions of service quality in service and retailing organizations. After a discussion of the conceptu­ alization and operationalization of the service quality construct, the procedures used in constructing and refining a multiple-item scale to measure the construct are described. Evidence of the scale's reli­ability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from four independent samples is presented next. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential applications ef the scale. -
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The purpose of this article is to discuss four assumptions commonly held in relation to persistence and or attrition rates at institutions of post secondary education: that persistence is positive, that persistence is an indicator of a program's ability to satisfy student need, that persistence is lower in distance education programs and that comparisons of persistence rates have meaning. The assumptions are explored in relation to the literature and to the data generated by the first complete cohort of graduate students in the Centre for Nursing and Health Studies at Athabasca University. We further propose formulae to address both persistence and attrition in online educational programs and present the variations in rates that can be produced.
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This paper investigates the conceptualisation and measurement of service quality within the higher education sector in Western Australia (WA). It addresses the prominence of the service quality issue within this sector and the move toward high value service delivery as a means of ensuring sustainable competitive advantage. It reports the findings from an exploratory study of student perceptions of service quality as they relate to an on-line library service offered by a public sector university in WA. The study makes use of the importance-performance disconfirmation technique. The results reveal both the core service quality dimensions of significance to students in using this service and demonstrate the usefulness and relative simplicity of disconfirmation models generally, for evaluating the service quality construct in the higher education context.
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The study used the data from the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study data set to observe the characteristics of international students in their first-year in college and examine the factors that influenced their persistence in U.S. postsecondary institutions. Results from logistic regression analysis revealed that GPA, degree plans, and academic integration were positively related to persistence of international students, while remediation in English and social integration had the negative effects on their persistence outcome. The results of the study signal the importance of encouraging collaboration between offices of international student services and other academic departments or support services on campus. The retention of international students should not be viewed as the responsibility of only international student advisors. Instead, it should become a joint responsibility of faculty, academic advisors, English language program staff, and student affairs professionals on campus.
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As diverse student populations expand in colleges and universities in the United States, attention must be given to preserving students' cultural integrity. Dominant theories of student persistence contend that integration, not cultural preservation is necessary to student success. This qualitative study examines the experiences of one group of diverse students who had low retention and graduation rates. International students in their senior year at a private, religiously-affiliated university were interviewed to determine if they had integrated into the mainstream campus culture to be successful. Three areas of change were identified: those that most students make when transitioning to college, those required by the religious environment of the institution, and those related to students' home cultures. The study demonstrates that one group of diverse students, international students, saw integration as positive. They did not view their integration as assimilation and felt that they had preserved their cultural integrity.
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After reviewing the state of student retention research and practice, past and present, the author looks to the future and identifies three areas of research and practice that call for further exploration. These concern issues of institutional action, program implementation, and the continuing challenge of promoting the success of low-income students.
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A five-scale instrument developed from a theoretical model of college attrition correctly identified the persistence/voluntary withdrawal decisions of 78.5 percent of a sample of freshmen in a large, residential university. Particularly important discriminators of freshman year persisters and voluntary dropouts were scales assessing the quality of relationships with faculty.
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This article examines international students’ experiences at a US university and how these might influence them to recommend or not recommend that others from their home country attend it. Data were collected via online survey at a large public university in the US Southwest. Students from predominantly non-White regions of origin had more negative experiences. Findings suggest that perceptions of unequal treatment are a major factor influencing international students’ attitudes.
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The current challenge for higher education is not to change its traditional beliefs but to become more conscious of them and the role they play in academic life. Such inquiry will show that preoccupation with acquiring resources, enhancing reputations, and being smart has had an effect contrary to academics' own best interests and to the institutions' educational missions. (MSE)
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This paper addresses the issue of service quality evaluation within the higher education sector and stresses the need to develop measures that are both psychometrically and practically sound. The paper argues that recent debate surrounding the development of such measures has been too strongly geared toward their psychometric performance, with little regard for their practical value. While the paper supports the need to develop valid, reliable and replicable measures of service quality, it is suggested that educators must not lose sight of the original purpose for which these measures were designed, i.e. their practical value in informing continuous quality improvement efforts. It critiques the use of disconfirmation models and reports on a study of students' perceptions of quality using importance-performance analysis (IPA). The technique allows specific failings in the quality of support issues to be identified and their importance to a quality improvement programme assessed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
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Tinto's [Rev. Educ. Res. 45 (1975) 89; Tinto, V. (1987). Leaving college. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press] student integration model and Bean and Metzner's [Rev. Educ. Res. 55 (1985) 485] student attrition model have been influential in explaining persistence and attrition in higher education programs. However, these models were developed with on-campus programs in mind and, although they are broadly relevant to distance education programs, their ability to explain the persistence of online students is limited. Distance education students have characteristics and needs that differ from traditional learners and the virtual learning environment differs in important ways from an on-campus environment. This article draws chiefly from Tinto's and Bean and Metzner's models and the results of research into the needs of online distance education students in order to synthesize a composite model to better explain persistence and attrition among the largely nontraditional students that enroll in online courses.
International Students: Strengthening a Critical Resource
  • Maureen S Andrade
  • Norman W Evans
Andrade, Maureen S. and Norman W. Evans. 2009. International Students: Strengthening a Critical Resource. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
International Student Retention in a Large Texas Urban Community College
  • Parvin Behroozi-Bagherpour
Behroozi-Bagherpour, Parvin. 2010. "International Student Retention in a Large Texas Urban Community College." (Dissertation abstract). (ED526506) Retrieved from ERIC database.
How to Grow Undergraduate International Student Numbers
  • Rahul Choudaha
Choudaha, Rahul. 2013a, March 5. "How to Grow Undergraduate International Student Numbers." University World News. Retrieved from www.universityworldnews.com/article. php?story=20130305102837232
Three Higher Education Trends to Watch for in 2013
  • Rahul Choudaha
Choudaha, Rahul. 2013b, January 19. "Three Higher Education Trends to Watch for in 2013. University World News. Retrieved from http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=2013011612324585
International Student Mobility Trends 2013: Towards Responsive Recruitment Strategies
  • Rahul Choudaha
  • Li Chang
  • Yoko Kono
Choudaha, Rahul., Li Chang, and Yoko Kono. 2013. "International Student Mobility Trends 2013: Towards Responsive Recruitment Strategies." WES Research & Advisory Services, Retrieved from http://www.wes. org/ewenr/13mar/feature.htm.
Campuses Focus More on Meeting International Students' Needs
  • Karin Fischer
Fischer, Karin. February 19, 2014. "Campuses Focus More on Meeting International Students' Needs." The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://chronicle.com/article/ Campuses-Focus-More-on-Meeting/144825/.
Uneven Experiences: What's Missing and What Matters for Today's International Students
  • Chris R Glass
  • Stephanie Buus
  • Larry A Braskamp
Glass, Chris R., Stephanie Buus, and Larry A. Braskamp. 2013. "Uneven Experiences: What's Missing and What Matters for Today's International Students." Chicago, IL: Global Perspective Institute, Inc.
Academic Persistence of International Student-Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions" (Doctoral dissertation
  • Jayne M Kitsos
Kitsos, Jayne. M. 2012. "Academic Persistence of International Student-Athletes at NCAA Division I Institutions" (Doctoral dissertation, New York University). ProQuest (ATT 3511425).
Innovative Social Support Systems and the Recruitment and Retention of International Students in US Higher Education
  • Chen-Han Lee
Lee, Chen-Han. 2012. "Innovative Social Support Systems and the Recruitment and Retention of International Students in US Higher Education." (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California). Retrieved from http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/ref/ collection/p15799coll3/id/6050.
Taking more seats on campus, foreigners also pay the freight
  • Tamar Lewin
Lewin, Tamar. February 4, 2012. "Taking more seats on campus, foreigners also pay the freight." The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/05/ education/international-students-pay-top-dollar-atus-colleges.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
Information Mismatch: What International Students Thought Their Community College Experience Would Be Like" (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
  • Gloria Shenoy
Shenoy, Gloria. 2013. "Information Mismatch: What International Students Thought Their Community College Experience Would Be Like" (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Retrieved from https://www.ideals.illinois. edu/bitstream/handle/2142/44293/Gloria_Shenoy. pdf?sequence=1.
Solving the International Student Retention Puzzle
  • Clayton Smith
  • Tanya Demjanenko
Smith, Clayton, and Tanya Demjanenko. 2011. Solving the International Student Retention Puzzle. Windsor, ON: University of Windsor.
Comprehensive Strategic International Enrollment Management
  • Soohoo-Rafaei
Soohoo-Rafaei, Sandy. 2012. Comprehensive Strategic International Enrollment Management. Seminar delivered at NAFSA 2012 Annual Conference, Houston, Texas.
A Study of Retention Trends of International Students at a Southwestern Public University" (Doctoral dissertation
  • Wong Davis
  • M Kristina
Wong Davis, Kristina M. 2012. "A Study of Retention Trends of International Students at a Southwestern Public University" (Doctoral dissertation, Northern Arizona University) ProQuest (ATT 3509833).